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Ravinder Pal Singh, Pankaj Sharma Attri, Upinder Kumar Yadav, Sandeep Kumar / International Journal of Engineering Research

and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January-February 2013, pp.308-311

Development of self lubricating Cutting tool material for machining polymer matrix material
Ravinder Pal Singh, Pankaj Sharma Attri, Upinder Kumar Yadav, Sandeep Kumar
(Department of Mechanical Engineering, M.M.University, Mullana - Ambala, Haryana (India))

Dry machining i.e. without use of cutting fluid has been accepted as most preferred option for clean manufacturing environment and precision machining in space, electronics and medical applications. In dry machining, there will be more friction and adhesion between the tool and work piece. In this work, an attempt has been made to develop self lubricating cutting tool material for machining polymeric composites. Powder metallurgy technique is chosen for manufacturing the self lubricating cutting tool material. With the tungsten carbide as base material and cobalt as binder material, solid lubricant material, molybdenum di-sulphide (MoS2) material is added during milling. Milling as well as compaction characterization is carried out to understand the influence of material and amount of solid lubricant material. Addition of solid lubricant material found to improve the compaction characteristics. Load deflection curve of compaction and powder morphology confirmed this behavior. Compacted specimens were sintered at controlled atmosphere and sintering characterization is done. When the amount of cobalt is less than a particular amount visible cracks were found. Micro structure of sintered part confirmed the improvement of sintering due to the presence of solid lubricant material. spacecraft bearings. Evans and Senior [3] reported the performance in plain bearing applications of commercially available self-lubricating materials, including PTFE and other plastics and metals containing solid lubricants. Todd [4] reported the performance of three specific lubricants, which account for the majority of applications: PTFEcomposite, RF-sputtered MoS2 and ion plated lead film, and then compared in terms of durability and torque characteristics. Paxton [5] investigated the operating limits, physical properties of carbon, graphite and metalbonded molybdenum disulphide solid lubricant bearings and recommended design practices and life expectancy. He et at. [6] developed polyoxymethylene/molybdenum disulphide composite and investigated tribological behaviour to utilize as self lubricating bearing material. Selflubrication bearing materials with MoS2 nano-balls showed better tribological properties under selected testing conditions than those with micro-MoS2 platelets. Du et al. [7] developed a coating of tungsten carbide, cobalt and molybdenum disulphide mixture and investigated the friction and wear behaviour under sliding condition. It is found that theMoS2 composition disperses homogeneously in the coating, which results in the decreasing hardness and fracture toughness for the coating. Dhanasekaran and Gnanamoorthy attempted to develop sintered steel with self lubricating characteristics [8-10]. Iron-copper-carbon sintered steels with MoS2 are prepared through powder metallurgy route, wherein microstructure, mechanical strength is reported. Addition of MoS2 found to improve compressibility and part density [8]. Sintered steel containing 3 % MoS2 exhibited reduction in coefficient of friction whereas at sintered steel containing 5 % MoS2 material causes severe three body contact due to the excessive formation of brittle phases [9]. The abrasive wear behavior of sintered steel with MoS2 at different normal loads is reported [10]. MoS2 added material exhibited high coefficient of friction and good wear resistance compared to the base composition. In the present work, attempt has been made to develop tungsten carbide cutting tool material with self lubrication characteristics by powder

Keywords: Cutting fluid, Dry machining, Milling,
Polymeric composite, Powder metallurgy, Self lubrication, Solid lubricants.

In the recent years, many works has been attempted to develop self lubricating material for the various applications such as bearings, gears, cutting tool and coating [1-10]. Agostino et al. [1] reported the tribological properties of sintered iron bearings self-lubricated with perfluoropolyethers under severe operating conditions [1] .The performance of the PFPElubricated bearings was found to be superior to that bearings lubricated with mineral oil. Hopple and Loewenthal [2] reviewed the development and problems encountered in applying recently developed sputtered MoS2 films to precision

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Ravinder Pal Singh, Pankaj Sharma Attri, Upinder Kumar Yadav, Sandeep Kumar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January-February 2013, pp.308-311
metallurgy technique, wherein compaction and sintering characteristics of the proposed mixture is reported

0 % MoS2 3 % MoS2 5 % MoS2

Tungsten carbide (WC) of 1-6µm size with 99.8% purity (Rapicut carbides) as base material, Cobalt (Co) of 1-6µm of size with 99.5% purity (Loba Chemie) as binder material , molybdenum disulphide(MoS2 ) of 10µm with 98% of purity (Loba Chemie), as lubricant materials are chosen for the proposed cutting tool material. To understand the effect of binder and solid lubricant on the proposed material over mechanical properties of the proposed cutting tool material, three different proportion of cobalt and five different proportions of molybdenum disulphide mixtures are chosen. Weight percentage of cobalt is chosen as 5 and 10 and weight percentage of molybdenum di sulphide is chosen as 0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 %. Process control agent, stearic acid of 4gms is added to the mixture to avoid cold welding during milling. The proposed powders are milled in the planetary ball mill (Insmart system) under nitrogen (0.5kg/cm²) atmosphere, with plate and bowl speed 90 and 207 rpm for 40 hrs and the powder to ball ratio is fixed as 1:5.Plate speed and powder ball ratio is decided to avoid iron pickup during milling (PFAM Conference Ref). Effect of milling time and distribution of powder is investigated and reported with the aid of powder morphology, XRD and SEM and reported elsewhere (PFAM Conference Ref). .After completion of milling the powder is heated to remove the PCA agent stearic acid in the powder in the in house dewaxing unit up to 300°C in a vacuum atmosphere with a holding time of 30 min.
Load (kN)


7 % MoS2

10 % MoS2

0 0 1 2 3 4 Ram displacement(mm) 5 6

Figure 1: Load and displacement plot of compaction test compacted at 40 KN The presence of MoS2 in the test material alters the compaction behaviour, from the slope of the second and third stage of load deflection curve, it is apparent that presence of MoS2 found to improve compaction, higher amount of MoS2 contribute to improve compaction further. Presence of MoS2 in the mixture found to reduce the particle size and reported elsewhere (PFAM Conference Ref). Rigidity of compacted specimen also confirms that test material without MoS2 and test material with small amount of MoS2 (3%) is found to be poor. Hence there is a need to mill these materials beyond 40 hours so that they can be compacted into rigid specimens.

The compacted rigid test specimens are sintered (Okay, Bysakh) in the controlled environment. The heating and cooling cycle of test specimen is shown in figure 2. Heating rate is maintained at 3.2°C/min and sintering is carried out in the nitrogen (0.5kg/cm²) atmosphere to avoid the oxidation. Test specimens with 5 % cobalt exhibits mild to severe cracks whereas specimens with 10 % cobalt doesn’t show any cracks as shown in figure 3

Dewaxed test powders are uniaxially compressed (UTE 20) into rectangular transverse rupture strength specimen of 40 X 16 X 5mm size as per the ASTM B331-95 at different loads, 40, 44, and 48 kN with displacement rate of 1mm/min. Figure 1 shows the load displacement curve of test specimen compaction. From the figure it is infer that the compaction take place in three stages. In the first stage, particle arrangement, take place which is significantly influenced by the particle size and shape. In the second stage, elastic and plastic deformation takes place which is influenced by the nature and purity of particles. In the third stage cold working of the bulk material take place and is significantly affected by deformation and work hardening of the particles.

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Ravinder Pal Singh, Pankaj Sharma Attri, Upinder Kumar Yadav, Sandeep Kumar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January-February 2013, pp.308-311

800 600
Load (N)
5 % MoS2 7 % MoS2

400 200
3 % MoS2

0 0 0.1 0.2 Deflection (mm) 0.3 0.4

Figure 2: View of sintered specimens (a) 5 % Co, 5 % MoS2, (b) 5 % Co, 7 % MoS2, (c, d) 10 %Co, 5 and 7% MoS2

Figure 3: Transverse rupture strength of test material Green and sintered density of test specimens was measured by the Archimedean principle. From the results it is further confirmed that amount of MoS2 significantly contributes to the compaction as well as density. When the amount of MoS2 increases in the test mixture, density as well as hardness is found to be increased. At lower percentage of MoS2 the formation of agglomerates is more by which the bonding of particles are not even as with fine powders. As the percentage of MoS2 increase the compaction of powders is good with fine density by which the liquid phase sintering of specimen is also performed well. Hardness of the sintered specimens was measured with the micro hardness tester (Micromet 2101. Buehler) with indented load of 50 gms as per the ASTM 3384


Transverse rupture strength (TRS) of the test material is evaluated as per the ASTM B406-96, since the proposed material is meant for the cutting tool application using following equation


3 P  L 2t2  w

where P is the force requires to rupture the specimen (N), L is the length of the specimen span of fixture (mm), W is width of the specimen (mm), T is thickness of specimen (mm) and TRS is transverse rupture strength (MPa).The sintered test specimens of 3, 5and 7 % MoS2, were tested for transverse rupture strength (TRS) with loading rate of 0.25mm/min. Test specimen with 7% MoS2 exhibited superior strength 85.7MPa; followed by 75.3MPa by 5% MoS2and 10MPa by 3%MoS2.These magnitude of strength reflects the role of MoS2in sintering. Figure 5 shows the microstructure of fractured sintered specimens, wherein the role of MoS2 is clearly exhibited

14 12
3 Density( g/mm)-

10 8 6 4 2 0 5 6 7 8 9 Amount of MoS2( %) 10 11 Green Sintered

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Ravinder Pal Singh, Pankaj Sharma Attri, Upinder Kumar Yadav, Sandeep Kumar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January-February 2013, pp.308-311
Vickers Hardness (HV)-

80 60 40 20

The addition of solid lubricant MoS2 in the tungsten carbide material for the self lubrication purpose is found to improve compaction as well as sintering characteristics of the proposed material.

[1] Agostino, V.D. Niola, V. and Caporiccio G.,” Tribological behaviour of sintered iron bearings self-lubricated with PFPE under severe operating conditions,” Tribology International, 1998, 21 (2),105108. Hopple, G. B. and Loewenthal, S.H., “Development, testing and characterization of MoS2 thin film bearings”, Surface and Coatings Technology, 1994, 68-69, 398406. Evans, D.C. and Senior, G.S., “Selflubricating materials for plain bearings”, Tribology International, 1982, 15(5), 243248. Todd, M.J., “Solid lubrication of ball bearings for spacecraft mechanisms”, Tribology International, 1982, 15 (6), 331337. Paxton, R.R., “Carbon, graphite and metalbonded molybdenum disulphide solid lubricant bearings”, Tribology International, 1982, 15(5), 285-292. Hu, K.H. Wang, J. Schraube, S. Xu, Y.F. Hu, X.G. and Stengler, R., “Tribological properties of MoS2 nano-balls as filler in polyoxymethylene-based composite layer of three-layer self-lubrication bearing materials”, Wear, Volume 266, Issues 1112, 30 May 2009,1198-1207. Du, H. Sun, C. Hua, W. Wang, T. Gong, J. Jiang, X. and Lee, S. W., “Structure, mechanical and sliding wear properties of WC–Co/MoS2–Ni coatings by detonation gun spray”, Materials Science and Engineering, 2007, A 445–446, 122–134 Dhanasekaran, S. and Gnamoorthy, R., “Microstructure, strength and tribological behavior of Fe-C-Cu-Ni sintered steels prepared with MoS2 addition”, Journal of Material Science 2007, 42, 4659-4666. Dhanasekaran, S. and Gnamoorthy, R., “Dry sliding friction and wear characteristics of Fe-C-Cu alloy containing molybdenum di sulphide”, Materials and Design, 2007, 28,1135-1141. Dhanasekaran, S. and Gnamoorthy, R., “Abrasive wear behavior of sintered steels prepared with MoS2 addition”, Wear, 262 2007, 617-623.

0 3 4 5 6 Amount of MoS2( %) 7 8

Figure 4: Influence of MoS2 (a) Green and Sintered density of test specimen and (b) Hardness of test specimens








Figure 5: Microstructure of sintered test specimens (a) 10 % Co, 5 % MoS2 and (b) 10 % Co, 7 % MoS2


Development of self lubricating cutting tool material for dry machining of polymer matrix material is attempted.

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