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Borkar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.537-544

**A Mathematical Model For Vibration Based Progonosis For Effect Of Unbalance On Journal Bearing
**

Prof. Girish D. Mehta, Prof. Vijaykumar.S.Shende, Prof. Prerna.S.Borkar

Associate Professor P.C.E. Nagpur Asst. Professor P.C.E. Nagpur Asst.Professor P.C.E Nagpur

Abstract

Now a days vibration based condition monitoring technique is widely used in several core companies. These companies are like Cement Companies, Thermal Power Stations, Rolling Mills etc. This technique prevents excessive failure of the machine component. Hence in such a companies special departments are there, which handles the problem related to the health of machine. Some times, maintenance department of the company has this responsibility. There are so many process machines used in the industries. Amongst such a machine some machines have rotor system. Even in some machine the journal bearings bear the load of different rotor. In this present work a one possible approach is presented which provides the prediction of unbalance through mathematical model and the effect of unbalance on journal bearing is discussed. amplitude at imbalance frequency of rotor (i.e. 1 x frequency). The dimensional analysis is thus useful for reducing group of terms. These terms are used for making this model. With this experimental test rig the effect of unbalance mass on journal bearing performance is evaluated.

2. Present State of Art

Keywords:

Vibration based Condition Monitoring, Journal Bearing, Mathematical Model.

Literature review 3 indicates the method of identification of imbalance condition through signature analysis. This method is discussed below (1) Keep an accelerometer on the bearing cap B1 (2) Feed the data through this accelerometer to FFT analyzer. (3) Then FFT analyzer displays the signature in time domain or frequency domain. The amplitude at 1x frequency will be the confirmation of the amplitude at unbalance condition. The increase of unbalance force will definitely increases the amplitude. But the mathematical model for prediction of such a phenomena is not seen. Even the effect of imbalance on journal bearing is also seen partially. These two important aspects are included in this present work.

**1. Background of the Work
**

Literature review indicates the method of identification of imbalance condition through signature analysis. If unbalance force is increased, it means the amplitude at 1 x frequency of rotor will be increased. If the rotor is placed in between journal bearings, then the effect of unbalance on the performance of this bearing will also be considerable. Hence, in this present work, a simulation of this phenomenon, through experimental test rig is executed. Next to this a mathematical model is developed. This mathematical model is useful for the prediction of

3. Concept of Solution

Refer to Figure 1, a rotor R is placed on shaft 'S'. The load of shaft 'S' and rotor 'R' is bared by bearing B1 & B2. Let the mass of rotor R is concentrated apart from geometrical centre. This will induced additional centrifugal force and the force is having certain magnitude. This force imposes additional reactions at bearing B1 & B2. Hence bearing cap of B1 & B2 are sets into harmonics. These harmonics are sense by an accelerometer and it is fed up to FFT analyzer. Thus FFT analyzers display the signature of imbalance condition.

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Prof. Girish D. Mehta, Prof. Vijaykumar.S.Shende, Prof. Prerna.S.Borkar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.537-544

FFT analyzer

F=me2 B1

Rotor 'R' B2

Foundation

Foundation

Shaft 'S'

Figure 1: schematic of a rotor unit placed on two bearings B1 and B2 In the mean time, if the unbalance force is further increased, this may creates additional load on the journal bearings, which in turn increases the amplitude at 1x frequency of rotor. While the increase in load generates additional heat, in the oil of journal bearing if the machine is kept still in operation. Thus increases in heat will be responsible for decrease in the absolute viscosity (z). Conversely this may affect the performance of the bearing.

**4. Formulation of Experimental Data Based Model
**

Mathematical model is nothing but the algebraic relationship amongst the response variable and independent variable. Here, response variable is called dependant variable. Any phenomena can be presented mathematically by knowing the physics involve in it. These mathematical models are of three types 1. Logic based 2. Field data based 3. Experimental data based. Some phenomena can be presented by application of basic balances. In certain situations, it is not possible to formulate a mathematical model for complex phenomena on the basis of application of the basic balances of mechanics. In such situations, it becomes inevitable to collect experimental data for the process and to utilize the generated experimental data to formulate the generalized algebraic relationship amongst the various physical quantities involved in the process. 4.1 Process of Model Formulation The process of model formulation includes the following sequential steps: 4.1.1 Process Variables Any physical quantity prevailing in the process under study is designated as process variable. Process variables are categorized as: 1) Independent variables, 2) Dependent variables and 3) Extraneous variables. The following process variables are identified

**3.1 Salient Details of the Solution
**

The simulation of experimental test rig is not a scaled model of any machine. But this shows a general concept which can be applied to any machine for the diagnosis purpose. The experimental test rig is established by the two rotors placed on two journal bearings. This experimental test rig is designed and fabricated. Artificial unbalance are created by placing addition masses at the rotor in the step of 5gm. Then, Data is gathered for every step like vibration amplitude at 1 x frequency of the rotor, speed of the rotor, load torque, time between two spectrum readings, temperature of bearing body etc. Conversely dimensional analysis is formed. This data is then useful to form a mathematical model for the prediction of unbalance at 1x frequency of rotor.

.

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Prof. Girish D. Mehta, Prof. Vijaykumar.S.Shende, Prof. Prerna.S.Borkar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.537-544

Table 1 : Type of variable, Name of variable and Designation of variable. Sr.No. Type of variable Name of variable i Dependent Vibration Amplitude ii Independent Weight of Rotor 1 iii Independent Weight of Rotor 2 iv Independent Weight of equivalent shaft v Independent Mass moment of Inertia of Rotor 1 vi Independent Mass moment of Inertia of Rotor 2 vii Independent Mass moment of Inertia of Shaft viii Independent Weight of unbalance mass ix Independent Viscosity of oil x Independent Radial clearance of Bearing xi Independent Length of Bush xii Independent Diameter of Bush xiii Independent Thickness of Bush xiv Independent Density of Bush xv Independent Modulus of Elasticity of Rotor 1 xvi Independent Modulus of Elasticity of Rotor 2 xvii Independent Modulus of Elasticity of Shaft xviii Independent Modulus of Elasticity of Bearing Cap xix Independent Modulus of Elasticity of Bush xx Independent Equivalent length of Rotor 1 xxi Independent Equivalent length of Rotor 2 xxii Independent Equivalent length of Shaft xxiii Independent Second moment of inertia xxiv Independent Polar moment of inertia xxv Independent Radius of Bearing Cap xxvi Independent Width of Bearing Cap xxvii Independent Thickness of Bearing Cap xxviii Independent Center dist. between the Bearing Bolt xix Independent Material density of bearing cap xxx Independent Speed of rotor xxxi Independent Load Torque xxxii Independent Time xxxiii Independent Acceleration due to gravity xxxiv Independent Pressure in the Bearing 4.1.2 Reduction of variables – Dimensional analysis Dimensional analysis is the best known and the most powerful technique of reducing the number of variables and making the experimental plan compact without loss of generality or control. Dimensional analysis, basically, helps in deciding algebric relationship amongst the various physical quantities encountered in the process. Using Buckingham π theorem following dimensional equation is formed. 1. The general equation form of dependent and independent variables are as follows. MLT Equations Y = Ф (W1a, W2b, Wsc, IR1d, IR2e, ISf, Wumg, vh, RcBi, LBj, DBk, tBl, B1m, ER1n, ER2o, ESp, EBMq, EBGr, L1s, L2t, LSu, IAv, Ipw, RBx, y WB , TBz, CDBa1, B2a2, Na3, TLa4, Ta5, ga6, PBa7) 2. The MLT form of the above equation is – Designation Y W1 W2 WS IR1 IR2 IS Wum V RcB LB DB tB B1 ER1 ER2 ES EBM EBG L1 L2 LS IA IP RB WB TB CDB B2 N TL T g PB

L = Ф ((M)a ,(M)b ,(M)c ,(ML2)d ,(ML2)e ,(ML2)f ,(M)g, (ML-1T-1)h ,(L)i ,(L)j ,(L)k ,(L)l ,(ML-3)m -1 -2 n ,(ML T ) , (ML-1T-2)o ,(ML-1T-2)p ,(ML-1T-2)q , (ML-1T-2)r ,(L)s ,(L)t ,(L)u ,(L4)v ,(L4)w x ,(L) ,(L)y ,(L)z,(L)a1 , (ML-3)a2 ,(T-1)a3 ,(ML+2T-2)a4,(T)a5,(LT2 a6 ) ,(ML-1T-2)a7) 4.1.3 Plan of Experimentation 1) Test point 2) Test envelop and 3) Test Sequence Detailed experimental plans are made at this stage to give speed of testing, minimization of errors, maximization of useful data, and maximum control of extraneous and outside influence. This detailed planning includes the decisions about 1) Test envelope: The test envelope is the range in which independent variables is to be varied during experimentation.

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Prof. Girish D. Mehta, Prof. Vijaykumar.S.Shende, Prof. Prerna.S.Borkar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.537-544

2) Test points: Test points are discrete values of an independent variable at which experiments are conducted. Table 2 : Test envelop for bearing B1 Sr.No. Values π1 1 2 Minimum Maximum 9.82081E-07 9.82081E-07 3) Test sequence: In this work partly reversible experiments are used. Following table 2 and 3 shows test envelop while table 4 and 5 shows test point. π2 6.39393E-06 6.39393E-06 π3 9.74914E-07 3.89966E-05

Table 3 : Test envelop for bearing B2 Sr.No. 1 2 Values Minimum Maximum π1 9.82081E-07 9.82081E-07 π2 6.39393E-06 6.39393E-06 π3 9.74914E-07 2.59977E-06 4.87457E-06 7.79931E-06 1.1374E-05 1.55986E-05 2.04732E-05 2.59977E-05 3.21722E-05 3.89966E-05 π3 1.07241E-05 7.79931E-05

Table 4 List of test point for different π terms of bearing B1 Sr.No. π1 π2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 9.82081E-07 9.82081E-07 9.82081E-07 9.82081E-07 9.82081E-07 9.82081E-07 9.82081E-07 9.82081E-07 9.82081E-07 9.82081E-07 6.39393E-06 6.39393E-06 6.39393E-06 6.39393E-06 6.39393E-06 6.39393E-06 6.39393E-06 6.39393E-06 6.39393E-06 6.39393E-06

Table 5 List of test point for different π terms of bearing B2 Sr.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 π1 9.82081E-07 9.82081E-07 9.82081E-07 9.82081E-07 9.82081E-07 9.82081E-07 9.82081E-07 9.82081E-07 9.82081E-07 9.82081E-07 π2 6.39393E-06 6.39393E-06 6.39393E-06 6.39393E-06 6.39393E-06 6.39393E-06 6.39393E-06 6.39393E-06 6.39393E-06 6.39393E-06 π3 1.07241E-05 1.55986E-05 2.11231E-05 2.72976E-05 3.4122E-05 4.15963E-05 4.97206E-05 5.84949E-05 6.7919E-05 7.79931E-05

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Prof. Girish D. Mehta, Prof. Vijaykumar.S.Shende, Prof. Prerna.S.Borkar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.537-544

4.1.4 Experimental procedure The total ten readings of vibration amplitudes at 1x frequency of rotor of bearing B1 and ten readings of bearing B2 are taken. By keeping load torque constant the unbalance mass is change in the step of 5gm. Thus a reading of vibration amplitude at 1x frequency of rotor is noted down in Table 6 and 7. The experimental procedure is evaluated like as under For first reading, a 15 gm mass is placed on rotor R1. Then, keeping accelerometer on bearing B1, the vibration spectra is taken. Conversely the amplitude at 1x frequency is measured. Thus for every reading, the mass is increased in the step of 5 grams, and measured the amplitude at 1x frequency from vibration spectrum. In the same way the procedure is also done for bearing B2. While the reading was taken measurement of bearing body temperature is also done for every reading. 4.1.5 Measurement of amplitude, temperature and speed. In this experimentation, the speed of shaft is measured with the help of tachometer, vibration amplitude is measured with the help of FFT analyzer and the temperature is measured with the help of thermocouple. These values are shown in the Table 6 and 7.

Table 6: Different values of amplitudes, speed, load torque, time, imbalance mass for ten readings on bearing B1 Y N TL T Wum Sr.No. (mm) (rpm) (N-mm) (sec)(Time) (gm) 1 1430 6900 120 15 1.23E-04 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1.39E-04 2.56E-04 2.97E-04 3.37E-04 3.90E-04 4.10E-04 4.63E-04 5.03E-04 6.69E-04 1430 1430 1430 1430 1430 1430 1430 1430 1430 6900 6900 6900 6900 6900 6900 6900 6900 6900 240 360 480 600 720 840 960 1080 1200 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

Table 7: Different Values of amplitudes, speed, load torque, time, imbalance mass for ten readings on bearing B2 Y N TL T Wum Sr.No. (mm) (rpm) (N-mm) (sec) (gm) 1 1430 6900 1320 15 1.00E-06 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1.23E-04 1.39E-04 1.39E-04 2.31E-04 2.56E-04 2.97E-04 3.37E-04 3.90E-04 4.10E-04 1430 1430 1430 1430 1430 1430 1430 1430 1430 6900 6900 6900 6900 6900 6900 6900 6900 6900 1440 1560 1680 1800 1920 2040 2160 2280 2400 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

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Prof. Girish D. Mehta, Prof. Vijaykumar.S.Shende, Prof. Prerna.S.Borkar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.537-544

4.6 Calculate different indices of π terms The general form of mathematical model to pertaining prediction of amplitudes of unbalance as under. (Y/RB) = K (π1)a x (π2)b (π3)c .........................(1) Where, K = constant, a, b, c are Indices. The value of different indices of the above equation is found by using regression equation which is as follows.

Regression Equations: ∑Y = 10K + a∑A + b∑B + c∑C ∑YA = K ∑A + a∑A2 + b∑AB + c∑AC ∑YB = K ∑B + a∑AB + b∑B2 + c∑BC ∑YC = K ∑C + a∑AC + b∑BC + c∑C2..................... (2) Where y = dependent π term A, B,C are independent π term of π1 π2 π3, n is number of readings. By using above equation and placing the values of different independent and dependent π terms for bearing B1, the following matrix is obtained. - 5.19517 31.21183 = 26.98493 26.053221 10 - 6.00785278 - 5.19423191 - 4.99425 - 6.00785276 36.09429 31.20618 30.00471 - 5.19423191 31.20618 26.98005 25.94128 - 4.99425 30.00471 25.94128 25.18146 K x a b c

Solving above matrix one can get the values of K, a, b and c for the bearing B1 which is as follows. K = 0.923209, a =-0.2778, b =0.8015, c = 0.5339 Similarly for Bearing B2 the values of K, a, b, c are K = 1, a = 1.4742, b = -2.4821, c = 2.1487 Thus the mathematical model for bearing B1 will be as below: [Y/RB]= 0.923209 x (π1)-0.2778 x (π2)0.8015 0.5339 x (π3) --------------------(3) Also the mathematical model for bearing B2 will be as below : [Y/RB]= 1 x (π1)1.4742 x (π2)-2.4821 x 2.1487 (π3) -------------------------------(4)

The influence of independent π term over dependent π term depicted in equation 5 & 6 discussed below. The model pertaining to B1 : In this model π2 term has the highest influence on dependent variable because the value of index of π2 term is greater. Also the value of index of π1 term is less so one can conclude that the π1 term has less influence on dependent variable. The model pertaining to B2 : In this model π3 term has the highest influence on dependent variable because the value of index of π3 term is greater. Also the value of index of π2 term is less so one can conclude that the π2 term has less influence on dependent variable. 2) Discussion about the performance of journal bearing: During experimentation, the unbalance mass is attached to the rotor. This unbalance mass is then progressively added in the step of 5gm. Thus increased unbalance mass will be produced additional centrifugal force to the rotor. The increase in centrifugal force is thus added to the load bared by the bearing. Now as load is changed and it is thought that this may increase additional heat generation. In this context, the temperature of bearing body is noted down. This temperature shows increment in its value. Some important points regarding how a unbalance force affect the parameters referred to the journal bearing is discussed through following points by studying the graphs shown below.

**5. Result and Discussion
**

The experimentation is done on experimental test rig. Following results are obtained, which is discussed into two parts (1) Discussion about the Mathematical Model for the Prediction of Unbalance. (2) Discussion about the effect of Unbalance on Journal bearing performance. 1) Discussion about the mathematical model for the prediction of unbalance mass: The mathematical model for bearing B1 & B2 are reproduced here for the sake of explanation which are detailed in equation 5 & 6. [Y/RB]= 0.923209 x (π1)-0.2778 x (π2)0.8015 x (π3)0.5339 ...............(5) [Y/RB]= 1 x (π1)1.4742 x (π2)-2.4821 x (π3)2.1487 .............................(6)

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Prof. Girish D. Mehta, Prof. Vijaykumar.S.Shende, Prof. Prerna.S.Borkar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.537-544

1) With reference to Figure 2. This figure is a graph of unbalance mass versus coefficient of friction. From this graph it is quite confirmed that, as the load on journal increases it may in turns increase the friction in between journal and bearing. 2) Figure 7 gives an idea about, how the change in oil temperature affects the viscosity (z) of the oil. The probable reason in increasing of temperature is nothing but the increase in friction. . 3) Figure 8 details about the relation between unbalance mass and viscosity of oil. From this graph it is quite confirmed that. If the imbalance is increased in the rotor. It may affect the viscosity of oil. 4) If unbalance force increases over a period of time, then it will affect the viscosity of oil which will in turn affect the performance of the bearing. Sometime it may lead the bearing towards seizing condition

Unbalance mass Unbalance ass Figure 2 : Unbalance mass versus vibration amplitude Figure 3 : Unbalance mass versus vibration amplitude

25 20

W um

70 60

V is c os ity Z

50 40 30 20 10 0 S eries 2

15 10 5 0 40 40.9 41.19 42.28 43.9 44.6 46.7 T e m pe ra ture t 47 48.8 49.6 S eries 1

03

03

03

03

03

03

03

03

03 E5. 50

E-

E-

E-

E-

E-

E-

E-

E-

30

50

60

90

40

60

00

50

2.

2.

2.

2.

3.

3.

4.

4.

C oiffic ie nt of F ric tion µ

5.3 : Figure 5.4 : Figure 4 : Temperature v/s Viscosity Figure 5 : Coefficient of Friction v/s unbalance mas

25 20

V is c os ity Z

25 20 15 10 5

03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 EEEEEEEEE-

15 10 S eries 1 5 0

30 E50 60 90 40 60 00 50 10 50

V is c os ity Z

5.

10

E-

03

S eries 1

0 40 41.8 42.2 44.4 47.8 49.2 51.4 T oil 54 57.6 59

2.

2.

2.

2.

3.

3.

4.

4.

5.

C oiffic ie nt of F ric tion µ

Figure 5.5 : Figure 6 : Coefficient of friction v/s Viscosity Figure 7 : Temperature v/s Viscosity

5.

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Prof. Girish D. Mehta, Prof. Vijaykumar.S.Shende, Prof. Prerna.S.Borkar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.537-544

25 20 15 10 5 0 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 S eries 1 S eries 2

V is c os ity Z

W Um

Figure 8 : Unbalance mass v/s viscocity z

Conclusions

1) 2) In this investigation following some important conclusion are made. As there is increase in unbalance mass, amplitude at 1 x frequency gets increased. For this phenomenon of unbalance the mathematical model for prognosis of amplitude at 1x frequency of rotor is established for the individual bearing. As unbalance mass is increased, this will increases coefficient of friction between journal and oil film. This increase in friction enhances high temperature to the oil. Conversely the viscosity of oil may get changed. If the viscosity of oil changes continuously, then there will be a chance of oil film breakage. Thus bearing may get seize. Hence, if it is observed that the bearing body temperature increases. It means there would be a one possibility of unbalance present in the rotor.

3)

4)

References

1. Banwait S.S.- Effect of Misalignment of Thermo hydrodynamic Analysis of Elliptical Journal Bearings. IE (I) Journal, Vol. 81, Oct. 2000, PP 93-101. Sehgal R.- Failure Mode Analysis of Sliding Bearings. IE (I), Vol. 81, Oct 2000, PP 123-129. Wock Victor - Machinery Vibration (Measurement and Analysis)", MacGraw Inc Singapore, 1991, First Edition.

2.

3.

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