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Femtocells: Technology and

Developments
Wireless Information Theory Summer School, Wireless Information Theory Summer School,
Centre for Wireless Communications,
Oulu, 29.7.2011
Jyri Hämäläinen, Comnet/Aalto University
Outline
• Femtocell: Basics
• 3GPP Home (e)NodeB concept
– Service requirements for Home Node B (HNB) and Home
eNode B (HeNB)
– HeNB and HNB systems: the logical architecture
– Home eNode B (HeNB) Radio Frequency (RF)
radio and interference scenarios, and measurements
• Femtocell Networks: Some Research problems
• Some reference material
Femtocell: Basics
Background
• The recent explosive growth of the smartphone market has lead to
mass deployment of data-intensive wireless services, e.g.,
webbrowsing, emailing, streaming of multimedia content.
• Mobile networks are about to reach their capacity limits in terms of
the number of supported end-users as well as in terms of the overall
data rates. (Thinking exercise: is this claim really true?)
• Increasing the number of macrocell sites is costly and ineffective
since around 50 % of voice calls and 70 % of data usage currently
takes place indoors (*) where up to 20dB penetration loss(**)
reduces the outdoor to indoor signal strength.
(**) Default indoor penetration loss in
3GPP performance evaluation guidelines
(*) G. Mansfield, “Femtocells in the US Market –Business Drivers and
Consumer Propositions,” FemtoCells Europe, ATT, London, U.K., June
2008. Femto Forum, www.femtoforum.org
Growth of data demand
Growth of transferred data in Western Europe (S. Liu et al: “A 25 Gb/s(/km2) Urban
Wireless Network Beyond IMT-Advanced”, IEEE Comm. Magazine, Feb. 2011).
What is femto base station?
• In general we can characterize femtocells as follows:
The Femto Base Station is an inexpensive compact base station
providing equal radio access interface as a common macrocellular
base station (MBS) towards User Equipments (UEs).
The FBS devices are deployed autonomously by subscribers in
residential or enterprise premises in a manner of plug-and play.
The user traffic in FBS is backhauled to the mobile operator core
network over IP via the residential broadband wireline connection
(DSL, optical network etc.) which is available locally in the site of
deployment.
Basic concept
The standardization process of femtocells launched in August
2007 via the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is still
under way. First products came to the market at 2008.
Why femtocells?
• For the mobile operator:
– Data offload from macrocell network
⇒increased network capacity
⇒Slower growth in macrocell backhaul costs.
– Expanded revenue opportunities (sometimes)
– Lower backhaul costs (less macrocell traffic)
– Increased customer stickyness (?) – Increased customer stickyness (?)
• For the user:
– Better indoor coverage, full speed data transfer at home and
ubiquitous mobility between home cell and overlaying macrocell.
– Lower terminal transmission power at home (who cares?)
– Extended phone battery life (its short anyway)
– One phone number, phonebook & consolidated bill
(not so much of an issue in Finland)
Market pull
• Interestingly, the driving force behind femtocell concept have
been the operators.
– Usually new technologies are pushed by industry that has clear
incentive to sell more HW. (market pull rather than technology
push)
• Actually femtocell concept was initially not attractive to main
network manufacturers network manufacturers
– Femtocells are low cost high volume products => business
concept is different than in case of macrocell networks.
– There was a threat that femtocells could cannibalize operators
main business (macrocellular systems).
– Currently femto BS production has been outsourced for
subcontractors.
– Big players like NSN and Ericsson carry out the system
integration.
Yet, it is understood that femtocell concept can become an important tool for
mobile operators to keep customers satisfied and to limit the increasing network
costs. Survival of mobile operators will be crucial also for manufacturers.
3GPP Home (e)NodeB concept
Service requirements for Home Node B
(HNB) and Home eNode B (HeNB)
Reference: 3GPP TS 22.220 V10.7.0 (2011-6)
H(e)NB = HNB and HeNB
Access Control requirements
• Subject to operator and H(e)NB Hosting Party agreement, the
operator shall be able to configure the H(e)NB with open,
hybrid or closed access mode.
• When the H(e)NB is configured for open access mode, it
shall be possible for the H(e)NB to provide services to
subscribers of any PLMN, subject to roaming agreement.
• When the H(e)NB is configured for hybrid access mode, it • When the H(e)NB is configured for hybrid access mode, it
shall be possible for the H(e)NB to provide services to:
– its associated CSG members, and
– subscribers of any PLMN not belonging to its associated CSG,
subject to roaming agreement.
• When the H(e)NB is configured for closed access mode, only
users that belong to its associated CSG shall be able to
obtain services.
Closed Subscriber Group (CSG)
• The CSG manager shall be able, under the operator supervision, to
add, remove and view CSG membership. NOTE: the interaction of
the user with the application that manages the Allowed CSG Lists is
out of scope of 3GPP (e.g. Web interface).
• For each subscriber, the network maintains a single CSG list
containing the CSG identities that the subscriber is allowed to use.
• The UE shall contain a list of allowed CSG identities (Allowed CSG • The UE shall contain a list of allowed CSG identities (Allowed CSG
List). It shall be possible to store the Allowed CSG List in the USIM.
• Each CSG identity shall be associated to a subscriber group which
identifies the subscribers allowed to access the CSG.
• When the subscriber group is updated, the affected UE shall be
informed accordingly.
Closed Subscriber Group (CSG)
• For temporary members, it shall be possible to limit the period of
time during which the subscriber is considered a member of a CSG
(granted access rights). It shall be possible to configure a time
period for each temporary member.
• The time period shall be configurable by the CSG manager and/or
the operator operating the CSG. Unlimited membership to the CSG
is allowed.
• In hybrid access mode when services cannot be provided to a CSG • In hybrid access mode when services cannot be provided to a CSG
member due to a shortage of H(e)NB resources it shall be possible
to continue the established communication of non-CSG members in
another cell.
• In hybrid access mode, to minimise the impact on CSG members
from established communication of non-CSG members, it shall be
possible for the network to allow the data rate of established PS
communication of non-CSG members to be reduced.
CSG: source for critical interference?
Critical interference
between femtocells
may occur since HO
is not necessarily
possible in CSG. 2
2b 2a
1
1
HNB and HeNB Installation, identification
and location requirements
• H(e)NB shall have a unique equipment identity.
• It shall be possible to support at least 125 million CSG Identities
within a PLMN of an operator.
• The radio transmitter of a H(e)NB shall not be activated until
configured and authorised by the operator.
• When installing, provisioning, configuring or re-configuring an • When installing, provisioning, configuring or re-configuring an
H(e)NB the operator shall be able to:
– Verify the H(e)NB's identity.
– Obtain the geographical location of the H(e)NB.(*)
(*) Macrocell level location can be easily found but accurate location is difficult
to reach. UE measurement reports can be used to detect adjacent (e)NB’s.
HNB and HeNB Installation, identification
and location requirements
• NOTE: The scenario where a H(e)NB is connected to one
operator’s network and later changed to another operator’s network
is not required (*).
• The operator shall be able to determine that the H(e)NB is installed
and operated in accordance with all relevant regulatory
requirements. requirements.
• The operator shall be able to configure the settings of the H(e)NB.
In the case where the H(e)NB has detrimental impact on the
spectrum usage, the H(e)NB can be set to out-of-service by the
operator. (**)
• Installation and activation of a new H(e)NB shall require no
reconfiguration of the operators network.
(*) Leads to operator specific H(e)NB products
(**) Deciding this will create technical challenge
OA&M Requirements
• H(e)NB shall support the automatic discovery of an operator’s
management platform.
• It shall be possible to make use of the operator’s management
platform to carry out OA&M functions for H(e)NB. The management
connection between H(e)NB and the operator's management
platform shall be end-to-end secure.
• H(e)NB shall support OA&M procedures which allow the operator to • H(e)NB shall support OA&M procedures which allow the operator to
remotely configure the H(e)NB, deploy software upgrades, detect
and report changes in RF conditions and perform general OA&M
tasks.(*)
• If the connection between H(e)NB and the rest of the operator
network is out of service, then it shall be possible within an
operator’s defined time period for the H(e)NB to deactivate the air-
interface.
(*) Remote configuration of HeNBs will be a great challenge
once mass deployment of femtocells has taken place
Services support
• Subject to availability of network resources there shall be no
difference in the user experience when using the PLMN provided
services via H(e)NB or via NodeB/eNodeB (NB/eNB).
• Deployment of H(e)NBs and NB/eNBs on the same spectrum
should not degrade the performance of UEs receiving service from
NB/eNBs.(*) NB/eNBs.(*)
• Deployment of H(e)NBs and NB/eNBs on the same spectrum
should not degrade the NB/eNB’s coverage and capacity. (*)
• H(e)NB shall support emergency calls for both CSG and non CSG
members.
• It shall be possible for the operator to provide location information of
the UE attempting an emergency call over a H(e)NB.
(*) These requirements set a technical challenge for
interworking between femto layer and macro layer
Local IP Access (LIPA)
Mobile
operator’s
core
network
UE
Local IP traffic
IP traffic to mobile operator’s CN
scope of Local IP access
logical connection for mobile operator IP
traffic
Residential/
enterprise
IP Network
Local IP Access (LIPA)
• Local IP Access provides access for IP capable UEs connected via
a H(e)NB (i.e. using H(e)NB radio access) to other IP capable
entities in the same residential/enterprise IP network.
• Data traffic for Local IP Access is expected to not traverse the
mobile operator’s network except mobile operator network
components in the residential/enterprise premises. components in the residential/enterprise premises.
• Signaling traffic will continue to traverse the mobile operator
network
This maybe doesn’t seem too exotic: it just states that user data
can go directly to e.g. Public Internet. Yet, this is revolution and
may in long term imply that role of core networks is reduced.
What this means for billing: operator can’t necessarily any more
calculate volume of user data => flat rate or time based billing.
Some other requirements
• The H(e)NB may support remote access for a CSG member to the
home based network from a UE via a PLMN in order to provide
access to IP capable devices connected to the home based network
(*).
• It shall be possible to restrict the access to the home based network
on per-subscriber basis (e.g. some subscribers may have managed
access to their home network and others may not) (**)
• It shall be possible to support Television services (over e.g. MBMS). • It shall be possible to support Television services (over e.g. MBMS).
• It shall be possible for the network to set different criteria for access
control in a hybrid cell for CSG and non-CSG members.
• The H(e)NB shall provide a high level of security, equivalent or
better than Rel-8 3GPP systems.
• Security policy shall be under the control of the H(e)NB network
operator
(*) You can use some devices at home remotely.
(**) Your wife may use all devices at home remotely.
Some use cases
H(e)NB Guest Users
User A and User B are subscribers of Operator 1 and Operator 2
respectively. User A visits User B in his home and User B allows
User A to use H(e)NB in User B’s home. User A should be able to
access all the services he is subscribed to from Operator 1 based
on the policies set by User B and operator 2. Operator 1 and
Operator 2 have roaming agreement.
HNB/HeNB – NB/eNB Handovers
User A subcribes to cellular services of Operator 1 and is authorised
to access a HNB/HeNB from same or other operator. User A starts
service in the H(e)NB coverage and continues moving into a cellular
network. Similarly User A starts service in cellular network and
continues moving into H(e)NB coverage. User A does not see any
impact on services due to mobility in both cases.
Some use cases
Hybrid access mode
In order to improve the coverage in a shopping mall, H(e)NBs are
deployed. The shopping mall owner may have been provided a
special deal by the network operator where the employees of the
shopping mall will get preferential charging rates and priority access
when accessing services via these H(e)NBs. In exchange, the
shopping mall owner allows the public to use the H(e)NBs to access
the normal network operator services. The H(e)NB Hosting Party
should not need to manage the public access and the public should should not need to manage the public access and the public should
not need to do anything special in order to get services on the
H(e)NB.
Open access mode
Typically to enhance coverage or capacity of an operator’s public
network, for example in railway stations, airports, stadiums, etc,
taking benefit of the H(e)NBs additional functionality (e.g.
uncoordinated deployment).
HeNB and HNB systems: the logical
architecture
References:
3GPP TR 23.830 V9.0.0 (2009-09; partly outdated)
3GPP TS 25.467 V10.0.0 (2010-12; focus on UTRAN)
H(e)NB = HNB and HeNB
LTE Rel.8 architecture
EPC = Evolved Packet Core
MME = Mobility Management Entity
P-GW, S-GW = Packet data network and Serving GateWay
LTE Home eNB architecture
LTE Home eNB architecture
• The HeNB Gateway concentrate a large number of HeNB’s
and appears as an MME to the HeNB and the EPC.
• Amongst others it provides the Tracking Area Code (TAC)
and network identification (PLMN ID) to the HeNB
• The Security Gateway is a mandatory logical function. It may
be implemented either as a separate physical entity or be implemented either as a separate physical entity or
integrated into the HeNB-GW. The SeGWsecures the
communication from/to the HNB.
• HeNB architecture development is ongoing, further
information can be found from 3GPP Feature and Study
Items list, see
– http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/FeatureListFrameSet.htm
WCDMA/HSPA Architecture (until Rel.6)
RNC = Radio Network Controller
MCS/VLR = Mobile services switching centre/visitor location register
HLR = Home Location Register
SGSN/GGSN = Serving/Gateway GPRS Support Node
GMSC = Gateway MCS
3G Home NB architecture
3G Home NB architecture
• The HNB-GW appears to the CN as an RNC and serves as a
concentrator of HNB connections.
• The Iu interface between the CN and the HNB-GW serves the same
purpose as the interface between the CN and a RNC.
• The Local Gateway (L-GW) may be present only when the HNB
operates in LIPA mode. When present, it is co-located with the HNB, in
which case the HNB has a Gn/S5 interface towards the SGSN/SGW.
• Iuh is the interface between the HNB and HNB GW. For the control • Iuh is the interface between the HNB and HNB GW. For the control
plane, Iuh support HNB registration, UE registration and error handling
functions. For the user plane, Iuh support user plane transport bearer
handling
• The Iurh interface between HNBs admit two options:
– Direct interface connectivity between HNBs
– HNB-GW serves as a proxy between HNBs
• Gi is the interface towards the residential/IP network (in LIPA mode)
SGW = Serving GateWay
3G Home NB architecture
• The HNB management system (HMS):
– facilitates HNB-GW discovery.
– provides configuration data to the HNB.
– performs location verification of HNB and assigns appropriate
serving elements (HMS, Security Gateway and HNB-GW).
• Security Gateway (SeGW):
– terminates secure tunnelling for Iuh, and for Iurh and Gn/S5 for – terminates secure tunnelling for Iuh, and for Iurh and Gn/S5 for
certain deployment options.
– authentication of HNB.
– provides the HNB with access to the HMS and HNB-GW.
• HNB Gateway (HNB-GW):
– terminates Iuh from HNB and appears as an RNC to the Core
network.
– supports HNB registration and UE registration over Iuh.
Details of functional split between HNB, HNB-GW and CN
3G Home NB architecture
• From 3GPP TS 25.467 one finds:
– Details of functional split between HNB, HNB-GW and CN.
– UTRAN functions for HNB access (UE Registration, HNB
Registration, HNB-GW Discovery Function, HNB mobility issues,
HNB Configuration Transfer, etc)
• Interestingly, in 3GPP TS 25.467 just three interference
mitigation scenarios has been mentioned: mitigation scenarios has been mentioned:
– In UL: Adaptively limiting the HNB UE’s maximum UL Tx Power in
connected mode possibly using HNB UE measurement and
calculating the path loss between HNB UE and Macro NB.
– In DL: (a) Redirecting unauthorized UE to another carrier possibly
based on uplink access attempts by unauthorised UE. (b) Adjusting
HNB’s DL CPICH Tx Power adaptively either temporarily or over
long term possibly based on uplink access attempts by
unauthorised UE.
CPICH = Common Pilot CHannel
Home eNode B (HeNB) Radio Frequency (RF)
radio and interference scenarios,
and measurements
References:
3GPP TR 36.921 V10.0.0 (2011-04)
3GPP TR 36.922 V10.0.0 (2011-04)
3GPP TS 36.104 V10.3.0 (2011-06)
3GPP TR 25.967 V10.0.0 (2011-04, omitted here)
H(e)NB = HNB and HeNB
Radio Scenarios: Deployment
configurations
• Main deployment configurations for Home NodeB:
– Open access or CSG (Closed Subscriber Group)
– Dedicated channel or co-channel
– Fixed or adaptive (DL) maximum transmit power
• Also fixed or adaptive resource partitioning form a • Also fixed or adaptive resource partitioning form a
deployment configuration.
– Specifically, the resource partitioning could be performed in
frequency, time or spatial dimensions for interference
coordination.
Radio Scenarios: Resource partitioning
Frequency partitioning
• First example: soft
frequency reuse.
Radio Scenarios: Resource partitioning
Frequency band for the network
Reuse one
partition
Orthogonal
partition
Frequency partitioning
• Second example: partly or fully orthogonal partitioning
partition
Partially overlap
partition
Frequency allocated to macrocell
Frequency allocated to femtocell
Radio Scenarios: Resource partitioning
Frequency partitioning
• Third example: Configuration based spectrum partitioning
Radio Scenarios: Resource partitioning
Time partitioning
The resources used in Macro and Home eNBs can also be partitioned
and coordinated in the time dimension. Different time zone or UL-DL
configurations between HeNBs and macro eNBs or among HeNBs
under specific conditions may provide some flexibility for interference
coordination. However, it may also bring new interference risks. Further
interference mitigation methods based on the time partitioning needs to
be studied. be studied.
Spatial partitioning
Due to uplink-downlink channel reciprocity, TDD HeNBs can use beam
coordination to improve interference conditions. For example, the
HeNB can avoid beam collision with the Macro or other Home eNBs in
a proactive or reactive way. These mechanisms may require a certain
amount of information exchange between the HeNBs.
Interference Scenarios
Number Aggressor Victim Priority
1 UE attached to Home eNode B Macro eNode B Uplink Yes
2 Home eNode B Macro eNode B Downlink Yes
3 UE attached to Macro eNode B Home eNode B Uplink Yes
4 Macro eNode B Home eNode B Downlink
5 UE attached to Home eNode B Home eNode B Uplink Yes 5 UE attached to Home eNode B Home eNode B Uplink Yes
6 Home eNode B Home eNode B Downlink Yes
7 UE attached to Home eNode B
and/or Home eNode B
Other System
8 Other System UE attached to Home
eNode B and/or Home
eNode B
Interference Scenarios
Downlink Uplink
RF Aspects: HeNB output power
• From HeNB coverage and capacity point of view, large output power could be
attractive.
• However, the maximum output power should be limited in order to control the
downlink interference from HeNB towards macrocell layer.
• So, the maximum HeNB output power should be a trade-off between the HeNB
performance and the interference towards close-by macrocell users, which do
not have access to the HeNB.
• Based on 3GPP studies the allowed output power of the Home BS is limited to • Based on 3GPP studies the allowed output power of the Home BS is limited to
– < + 20 dBm for 1 transmit antenna
– < + 17 dBm for 2 transmit antennas
– < + 14 dBm for 4 transmit antennas
– (< + 11 dBm for 8 transmit antennas, release 10)
• Yet, aim is to use adaptive power setting rather than fixed output power.
• In first HNB products the output power will be fixed and in most deployments
between 0dBm and 10dBm.
HeNB measurements and adaptation
• The objectives of the HeNB measurements are
– to provide sufficient information to the HeNB for the purpose of
interference mitigation
– to provide sufficient information to the HeNB such that the HeNB
coverage can be maintained.
• According to the measurement type, there are two options to
collect measurements: collect measurements:
– From connected Mode UEs attached to the HeNB
– Via a DL Receiver function within the HeNB itself. Such DL receiver
function is also called Network Listen Mode (NLM), Radio
Environment Measurement (REM) or "HeNB Sniffer".
• These measurements can also be used during the HeNB
self-configuration process
LTE Rel.8 measurements in UE
• RSSI, which is the total received wideband power on a given
frequency (from all sources).
• Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP), which for a
particular cell is the average of the power measured (and the
average between receiver branches) of the resource
elements that contain cell-specific reference signals. elements that contain cell-specific reference signals.
• Reference Signal Received Quality (RSRQ) is the ratio of the
RSRP and the E-UTRA Carrier Received Signal Strength
Indicator (RSSI), for the reference signals.
HeNB System Measurements (1/4):
Measurements from all cells
Measurement Type Purpose
Measurement
Source(s)
Received
Interference Power
Calculation of UL interference
towards HeNB (from MUE)
HeNB UL Receiver
For example, a Received Interference Power measurement value larger than For example, a Received Interference Power measurement value larger than
a pre-defined threshold would mean that at least an MUE which is interfered
by a HeNB is close to the HeNB and that the MUE's Tx power would cause
significant interference towards the HeNB. This measurement value may be
used in calculating path loss between the HeNB and the MUE assuming that
a single MUE dominates the interference.
HeNB System Measurements (2/4):
Measurements to identify surrounding cell
layers
Measurement Type Purpose
Measurement
Source(s)
Cell reselection priority
information
Distinction between cell types based
on frequency layer priority
HeNB DL Receiver
CSG status and ID
Distinction between cell layers
based on CSG, and self-
construction of neighbour list,
HeNB DL Receiver
HeNB System Measurements (3/4):
Measurements from macro cell layer
Measurement Type Purpose
Measurement
Source(s)
Co-channel RSRP
Calculation of co-channel DL interference
towards macro UEs (from HeNB)
Calculation of co-channel UL interference
towards macro layer (from HUEs)
Calculation of co-channel UL interference
towards HeNB (from MUEs) based on
estimated MUE Tx power
Determine coverage of macro cell (for
optimization of hybrid cell configuration)
HeNB DL Receiver
MUE (in case of hybrid
cell)
optimization of hybrid cell configuration)
Co-channel RSRQ
Determine quality of macro cell (for
optimization of hybrid cell configuration)
HeNB DL Receiver
MUE (in case of hybrid
cell)
Reference Signal
Transmission Power
Estimation of path loss from to MeNB HeNB DL Receiver
Physical + Global Cell ID
Allow HeNB to Instruct UEs to measure
specific cells.
Allow UE to report discovered cells to HeNB.
HeNB DL Receiver
Detection of UL RS Detection of victim UE HeNB UL Receiver
RSRP = Reference Symbol Received Power
RSRQ = Reference Symbol Received Quality
RS = Reference Signal
HeNB System Measurements (4/4):
Measurements of other HeNB cells
Measurement Type Purpose
Measurement
Source(s)
Co-channel RSRP
Calculation of co-channel DL interference
towards neighbour HUEs (from HeNB)
Calculation of co-channel UL interference
towards neighbour HeNBs (from HUEs)
HeNB DL Receiver
Reference Signal
Transmission Power
Estimation of path loss from to HeNB HeNB DL Receiver
Physical + Global Cell ID Allow HeNB to Instruct UEs to measure
specific cells
Allow UE to report discovered cells to
HeNB.
HeNB DL Receiver
3GPP Interference Control Proposals
• In LTE HeNB system interference control utilize above discussed
measurements and other information exchanged through network.
• There are different methods proposed for the protection of control
channels and data channels, see TR 36.921 for details.
• Proposed methods include both
– general approaches such as frequency partitioning and power control, and
– LTE specific methods
• Example of the latter methods is the control channel interference
management based on fixed time-frequency location of control
information:
– If adjacent HeNBs apply time and/or frequency shift in DL transmissions =>
not all control channels are overlapping. If data channel transmission is
suspended on radio resources that are used for control in adjacent cells,
then control channel detection is clearly improved; see next slide.
Control region (36 subcarriers x 1
OFDM symbol)
DL resources available for scheduling
(36 subcarriers x 1 OFDM symbol)
Macro-eNB (one
unit on x-axis is 1
OFDM symbol ~
71 us and one
unit on the y-axis
is 3 PRBs or 36
subcarriers)
S
S
C
H
SF-1 SF-2 Legend SF-3
P
B
C
H
P
B
C
H
P
B
C
H
P
B
C
H
SF-0
P
S
C
H
PBCH = Physical Broadcast CHannel
PSCH, SSCH = Primary and Secondary
Common macro-eNB and HeNB DL
bandwidth allocation
SF-2
S
S
C
H
P
S
C
H
P
B
C
H
P
B
C
H
P
B
C
H
P
B
C
H
SF-0 SF-1 SF-9
Home-eNB, DL
frame timing
offset by k = 16
OFDM symbols
PSCH, SSCH = Primary and Secondary
Synchronization Channels.
Femtocell Networks: Some Research
problems
Some research areas 1/2
• Femtocell research classification:
– General level small cell/heterogeneous system research: Aim is
usually to find basic principles and new theoretical aspects.
– System specific research: existing specifications form the
framework for the research. Aim is usually to propose
enhancements/extensions to existing systems.
• Interference:
– Management and avoidance (e.g. scheduling of transmissions,
spectrum usage) spectrum usage)
– Suppression (e.g. tranceiver algorithms like beamforming and
advanced receivers)
– Interference between macro and femto layers and within femto
layer.
• Radio resource management
– Scheduling of resources between macro and femto layers
– Static vs dynamic resource allocation.
– Load balancing between macrocells and (open access) femtocells
Some research areas 2/2
• Power allocation/calibration for femtocells
– How to set TX powers in femtocells?
– How to dynamically adjust TX powers in femtocells?
• Self-configuration and optimization
– Femtocell networks can be unplanned (user deployed femtocells),
or planned (operator deployed femtocells). or planned (operator deployed femtocells).
– Self-configuration and optimization algorithms needed to tune the
network.
• Mobility
– Between femtocells and macrocells
– Between femtocells
– Mobility issues related to femtocells has not been widely
investigated.
Critical interference: A Simple Example
2
Consider DL interference problem of the figure.
For the rates there holds:
2
( )
( )
m m m m m
f f f f f
B W A R
B W A R
Γ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =
Γ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ =
1 log
1 log
2
2
11 1
/ L P
= Γ
(*)
1
1
2 , 2 , 12 1
22 2
1 , 1 , 21 2
11 1
/
/
/
/
f m N
m
f m N
f
I I L P P
L P
I I L P P
L P
+ + +
= Γ
+ + +
= Γ
In (*) A and B are constants that can be used to fit rates with some practical systems
like LTE (P. Mogensen, W. Na, I. Z. Kovacs, et al., “LTE capacity compared to the
shannon bound,” in Proceedings of the IEEE 65th Vehicular Technology Conference
(VTC ’07), pp. 1234–1238, April 2007.
(**)
Critical interference: A Simple Example
• In general there holds:
• Let us consider an illustrative example where we ignore terms I
f,k
and I
m,k
related to other femtocell and macrocell interference. Then
2 1 21 12 22 11
, , P P L L L L << << <<
f
d
L P L P L P
f
W
β
α
12
12 2 12 2 22 2
/

⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ≈ = Γ
• We further simplify the model by assuming same fading parameters
on femto and macro links (not usuallu true). Then the SINR
requirement G
m
> G
min
leads to the inequality
m
d
d
L
L
P
P
L
L
P
P
L P P
L P
m
f
W
N
m
β
α
α
22
12
22
12
1
2
22
12
1
2
12 1
22 2
/
/


⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ≈
+
= Γ
22 22
/ 1
12
22
2
1
min 12
: d a d
L
L
P
P
d
W
W
⋅ =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
⋅ ⋅ Γ >
β
Remark: Dominant interferer model is very relevant in femtocell research. Therefore
distribution of SINR in (*), (**) can be found in many cases and analytical results
can be deduced.
Critical interference: A Simple Example
• Numerical values for illustration:
• Using these values we obtain
( )
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
= ⋅ + ⋅ = = − = Γ
= =
= =
= =
) 43 . 0 ) 25 . 1 2 /( 1 1 log 88 . 0 / ( , 4 , 3
indoor UE) ( 0 ), outdoor UE ( 20
indoor UE) ( 20 ), outdoor UE ( 0
10 , 46
2 min
12 12
22 22
2 1
W R dB
dB L dB L
dB L dB L
dBm P dBm P
W W
W W
β
• Using these values we obtain
• Assume that femtocell is 1km distance from macrocell eNB.
• If UE is outside and there is 20dB attenuation towards indoor femtocell,
then macrocell UE should be at least 33.5 meters away from femto eNB.
• If macrocell UE is indoors, then 335 meter separation is needed so that
minimum SINR requirement is fulfilled. This is impossible.
) indoors UE ( 335 . 0
outdoors) UE ( 0335 . 0
=
=
a
a
Concluding remark: CSG femtocells may
create local holes on macrocellular coverage.
Interference management approaches
(femto-macro layer interference)
• Dedicated frequency carrier for femtocells (not effective and costly
for operators).
• Static split of the carrier frequency between macro and femto layers
– Not feasible approach in single carrier systems like HSPA
– Brick wall separation of femto and macro spectrum (in e.g. LTE) is easy but
can be ineffective since load in femto layer and macro layer may vary a lot
during the day.
• Dynamic usage of frequency resources: • Dynamic usage of frequency resources:
– Separation of femtocell and macrocell transmissions in frequency requires
either active information exchange between macro and femto layers or
predefined rules for spectrum usage. Femtocell backhaul do not support
real time resource management (i.e. within fast fading coherence time)
• Research question: How to design effective and simple
(frequency) resource allocation methods when information
exchange between femto and macro layers is limited, load on layers
vary and network topology may change (femtocell switched on and
off)? For some solutions and references, see e.g. TR 36.921
Interference management approaches
(femto-macro layer interference)
• Multiantenna processing
– Interference suppression by e.g. femto eNB null steering is
effective only if channel is directive and accurate channel
information is available.
– The number of antennas in femto eNBs is expected to be small
=> interference suppression can be used to suppress only part => interference suppression can be used to suppress only part
of the interference.
• Femto eNB transmit power allocation/control
– Tool for system optimization.
– Not necessarily effective approach when solving instantaneous
interference problems.
Example: Dynamic usage of frequency
resources
• Femtocell operation frequency can be limited since SNR is usually
high and number of users is small in femtocells.
• Macrocell operation frequency cannot be limited since SNR can be
low and number of users maybe large.
• LTE example:
– Let us reserve n frequency resource blocks exclusively for macrocell users
while rest of the band can be used by both femtocells and macriocells.
– Macrocell will schedule to (femtocell) interference free resources users that
are close to femtocells.
– Question: How macrocell know that some of its users heavily suffer from
femtocell interference?
Exclusive resources for
macrocell users
Resources used by both
macrocell and femtocells
Example: Dynamic usage of frequency
resources
UE measures strength of
the received signal from
HeNB and detect its ID
HeNB Broadcast
transmission
UE send measurement
results to Macro eNB
• In LTE macrocell UE can measure the broadcasted reference signal
from HeNB. Broadcast channels carry also HeNB identity (ID).
• UE then send measurement results to macrocell eNB that knows
HeNB(s) that interfere UE. If there is critical interference, then eNB
can assign exclusive resources for UE.
• In this approach there is a trade-off between user rates on femtocell
and macrocell.
transmission results to Macro eNB
Interference problem
within the femto layer:
Illustration
• Part of a row building including
3 closed femtocells and 3
terminals.
• Radio operations on the same
frequency carrier.
1
2
2
1
frequency carrier.
• Dedicated signal: Green arrows
• Interference: Red arrows
3
3
Managing the interference within the
femto layer: Transmit power allocation
• Local interference problems between femtocells occur due to
unplanned nature of the femto network.
– Especially when network consists of user deployed femto eNBs
and Closed Subscriber Group configuration is used.
– Power allocation can be used to optimize femtocell operations.
• Two phases of power allocation: • Two phases of power allocation:
– When managing (roughly) the interference between macro and
femto layers it is assumed that femto eNBs close to macrocell eNB
can use higher TX power than femto eNBs on macrocell edge.
– When managing the interference within femto layer the TX powers
are adjusted such that local femto operations are optimized.
• Power allocation approaches:
– Distributed and centralized.
Remark: Femto eNBs are turned on and switched off
by users => local femto network topology is dynamic
Distributed vs centralized approach
• In (extremely) distributed approach femtocells operate
independently: situation is similar like in WLAN
• In (extremely) centralized approach the femto manager have all
channel information and can accurately adjust femto eNB TX
powers.
Measurement reports
Cell 1
Femto manager
(connected to
macro network)
Measurement reports
Cell K
macro network)
All measurement
information is forwarded
to the femto manager.
Practical femto networks are in between the extremes.
Different manufacturers may apply different management
concepts
Femto manager (or network OA&M) may
create interference matrices etc
Interference problem within the femto layer:
Power calibration problem example
• Performance criteria example:
0
, ,
, ,
,
Γ ≥
+
= Γ

≠k m
m k j m N
k k j k
k j
L P P
L P
NB femto th and cell th in l th termina between loss Path
NB femto th in power on Transmissi
=
=
k
m k j L
k P
(*)
• The SINR requirement (*) aims to guarantee a certain level of
service for femtocell users. We say that user is in outage if SINR is
smaller than Γ
0
.
power noise White
receiver in the SINR Required
NB femto th and cell th in l th termina between loss Path
0
, ,
=
= Γ
=
N
m k j
P
m k j L
Interference problem within the femto layer:
Power calibration problem example
• Let Γ
k
be a random variable (SINR in the kth cell). Then, instead of
(1), we may define a statistical performance requirement
where right side defines the probability for outage. This kind of
criteria is widely used when mobile system performance is
( )
out k
Pr Pr
0
= Γ < Γ
(**)
criteria is widely used when mobile system performance is
evaluated.
• Criteria (**) assumes that a certain service level (e.g. in terms of
bits/s/Hz) is achieved in kth cell with a given probability.
Interference problem within the femto layer:
Power calibration problem example
• The power allocation problem when goal is to guarantee a certain
service level with minimum transmission powers:
( )
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
≤ =
≥ Γ < Γ
∑ ∑
= =
K
k
K
k
k k k
out k
k
P P P P
P
1 1
max
0
: min
ˆ
Pr Pr
:
ˆ
Find
(***)
• Remark: The maximum transmission power may depend on the
distance between femtocell cluster (e.g. building) and the macrocell
eNB.
• Remark: Problem setting in (***) can be also extended to cover
option for dynamic frequency resource allocations.
• Remark: due to small number of users within femtocells the problem
(***) may suffer from scarce statistics.
¹
) ¹ k k 1 1
Femtocell Networks: The Future
General future developments
• Chipset for femto base stations will become cheaper due to mass
production => at some point femto NB will be an integral part of all
DSL boxes (and desk computers too???).
– This development takes place only if femtocell concept becomes a
global success.
• Femtocell concept provides a natural playground for various flexible • Femtocell concept provides a natural playground for various flexible
spectrumusage approaches
– Example: joint femtocell spectrum for all operators.
– Different cognitive radio applications may also become part of femtocell
concept (e.g. spectrum sensing).
• Femto management systems will become more sophisticated.
Specifications will provide better means to control femtocell
operations.
One potential aspect: Dense
heterogeneous networks
• In addition to femtocells
various M2M
communication may take
place on mobile
communication spectrum.
• The priorities of different
connections may vary as connections may vary as
well as QoS
requirements.
• This may lead to local
heterogeneous systems
where femtocells need to
share the spectrum with
M2M communication.
Some reference material
General level publications
• P. Lin et al: ”Macro-femto heterogeneous network
deployment and management: from business models to
technical solutions”, IEEE Wireless Communications,
June 2011.
• M. Yavuz et al: ”Interference Management and • M. Yavuz et al: ”Interference Management and
Performance Analysis of UMTS/HSPA+ Femtocells”,
IEEE Communications Magazine, September 2009.
• V. Chandrasekhar, J. G. Andrews, and A. Gatherer:
“Femtocell networks: a survey,” IEEE Communications
Magazine, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 59–67, 2008.
3GPP Home (e)NodeB Concept
• 3GPP TS 22.220 V10.7.0 (2011-6)
• 3GPP TR 23.830 V9.0.0 (2009-09; partly outdated)
• 3GPP TS 25.467 V10.0.0 (2010-12; focus on UTRAN)
• 3GPP TR 36.921 V10.0.0 (2011-04)
• 3GPP TR 36.922 V10.0.0 (2011-04) • 3GPP TR 36.922 V10.0.0 (2011-04)
• 3GPP TS 36.104 V10.3.0 (2011-06)
• 3GPP TR 25.967 V10.0.0 (2011-04)
Some recent technical studies
• O. Simeone, E. Erkip, and S. Shamai Shitz: “Robust Transmission and
Interference Management For Femtocells with Unreliable Network Access”,
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 28, no. 9, December
2010.
• S. Park, W. Seo, et al: ”Beam Subset Selection Strategy for Interference
Reduction in Two-Tier Femtocell Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Wireless
Communications, vol. 9, no. 11, November 2010.
• Han-Shin Jo et al: “Self-Optimized Coverage Coordination in Femtocell
Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 9, no. 10,
October 2010. October 2010.
• M. Husso et al: “InterferenceMitigation by Practical Transmit Beamforming
Methods in Closed Femtocells”, EURASIP Journal on Wireless
Communications and Networking, Vol. 2010.
• Vikram Chandrasekhar et al: ”Coverage in Multi-Antenna Two-Tier Networks”,
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 8, no. 10, October 2009.
• Vikram Chandrasekhar et al: ”Power Control in Two-Tier Femtocell Networks”,
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 8, no. 8, August 2009.
• Vikram Chandrasekhar et al: “Spectrum Allocation in Tiered Cellular Networks”,
IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 57 no. 10, October 2009.