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The Tests
Prone Bridge Test

Purpose : To test the core strength of the individual. It also is a good reflection as to the determination of the individual as the body usually has the strength but it is the fight against the pain which is most clearly displayed.

Equipment required : Stop watch

Procedure : The individual lays flat on the stomach with the elbows directly underneath the shoulders and the hands wrapped in with the back of the hands touching the elbows. The feet are spread hip width apart. Align toes under ankles & forearms under shoulders. Keep hips up and back flat. Draw navel into spine then brace core. Keep a straight line posture. The time starts when the body is lifted up onto the toes and a bridge is formed between the arms and toes. The body has to maintain a flat, straight position. Any drop in the hips constitutes a warning. Three warnings and the test is over.

Scoring : The time that the bridge position is held constitutes the score.

Side Bridge

Purpose: The side bridge test measures the control and endurance of the lateral core stabilizing muscles.

Equipment required: Stopwatch.

Description / procedure: The aim of this test is to hold an elevated position for as long as possible. The subject lays on their right side, the upper body supported off the ground by the right elbow and forearm. The legs are straight, with the left foot (top) in front of your right foot. The hip is lifted off the floor so that the elbow and feet support the body, creating a straight line from head to toe. The left hand is placed on the supporting hip. As soon as the subject is in the correct position, the stopwatch is started. The test is over when the subject is unable to hold the back straight and the hip is lowered. After a short rest, the other side is tested.

Scoring: The score is the total time completed for each side.

Abdominal Strength Test - straight leg lift

Purpose: The purpose of this test is to estimate the degree of abdominal strength

Equipment required: Flat surface, an abdominal strength test board with different degrees of angle marked (otherwise, you can use a protractor),

Description / procedure: The subject lays spine on the floor next to the abdominal strength test board. The hip joint should be aligned to the intersection of the scale. The arms are held across the chest and the head rested on the floor. The tester places their finger tips underneath the subject's lower back. Both legs are raised to a 90-dregee angle (vertically) while keeping the upper body flat on the floor. The subject may bend their knees first to move to the starting position, before straightening the knee joint. The subject aims to sustain the pressure on the tester's fingers under the lower back by contracting the abdominals as the legs are lowered. The subject slowly lowers both legs until the pressure on the hand behind the back disappears. The lowest angle observed as the pressure is taken off is the measurement of their abdominal strength. Scoring: The score is the angle of the legs in degrees from the floor.

Exercise to improve core strength

Side plank 1. Maintain this pose for 5 to 10 deep breaths. Variation : Try lifting one leg at a time Core . 2. Spread the fingers and the thumbs.Plank The Plank is a static exercise for strengthening the abdominals. look to the floor. Tuck the tailbone under and pull the navel towards the spine lifting the pelvic floor muscles. Keep the thighs engaged and push away from the floor with the hands. 2. Isometric strength is important for stabilizing the trunk in various sports and exercises. 3. Contract your abdominals and relax your shoulders and breathe.Core . The abdominal plank is a great exercise for strengthening the transverse abdominus. Bring the head in alignment with the spine and gently tuck the chin in. 4. Variations : . Lift your body of the ground and balance on one forearm and the side of your foot. back and shoulders. 3. Place the hands shoulder-width apart and the feet hip-width apart. The transverse abdominus is the deepest layer of abdominal muscle and wraps around the whole midsection. Lie on your side with your elbow directly under your shoulder at a 90° angle. 1.

1. 2. Use an angle that is comfortable. extending your arms out in front of you. Tip: The more you lean back. yet still gives your abdominal muscles a challenge.Russian twists The Russian Twist exercise is a great way to strengthen the obliques and help prevent injuries that can occur to the spine. and recline back so that your body is angled about 45 degrees. Place the hand under the shoulder and the knee on the ground directly underneath the hip. This exercise will also help improve the speed and strength of your twist motion. the more challenging this exercise becomes.Bicycles . 2. Begin sitting on the floor with your knees bent and your feet flat on the floor. Press your hands together. Place the hand directly under the shoulder and lift the body up. cricket and golf and other sports that require a swinging motion. Core . 3. Core . twist your body to the right and then to the left. Swing the leg forward and backward at hip height whilst keeping the upper body dead still. Keeping your lower body still. 1. This can improve a swing in hockey.

Lie face up on the floor and lace your fingers behind your head.Bicycle Crunch Exercise came in at the top of the list of best exercises for the rectus abdominus (six pack). Switch sides. bringing the right elbow towards the left knee Core . 1. . 3. 2. bringing the left elbow towards the right knee.Double leg lift 1. Bring the knees in towards the chest and lift the shoulder blades off the ground without pulling on the neck. 4. Straighten the left leg out while simultaneously turning the upper body to the right.

3. you lower the left leg down until it is just above the ground. Inhale and on the exhale. Allow that motion to press your lower back into the floor as your curl your upper torso up off the floor. keeping the elbows and wide and chest open 3. Core . Curl the head and shoulders up off the ground. You will maintain this torso position throughout the exercise. With control deepen the abs. Hold on to the right leg and as breathe. 4. Use your upper abs. 2. Breathe in as you hold the position. even more as you return the legs upright. Go only as far as your can maintain control and good alignment. Place your hands behind your head. Lie on your back with your hands at your side.Scissors 1. Don't try to hold your self up by pulling on your head and neck with the elbows and hands(a common temptation) 6. Draw the abs in and raise both legs up to the ceiling. to maintain the lift of the chest. 4. pull your abdominals down to the floor. 5. 5. and then swop legs as you breathe out.Lie on your back and extend your legs straight up toward the ceiling 2. lengthen your legs out of your hips as you lower them. Do not let your back pop up off the mat. Keeping abdominals pulled in and the back pressed to mat. Repeat .

Reverse Crunches 1. 3.Lie on the floor and place hands on the floor or behind the head. Bring the knees in towards the chest until they're bent to 90 degrees with feet together or crossed. 2. Contract the abs to curl the hips off the floor.Variation : Cross the legs in a side to side motion(garden shears) Core . . reaching the legs up towards the ceiling.


you don't get as many injuries and can enjoy running more. If you want to get faster. and maintaining efficient form mile after mile. you'd be hard-pressed to find elite runners paying attention to their abs." says Greg McMillan. They've learned how essential it is for runners to engage these muscles to finish fast. Even in the off-season. "When your core is strong. you need to train your core like a runner. The stronger and more stable these muscles are. FriedmanFrom the February 2009 issue of Runner's World A generation ago. obliques.By Alyssa ShafferImage by Sarah A. and hang tough on long runs. who has worked with scores of elite and recreational runners. everything else will follow. sprinting to the finish." HERE'S HOW YOUR CORE WORKS FOR YOU ON THE ROAD Speed As you extend your stride or quicken the rate of your leg and foot turnover when you're trying to pick up your pace. Today. "Our coaches drill the importance of core conditioning into our heads. she's working her core three times a week so that when she races." says Jones. the muscles in your abdominals." That's because scientists and coaches now know that you can't run your best without a strong core. "When all the muscles involved in running are supported. a running coach in Flagstaff. Quality core work isn't easy." says Phil Wharton. no matter what level of running you're doing. Experts have mapped out precisely how the movements of running draw on the strength and stability of the glutes. she'll have the stamina to retain her status as America's top hurdler. Just ask Lolo Jones. They provide the stability." says world champion hurdler Lolo Jones. But it doesn't require more than 15 minutes a few times a week-an investment that will pay dividends on the road. and glutes. power. a musculoskeletal therapist and co-owner of Wharton Performance Group in New York and the Wharton Health Experience in Flagstaff. and ab muscles that lie deep beneath the six-pack. it's practically mandatory. Arizona. the more force andspeed you can generate as you push off the ground. and the muscles in the hips and trunk work together. lower back. "When my core strength is at its peak. fitter. "We're at it all the time. which connects to the leg muscles needed to get . they've tailored workouts to help them do that. and stronger.Fast Abs Forget crunches. the lower abs-including the transversus and rectus abdominis-and lower back are called into action. "I can run more efficiently and maintain that extra edge. reduce pain." The key is to train your core like a specialist. Uphills The glutes and lower abs support the pelvis. Best of all. All runners-from those rehabbing injuries to elites gunning for PRs-can benefit from this detailed approach. and endurance that runners need for powering up hills. "It's the foundation for all of your movement.

even through fatigue. which can put excess weight and strain on the joints in your legs and feet. With strong lower abs and lower-back muscles. without the core strength to control your movement. If your core is weak. If the core is strong. your quads and knee joints bear the extra pounding of your body weight. and even injury. Lateral Movement Whenever you have to suddenly move to the side-to turn the corner on a track. quality core work doesn't require a lot of time or equipment-just a few key moves done correctly and consistently. Try doing two sets of these moves right before or after your run. dodge a pothole. you need strong gluteal muscles to help absorb the impact and counter the momentum of the forward motion. As you push off the ground. you may end up shuffling. knees. As fun as it may be to zoom down. If your core is weak. who has worked with many recreational runners and world-class athletes. it's easier to stay upright. The workout is devised to strengthen the specific muscles runners need for bounding up hills. Downhills When you're flying down a slope. the hip-flexor muscles. a running coach and exercise scientist in Flagstaff. When you swing your leg forward. then you may end up leaning into the movement. the glutes and hamstrings are engaged. such as the erector spinae.uphill. the legs will have a stable plane to push from. pull on the pelvis. such as the rectus femoris. and putting too much stress on your hips. . for a more powerful ascent. three times a week. slouching. sprinting to the finish. and preventing common running injuries. Arizona. pain. and shins. a solid core helps you maintain proper form and run efficiently. Endurance As you're nearing the end of a race. or navigate undulating terrain-the obliques provide stability and help keep you upright. which can lead to fatigue. enduring long distances. BEYOND CRUNCHES The 15-minute workout designed just for runners Fortunately. This workout is designed by Greg McMillan.

Lower to the floor and repeat 10 to 12 times. with your arms and legs extended out front. and right leg about five inches off the floor. with your knees bent 90 degrees. Raise your head. Hold for five to 10 seconds. bringing your knees as close to the floor as possible without touching. then move your knees to the right side. your feet lifted. Metronome What It Hits: obliques Lie faceup on the floor with your knees bent and raised over your hips. with your ankles parallel to the ground. Bridge What It Hits: glutes and hamstrings Lie faceup on the floor. then lower. . your left arm. start the movement from your core and continue to move slowly from side to side. Make It Harder: Lift both arms and legs at the same time. your feet on the floor. Lift your hips and back off the floor until your body forms a straight line from your shoulders to your knees. Return to the center. Keep It Honest: Don't raise your shoulders too much. and your arms extended outward. Rotate your legs to the left side. Keep It Honest: Squeeze your glutes at the top of the movement.Superman What It Hits: transversus abdominis (deep abs) and erector spinae (lower back) Start facedown on the floor. Make It Harder: Straighten one leg once your hips are lifted. and don't let your spine sag. Hold for three counts. Do 10 to 12 reps on each side. Repeat with your right arm and left leg. Keep It Honest: Make sure not to swing your hips or use momentum. Do up to 10 reps on each side.

Switch sides and repeat. Make It Harder: Support your upper body with your right hand. propped up on your forearms. Hold this position for 10 to 30 seconds. instead of your forearm.Make It Harder: Keep your legs straight. Hold for 10 seconds. a running coach based in Flagstaff. For most runners. Lower and repeat with your left leg. supporting your upper body on your right forearm. Side Plank What It Hits: obliques. standard crunches aren't helpful because they don't work the deep core muscles that provide stability to run mile after mile. Lift your hips and. . and hips in a straight line from head to heels. Arizona. with your left arm at your left side. with knees and feet together. keeping the rest of the body still. keeping your body weight supported on the forearm and the side of the right foot. Keep It Honest: Pull in your belly and don't let your hips sag. hold it for 15 to 20 seconds. Each time you lift your leg. and see the payoff on the run The Mistake: You're doing the wrong exercises "The biggest mistake that runners tend to make is to take strength-training moves like crunches straight from the fitness industry. lower back. don't let them sag. and glutes Lie on your right side. With your elbows under your shoulders. extend your left arm above your shoulder." says Greg McMillan. Plank Lift What It Hits: transversus abdominis and lower back Begin facedown on the floor. lift your torso. hips. Keep It Honest: Keep your hips up. Raise your right leg a few inches. Make It Harder: Extend the time of the exercise. legs. transversus abdominis. ALL THE RIGHT MOVES Make a few quick fixes.

" Here are three areas that can become injured as a result of a weak core. the deep core muscles that wrap around the trunk like a corset. a USA Triathlon coach in New York City.The Fix: Do workouts that hit the muscles and movements that runners need. At the gym. Even in exercises that involve repetitions. coauthor of Running Well. The Mistake: You're a creature of habit Even if you've moved beyond crunches. HARD CORE. "But when you're running. The Fix: Slow it down. you're using momentum. and the transverse abs. and make sure you're doing them properly. you may have slipped into a routine." says well-known musculoskeletal therapist Phil Wharton." says running coach Sam Murphy. If it's not strong. and exercise physiologist. says Paul Frediani. Try balancing on one leg or changing your arm position. McMillan says. And as a rule. which require holding one position for 10 to 60 seconds. The Fix: Mix it up. specializing in running mechanics at the Boulder Center for Sports Medicine in Colorado. those muscles in the lower back and along the spine are crucial for providing stability and support." says Tim Hilden. change your routine around every six weeks or so. Moves like the bridge and superman. Fine-tune your workout to make it more difficult. "It takes intention. "your running mechanics can decay. These muscles stabilize the core. Exercises like the plank. help counter rotation. build muscles that support and protect the spine. "You need to constantly challenge your muscles to get results. "You'll see too much unwanted movement. The Mistake: You whip through your workouts If you're flying through moves. especially for a long time. and minimize wasteful movement so that you run more efficiently. athletic trainer. Try exercises like the side plank or plank lift that strengthen the obliques. HEALTHY RUNNER Prehab your problem areas to run injury-free Your core is like a power plant. Lower Back . force you to work your muscles continuously. a physical therapist. located on the sides of the trunk. use devices like stability balls or balance discs. not rapid-fire. movements. "Don't rush through them. not muscles. unstable platforms that force your core muscles to work harder to keep you steady. make steady." The Fix: Include at least one exercise that hits the lower back and glutes in each workout. which decreases performance or sets you up for injury." The Mistake: You ignore what you don't see Runners often have weak backs because they just forget about them.

To strengthen them. which help steady the core. and you risk putting excess force on your joints each time your foot lands. and squats. and iliotibial-band tendinitis. your vertebrae absorb much of the force. you can't control the movement of your torso as well. The plank and side plank strengthen the transversus abdominis. which will produce lower-back pain. patellar tendinitis (a sharp pain in the bottom of the knee). . The added work can leave them shorter. as well as your glutes. your hamstrings often have to work extra hard. Build those muscles with moves like the superman. This can lead to pain under the knee (known as "runner's knee"). tighter. track coach for Villanova University. lunges.As your legs pound the pavement. Hamstrings When your core isn't stable. says Marcus O' Sullivan. and more vulnerable to injury. That shock worsens if your core is weak. try exercises like bridges. Knees Without a stable core.

the fourth reach is held for at least two seconds while the distance is recorded. Both knees are held flat against the floor by the tester. Feet (shoes off) are placed with the soles flat against the box. and held between the feet) Description / procedure: This test involves sitting on the floor with legs out straight ahead. Trunk Rotation Test . With hands on top of each other and palms facing down. Equipment required: Sit and reach box (or alternatively a ruler can be used. Make sure there is no jerky movements and that the fingertips remain level and the legs flat. the subject reaches forward along the measuring line as far as possible.FLEXIBILITY The Tests Sit and Reach Test Purpose: This test measures the flexibility of the lower back and hamstring muscles. Scoring: The score is recorded to the nearest centimeter as the distance reached by the hand. shoulder-width apart. After three practice reaches.

Shoulder flexibility test .Purpose: The purpose of this flexibility test is to measure trunk and shoulder flexibility. Scoring: The score is used to determine whether there are any problems with the child structurally. trunk rotation mat. Repeat for the left side with your feet in the same position. Grasp the pole at the top with the bottom of the pole facing towards the mat. The score is the angle in degrees to which the pole finishes pointing. hips and knees as long as your feet don't move. Twist your trunk to your right and the pole should follow along the markings along the floor. which is important for injury prevention and in particular is important in swimming.2m in length. It is also a valuable aid in determining any possible muscle imbalances and future back problems. racquet sports and throwing sports. Rotation results should show similar results on both sides. Equipment required: A pole about 1. Description / procedure: Stand with feet shoulder width apart with the feet pointing towards the 0 mark. You are allowed to turn your shoulders.

Purpose: To test the flexibility of the shoulder joint. Measure the distance between the deltoids. Subtract the distance between the deltoids from the distance between the hands to get a score. moving hands closer together each time until the movement cannot be completed. . ruler or tape measure. Lift the stick over the head to behind the back. Equipment required: stick or towel. Description / procedure: Start by holding a towel or a stick in front of the body with both hands wide apart and palms facing downwards. which is important for injury prevention and in particular is important in swimming. No norms are currently available for this test. Back Bend Test Purpose : To test the flexibility and strength of the back in a hyper-extended position. raquet sports and throwing sports. maintaining the hand grip on the object. Repeat the test. Scoring: measure the minimum distance between hands. A child that has grown may also show varying results. Note: Arm length must be factored in when comparing children with each other.

very intense Ballistic Stretching (not recommended) Ballistic stretching uses the momentum of a moving body or a limb in an attempt to force it beyond its normal range of motion. by bouncing into (or out of) a stretched position. It may instead cause them to tighten up by repeatedly activating the stretch reflex .Description/procedure : Lie flat on the stomach with the hands help together behind the back. Instead we have included some information on the different types of stretching to help you understand which technique would be the best for you. It is best to consult a professional in this regard. Scoring : Measure the height from the floor to the lower part of the sternum. Equipment required : Floor mat. The different types of stretching are: 1. dynamic stretching – excellent for cold muscles and as a warm up for sport 3. ruler or tape measure. passive (or relaxed) stretching – excellent post workout and for injuries 5. using the stretched muscles as a spring which pulls you out of the stretched position. one must first understand where the issues lie with one’s body. the stretched position. ballistic stretching – not recommended but read this section 2. The feet must be kept on the floor throughout the test. and relax in. or "warming up". isometric stretching – partner assisted stretching. It does not allow your muscles to adjust to. How to improve flexibility There are so many stretches that one can and we all know how to do a few basic stretches. This is stretching.) This type of stretching is not considered useful and can lead to injury. bouncing down repeatedly to touch your toes. active stretching – ideal for improving muscular imbalances 4. In order to select a stretching technique. (e. Lift the upper body up of the floor trying to get the head and chest raised as high as possible.g.

Slow. Continuing to exercise when you are tired serves only to reset the nervous control of your muscle length at the reduced range of motion used in the exercise (and will cause a loss of flexibility). .ideal for improving muscular imbalances Active stretching is also referred to as static-active stretching. The splits is an example of a passive stretch (in this case the floor is the "apparatus" that you use to maintain your extended position). Many of the movements (or stretches) found in various forms of yoga are active stretches. Active stretches are usually quite difficult to hold and maintain for more than 10 seconds and rarely need to be held any longer than 15 seconds. or with the assistance of a partner or some other apparatus. Active stretching increases active flexibility and strengthens the agonistic muscles. relaxed stretching is useful in relieving spasms in muscles that are healing after an injury. arm swings. For example. bringing your leg up high and then holding it there without anything (other than your leg muscles themselves) to keep the leg in that extended position. An example of dynamic stretching would be slow. Once you attain a maximal range of motion for a joint in any direction you should stop doing that movement during that workout. An active stretch is one where you assume a position and then hold it there with no assistance other than using the strength of your agonist muscles For example. which you will then have to overcome before you can make further progress." Do not confuse dynamic stretching with ballistic stretching! Dynamic stretching consists of controlled leg and arm swings that take you (gently!) to the limits of your range of motion. or both. Tired muscles have less elasticity which decreases the range of motion used in your movements. Dynamic stretching improves dynamic flexibility and is quite useful as part of your warm-up for an active or aerobic workout (such as a arm swings before playing cricket or leg swings before a rugby match) Dynamic stretching exercises should be performed in sets of 8-12 repetitions. controlled leg swings. The tension of the agonists in an active stretch helps to relax the muscles being stretched (the antagonists) by reciprocal inhibition. Active Stretching . Be sure to stop when and if you feel tired. Tired and overworked muscles won't attain a full range of motion and the muscle's kinesthetic memory will remember the repeated shorted range of motion. Passive Stretching .Best after a workout and for injuries Passive stretching is also referred to as relaxed stretching. and as static-passive stretching. there are no bounces or "jerky" movements.Dynamic Stretching . speed of movement.excellent for cold muscles and as a warm up for sport Dynamic stretching. bringing your leg up high and then holding it there with your hand. A passive stretch is one where you assume a position and hold it with some other part of your body. "involves moving parts of your body and gradually increasing reach. In dynamic stretches. Ballistic stretches involve trying to force a part of the body beyond its range of motion. or torso twists.

3. The proper way to perform an isometric stretch is as follows: 1. relax the muscle for at least 20 seconds. and seems to decrease the amount of pain usually associated with stretching. no more than once every 36 hours). or to use an apparatus such as a wall (or the floor) to provide resistance. An example of using a partner to provide resistance would be having a partner hold your leg up high (and keep it there) while you attempt to force your leg back down to the ground. Isometric stretches also help to develop strength in the "tensed" muscles (which helps to develop static-active flexibility). Isometric Stretching .Relaxed stretching is also very good for "cooling down" after a workout and helps reduce post-workout muscle fatigue. An example of using the wall to provide resistance would be the well known "push-the-wall" calf-stretch where you are actively attempting to move the wall (even though you know you can't).partner assisted stretching. We strongly recommend preceding any isometric stretch of a muscle with dynamic strength training for the muscle to be stretched. 2. The most common ways to provide the needed resistance for an isometric stretch are to apply resistance manually to one's own limbs. and soreness. The use of isometric stretching is one of the fastest ways to develop increased static-passive flexibility and is much more effective than either passive stretching or active stretching alone. A full session of isometric stretching makes a lot of demands on the muscles being stretched and should not be performed more than once per day for a given group of muscles (ideally. Assume the position of a passive stretch for the desired muscle. An example of manual resistance would be holding onto the ball of your foot to keep it from flexing while you are using the muscles of your calf to try and straighten your instep so that the toes are pointed. like the floor or a partner). Next. . to have a partner apply the resistance. tense the stretched muscle for 7-15 seconds (resisting against some force that will not move. Finally. very intense Isometric stretching is a type of static stretching (meaning it does not use motion) which involves the resistance of muscle groups through isometric contractions (tensing) of the stretched muscles.

3. 1. Breathe naturally. Step forward with your left foot. then with your right foot. This is mainly due to the fact that the legs are the bodies biggest muscle group and therefore require the most energy to function. 4. Keep walking like this until you can't go any further. Get into a squatting position with your hands at your sides. Below are some excellent resistance exercises to train your legs. cardiovascular health and digestion/elimination. Single-leg glute Bridge .LEGS & FITNESS Legs & Fitness Legs and fitness will always go hand in hand. circulation. 2. Fitness is always improved when you train the legs. Duck Walk The Duck Walk uses different muscles and helps with balance. The leg are also the furthest away from the heart which makes it harder for the heart to pump blood and oxygen to them.

Lift butt off floor by pushing off right foot and lifting hips toward ceiling. 1.Single leg glute bridge strengthen the core muscles of the hips. glutes and lower back. 1. Single leg squats(Pistol Squat) The pistol squat forms part of the testing. 3. Assume start position as shown by bending right leg and lifting left leg up toward ceiling. as well as providing some lateral stability. Return to start position and repeat on other leg. Squat down to the position pictured above. just high enough so that it doesn't hit the ground) 2. 3. Like a squat you will need to lean your torso forward onto the knee and the back of the bum should touch the back of the leg. Repeat until failure. Make sure that you do an equal amount on both legs. Therefore it should be included as often as possible. Start the pistol standing on one leg with your other leg up straight and high as you can(You don't have to lift it to hip level. It is probably the best leg exercise as it works all the areas of the leg including the hips and core muscles. Press back up with just that single leg to your starting position 4. . 2. Extending the arms forward helps to keep weight balanced.

2. Try to take the back knee all the way to the ground 3. Push through the heel and return to the starting position See-saws See-saws work the hamstrings. Start with the hands above the shoulders and the shoulders squeezing back down the back. 2. Balance on one leg(soft knee) with the other leg slightly forward. thighs and the core muscles. Stop when you can’t go down any further without compromising the posture. It is an excellent exercise to improve focus and concentration. 1. Bend the front leg as you extend the arms forward to keep balance. Similar set up to the pistol.Flying lunges The flying lunge is very similar to the pistol squat but has more of a focus on the glutes. 1. As you breathe out keep the body in a straight line and push the chest toward the ground as you push the back leg back as straight as you can. glutes. Ideally the body should be parallel to the ground forming a t-shape . 3. except that the leg off the ground is bent at a 90° angle.

Exhale and bend your knees. Take your tailbone down toward the floor and in toward your pubis to keep the lower back long. Either keep the arms parallel. 3. 1. Breathe in. and as you breathe out. squeeze the bum and pull the body back up to its starting position. palms facing inward. hold it and then straighten the other leg. Keep the inner thighs parallel to each other and press the heads of the thigh bones down toward the heels. or join the palms. The knees will project out over the feet. It might resemble Russian dancing Lunges with twists/side bends . keep your arms at your side Variation : To make it Chair Pose Chair pose is an excellent way to develop stabilisers in the knees. Variation – The aeroplane lunge : Once you are in the position above. 4.. Stay for 30 seconds to a minute. To come out of this pose straighten your knees with an inhalation. Firm your shoulder blades against the back. and the torso will lean slightly forward over the thighs until the front torso forms approximately a right angle with the tops of the thighs. Inhale and raise your arms perpendicular to the floor. 2. upper back and core. lifting strongly through the arms. bend the knee as much as possible in an attempt to lower the body in a straight line towards the ground slightly easier.4. Variation: Once you are in the posture try straightening a leg (similar to a pistol squat). Exhale and release your arms to your sides. trying to take the thighs as nearly parallel to the floor as possible.

Then. From your torso. races and other games. They can be used in relays. 3. push up from the floor. 2. Slowly return your arms to center and step back from the lunge to an upright position. 4. 2. 3.The lunge with twist/side bends. You can turn this into a walking lunge. twist your upper body to the left. 6. Repeat the movement to the other side. In an explosive movement. Burpees . Squat all the way down to the floor with hands in front of you. Step forward with your left foot into a lunge position. 1. Land with bent knees to protect the joints and go back into your squat to prepare for the next jump. don't twist at the knee. (Think of pointing to the left from your belly button). Be sure to keep your left knee over your left foot. jump up in the air and tap your heels. 1. Hold a medicine ball (optional) in front of you with elbows bent about 90°. work the legs and the core. Froggy Jumps Froggy jumps are an excellent way to improve leg power and the cardiovascular system. 7. 5. They improve balance and concentration. reach across your left side with your arms out-stretched. You may want to begin this exercise with no weight and build up your strength over time. Maintain a slow and controlled movement throughout the exercise.

It also is an excellent anaerobic workout. Repeat. moving as fast as possible. 1. Leap up as high as possible from the squat position 4. You should maintain a fast pace for this exercise. Strive for maximum height with each jump .Burpees are an excellent way to improve explosive leg. core and arm strength. Immediately return your feet to the squat position. Kick your feet back to a pushup position 3. Begin in a squat position with hands on the floor in front of you.4. 2.

Record the total number of push ups completed in a set time period Modifications: Girls are allowed to do girls push ups. the subject lowers the body until there is a 90-degree angle at the elbows. with the upper arms parallel to the floor. The position is identical except for the knees which are on the ground. Equipment required: Floor mat Description / procedure: Start in a push up position . A partner holds their hand at the point of the 90degree angle so that the subject being tested goes down only until their shoulder touches the partner's hand. Scoring: Record the number of correctly completed push-ups that were performed in rhythm. the body and legs are in a straight line.with the hands and toes touching the floor. The bum is kept up in the air as the chest is lowered down. then back up. feet slightly apart. the arms at shoulder width apart. extended and at a right angles to the body. Keeping the back and knees straight.UPPER BODY Push-Up Test Purpose : This test measures upper body strength and mental endurance. .

1. against a wall or even supported by another child. Something with handles is recommended(Mr Price has the ideal bands). Exercises to improve upper body strength You will need some form of elastic band to do the rowing exercises. They can be done with the feet on a bench. If you are going to use two children make sure that the children are matched with someone of even size and strength. ..Comments: The subjects should be instructed to spend as little time in the starting position beforehand in order to reduce fatigue and increase the number of repetitions. core. Pair up with your child or get two children. 2. Your child might not be able to do all the exercises initially but persist. They also improve balance.. upper chest and arm strength. One child stands in front of the other prepared to catch the legs of the other child as they kick their legs up. Handstand pushups Handstands are the best exercise for improving shoulder strength. and it won't be long before the surprise you with their improvements.

lower the chest and head towards the floor. Place your forearms on the floor. despiteyour attempts to extend your spine. The Wheelbarrow . Tuck your toes under. When the head is just above the ground. 3. kicks their legs up to the waiting hands of their partner. lift your hips up and straighten your legs. It is good to use with children who can’t do the handstand. Don’t round your back. Bring your hands together and clasp your fingers. Drill your forearms into the floor. breathe in and as you breathe out push yourself back up to the starting position. 1. 4. Get down onto all fours. 2. Look at your elbows and make sure they’re directly under your shoulders. Dolphins The dolphin is preparation for the handstand and builds shoulder strength. 4. The other child rests their hands on the floor and with straight arms. stop. While grounding your forearms down. Keeping strong in the forearms and lifted in your hips. Once the legs are steadied. the child flexes their arms and tries to take their heads down to the ground and back up again.3.

3. Your feet can be close together or a bit wider depending upon what is most comfortable for you. The wheelbarrow must straighten the arms completely and keep the body stiff. The child standing must reach for the mid-calf and grip each leg firmly 2.The wheelbarrow has the same basic set up as the partner assisted hanstand push up. 3. or stairs. Keep a tight core throughout the entire push up. Push ups and variations The Basic Push Up 1. Keep your body in a straight line from head to toe without sagging in the middle or arching your back. contract your abs and tighten your core by pulling your belly button toward your spine. Lift the legs and the body until the child's body is slightly sloped.(Plank Position) 4. 2. You can make the wheel barrow more difficult by pushing the child along a beam or up a hill. 6. Raise up onto your toes so you are balanced on your hands and toes. 4. 1. . 5. Before you begin any movement. Care must be taken that the wheelbarrow is able to handle the pace. The pusher now sets the pace by pushing the wheelbarrow. Get on the floor and position your hands slightly wider than your shoulders.

6. with the index fingers and thumbs of one hand touching the other hand and making a diamond shape. Be sure to keep the knees. 5.7. Bent over row . performed with the feet raised up on a step or bench or even held by a partner. but this is incorrect technique. Repeat for as many repetitions as your workout routine requires. You can adjust the box height to increase or decrease the resistance using just your body weight. you can start by doing push ups against a wall. Bent Knee Push Ups This is a modified version of the standard push up performed on the knees rather than on the toes. 4. and by modifying the position of the body in relation to the hands you can target specific muscle groups. hips and shoulders all in a straight line. a table or a sturdy chair. 3. Inhale as you slowly bend your elbows and lower yourself until your elbows are at a 90 degree angle. Medicine Ball Push Up Perform a standard push up with one hand one top of a medicine ball. Clapping Push Up This is a plyometric exercise in which you push yourself up with enough power so that your hands come off the floor and you clap in midair. most people have a tendency to bend at the hips as though you are bowing. Decline Push Ups This is a more difficult push up. Don't lock out the elbows. You then do push ups with your hands touching the center of your chest and elbows close to your sides during each rep. 1. 2. Keep you core tight the whole time. Incline (Table Top) Push Ups If a standard push up is too difficult. 10. keep them slightly bent. You can get injured very easily if you haven't worked up to these one at a time. This works the shoulder in a slightly different range of motion which increases shoulder stability. Exhale as you begin pushing back up to the start position 9. Stand several feet away from the object you are using and use the same push up technique as above to lower yourself until the elbows are 90° and then raise back up. This exercise is not for novice exercisers. 8. Diamond Push Up The diamond push up is done with your hands close together. Push Up Variations Push ups strengthen every part of the upper body.

Upright row . The correct posture is crucial. Make sure to sit up as straight as possible. Bend at elbows and pull band toward body. 2. 3.The bent over row strengthens the back and all postural muscles. Center tube under feet and bend forward at the waist. 2. squeezing the back. Assume start position as shown by sitting on floor and wrapping tube around feet. Return to starting position and repeat. Grab tube close to the feet and bend the elbows to pull the arms up to the torso. 1. Squeeze shoulder blades. Slowly lower to the starting position and repeat. 3. back flat and abs in. Seated row The seated row strengthens the muscles of the upper and middle back as well as involving the core muscles. 1.

and arms fairly close to the body. keeping elbows straight out. Inhale and pull hands up towards the neck. Hold for 2 seconds and return to start position for one rep. Start with feet shoulder width a part on band. Both hands should be grasping band together in front of the waistline. keeping the abs in and the knees behind the toes. Exhale and extend arms further up so that elbows reach just above the head. and shoulders. 2. 3. 3. 4. 1.The upright row strengthen the muscles of the shoulders. Repeat until failure . Push into the heels to stand up while pushing the band overhead. 1. 2. Squat as low as you can. At the same time push the hands up straightening the arms.It also improves rhythm and coordination. Squats into overhead press The squat with overhead press strengthen the legs. Begin with feet about hip-distance apart and hold the band just over the shoulders.