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Concept of Leadership Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal.

Though there is no universal definition of leadership and indeed many books have been devoted to the topic of leadership, Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. James Mac Gregor Burns describes a leader as one who instills purposes, not one who controls by brute force. A leader strengthens and inspires the followers to accomplish shared goals. So leadership requires an intuitive understanding of human nature- the basic needs, wants, and abilities of people. It helps leaders direct them on the right track. So leadership should be based on the following concepts: 1) People, paradoxically, need security and independence at the same time. 2) People are sensitive to external rewards and punishments and yet are also strongly self-motivated. 3) People like to hear a kind word of praise. Catch people doing something right. 4) People can process only a few facts at a time, thus, a leader needs to keep things simple. 5) People trust their gut reaction more than statistical data. 6) They distrust the leader’s rhetoric if the words are inconsistent with the leader’s actions.

Characteristics of Quality Leaders There are 12 behaviors or characteristics that successful quality leaders demonstrate: 1) They give priority attention to external and internal customers and their needs. Leaders place themselves into the customers’ shoes and service their needs from that perspective. They continually evaluate the customers’ changing requirements. 2) They empower, rather than control, their subordinates. Leaders have trust and confidence in the performance of their subordinates. They provide the resources, training and work environment to help subordinates do their jobs. However, the decision to accept responsibility lies with the individual. 3) They emphasize improvement rather than maintenance. Leaders use the phrase “If it isn’t perfect, improves it” rather than “If it isn’t broken, don’t fix it.” There is always room for improvement, even if the improvement is small. Major breakthroughs happen but it’s the little ones that keep the continuous process improvement on a positive track. 4) They emphasize prevention; “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” is certainly true. It is also true that perfection can be the enemy of creativity. We can’t

5) They encourage collaboration rather than competition.the essence of character growth. Stephen R. In order for something to become a habit one must have all the three. When a problem exists. Leaders know that people like to hear that their contributions are appreciated and important. At the senior level. 5 and 6 deal with interdependence. The Seven Habits of highly effective people: Habit is an intersection of knowledge.teamwork. They encourage. Leaders know that quality begins with quality materials and the true measure is the life cycle cost. As coaches. that is. Habit 4. Instead. They let the quality statements be their decision making guide. departments or work groups are in competition. This action is one of the leader’s most powerful tools. and at the first-line level. 11) They establish organizational systems to support the quality effort.ideas will be generated by people when leaders encourage them and act upon them.a highly integrated approach that moves from dependency (you take care of me) to independence (I take care of myself) to interdependence (we can so something better together). 12) They encourage and reorganize team effort. 9) They continually demonstrate their commitment to quality. 10) They choose the suppliers on the basis of quality. cooperation. Communication is two way. there must be collaboration among and within units. work groups and project teams are organized to improve the process. Covey introduced “The Seven Habits”. they just do what they have committed to do. rather than their words. They make sure that TQM is not just a slogan. 6) They train and coach rather than direct and supervise. not price. There must be a balance between preventing problems and developing better but not the perfect one. . a quality council is provided. they help their subordinates learn to do a better job. skill is the how to do. 8) They continually try to improve communications. Leaders know that the development of the human resource is a necessity. these habits are necessary for leaders to be effective. and communication. they may find subtle ways of working against each other or withholding information. When functional areas. provide recognition and reward individuals and teams. 7) They learn from problems. and desire is the motivation or want to do.their actions. Knowledge is what to do and the why.always wait until we have created the perfect product. That’s why. Habit 7 is the habit of renewal. The first three habits deal with independence. Leaders continually disseminate information about the TQM effort. “What caused it?” and “How can we prevent it in future?” are the questions quality leaders ask. They walk their talk. skill and desire. Suppliers are encouraged to participate on project teams and become involved. it is treated as an opportunity rather than something to be minimized or covered up.

Reactive people let circumstances tell them how to respond. To build a house we first create a blueprint and then construct the actual house. If we want to have a successful organization. leader should develop a personal philosophy like:     Never compromise with honesty Maintain a positive attitude Exercise daily Do not fear mistakes Read a leadership book daily By centering our lives on correct principles. we create a solid foundation for a the development of the life supporting factors of security. Principles are the fundamental truths. rather than reactive behavior. Comparisons are given in the table below: Reactive There is nothing I can do I have to do that I must Things are getting worse Proactive Let’s look at our alternatives I will choose I prefer What initiative can we use? Habit 2: Begin with the end in mind The most fundamental application of this habit is to begin each day with an image. The language we use is a real indicator of our behavior. On the other hand. proactive people let carefully thought-about. All things are created twice. picture or paradigm of the end of life as the leader’s frame of reference.Habit 1: Be Proactive Being proactive means taking responsibility for your life. No one can make you miserable unless you choose to let them. It’s not what not what happens to us but our response that differentiates the two behaviors. They are tightly interwoven threads running with exactness. we begin with a plan that will produce the appropriate end. Proactive behavior is a product of conscious choice based of values. Leadership is doing the right thing and management is doing things right.there’s a mental or first creation and a physical or second creation all things. consistency and strength through the fabric of life. . In order to begin with the end in mind. selected and internalized values tell them how to respond.the ability to choose the response to a situation. which is based on feelings. thus leadership is the first creation and management is the second. wisdom and power. guidance.

The Time Management Matrix is diagrammed below: Urgent Crises. Four activities are necessary to be effective: Writing down the key roles for the week Listing the objectives for each role. reports Some meetings. Schedule to complete the objectives Adapt the weekly schedule to the daily activities Habit 4: Think Win-Win Win-win is a frame of mind that constantly seeks mutual benefits in all human interactions. recreation Trivia. pressing matters Some mail. If the Win-win is not possible. pressing problems Deadline driven projects Not Urgent Prevention. fire-fighting. calls.character. a four-step process is needed: See the problems from the other viewpoint Identify the key issues and concerns Determine the acceptable results and Seek possible new options to those results . Here both sides come out ahead to find a better way. and values. II. PC Relationship building Recognizing new opportunities Planning. the alternative is no deal. In order to obtain Win-win. busy work Time wasters Pleasant activities important I. Urgent means it requires immediate attention. agreements. goals.Habit 3: Put First Things First Habit 3 is practicing self-management and requires Habit 1 & 2 as prerequisites. proximate Popular activities Figure: Time Management Matrix Here we see four quadrants. thereby reducing the time spent in quadrant (1). moment to moment. management of time. IV. Interruptions. iv. ii. Not important i. However. III. iii. These objectives should be tied to the personal goals or philosophy developed in Habit 2. Win-win embraces five interdependent dimensions of life. systems and processes. effective proactive people spend most of their time in the quadrant (2). It is day to day. and important has to do with results that contribute to the mission. relationships.

It involves the principles of behavior what a group or society as whole considers right. Together we can accomplish more than any one of us can accomplish alone. Mental: the mental dimension is continuing to develop one’s intellect through reading. pathos is the empathy you have with the other person’s communication. that is. right and wrong. . seminars. people reach solutions that are better than they could have achieved acting alone. and logos is the logic or reasoning part of your presentation. people will grow to fulfill their natures otherwise. And renewal comes from prayer. Covey uses three sequentially arranged Greek words. Habit 7: Sharpen the Saw (Renewal) Habit 7 is taking time to sharpen the Saw so it will cut faster. Empathic listening to others is the key to effective communication. and writings. by which anybody can try to do good and avoid doing evil. The first five habits build toward Habit 6. rest and relaxation and regular exercise Spiritual: Spiritual dimension is one’s commitment to one’s value system. ii. and spiritual reading. So Covey. Physical: Renewing the physical dimension means following good nutrition. but deeply understanding that person. emotionally as well as intellectually. they will not rise above the animal plane. pathos and logos. meditation. ethics is concerned with the thesis and study of what is good and evil. about concepts such as good and bad. justice and virtue. iv. When there is genuine understanding. Synergy occurs when people abandon their humdrum presentation and win-lose mentality and open themselves up to creative cooperation. Its renewing the four dimensions of one nature: i. right and wrong and just and unjust. Concept of ethics Ethics is a branch of philosophy which seeks to address questions about morality. It’s not necessary that we agree with someone. Social/ Emotional: The social and emotional dimensions of our lives are tied together because our emotional life is primarily developed out of and manifested in our relationship with others. The second part of the habit is to be understood.ethos.Habit 5: Seek First to Understand then to be Understood Seek first to understand involves a paradigm shift since we usually try to be understood first. Broadly. It focuses on the concept of Win-win and the skills of empathic communication on tough challenges that brings about new alternatives that did not exist before. iii. Ethos is your personal character. Habit 6: Synergy Synergy means that the whole is better than the parts. in his 7 Habits book states that exercising these habits.

including cutting corners.  Organizations and managers believe that their knowledge is infallible and miscalculate the risk.”…………………………Nuner and Kelling. Tendency toward behavior most likely comes from the interactions of the root causes of pressure. For example. regardless of the effect on others. such as when financial managers invest organizational funds in high risk options trading.  Managerial values exists that undermine integrity. employees or the public. Unethical behavior is especially prevalent if the employee morale is low.“Management ethics or business ethics business.  Organizations and individuals emphasize the short term results at the expense of themselves and others in the long run.  Organizations encourage separate standards of behavior at work than at home. .the poor working condition.  Individuals are willing to abuse their position and power to enhance their interests. Ethical programs globally are designed keeping four things in mind:  Considering yourself and organization as part of the larger social framework. such as increasing sales through false advertising. such as taking excessive compensation for themselves off the top before other stakeholders receive their fair share. are standard of carrying out their Root causes of unethical behavior Much of the unethical behavior in organizations occurs when:  Organizations fever their own interest above the wellbeing of their customers. responsible and just.behavior is good based on the degree of utility. such as the pressure managers exert on employees to cover up mistakes or to do whatever it takes to get the job done. Ethics management program Ethics management program are designed by an organization or an employer as attempt to have formalized structures for ensuring the organization is perceived as fair. honest. pleasure. opportunity and attitude. for example. employee downsizing. unacknowledged good work and denied promotions can all contribute to an employee’s poor attitude.  Organizations reward behavior that violates ethical standards. such as secrecy and deceit versus honesty. or good received.

o Costs from pressure are those costs from well –intended but unethical decisions made under pressure. Appraisal cost category :purchasing appraisal costs. waste.they include but are not limited to errors.they include but are not limited thefts. operations. Respecting the traditions/ritual (organizational diversity)/others.lost cutomer and health care. rework. and attitude. Evaluating a situation objectively and consequences thereof. Costs from opportunity are those costs from untentional wrongdoing. excessive compensation and nepotism.product development.these costs can be divided into three root causes of pressure . quality administrations.waste.lost customers and warranties. purchasing. different quality costs can be used.operations appraisal costs. o .opportunity and attitude. review of test. Steps of ethics management program: An ethics management program needs to address pressure.rework . continuous improvement and investment in appraisal. opportunity. Costs from attitudes are those costs from mistaken beliefs in unethical froms of behavior. o o In order to obtain these costs.they include but are not limited to errors.  Appraisal :which is the analysis of the costs associated with unethical behavior. operations failure costs. o o Preventive costs category :marketing user. new policies.   Considering the development of others (internal & external customer) to the extent possible. Managing ethical behavior requires commitment.overstated expenses. and procedures. mischalleneous quality evaluations.external appraisal costs. prevention and promotion. Internal failure cost category : purchasing failure costs.

o To be effective.  Instructions for managing ethics in the workplace: Instructions instill ethical values in your management team. dissent. o Attitude can be addressed by requiring ethics training for all personnel. Some instructions which can be adopted in the workplace – o o Offer entrance into a business management program. the culture should be about doing what is right and encouraging and rewarding ethical behavior.(2)encourage the facts before acting. . This step can proceed concurrently with step on 1.  External failure costs category :waranty claims.(3)encourage them to consider all the consequences before acting. requiring ethics training for all personnel. Schedule ethics management courses for your staff.penalties Prevention: This is the development of a of a system that will minimize the costs. Hire a group of professional mediators independent management trainees about business ethics. recognizing ethical conduct in the workplace etc.  Promotion: promotion refers to the continuous advertising of ethical behavior in order to develop an ethical organizational culture that is clear. o Standardized ethics training should be given to everyone to :(1)teach them how to clarify ethical issues. and decision making –input. o Pressure can be addressed that allow for individual diversity.(4)show them how to test their actions in advance o To be positive. positive and effective.liability costs. o . the philosophy must be set and adopted by senior management.o Etc. o Opportunity can be addressed that encourage and protect whistleblowers.

. o o Deming philosophy William E. do. an American statistician. Deming. professor. Create a flexible training program for business ethics management using virtual learning tools. Teach management trainees the supervisor skills needed to develop into dynamic professionals with knowledge of business ethics. Basic philosophy: A culture of continuous improvement must be established and maintained with the overall goal of achieving customer satisfaction. Figure: Demings PDCA cycle –plan. developed Deming philosophy.o Incorporate a study of state and federal business law within your management training program. author & consultant. check & act.

 Build a foundation of common knowledge. 2.  Quality relies on consistency – the less variation you have in the input. not simply managing.  Continuously improve your systems and processes. Use a single supplier for any one item. 5. and always have the goal of getting better. effectiveness.  Use kaizen as a model to reduce waste and to improve productivity. they merely find a lack of quality.  Use statistical control methods – not physical inspections alone – to prove that the process is working. . 3.  Train for consistency to help reduce variation. and safety.  Predict and prepare for future challenges. rather than react to competitive pressure – and design products and services to meet those needs.  Don't just do the same things better – find better things to do. Encourage them to spend time improving their own quality – they shouldn't compete for your business based on price alone.  Don't simply supervise – provide support and resources so that each staff member can do his or her best. Implement leadership. Deming promoted the Plan-Do-Check-Act approach to process analysis and improvement. 6. 7.  Look at suppliers as your partners in quality.  Use quality statistics to ensure that suppliers meet your quality standards. and provide a culture and environment for effective teamwork. and implement it.  Emphasize training and education so everyone can do their jobs better.  Analyze the total cost to you.The 14 points of Demings philosophy 1.  Plan for quality in the long term. Create a constant purpose toward improvement. It's about leading. not just the initial cost of the product.  Create your quality vision. Be a coach instead of a policeman."  Encourage staff to learn from one another.  Resist reacting with short-term solutions.  Put your customers' needs first.  Build quality into the process from start to finish. Adopt the new philosophy. 4. Improve constantly and forever.  Inspections are costly and unreliable – and they don't improve quality. Use training on the job. the less variation you'll have in the output.  Be prepared for a major change in the way business is done.  Expect your supervisors and managers to understand their workers and the processes they use.  Allow workers to understand their roles in the "big picture.  Don't just find what you did wrong – eliminate the "wrongs" altogether. Stop depending on inspections.  Embrace quality throughout the organization.

for example.  Find ways to reach full potential. but what does it mean? How is it achieved? The message is clearer in a slogan like "You can do better if you try. Eliminate management by objectives. and don't just focus on meeting targets and quotas.  Build the "internal customer" concept – recognize that each department or function serves other departments that use their output. there are many situations where a focus on objectives can lead people to cut corners with quality. make sure that you think through the behaviors that your objectives will motivate. not just numerical targets.  Ensure that your leaders are approachable and that they work with teams to act in the company's best interests.Figure out what each person actually needs to do his or her best. Eliminate fear. Break down barriers between departments. As Deming points out. and encourage them to look for better ways to do things.  Build a shared vision."  Don't let words and nice-sounding phrases replace effective leadership. however. You'll need to decide for yourself whether or not to use these approaches. If you do.  Allow people to perform at their best by ensuring that they're not afraid to express ideas or concerns.  Let people know exactly what you want – don't make them guess. "Excellence in service" is short and memorable.  Look at how the process is carried out. . Emphasize the importance of participative management and transformational leadership. 9. Outline your expectations.  Let everyone know that the goal is to achieve high quality by doing more things right – and that you're not interested in blaming people when mistakes happen.  Measure the process rather than the people behind the process. 11. 10.   There are situations in which approaches like Management By Objectives are appropriate.  Use open and honest communication to remove fear from the organization. 8. in motivating sales-people.  Use cross-functional teamwork to build understanding and reduce adversarial relationships. Deming said that production targets encourage high output and low quality. and then praise people face-to-face for doing good work. Get rid of unclear slogans.  Focus on collaboration and consensus instead of compromise.  Make workers feel valued.  Provide support and resources so that production levels and quality are high and achievable.

external and suppliers through visits.  Analyze each small step.  Build skills to make your workforce more adaptable to change.12. Implement education and self-improvement. and better able to find and achieve improvements. surveys  They must live and communicate TQM.  Treat workers the same. Make "transformation" everyone's job. focus groups.  Improve your overall organization by having each person take a step toward quality.  Use effective change management principles to introduce the new philosophy and ideas in Deming's 14 points. the quality system will naturally raise the level of everyone's work to an equally high level. and understand how it fits into the larger picture. Role of TQM leaders Total quality management (TQM) is a discipline used to manage a business effectively and efficiently.  All are responsible for quality improvement especially the senior management & CEO’s  Senior management must practice MBWA  Ensure that the team’s decision is in harmony with the quality statements of the organization  Senior TQM leaders must read TQM literature and attend conferences to be aware of TQM tools and methods  Senior managers must take part in award and recognition ceremonies for celebrating the quality successes of the organization  Coaching others and teaching in TQM seminars  Senior managers must liaise with internal . Total quality management is made up of several characteristics.  Encourage people to learn new skills to prepare for future changes and challenges.  Allow everyone to take pride in their work without being rated or compared. and don't make them compete with other workers for monetary or other rewards. This approach comes from Japan.  Improve the current skills of workers. Remove barriers to pride of workmanship. and it is commonly used in businesses around the world today. Over time. 13. such as customer-driven quality and leadership from top management.  Training all levels of the organization. 14. .

The quality council includes CEO and senior managers of the functional areas -research. Quality policy statements.  Determine the performance measures for the organization  Always find projects that improve the processes and produce customer satisfaction. deliberation. deficiencies. Vision. and one coordinator and a union representative.  Make a quality training programs. Mission. ISO 8402-1986 standard defines quality as "the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. a measure of excellence or a state of being free from defects. A body of people elected or appointed to serve as administrators. Council:     An assembly of persons called together for consultation. 2. or discussion. legislators. and significant variations. manufacturing.g. 5. brought about by the strict and consistent adherence to measurable and verifiable standards to achieve uniformity of output that satisfies specific customer or user requirements.  Establish work-group teams and measure their progress. An assembly of church officials and theologians convened for regulating matters of doctrine and discipline. or advisors.  To develop strategic long-term plans and annual quality improvement programs. 3. Duties of Quality Council:  To develop the Quality statements e. Core values etc. sales. a typical agenda might have the following items: 1.Quality Council Quality: In manufacturing. marketing etc. finance.  Establish and review the recognition and reward system for the TQM system Once the TQM program is well established. 4. Progress report on teams Customer satisfaction report Progress on meeting goals New project teams Recognition dinner Benchmarking report .  Monitor the costs of poor quality. 6. The discussion or deliberation that takes place in such an assembly or body.

who incorporate optical fiber into finished products. who TPD supplies with product and process technology Figure: Corning’s TPDs leadership System 1. and joint venture fiber making companies in Europe and Asia. The world's largest optical fiber manufacturer. TPD serves three distinct customer groups in more than 30 countries: cable manufacturers. . Vision Statement: The vision statement is a short declaration what an organization aspires to be tomorrow. Corning Telecommunications Products Division (TPD) was formed in 1983 to manufacture hair thin optical fibers using pulses of light to carry large amounts of information over great distances. A vision statement.Corning TPDs leadership system With technology developed and patented by its corporate parent. end users. on the other hand. who employ the cabled optical fiber to carry information. describes how the future will look if the organization achieves its mission.

It allows you to make necessary adjustments in redefining your mission and strategies in relation to your ever-changing environment. This means faithfully executing the strategy as planned by the church personnel. easy to understand. Strategy development process Establish strategy 1. allowing us to prosper as a business and to provide a reasonable return on to our shareholders. such as:     IBM’s Service Apple’s Computing for the masses Disney theme park’s the happiest place on the earth. what do we do and how do we do it. communications. inspirational.) Constantly evaluating your plan allows you to keep the plan fresh and relevant. Mission Statement: A mission statement concerns what an organization is all about. customers. Evaluation is not a one-time occurrence. you will constantly evaluate the plan. who are our customers. This statement is usually one paragraph or less in length. and suppliers. and Polaroid’s instant photography 2. The statement answers the questions such as: who we are. . and become deeply shared within the organization. and financial services. Implementing the Plan. It provides clear statement of purpose for employees. Ideally. Carry out the plan! Do the work! 2. and describes the function of the organization.Successful visions are timeless. Evaluating the Plan. Planning process: 1 Review strategic initiative and critical success factor 2 Review TPD values and establish key results indicators Strategy deployment process: It means deploying strategy effectively to achieve success. An example of mission statement is: Ford Motor Company is a worldwide leader in automatic and automotive related products and services as well as the newer industries such as aerospace. Our mission is to improve continually our products and services to meet our customers’ needs. Be certain you are staying on course and not beginning to drift away from desired outcomes. the owners of our business. (Annual coordinated planning is a basic minimum.

organization staff.. Values should be broad and inclusive to incorporate as many people and perspectives as possible. ." That vision statement could be for almost any commercial organization with shareholders. hear. They describe what we will feel. say and do as if we had reached our vision now.Business priority process: Priority-driven processes work by the focusing on the deliverables of the projects and asking the stakeholders to say which of the many things that the project could deliver are the most important.  Visions should be optimistic and inspiring: to you. regardless of race.  It is summarized with a powerful phrase. Step 1: Identify the relative importance of strategic business objectives Step 2: Identify the relative importance of specific key business processes Step 3: Calculate the relative importance of key metrics of key processes The concept of mission. think. The powerful phrase is repeated in whatever communication mediums you have to trigger memory of the longer statement. Portfolio: Bringing to the world a portfolio of beverage brands that anticipate and satisfy peoples. Take out the reference to shareholders and beverages and it can apply to a large number of non-profit organizations too. and the community you serve. That phrase forms the first paragraph of the vision statement.  Visions are often value-laden statements. not future tense. Planet: Being a responsible global citizen that makes a difference.  It is written in the present. Considerations when writing a vision statement  Visions incorporate goals for the future: but whose goals? Make sure the goals set out by your organization are shared by the community you serve. Profit: Maximizing return to shareowners while being mindful of our overall responsibilities. desires and needs. nationality. class. or sexual orientation. The vision statement is clearly a goal upon which the mission is centered.”. Partners: Nurturing a winning network of partners and building mutual loyalty. People: Being a great place to work where people are inspired to be the best they can be. and it concisely implies the work to be accomplished Take Coca-Cola's vision statement: "To achieve sustainable growth.. Again. objectives Vision statement The vision statement is appropriately future oriented: “We want. the community you serve is at the center of the statement. gender. It is not a brand strap-line. “We believe in the equality of all people. we have established a vision with clear goals. vision. goals.

The statement contains a key action verb . However.” “dedicate.which explains the relationship the organization has with its served community. However.    It describes an outcome. It is obviously and unashamedly passionate. . it separates the hard aspect of vision in what we see. 3. Make sure your mission statement is no more than one or two sentences. hear and do from the soft aspect of vision in what we think and feel. it is possible to differentiate between the two by using goals for long term planning & objectives for short term planning. therefore. and volunteers. It helps build a picture. Concrete goals are needed to provide a focus.” “grow. the values held by your staff and volunteers Avoid long statements. by omission. It does not use business speak or words like maximize or minimize. The mission also lists its primary program areas. staff. Mission statement The mission statement clearly states why Refugee Action exists and whom the organization exists for — refugees. what it does not. For example: “enable. 4. in people's minds. the history of the issue(s) that you are addressing in your community. does not provide numeric measures of success. A vision statement. Use active verbs that distinguish your organization but do not limit the scope of your programs and services.” “build. Mission statements should be developed with awareness of: the served community. & understandable using concrete results rather than behaviors or 2.” Re-examine the mission every five years to maintain relevance to the served community and its needs. Considerations when writing a mission statement: 1. the broader society. the primary activities of programs. and.” “serve. such as improve customer’s satisfaction. the same picture. specific. Goals and objectives Goals & objectives have basically the same meaning. It does not confuse vision with the business goal and objectives for a particular period of time. It evokes emotion. Goals must be based on statistical evidence. and clarity is not necessarily improved with length. Goals must be definitive.” or “engage.enable. Mission statements should not be highly specific. the best outcome we can achieve. Build vision statement with these components and we run the risk of informing. inspiring and energizing our people. It uses unequivocal language. this helps to clarify what “enable” invoices. employee satisfaction & processes.

vision. PRINCIPAL OBJECTIVES OF TQM A Total Quality oriented organization must have at least following principal objective.  Focused. A plan of action resulting from strategy or intended to accomplish a specific goal.attitude. The art or skill of using stratagems in endeavors such as politics and business . The definition is mentioned below: 1.  Customer focus. 3. where customer priorities come first in all activities.  Making the organization market and customer focused  Guiding the organization by its values. The science and art of military command as applied to the overall planning and conduct of large-scale combat operations.  Making the organization flexible and learning oriented to cope with change  Making the organization believe in – and seek – continuous improvement as a new way of life. continuous and relentless quality improvement. and to capitalize on the sense of achievement and working in a world-class organization.  Changing the organization from function focused to customer focused. first we need to understand the literal meaning of the word “strategy”. and goals set through ‘strategic planning processes. The most important characteristics of goals is that they be measurable. customer delight/satisfaction.  Continuous improvement as a culture of the organization.  Focused. The science and art of using all the forces of a nation to execute approved plans as effectively as possible during peace or war.  Creating an organization where people are at the core of every activity. 2. which must be the way of life. Organization should have many more additional specific objectives. continuous and relentless cost reduction.  To create an organization whereby everyone is working towards making their organization the best in its business. mission. and are encouraged and empowered to work in teams. Only measurable goals can be evaluated.  Promoting a transparent leadership process to lead the organization to excellence in its chosen field of business Strategic planning In order to understand the concept of strategic management.

6. Closing the Gap: The plan can now be developed to close the gap by establishing goals and responsibilities.The seven steps to strategic planning The process starts with the principles that quality and customer satisfaction are the center of an organization’s future. designing changes. 7. Who will they be? Will your customer base change? What will they want? How will they want? How will the organization meet and exceed expectations? 2. 5. 2. Discover customer needs Customer positioning Predict the future Gap analysis Closing the gap Alignment Implementation 1. 3. Implementation: This last step is frequently the most difficult. or expand the customer base? Product or services with poor quality performance should be targeted for breakthrough or eliminated. 4. and core values and concepts of the organization. It can be highly effective. 6. It brings together all the key stakeholders. and overcoming resistance to change. and technical assessments or projections are tools that help predict the future. 5. Do they want to retain. Without this alignment. The strategic planning can be performed by any organization. the planners determine where organization wants to be in relation to the customers. There are seven steps to strategic Quality Planning: 1. 7. Gap Analysis: This step requires the planner to identify the gaps between the current state and the future state of the organization. 4. The organization’s needs to concentrate its efforts on areas of excellence. All stakeholders should be included in the development of the plan. Predict the future: Next planners must look into their crystal balls to predict the future conditions that will affect their product or service. An analysis of the core values and concepts is an excellent technique for pinpointing gaps. The planning group should meet at least once a year to assess progress and take any corrective action. economics forecasts. allowing the organizations to do the right thing at the right time. reduce. Demographics. vision. Resources must be allocated to collecting data. 3. Also part of this step is the monitoring activity to ensure that progress is being made. it must be aligned with the mission. the plan will have little chance of success. Alignment: As the plan is developed. Customer Needs: The first step is to discover the future needs of the customers. . Customer Positioning: Next. every time.