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W

Preface To The First Edition
e take an opportunity to present this standard treatise entitled as ‘A

SOLUTIONS OF MATHEMATICS NCERT 11TH CLASS Although every care has been
taken to check mistakes and misprints, yet it is difficult to claim perfection.
AJAY MOHIL

.

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CHAPTER NO.-1
Exercise: 1.1

SETS

Question 1:

Which of the following are sets? Justify our answer.
(i) The collection of all months of a year beginning with the letter J.
(ii) The collection of ten most talented writers of India.
(iii) A team of eleven best-cricket batsmen of the world.
(iv) The collection of all boys in your class.
(v) The collection of all natural numbers less than 100.
(vi) A collection of novels written by the writer Munshi Prem Chand.
(vii) The collection of all even integers.
(viii) The collection of questions in this Chapter.
(ix) A collection of most dangerous animals of the world.

Discussion

(i) The collection of all months of a year beginning with the letter J is a well-defined
collection of objects because one can definitely identify a month that belongs to this
collection.
Hence, this collection is a set.
(ii) The collection of ten most talented writers of India is not a well-defined collection
because the criteria for determining a writer’s talent may vary from person to person.
Hence, this collection is not a set.

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(iii) A team of eleven best cricket batsmen of the world is not a well-defined
collection because the criteria for determining a batsman’s talent may vary from
person to person.
Hence, this collection is not a set.
(iv) The collection of all boys in your class is a well-defined collection because you
can definitely identify a boy who belongs to this collection.
Hence, this collection is a set.
(v) The collection of all natural numbers less than 100 is a well-defined collection
because one can definitely identify a number that belongs to this collection.
Hence, this collection is a set.
(vi) A collection of novels written by the writer Munshi Prem Chand is a well-defined
collection because one can definitely identify a book that belongs to this collection.
Hence, this collection is a set.
(vii) The collection of all even integers is a well-defined collection because one can
definitely identify an even integer that belongs to this collection.
Hence, this collection is a set.
(viii) The collection of questions in this chapter is a well-defined collection because
one can definitely identify a question that belongs to this chapter.
Hence, this collection is a set.
(ix) The collection of most dangerous animals of the world is not a well-defined
collection because the criteria for determining the dangerousness of an animal can
vary from person to person.
Hence, this collection is not a set.

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Question 2:

Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. Insert the appropriate symbol ∈or ∉ in the blank spaces:
(i) 5…A (ii) 8…A (iii) 0…A

(iv) 4…A (v) 2…A (vi) 10…A

Discussion

(i) 5 ∈ A

(ii) 8 ∉ A

(iii) 0 ∉ A
(iv) 4 ∈ A
(v) 2 ∈ A

(vi) 10 ∉ A

Question 4:

Write the following sets in the set-builder form:
(i) (3, 6, 9, 12) (ii) {2, 4, 8, 16, 32}
(iii) {5, 25, 125, 625} (iv) {2, 4, 6 …}
(v) {1, 4, 9 … 100}

Discussion

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(i) {3, 6, 9, 12} = {x: x = 3n, n∈ N and 1 ≤ n ≤ 4}

(ii) {2, 4, 8, 16, 32}
It can be seen that 2 = 21, 4 = 22, 8 = 23, 16 = 24, and 32 = 25.
∴ {2, 4, 8, 16, 32} = {x: x = 2n, n∈ N and 1 ≤ n ≤ 5}
(iii) {5, 25, 125, 625}

It can be seen that 5 = 51, 25 = 52, 125 = 53, and 625 = 54.
∴ {5, 25, 125, 625} = {x: x = 5n, n∈N and 1 ≤ n ≤ 4}
(iv) {2, 4, 6 …}

It is a set of all even natural numbers.

∴ {2, 4, 6 …} = {x: x is an even natural number}
(v) {1, 4, 9 … 100}

It can be seen that 1 = 12, 4 = 22, 9 = 32 …100 = 102.
∴ {1, 4, 9… 100} = {x: x = n2, n∈N and 1 ≤ n ≤ 10}

Question 5:

List all the elements of the following sets:
(i) A = {x: x is an odd natural number}

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(ii) B = {x: x is an integer,
(iii) C = {x: x is an integer,

}
}

(iv) D = {x: x is a letter in the word “LOYAL”}
(v) E = {x: x is a month of a year not having 31 days}
(vi) F = {x: x is a consonant in the English alphabet which proceeds k}.

Discussion

(i) A = {x: x is an odd natural number} = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9 …}
(ii) B = {x: x is an integer;
It can be seen that
∴B

(iii) C = {x: x is an integer;

}
and

}

It can be seen that
(–1)2 = 1 ≤ 4; (–2)2 = 4 ≤ 4; (–3)2 = 9 > 4
02 = 0 ≤ 4
12 = 1 ≤ 4
22 = 4 ≤ 4
32 = 9 > 4

∴C = {–2, –1, 0, 1, 2}

(iv) D = (x: x is a letter in the word “LOYAL”) = {L, O, Y, A}

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(v) E = {x: x is a month of a year not having 31 days}
= {February, April, June, September, November}
(vi) F = {x: x is a consonant in the English alphabet which precedes k}
= {b, c, d, f, g, h, j}

Question 6:

Match each of the set on the left in the roster form with the same set on the right
described in set-builder form:
(i) {1, 2, 3, 6}
(ii) {2, 3}

(b) {x: x is an odd natural number less than 10}

(iii) {M, A,T, H, E, I,C, S}

(c) {x: x is natural number and divisor of 6}

(iv) {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}

(a) {x: x is a prime number and a divisor of 6}

(d) {x: x is a letter of the word MATHEMATICS}

Discussion

(i) All the elements of this set are natural numbers as well as the divisors of 6.
Therefore, (i)matches with (c).
(ii) It can be seen that 2 and 3 are prime numbers. They are also the divisors of 6.
Therefore, (ii) matches with (a).
(iii) All the elements of this set are letters of the word MATHEMATICS.
Therefore, (iii)matches with (d).
(iv) All the elements of this set are odd natural numbers less than 10.
Therefore, (iv)matches with (b).

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Exercise: 1.2
Question 1:

Which of the following are examples of the null set
(i) Set of odd natural numbers divisible by 2
(ii) Set of even prime numbers
(iii) {x:x is a natural numbers, x < 5 and x > 7 }
(iv) {y:y is a point common to any two parallel lines}

Discussion

(i) A set of odd natural numbers divisible by 2 is a null set because no odd number is
divisible by 2.
(ii) A set of even prime numbers is not a null set because 2 is an even prime number.
(iii) {x: x is a natural number, x < 5 and x > 7} is a null set because a number cannot
be simultaneously less than 5 and greater than 7.
(iv) {y: y is a point common to any two parallel lines} is a null set because parallel

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lines do not intersect. Hence, they have no common point.

Question 2:

Which of the following sets are finite or infinite
(i) The set of months of a year
(ii) {1, 2, 3 ...}
(iii) {1, 2, 3 ... 99, 100}
(iv) The set of positive integers greater than 100
(v) The set of prime numbers less than 99

Discussion

(i) The set of months of a year is a finite set because it has 12 elements.
(ii) {1, 2, 3 …} is an infinite set as it has infinite number of natural numbers.
(iii) {1, 2, 3 …99, 100} is a finite set because the numbers from 1 to 100 are finite in
number.
(iv) The set of positive integers greater than 100 is an infinite set because positive
integers greater than 100 are infinite in number.
(v) The set of prime numbers less than 99 is a finite set because prime numbers less
than 99 are finite in number.

Question 3:

State whether each of the following set is finite or infinite:

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(i) The set of lines which are parallel to the x-axis
(ii) The set of letters in the English alphabet
(iii) The set of numbers which are multiple of 5
(iv) The set of animals living on the earth
(v) The set of circles passing through the origin (0, 0)

Discussion

(i) The set of lines which are parallel to the x-axis is an infinite set because lines
parallel to the x-axis are infinite in number.
(ii) The set of letters in the English alphabet is a finite set because it has 26 elements.
(iii) The set of numbers which are multiple of 5 is an infinite set because multiples of
5 are infinite in number.

(iv) The set of animals living on the earth is a finite set because the number of animals
living on the earth is finite (although it is quite a big number).
(v) The set of circles passing through the origin (0, 0) is an infinite set because infinite
number of circles can pass through the origin.

Question 4:

In the following, state whether A = B or not:
(i) A = {a, b, c, d}; B = {d, c, b, a}
(ii) A = {4, 8, 12, 16}; B = {8, 4, 16, 18}
(iii) A = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}; B = {x: x is positive even integer and x ≤ 10}

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(iv) A = {x: x is a multiple of 10}; B = {10, 15, 20, 25, 30 ...}

Discussion

(i) A = {a, b, c, d}; B = {d, c, b, a}
The order in which the elements of a set are listed is not significant.
∴A = B

(ii) A = {4, 8, 12, 16}; B = {8, 4, 16, 18}
It can be seen that 12 ∈ A but 12 ∉ B.
∴A ≠ B

(iii) A = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}
B = {x: x is a positive even integer and x ≤ 10}
= {2, 4, 6, 8, 10} ∴A = B

(iv) A = {x: x is a multiple of 10}
B = {10, 15, 20, 25, 30 …}

It can be seen that 15 ∈ B but 15 ∉ A.
∴A ≠ B

Question 5:

Are the following pair of sets equal? Give reasons.
(i) A = {2, 3}; B = {x: x is solution of x2 + 5x + 6 = 0}
(ii) A = {x: x is a letter in the word FOLLOW}; B = {y: y is a letter in the word
WOLF}

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Discussion

(i) A = {2, 3}; B = {x: x is a solution of x2 + 5x + 6 = 0}
The equation x2 + 5x + 6 = 0 can be solved as:
x(x + 3) + 2(x + 3) = 0
(x + 2)(x + 3) = 0
x = –2 or x = –3
∴A = {2, 3}; B = {–2, –3}
∴A ≠ B

(ii) A = {x: x is a letter in the word FOLLOW} = {F, O, L, W}
B = {y: y is a letter in the word WOLF} = {W, O, L, F}
The order in which the elements of a set are listed is not significant.
∴A = B

Question 6:

From the sets given below, select equal sets:
A = {2, 4, 8, 12}, B = {1, 2, 3, 4}, C = {4, 8, 12, 14}, D = {3, 1, 4, 2}
E = {–1, 1}, F = {0, a}, G = {1, –1}, H = {0, 1}

Discussion

A = {2, 4, 8, 12}; B = {1, 2, 3, 4}; C = {4, 8, 12, 14}
D = {3, 1, 4, 2}; E = {–1, 1}; F = {0, a}

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G = {1, –1}; A = {0, 1}
It can be seen that

8 ∈ A, 8 ∉ B, 8 ∉ D, 8 ∉ E, 8 ∉ F, 8 ∉ G, 8 ∉ H
⇒ A ≠ B, A ≠ D, A ≠ E, A ≠ F, A ≠ G, A ≠ H
Also, 2 ∈ A, 2 ∉ C
∴A≠C

3 ∈ B, 3 ∉ C, 3 ∉ E, 3 ∉ F, 3 ∉ G, 3 ∉ H
∴ B ≠ C, B ≠ E, B ≠ F, B ≠ G, B ≠ H

12 ∈ C, 12 ∉ D, 12 ∉ E, 12 ∉ F, 12 ∉ G, 12 ∉ H
∴ C ≠ D, C ≠ E, C ≠ F, C ≠ G, C ≠ H
4 ∈ D, 4 ∉ E, 4 ∉ F, 4 ∉ G, 4 ∉ H
∴ D ≠ E, D ≠ F, D ≠ G, D ≠ H

Similarly, E ≠ F, E ≠ G, E ≠ H ;F ≠ G, F ≠ H, G ≠ H
The order in which the elements of a set are listed is not significant.
∴ B = D and E = G;Hence, among the given sets, B = D and E = G.

Exercise: 1.3
Question 1:

Make correct statements by filling in the symbols ⊂ or ⊄ in the blank spaces:
(i) {2, 3, 4} … {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
(ii) {a, b, c} … {b, c, d}
(iii) {x: x is a student of Class XI of your school} … {x: x student of your school}
(iv) {x: x is a circle in the plane} … {x: x is a circle in the same plane with radius 1

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unit}
(v) {x: x is a triangle in a plane}…{x: x is a rectangle in the plane}
(vi) {x: x is an equilateral triangle in a plane}… {x: x is a triangle in the same plane}
(vii) {x: x is an even natural number} … {x: x is an integer}

Discussion

(i)
(ii)
(iii) {x: x is a student of class XI of your school}⊂ {x: x is student of your school}

(iv) {x: x is a circle in the plane} ⊄ {x: x is a circle in the same plane with radius 1
unit}
(v) {x: x is a triangle in a plane} ⊄ {x: x is a rectangle in the plane}

(vi) {x: x is an equilateral triangle in a plane}⊂ {x: x in a triangle in the same plane}
(vii) {x: x is an even natural number} ⊂ {x: x is an integer}

Question 2:

Examine whether the following statements are true or false:
(i) {a, b} ⊄ {b, c, a}

(ii) {a, e} ⊂ {x: x is a vowel in the English alphabet}
(iii) {1, 2, 3} ⊂{1, 3, 5}
(iv) {a} ⊂ {a. b, c}

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(v) {a} ∈ (a, b, c)

(vi) {x: x is an even natural number less than 6} ⊂ {x: x is a natural number which
divides 36}

Discussion

(i) False. Each element of {a, b} is also an element of {b, c, a}.
(ii) True. a, e are two vowels of the English alphabet.
(iii) False. 2∈{1, 2, 3}; however, 2∉{1, 3, 5}
(iv) True. Each element of {a} is also an element of {a, b, c}.
(v) False. The elements of {a, b, c} are a, b, c. Therefore, {a}⊂{a, b, c}
(vi) True. {x:x is an even natural number less than 6} = {2, 4}
{x:x is a natural number which divides 36}= {1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 36}

Question 3:

Let A= {1, 2, {3, 4,}, 5}. Which of the following statements are incorrect and why?
(i) {3, 4}⊂ A
(ii) {3, 4}}∈ A
(iii) {{3, 4}}⊂ A

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(iv) 1∈ A
(v) 1⊂ A

(vi) {1, 2, 5} ⊂ A

(vii) {1, 2, 5} ∈ A

(viii) {1, 2, 3} ⊂ A
(ix) Φ ∈ A
(x) Φ ⊂ A

(xi) {Φ} ⊂ A

Discussion

A = {1, 2, {3, 4}, 5}

(i) The statement {3, 4} ⊂ A is incorrect because 3 ∈ {3, 4}; however, 3∉A.
(ii) The statement {3, 4} ∈A is correct because {3, 4} is an element of A.

(iii) The statement {{3, 4}} ⊂ A is correct because {3, 4} ∈ {{3, 4}} and {3, 4} ∈ A.
(iv) The statement 1∈A is correct because 1 is an element of A.

(v) The statement 1⊂ A is incorrect because an element of a set can never be a subset
of itself.

(vi) The statement {1, 2, 5} ⊂ A is correct because each element of {1, 2, 5} is also an
element of A.
(vii) The statement {1, 2, 5} ∈ A is incorrect because {1, 2, 5} is not an element of A.
(viii) The statement {1, 2, 3} ⊂ A is incorrect because 3 ∈ {1, 2, 3}; however, 3 ∉ A.
(ix) The statement Φ ∈ A is incorrect because Φ is not an element of A.
(x) The statement Φ ⊂ A is correct because Φ is a subset of every set.

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(xi) The statement {Φ} ⊂ A is incorrect because Φ∈ {Φ}; however, Φ ∈ A.
Question 4:

Write down all the subsets of the following sets:
(i) {a}
(ii) {a, b}
(iii) {1, 2, 3}
(iv) Φ

Discussion

(i) The subsets of {a} are Φ and {a}.
(ii) The subsets of {a, b} areΦ, {a}, {b}, and {a, b}.
(iii) The subsets of {1, 2, 3} areΦ, {1}, {2}, {3}, {1, 2}, {2, 3}, {1, 3}, and
{1, 2, 3}
(iv) The only subset of Φ isΦ.

Question 5:

How many elements has P(A), if A = Φ?

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Discussion

We know that if A is a set with m elements i.e., n(A) = m, then n[P(A)] = 2m.
If A = Φ, then n(A) = 0.
∴ n[P(A)] = 20 = 1

Hence, P(A) has one element.
Question 6:

Write the following as intervals:
(i) {x: x ∈ R, –4 < x ≤ 6}

(ii) {x: x ∈ R, –12 < x < –10}
(iii) {x: x ∈ R, 0 ≤ x < 7}

(iv) {x: x ∈ R, 3 ≤ x ≤ 4}

Discussion

(i) {x: x ∈ R, –4 < x ≤ 6} = (–4, 6]

(ii) {x: x ∈ R, –12 < x < –10} = (–12, –10)
(iii) {x: x ∈ R, 0 ≤ x < 7} = [0, 7)
(iv) {x: x ∈ R, 3 ≤ x ≤ 4} = [3, 4]

Question 6:

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Write the following as intervals:
(i) {x: x ∈ R, –4 < x ≤ 6}

(ii) {x: x ∈ R, –12 < x < –10}
(iii) {x: x ∈ R, 0 ≤ x < 7}

(iv) {x: x ∈ R, 3 ≤ x ≤ 4}

Discussion

(i) {x: x ∈ R, –4 < x ≤ 6} = (–4, 6]

(ii) {x: x ∈ R, –12 < x < –10} = (–12, –10)
(iii) {x: x ∈ R, 0 ≤ x < 7} = [0, 7)
(iv) {x: x ∈ R, 3 ≤ x ≤ 4} = [3, 4]
Question 7:

Write the following intervals in set-builder form:
(i) (–3, 0)
(ii) [6, 12]
(iii) (6, 12]
(iv) [–23, 5)

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Discussion

(i) (–3, 0) = {x: x ∈ R, –3 < x < 0}

(ii) [6, 12] = {x: x ∈ R, 6 ≤ x ≤ 12}

(iii) (6, 12] ={x: x ∈ R, 6 < x ≤ 12}

(iv) [–23, 5) = {x: x ∈ R, –23 ≤ x < 5}
Question 8:

What universal set (s) would you propose for each of the following:
(i) The set of right triangles
(ii) The set of isosceles triangles

Discussion

(i) For the set of right triangles, the universal set can be the set of triangles or the set
of polygons.
(ii) For the set of isosceles triangles, the universal set can be the set of triangles or the
set of polygons or the set of two-dimensional figures.
Question 9:

Given the sets A = {1, 3, 5}, B = {2, 4, 6} and C = {0, 2, 4, 6, 8}, which of the
following may be considered as universals set (s) for all the three sets A, B and C
(i) {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
(ii) Φ
(iii) {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}

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(iv) {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}

Discussion

(i) It can be seen that A ⊂ {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
B ⊂ {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

However, C ⊄ {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

Therefore, the set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} cannot be the universal set for the sets A, B, and
C.
(ii) A ⊄ Φ, B ⊄ Φ, C ⊄ Φ

Therefore, Φ cannot be the universal set for the sets A, B, and C.
(iii) A ⊂ {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}
B ⊂ {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}

C ⊂ {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}

Therefore, the set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} is the universal set for the sets A, B,
and C.
(iv) A ⊂ {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
B ⊂ {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}

However, C ⊄ {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}

Therefore, the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8} cannot be the universal set for the sets A, B,
and C.

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Exercise: 1.4

Question 1:

Find the union of each of the following pairs of sets:
(i) X = {1, 3, 5} Y = {1, 2, 3}
(ii) A = {a, e, i, o, u} B = {a, b, c}
(iii) A = {x: x is a natural number and multiple of 3}
B = {x: x is a natural number less than 6}
(iv) A = {x: x is a natural number and 1 < x ≤ 6}
B = {x: x is a natural number and 6 < x < 10}
(v) A = {1, 2, 3}, B = Φ

Discussion

(i) X = {1, 3, 5} Y = {1, 2, 3}
X∪ Y= {1, 2, 3, 5}
(ii) A = {a, e, i, o, u} B = {a, b, c}
A∪ B = {a, b, c, e, i, o, u}
(iii) A = {x: x is a natural number and multiple of 3} = {3, 6, 9 …}

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As B = {x: x is a natural number less than 6} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
A ∪ B = {1, 2, 4, 5, 3, 6, 9, 12 …}

∴ A ∪ B = {x: x = 1, 2, 4, 5 or a multiple of 3}

(iv) A = {x: x is a natural number and 1 < x ≤ 6} = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
B = {x: x is a natural number and 6 < x < 10} = {7, 8, 9}
A∪ B = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}

∴ A∪ B = {x: x ∈ N and 1 < x < 10}
(v) A = {1, 2, 3}, B = Φ
A∪ B = {1, 2, 3}

Question 2:

Let A = {a, b}, B = {a, b, c}. Is A ⊂ B? What is A ∪ B?

Discussion

Here, A = {a, b} and B = {a, b, c}
Yes, A ⊂ B.

A∪ B = {a, b, c} = B

Question 3:

If A and B are two sets such that A ⊂ B, then what is A ∪ B?

Discussion

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If A and B are two sets such that A ⊂ B, then A ∪ B = B.

Question 4:

If A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {3, 4, 5, 6}, C = {5, 6, 7, 8} and D = {7, 8, 9, 10}; find
(i) A ∪ B

(ii) A ∪ C

(iii) B ∪ C

(iv) B ∪ D

(v) A ∪ B ∪ C

(vi) A ∪ B ∪ D

(vii) B ∪ C ∪ D

Discussion

A = {1, 2, 3, 4], B = {3, 4, 5, 6}, C = {5, 6, 7, 8} and D = {7, 8, 9, 10}
(i) A ∪ B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

(ii) A ∪ C = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
(iii) B ∪ C = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}

(iv) B ∪ D = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}

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(v) A ∪ B ∪ C = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}

(vi) A ∪ B ∪ D = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}
(vii) B ∪ C ∪ D = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}

Question 5:

Find the intersection of each pair of sets:
(i) X = {1, 3, 5} Y = {1, 2, 3}
(ii) A = {a, e, i, o, u} B = {a, b, c}
(iii) A = {x: x is a natural number and multiple of 3}
B = {x: x is a natural number less than 6}
(iv) A = {x: x is a natural number and 1 < x ≤ 6}
B = {x: x is a natural number and 6 < x < 10}
(v) A = {1, 2, 3}, B = Φ

Discussion

(i) X = {1, 3, 5}, Y = {1, 2, 3}
X ∩ Y = {1, 3}
(ii) A = {a, e, i, o, u}, B = {a, b, c}
A ∩ B = {a}

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(iii) A = {x: x is a natural number and multiple of 3} = (3, 6, 9 …}
B = {x: x is a natural number less than 6} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
∴ A ∩ B = {3}

(iv) A = {x: x is a natural number and 1 < x ≤ 6} = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
B = {x: x is a natural number and 6 < x < 10} = {7, 8, 9}
A∩B=Φ
(v) A = {1, 2, 3}, B = Φ
A∩B=Φ

Question 6:

If A = {3, 5, 7, 9, 11}, B = {7, 9, 11, 13}, C = {11, 13, 15} and D = {15, 17}; find
(i) A ∩ B
(ii) B ∩ C
(iii) A ∩ C ∩ D
(iv) A ∩ C
(v) B ∩ D

(vi) A ∩ (B ∪ C)
(vii) A ∩ D

(viii) A ∩ (B ∪ D)

(ix) (A ∩ B) ∩ (B ∪ C)
(x) (A ∪ D) ∩ (B ∪ C)

26

Discussion

(i) A ∩ B = {7, 9, 11}
(ii) B ∩ C = {11, 13}
(iii) A ∩ C ∩ D = { A ∩ C} ∩ D = {11} ∩ {15, 17} = Φ
(iv) A ∩ C = {11}
(v) B ∩ D = Φ

(vi) A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C)
= {7, 9, 11} ∪ {11} = {7, 9, 11}
(vii) A ∩ D = Φ

(viii) A ∩ (B ∪ D) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ D)
= {7, 9, 11} ∪ Φ = {7, 9, 11}

(ix) (A ∩ B) ∩ (B ∪ C) = {7, 9, 11} ∩ {7, 9, 11, 13, 15} = {7, 9, 11}

27

(x) (A ∪ D) ∩ (B ∪ C) = {3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 17) ∩ {7, 9, 11, 13, 15}
= {7, 9, 11, 15}
Question 7:

If A = {x: x is a natural number}, B ={x: x is an even natural number}
C = {x: x is an odd natural number} and D = {x: x is a prime number}, find
(i) A ∩ B
(ii) A ∩ C
(iii) A ∩ D
(iv) B ∩ C (v) B ∩ D (vi) C ∩ D

Discussion

A = {x: x is a natural number} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5 …}
B ={x: x is an even natural number} = {2, 4, 6, 8 …}
C = {x: x is an odd natural number} = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9 …}
D = {x: x is a prime number} = {2, 3, 5, 7 …}
(i) A ∩B = {x: x is a even natural number} = B
(ii) A ∩ C = {x: x is an odd natural number} = C
(iii) A ∩ D = {x: x is a prime number} = D
(iv) B ∩ C = Φ
(v) B ∩ D = {2}

28

(vi) C ∩ D = {x: x is odd prime number}

Question 8:

Which of the following pairs of sets are disjoint
(i) {1, 2, 3, 4} and {x: x is a natural number and 4 ≤ x ≤ 6}
(ii) {a, e, i, o, u}and {c, d, e, f}
(iii) {x: x is an even integer} and {x: x is an odd integer}

Discussion

(i) {1, 2, 3, 4}
{x: x is a natural number and 4 ≤ x ≤ 6} = {4, 5, 6}
Now, {1, 2, 3, 4} ∩ {4, 5, 6} = {4}
Therefore, this pair of sets is not disjoint.
(ii) {a, e, i, o, u} ∩ (c, d, e, f} = {e}
Therefore, {a, e, i, o, u} and (c, d, e, f} are not disjoint.
(iii) {x: x is an even integer} ∩ {x: x is an odd integer} = Φ
Therefore, this pair of sets is disjoint.

29

Question 9:

If A = {3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21}, B = {4, 8, 12, 16, 20},
C = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16}, D = {5, 10, 15, 20}; find
(i) A – B
(ii) A – C
(iii) A – D
(iv) B – A
(v) C – A
(vi) D – A
(vii) B – C
(viii) B – D
(ix) C – B
(x) D – B
(xi) C – D
(xii) D – C

Discussion

(i) A – B = {3, 6, 9, 15, 18, 21}
(ii) A – C = {3, 9, 15, 18, 21}
(iii) A – D = {3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 21}
(iv) B – A = {4, 8, 16, 20}

30

(v) C – A = {2, 4, 8, 10, 14, 16}
(vi) D – A = {5, 10, 20}
(vii) B – C = {20}
(viii) B – D = {4, 8, 12, 16}
(ix) C – B = {2, 6, 10, 14}
(x) D – B = {5, 10, 15}
(xi) C – D = {2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 14, 16}
(xii) D – C = {5, 15, 20}

Question 10:

If X = {a, b, c, d} and Y = {f, b, d, g}, find
(i) X – Y
(ii) Y – X
(iii) X ∩ Y

Discussion

(i) X – Y = {a, c}
(ii) Y – X = {f, g}
(iii) X ∩ Y = {b, d}

31

Question 11:

If R is the set of real numbers and Q is the set of rational numbers, then what is R –
Q?

Discussion

R: set of real numbers
Q: set of rational numbers
Therefore, R – Q is a set of irrational numbers.

Question 12:

State whether each of the following statement is true or false. Justify your answer.
(i) {2, 3, 4, 5} and {3, 6} are disjoint sets.
(ii) {a, e, i, o, u } and {a, b, c, d} are disjoint sets.
(iii) {2, 6, 10, 14} and {3, 7, 11, 15} are disjoint sets.
(iv) {2, 6, 10} and {3, 7, 11} are disjoint sets.

Discussion

32

(i) False

As 3 ∈ {2, 3, 4, 5}, 3 ∈ {3, 6}
⇒ {2, 3, 4, 5} ∩ {3, 6} = {3}
(ii) False

As a ∈ {a, e, i, o, u}, a ∈ {a, b, c, d}
⇒ {a, e, i, o, u } ∩ {a, b, c, d} = {a}
(iii) True

As {2, 6, 10, 14} ∩ {3, 7, 11, 15} = Φ
(iv) True
As {2, 6, 10} ∩ {3, 7, 11} = Φ

Exercise: 1.5
Question 1:

Let U ={1, 2, 3; 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}, A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {2, 4, 6, 8} and C = {3, 4, 5, 6}.
Find
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

33

(iv)
(v)
(vi)

Discussion

U ={1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}
A = {1, 2, 3, 4}
B = {2, 4, 6, 8}
C = {3, 4, 5, 6}
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

(iv)

(v)
(vi)

34

Question 2:

If U = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h}, find the complements of the following sets:
(i) A = {a, b, c}
(ii) B = {d, e, f, g}
(iii) C = {a, c, e, g}
(iv) D = {f, g, h, a}

Discussion

U = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h}
(i) A = {a, b, c}

(ii) B = {d, e, f, g}

(iii) C = {a, c, e, g}

(iv) D = {f, g, h, a}

Question 3:

35

Taking the set of natural numbers as the universal set, write down the complements of
the following sets:
(i) {x: x is an even natural number}
(ii) {x: x is an odd natural number}
(iii) {x: x is a positive multiple of 3}
(iv) {x: x is a prime number}
(v) {x: x is a natural number divisible by 3 and 5}
(vi) {x: x is a perfect square}
(vii) {x: x is perfect cube}
(viii) {x: x + 5 = 8}
(ix) {x: 2x + 5 = 9}
(x) {x: x ≥ 7}

(xi) {x: x ∈ N and 2x + 1 > 10}

Discussion

U = N: Set of natural numbers
(i) {x: x is an even natural number}´ = {x: x is an odd natural number}

36

(ii) {x: x is an odd natural number}´ = {x: x is an even natural number}

(iii) {x: x is a positive multiple of 3}´ = {x: x ∈ N and x is not a multiple of 3}

(iv) {x: x is a prime number}´ ={x: x is a positive composite number and x = 1}
(v) {x: x is a natural number divisible by 3 and 5}´ = {x: x is a natural number that is
not divisible by 3 or 5}
(vi) {x: x is a perfect square}´ = {x: x ∈ N and x is not a perfect square}
(vii) {x: x is a perfect cube}´ = {x: x ∈ N and x is not a perfect cube}
(viii) {x: x + 5 = 8}´ = {x: x ∈ N and x ≠ 3}
(ix) {x: 2x + 5 = 9}´ = {x: x ∈ N and x ≠ 2}
(x) {x: x ≥ 7}´ = {x: x ∈ N and x < 7}

(xi) {x: x ∈ N and 2x + 1 > 10}´ = {x: x ∈ N and x ≤ 9/2}

Question 4:

If U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6,7,8, 9}, A = {2, 4, 6, 8} and B = {2, 3, 5, 7}. Verify that
(i)

(ii)

Discussion

37

U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}
A = {2, 4, 6, 8}, B = {2, 3, 5, 7}
(i)

(ii)

Question 5:

Draw appropriate Venn diagram for each of the following:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

38

Discussion

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

Question 6:

39

Let U be the set of all triangles in a plane. If A is the set of all triangles with at least
one angle different from 60°, what is ?

Discussion

is the set of all equilateral triangles.

Question 7:

Fill in the blanks to make each of the following a true statement:
(i)
(ii) Φ′ ∩ A = …
(iii)
(iv)

Discussion

(i)
(ii) Φ′ ∩ A = U ∩ A = A
∴ Φ′ ∩ A = A

(iii) A ∩ A′ = Φ
(iv) U′ ∩ A = Φ ∩ A = Φ
∴ U′ ∩ A = Φ

40

Exercise: 1.6
Question 1:

If X and Y are two sets such that n(X) = 17, n(Y) = 23 and n(X ∪ Y) = 38,
find n(X ∩Y).

Discussion

It is given that:

n(X) = 17, n(Y) = 23, n(X ∪ Y) = 38
n(X ∩ Y) = ?

We know that:

Question 2:

If X and Y are two sets such that X ∪Y has 18 elements, X has 8 elements and Y has
15 elements; how many elements does X ∩Y have?

Discussion

It is given that:

41

n(X ï�f�? Y) = ?
We know that:

Question 3:

In a group of 400 people, 250 can speak Hindi and 200 can speak English. How many
people can speak both Hindi and English?

Discussion

Let H be the set of people who speak Hindi, and
E be the set of people who speak English

∴ n(H ∪ E) = 400, n(H) = 250, n(E) = 200
n(H ∩ E) = ?

We know that:

n(H ∪ E) = n(H) + n(E) – n(H ∩ E)
∴ 400 = 250 + 200 – n(H ∩ E)
⇒ 400 = 450 – n(H ∩ E)

⇒ n(H ∩ E) = 450 – 400
∴ n(H ∩ E) = 50

42

Thus, 50 people can speak both Hindi and English.

Question 4:

If S and T are two sets such that S has 21 elements, T has 32 elements, and

S ∩ T has 11 elements, how many elements does S ∪ T have?

Discussion

It is given that:
n(S) = 21, n(T) = 32, n(S ∩ T) = 11
We know that:

n (S ∪ T) = n (S) + n (T) – n (S ∩ T)
∴ n (S ∪ T) = 21 + 32 – 11 = 42

Thus, the set (S ∪ T) has 42 elements.

Question 5:

If X and Y are two sets such that X has 40 elements, X ∪Y has 60 elements and X ∩Y
has 10 elements, how many elements does Y have?

Discussion

It is given that:

n(X) = 40, n(X ∪ Y) = 60, n(X ∩ Y) = 10

43

We know that:

n(X ∪ Y) = n(X) + n(Y) – n(X ∩ Y)
∴ 60 = 40 + n(Y) – 10

∴ n(Y) = 60 – (40 – 10) = 30 ;Thus, the set Y has 30 elements.

Question 6:

In a group of 70 people, 37 like coffee, 52 like tea, and each person likes at least one
of the two drinks. How many people like both coffee and tea?

Discussion

Let C denote the set of people who like coffee, and
T denote the set of people who like tea
n(C ∪ T) = 70, n(C) = 37, n(T) = 52
We know that:

n(C ∪ T) = n(C) + n(T) – n(C ∩ T)
∴ 70 = 37 + 52 – n(C ∩ T)
⇒ 70 = 89 – n(C ∩ T)

⇒ n(C ∩ T) = 89 – 70 = 19

Thus, 19 people like both coffee and tea.

44

Question 7:

In a group of 65 people, 40 like cricket, 10 like both cricket and tennis. How many
like tennis only and not cricket? How many like tennis?

Discussion

Let C denote the set of people who like cricket, and
T denote the set of people who like tennis

∴ n(C ∪ T) = 65, n(C) = 40, n(C ∩ T) = 10
We know that:

n(C ∪ T) = n(C) + n(T) – n(C ∩ T)
∴ 65 = 40 + n(T) – 10
⇒ 65 = 30 + n(T)

⇒ n(T) = 65 – 30 = 35

Therefore, 35 people like tennis.
Now,

(T – C) ∪ (T ∩ C) = T
Also,

(T – C) ∩ (T ∩ C) = Φ

∴ n (T) = n (T – C) + n (T ∩ C)

45

⇒ 35 = n (T – C) + 10

⇒ n (T – C) = 35 – 10 = 25

Thus, 25 people like only tennis.

Question 8:

In a committee, 50 people speak French, 20 speak Spanish and 10 speak both Spanish
and French. How many speak at least one of these two languages?

Discussion

Let F be the set of people in the committee who speak French, and
S be the set of people in the committee who speak Spanish
∴ n(F) = 50, n(S) = 20, n(S ∩ F) = 10
We know that:

n(S ∪ F) = n(S) + n(F) – n(S ∩ F)
= 20 + 50 – 10
= 70 – 10 = 60

Thus, 60 people in the committee speak at least one of the two languages.

46

Exercise: 1.8
Question 1:

Decide, among the following sets, which sets are subsets of one and another:
A = {x: x ∈ R and x satisfy x2 – 8x + 12 = 0},
B = {2, 4, 6}, C = {2, 4, 6, 8…}, D = {6}.

Discussion

A = {x: x ∈ R and x satisfies x2 – 8x + 12 = 0}

2 and 6 are the only solutions of x2 – 8x + 12 = 0.
∴ A = {2, 6}

B = {2, 4, 6}, C = {2, 4, 6, 8 …}, D = {6}
∴D⊂A⊂B⊂C

Hence, A ⊂ B, A ⊂ C, B ⊂ C, D ⊂ A, D ⊂ B, D ⊂ C

47

Question 2:

In each of the following, determine whether the statement is true or false. If it is true,
prove it. If it is false, give an example.
(i) If x ∈ A and A ∈ B, then x ∈ B

(ii) If A ⊂ B and B ∈ C, then A ∈ C

(iii) If A ⊂ B and B ⊂ C, then A ⊂ C
(iv) If A ⊄ B and B ⊄ C, then A ⊄ C

(v) If x ∈ A and A ⊄ B, then x ∈ B (vi) If A ⊂ B and x ∉ B, then x ∉ A

Discussion

(i) False
Let A = {1, 2} and B = {1, {1, 2}, {3}}
Now,

∴A∈B

However,
(ii) False
Let

As A ⊂ B
B∈C

However,

48

(iii) True

Let A ⊂ B and B ⊂ C.
Let x ∈ A
∴A⊂C

(iv) False
Let
Accordingly,

and

(v) False

. However, A ⊂ C

Let A = {3, 5, 7} and B = {3, 4, 6}
Now, 5 ∈ A and A ⊄ B
However, 5 ∉ B
(vi) True

Let A ⊂ B and x ∉ B.
To show: x ∉ A

If possible, suppose x ∈ A.

Then, x ∈ B, which is a contradiction as x ∉ B
∴x ∉ A

Question 3:

49

Let A, B and C be the sets such that A ∪ B = A ∪ C and A ∩ B = A ∩ C. show that B
= C.

Discussion

Let, A, B and C be the sets such that

and

To show: B = C
Let x ∈ B

Case I
x∈A

Also, x ∈ B

∴ x ∈ A and x ∈ C
∴x∈C

∴B⊂C

Similarly, we can show that C ⊂ B.
∴B=C

50

.

Question 4:

Show that the following four conditions are equivalent:
(i) A ⊂ B (ii) A – B = Φ

(iii) A ∪ B = B (iv) A ∩ B = A

Discussion

First, we have to show that (i) ⇔ (ii).
Let A ⊂ B

To show: A – B ≠ Φ
If possible, suppose A – B ≠ Φ

This means that there exists x ∈ A, x ≠ B, which is not possible as A ⊂ B.
∴A–B=Φ

∴A⊂B⇒A–B=Φ
Let A – B = Φ

To show: A ⊂ B
Let x ∈ A

Clearly, x ∈ B because if x ∉ B, then A – B ≠ Φ
∴A–B=Φ⇒A⊂B
∴ (i) ⇔ (ii)
Let A ⊂ B
To show:

51

Clearly,
Let
Case I: x ∈ A

Case II: x ∈ B
Then,

Conversely, let
Let x ∈ A
∴A⊂B

Hence, (i) ⇔ (iii)

Now, we have to show that (i) ⇔ (iv).
Let A ⊂ B
Clearly

Let x ∈ A

We have to show that
As A ⊂ B, x ∈ B

52

Hence, A = A ∩ B
Conversely, suppose A ∩ B = A
Let x ∈ A

⇒ x ∈ A and x ∈ B
⇒x∈B

∴A⊂B

Hence, (i) ⇔ (iv).

Question 5:

Show that if A ⊂ B, then C – B ⊂ C – A.

Discussion

Let A ⊂ B

To show: C – B ⊂ C – A
Let x ∈ C – B

⇒ x ∈ C and x ∉ B

⇒ x ∈ C and x ∉ A [A ⊂ B]
⇒x∈C–A

∴C–B⊂C–A

53

Question 6:

Assume that P (A) = P (B). Show that A = B.

Discussion

Let P(A) = P(B)
To show: A = B
Let x ∈ A

A ∈ P(A) = P(B)

∴ x ∈ C, for some C ∈ P(B)
Now, C ⊂ B
∴x∈B

∴A⊂B

Similarly, B ⊂ A
∴A=B

Question 7:

Is it true that for any sets A and B, P (A) ∪ P (B) = P (A ∪ B)? Justify your answer.

Discussion

54

False
Let A = {0, 1} and B = {1, 2}
∴ A ∪ B = {0, 1, 2}

P(A) = {Φ, {0}, {1}, {0, 1}}
P(B) = {Φ, {1}, {2}, {1, 2}}

P(A ∪ B) = {Φ, {0}, {1}, {2}, {0, 1}, {1, 2}, {0, 2}, {0, 1, 2}}
P(A) ∪ P(B) = {Φ, {0}, {1}, {0, 1}, {2}, {1, 2}}
∴ P(A) ∪ P(B) ≠ P(A ∪ B)

Question 9:

Using properties of sets show that

(i) A ∪ (A ∩ B) = A (ii) A ∩ (A ∪ B) = A.

Discussion

(i) To show: A ∪ (A ∩ B) = A
We know that
A⊂A

A∩B ⊂A

∴ A ∪ (A ∩ B) ⊂ A … (1)

Also, A ⊂ A ∪ (A ∩ B) … (2)

55

∴ From (1) and (2), A ∪ (A ∩ B) = A
(ii) To show: A ∩ (A ∪ B) = A

A ∩ (A ∪ B) = (A ∩ A) ∪ (A ∩ B)
= A ∪ (A ∩ B)

= A {from (1)}

Question 10:

Show that A ∩ B = A ∩ C need not imply B = C.

Discussion

Let A = {0, 1}, B = {0, 2, 3}, and C = {0, 4, 5}
Accordingly, A ∩ B = {0} and A ∩ C = {0}
Here, A ∩ B = A ∩ C = {0}

However, B ≠ C [2 ∈ B and 2 ∉ C]
Question 11:

Let A and B be sets. If A ∩ X = B ∩ X = Φ and A ∪ X = B ∪ X for some set X, show
that A = B.

(Hints A = A ∩ (A ∪ X), B = B ∩ (B ∪ X) and use distributive law)

Discussion

Let A and B be two sets such that A ∩ X = B ∩ X = f and A ∪ X = B ∪ X for some

56

set X.
To show: A = B
It can be seen that

A = A ∩ (A ∪ X) = A ∩ (B ∪ X) [A ∪ X = B ∪ X]
= (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ X) [Distributive law]
= (A ∩ B) ∪ Φ [A ∩ X = Φ]
= A ∩ B … (1)

Now, B = B ∩ (B ∪ X)

= B ∩ (A ∪ X) [A ∪ X = B ∪ X]

= (B ∩ A) ∪ (B ∩ X) [Distributive law]
= (B ∩ A) ∪ Φ [B ∩ X = Φ]
=B∩A

= A ∩ B … (2)
Hence, from (1) and (2), we obtain A = B.

Question 12:

Find sets A, B and C such that A ∩ B, B ∩ C and A ∩ C are non-empty sets and A ∩
B ∩ C = Φ.

Discussion

57

Let A = {0, 1}, B = {1, 2}, and C = {2, 0}.
Accordingly, A ∩ B = {1}, B ∩ C = {2}, and A ∩ C = {0}.
∴ A ∩ B, B ∩ C, and A ∩ C are non-empty.
However, A ∩ B ∩ C = Φ

Question 13:

In a survey of 600 students in a school, 150 students were found to be taking tea and
225 taking coffee, 100 were taking both tea and coffee. Find how many students were
taking neither tea nor coffee?

Discussion

Let U be the set of all students who took part in the survey.
Let T be the set of students taking tea.
Let C be the set of students taking coffee.
Accordingly, n(U) = 600, n(T) = 150, n(C) = 225, n(T ∩ C) = 100
To find: Number of student taking neither tea nor coffee i.e., we have to find n(T' ∩
C').
n(T' ∩ C') = n(T ∪ C)'
= n(U) – n(T ∪ C)

= n(U) – [n(T) + n(C) – n(T ∩ C)]
= 600 – [150 + 225 – 100]
= 600 – 275
= 325

58

Hence, 325 students were taking neither tea nor coffee.

Question 14:

In a group of students 100 students know Hindi, 50 know English and 25 know both.
Each of the students knows either Hindi or English. How many students are there in
the group?

Discussion

Let U be the set of all students in the group.
Let E be the set of all students who know English.
Let H be the set of all students who know Hindi.
∴H∪E=U

Accordingly, n(H) = 100 and n(E) = 50
= 25
n(U) = n(H) +

– n(H ∩ E)

= 100 + 50 – 25
= 125
Hence, there are 125 students in the group
Question 15:

In a survey of 60 people, it was found that 25 people read newspaper H, 26 read

59

newspaper T, 26 read newspaper I, 9 read both H and I,11 read both H and T, 8 read
both T and I, 3 read all three newspapers. Find:
(i) the number of people who read at least one of the newspapers.
(ii) the number of people who read exactly one newspaper.

Discussion

Let A be the set of people who read newspaper H.
Let B be the set of people who read newspaper T.
Let C be the set of people who read newspaper I.
Accordingly, n(A) = 25, n(B) = 26, and n(C) = 26
n(A ∩ C) = 9, n(A ∩ B) = 11, and n(B ∩ C) = 8
n(A ∩ B ∩ C) = 3
Let U be the set of people who took part in the survey.
(i) Accordingly,

n(A ∪ B ∪ C) = n(A) + n(B) + n(C) – n(A ∩ B) – n(B ∩ C) – n(C ∩ A) + n(A ∩ B ∩
C)
= 25 + 26 + 26 – 11 – 8 – 9 + 3
= 52
Hence, 52 people read at least one of the newspapers.
(ii) Let a be the number of people who read newspapers H and T only.

60

Let b denote the number of people who read newspapers I and H only.
Let c denote the number of people who read newspapers T and I only.
Let d denote the number of people who read all three newspapers.
Accordingly, d = n(A ∩ B ∩ C) = 3
Now, n(A ∩ B) = a + d
n(B ∩ C) = c + d
n(C ∩ A) = b + d

∴ a + d + c + d + b + d = 11 + 8 + 9 = 28
⇒ a + b + c + d = 28 – 2d = 28 – 6 = 22

Hence, (52 – 22) = 30 people read exactly one newspaper.

Question 16:

In a survey it was found that 21 people liked product A, 26 liked product B and 29
liked product C. If 14 people liked products A and B, 12 people liked products C and
A, 14 people liked products B and C and 8 liked all the three products. Find how
many liked product C only.

61

Discussion

Let A, B, and C be the set of people who like product A, product B, and product C
respectively.
Accordingly, n(A) = 21, n(B) = 26, n(C) = 29, n(A ∩ B) = 14, n(C ∩ A) = 12,
n(B ∩ C) = 14, n(A ∩ B ∩ C) = 8
The Venn diagram for the given problem can be drawn as

It can be seen that number of people who like product C only is
{29 – (4 + 8 + 6)} = 11

62

Example 1:
Write the roster form for the set A = {x : x is a letter in the word AEROPLANE which
has vowels just before and after it}.
Solution:
In the word AEROPLANE, the vowels are A, E and O.
Now, the third letter i.e., R has a vowel i.e., E just before it and a vowel i.e., O just
after it. Hence, it satisfies the given condition.
Now, look at letter N, which has vowel i.e., A just before it and a vowel i.e., E just
after it. Hence, this letter also satisfies the given condition.
Thus, the set can be written in roster form as
A = {R, N}
Example 2:
State whether each of the following sets is finite or infinite:
1. Set of multiples of 7
2. Set of lines passing through the point (1,1) as well as the origin
Solution:
1. The multiples of 7 are 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 …
Hence, the number of elements in set A = {7, 14, 21, 28, 35…} is not definite.
Hence, it is an infinite set.
2. The two given points are (1,1) and (0,0) and we know that there is one and only
one line passing through two fixed points. Hence, there will be only one line
that passes through the given points.
Thus, the set contains only one element. Hence, it is a finite set.

63

Union and Intersection of Sets

Let A and B be any two sets. The union of A and B is the set that consists of all
the elements of A, all the elements of B and the common elements taken only
once.
o
o
o

1) A ∪ B = B ∪ A (Commutative law)
2) (A ∪ B) ∪ C = A ∪ (B ∪ C)
3) A ∪ Φ = A
element, Φ)
4) A ∪ A = A
5) U ∪ A = U
set, U)

(Associative law)
(Law of identity
(Idempotent law)
(Law of universal

The intersection of sets A and B is the set of all elements that are common to
both A and B.
o
o
o

The symbol ‘∪’ is used for denoting the union.
E.g., If A = {7, 9, 5} and B = {4, 5, 6}, then A ∪ B = {4, 5, 6, 7, 9}
The properties of the union of two sets are as follows:

The symbol ‘∩’ is used for denoting the intersection.
E.g., If A = {4, 5, 9} and B = {2, 3, 4}, then A ∩ B = {4}
The properties of the intersection of two sets are as follows:
1) A ∩ B = B ∩ A
2) (A ∩ B) ∩ C = A ∩ (B ∩ C)
3) Φ ∩ A = Φ
4) A ∩ A = A
5) U ∩ A = A
6) A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C)

(Commutative law)
(Associative law)
(Law of Φ)
(Idempotent law)
(Law of U)
(Distributive law)

If two sets, A and B, are such that A ∩ B = Φ, i.e., they have no element in
common, then A and B are called disjoint sets.E.g., the sets {1, 2, 3} and {4,
5} are disjoint sets.

64

Now, let us look at the given video to understand these concepts better.

Example 1:
Find the union and intersection of sets A and B where
A = {x : x is an integer and 4 < x < 8}
B = {x : x is an integer and 5 < x ≤ 8}
Solution:
Let us first write the sets in roster form and then find the intersection and union
of A and B.
A = {5, 6, 7}
B = {6, 7, 8}

A ∪ B = {5, 6, 7, 8} (All the elements of A and B and taking common elements 6 and
7 only once)

A ∩ B = {6, 7} (6 and 7 are the only elements common to A and B)
Example 2:
A = {3, 6, 8, 2, 11, 13, 12}
B = {7, 9, 3, 2, 10, 14, 15}
C = {1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 10, 11}
Find A ∩ (B ∪ C).

65

Solution:

We have to find A ∩ (B ∪ C). Hence, let us first find the union of B and C, then its
intersection with A.
B = {7, 9, 3, 2, 10, 14, 15}
C = {1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 10, 11}

B ∪ C = {1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15}
Let us represent the set B ∪ C as D.

D = {1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15}
Now, we need to find A ∩ D.
A = {3, 6, 8, 2, 11, 13, 12}
∴A ∩ D = {3, 6, 8, 2, 11}
Hence, we have

A ∩ (B ∪ C) = {3, 6, 8, 2, 11}

Example 1:
Taking the set of first ten natural numbers as the universal set, find the set
(B− A)′ ∩ B′, where A = {1, 2, 4, 9} and B = {2, 5, 7, 9, 8, 10, 1, 3}
Solution:
B − A = {5, 7, 8, 10, 3}
U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}

66

(B − A) ′ = {1, 2, 4, 6, 9}
B′ = {4, 6}

∴ (B− A)′ ∩ B′ = {4, 6}

67

Exercise 2.1
Question 1:

, find the values of x and y.

If

Discussion

It is given that

.

Since the ordered pairs are equal, the corresponding elements will also be equal.
Therefore,

and

.

∴ x = 2 and y = 1

Question 2:

If the set A has 3 elements and the set B = {3, 4, 5}, then find the number of elements
in (A × B)?

68

Discussion

It is given that set A has 3 elements and the elements of set B are 3, 4, and 5.
⇒ Number of elements in set B = 3
Number of elements in (A × B)

= (Number of elements in A) × (Number of elements in B)
=3×3=9
Thus, the number of elements in (A × B) is 9.

Question 3:

If G = {7, 8} and H = {5, 4, 2}, find G × H and H × G.

Discussion

G = {7, 8} and H = {5, 4, 2}
We know that the Cartesian product P × Q of two non-empty sets P and Q is defined
as
P × Q = {(p, q): p∈ P, q ∈ Q}

∴G × H = {(7, 5), (7, 4), (7, 2), (8, 5), (8, 4), (8, 2)}
H × G = {(5, 7), (5, 8), (4, 7), (4, 8), (2, 7), (2, 8)}

69

Question 4:

State whether each of the following statement are true or false. If the statement is
false, rewrite the given statement correctly.
(i) If P = {m, n} and Q = {n, m}, then P × Q = {(m, n), (n, m)}.

(ii) If A and B are non-empty sets, then A × B is a non-empty set of ordered pairs
(x, y) such thatx ∈ A and y ∈ B.(iii) If A = {1, 2}, B = {3, 4}, then A × (B ∩ Φ) = Φ.

Discussion

(i) False
If P = {m, n} and Q = {n, m}, then
P × Q = {(m, m), (m, n), (n, m), (n, n)}
(ii) True
(iii) True

Question 5:

If A = {–1, 1}, find A × A × A.

Discussion

It is known that for any non-empty set A, A × A × A is defined as
A × A × A = {(a, b, c): a, b, c ∈ A}

70

It is given that A = {–1, 1}

∴ A × A × A = {(–1, –1, –1), (–1, –1, 1), (–1, 1, –1), (–1, 1, 1),
(1, –1, –1), (1, –1, 1), (1, 1, –1), (1, 1, 1)}

Question 6:

If A × B = {(a, x), (a, y), (b, x), (b, y)}. Find A and B.

Discussion

It is given that A × B = {(a, x), (a, y), (b, x), (b, y)}
We know that the Cartesian product of two non-empty sets P and Q is defined as P ×
Q = {(p,q): p ∈ P, q ∈ Q}
∴ A is the set of all first elements and B is the set of all second elements.
Thus, A = {a, b} and B = {x, y}

Question 7:

Let A = {1, 2}, B = {1, 2, 3, 4}, C = {5, 6} and D = {5, 6, 7, 8}. Verify that
(i) A × (B ∩ C) = (A × B) ∩ (A × C)
(ii) A × C is a subset of B × D

Discussion

71

(i) To verify: A × (B ∩ C) = (A × B) ∩ (A × C)
We have B ∩ C = {1, 2, 3, 4} ∩ {5, 6} = Φ
∴L.H.S. = A × (B ∩ C) = A × Φ = Φ

A × B = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (2, 4)}
A × C = {(1, 5), (1, 6), (2, 5), (2, 6)}
∴ R.H.S. = (A × B) ∩ (A × C) = Φ
∴L.H.S. = R.H.S

Hence, A × (B ∩ C) = (A × B) ∩ (A × C)
(ii) To verify: A × C is a subset of B × D
A × C = {(1, 5), (1, 6), (2, 5), (2, 6)}
B × D = {(1, 5), (1, 6), (1, 7), (1, 8), (2, 5), (2, 6), (2, 7), (2, 8), (3, 5), (3, 6), (3, 7), (3,
8), (4, 5), (4, 6), (4, 7), (4, 8)}
We can observe that all the elements of set A × C are the elements of set B × D.
Therefore, A × C is a subset of B × D.

Question 8:

Let A = {1, 2} and B = {3, 4}. Write A × B. How many subsets will A × B have? List
them.

Discussion

A = {1, 2} and B = {3, 4}

72

∴A × B = {(1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 3), (2, 4)}

⇒ n(A × B) = 4 We know that if C is a set with n(C) = m, then n[P(C)] = 2m.
Therefore, the set A × B has 24 = 16 subsets. These are

Φ, {(1, 3)}, {(1, 4)}, {(2, 3)}, {(2, 4)}, {(1, 3), (1, 4)}, {(1, 3), (2, 3)},
{(1, 3), (2, 4)}, {(1, 4), (2, 3)}, {(1, 4), (2, 4)}, {(2, 3), (2, 4)},
{(1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 3)}, {(1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 4)}, {(1, 3), (2, 3), (2, 4)},
{(1, 4), (2, 3), (2, 4)}, {(1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 3), (2, 4)}

Question 9:

Let A and B be two sets such that n(A) = 3 and n (B) = 2. If (x, 1), (y, 2), (z, 1) are in
A × B, find A and B, where x, y and z are distinct elements.

Discussion

It is given that n(A) = 3 and n(B) = 2; and (x, 1), (y, 2), (z, 1) are in A × B.
We know that A = Set of first elements of the ordered pair elements of A × B
B = Set of second elements of the ordered pair elements of A × B.

∴ x, y, and z are the elements of A; and 1 and 2 are the elements of B.

Since n(A) = 3 and n(B) = 2, it is clear that A = {x, y, z} and B = {1, 2}.

Question 10:

The Cartesian product A × A has 9 elements among which are found (–1, 0) and (0,

73

1). Find the set A and the remaining elements of A × A.

Discussion

We know that if n(A) = p and n(B) = q, then n(A × B) = pq.
∴ n(A × A) = n(A) × n(A)

It is given that n(A × A) = 9
∴ n(A) × n(A) = 9
⇒ n(A) = 3

The ordered pairs (–1, 0) and (0, 1) are two of the nine elements of A × A.

We know that A × A = {(a, a): a ∈ A}. Therefore, –1, 0, and 1 are elements of A.
Since n(A) = 3, it is clear that A = {–1, 0, 1}.

The remaining elements of set A × A are (–1, –1), (–1, 1), (0, –1), (0, 0),
(1, –1), (1, 0), and (1, 1)

74

Exercise 2.2
Question 1:

Let A = {1, 2, 3, … , 14}. Define a relation R from A to A by R = {(x, y): 3x – y = 0,
where x, y∈ A}. Write down its domain, codomain and range.

Discussion

The relation R from A to A is given as

R = {(x, y): 3x – y = 0, where x, y ∈ A}

i.e., R = {(x, y): 3x = y, where x, y ∈ A}
∴R = {(1, 3), (2, 6), (3, 9), (4, 12)}

The domain of R is the set of all first elements of the ordered pairs in the relation.
∴Domain of R = {1, 2, 3, 4}

The whole set A is the codomainof the relation R.
∴Codomain of R = A = {1, 2, 3, …, 14}

75

The range of R is the set of all second elements of the ordered pairs in the relation.
∴Range of R = {3, 6, 9, 12}

Question 2:

Define a relation R on the set N of natural numbers by R = {(x, y): y = x + 5, x is a
natural number less than 4; x, y ∈ N}. Depict this relationship using roster form. Write
down the domain and the range.

Discussion

R = {(x, y): y = x + 5, x is a natural number less than 4, x, y ∈ N}
The natural numbers less than 4 are 1, 2, and 3.
∴R = {(1, 6), (2, 7), (3, 8)}

The domain of R is the set of all first elements of the ordered pairs in the relation.
∴ Domain of R = {1, 2, 3}

The range of R is the set of all second elements of the ordered pairs in the relation.
∴ Range of R = {6, 7, 8}

Question 3:

76

A = {1, 2, 3, 5} and B = {4, 6, 9}. Define a relation R from A to B by R = {(x, y): the
difference between x and y is odd; x ∈ A, y ∈ B}. Write R in roster form.

Discussion

A = {1, 2, 3, 5} and B = {4, 6, 9}

R = {(x, y): the difference between x and y is odd; x ∈ A, y ∈ B}
∴R = {(1, 4), (1, 6), (2, 9), (3, 4), (3, 6), (5, 4), (5, 6)}

Question 4:

The given figure shows a relationship between the sets P and Q. write this relation
(i) in set-builder form (ii) in roster form.
What is its domain and range?

Discussion

According to the given figure, P = {5, 6, 7}, Q = {3, 4, 5}

(i) R = {(x, y): y = x – 2; x ∈ P} or R = {(x, y): y = x – 2 for x = 5, 6, 7}

77

(ii) R = {(5, 3), (6, 4), (7, 5)}
Domain of R = {5, 6, 7}
Range of R = {3, 4, 5}

Question 5:

Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6}. Let R be the relation on A defined by
{(a, b): a, b ∈ A, b is exactly divisible by a}.
(i) Write R in roster form
(ii) Find the domain of R
(iii) Find the range of R.

Discussion

A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6}, R = {(a, b): a, b ∈ A, b is exactly divisible by a}

(i) R = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (1, 6), (2, 2), (2, 4), (2, 6), (3, 3), (3, 6), (4, 4), (6,
6)}
(ii) Domain of R = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6}
(iii) Range of R = {1, 2, 3, 4, 6}

Question 6:

Determine the domain and range of the relation R defined by R = {(x, x + 5): x ∈ {0,

78

1, 2, 3, 4, 5}}.

Discussion

R = {(x, x + 5): x ∈ {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}}

∴ R = {(0, 5), (1, 6), (2, 7), (3, 8), (4, 9), (5, 10)}
∴Domain of R = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
Range of R = {5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}

Question 7:

Write the relation R = {(x, x3): x is a prime number less than 10} in roster form.

Discussion

R = {(x, x3): x is a prime number less than 10}
The prime numbers less than 10 are 2, 3, 5, and 7.
∴R = {(2, 8), (3, 27), (5, 125), (7, 343)}

Question 8:

79

Let A = {x, y, z} and B = {1, 2}. Find the number of relations from A to B.

Discussion

It is given that A = {x, y, z} and B = {1, 2}.

∴ A × B = {(x, 1), (x, 2), (y, 1), (y, 2), (z, 1), (z, 2)}

Since n(A × B) = 6, the number of subsets of A × B is 26.
Therefore, the number of relations from A to B is 26.

Question 9:

Let R be the relation on Z defined by R = {(a, b): a, b ∈ Z, a – b is an integer}. Find
the domain and range of R.

Discussion

R = {(a, b): a, b ∈ Z, a – b is an integer}

It is known that the difference between any two integers is always an integer.
∴Domain of R = Z
Range of R = Z

80

Exercise 2.3
Question 1:

Which of the following relations are functions? Give reasons. If it is a function,
determine its domain and range.
(i) {(2, 1), (5, 1), (8, 1), (11, 1), (14, 1), (17, 1)}
(ii) {(2, 1), (4, 2), (6, 3), (8, 4), (10, 5), (12, 6), (14, 7)}

81

(iii) {(1, 3), (1, 5), (2, 5)}

Discussion

(i) {(2, 1), (5, 1), (8, 1), (11, 1), (14, 1), (17, 1)}
Since 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, and 17 are the elements of the domain of the given relation
having their unique images, this relation is a function.
Here, domain = {2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17} and range = {1}
(ii) {(2, 1), (4, 2), (6, 3), (8, 4), (10, 5), (12, 6), (14, 7)}
Since 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 are the elements of the domain of the given relation
having their unique images, this relation is a function.
Here, domain = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14} and range = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}
(iii) {(1, 3), (1, 5), (2, 5)}
Since the same first element i.e., 1 corresponds to two different images i.e., 3 and 5,
this relation is not a function.

Question 2:

Find the domain and range of the following real function:
(i) f(x) = –|x| (ii)

Discussion

82

(i) f(x) = –|x|, x ∈ R
We know that |x| =

Since f(x) is defined for x ∈ R, the domain of f is R.

It can be observed that the range of f(x) = –|x| is all real numbers except positive real
numbers.
∴The range of f is (–

, 0].

(ii)

Since
is defined for all real numbers that are greater than or equal to –3 and
less than or equal to 3, the domain of f(x) is {x : –3 ≤ x ≤ 3} or [–3, 3].
For any value of x such that –3 ≤ x ≤ 3, the value of f(x) will lie between 0 and 3.
∴The range of f(x) is {x: 0 ≤ x ≤ 3} or [0, 3].

Question 3:

A function f is defined by f(x) = 2x – 5. Write down the values of
(i) f(0), (ii) f(7), (iii) f(–3)

Discussion

The given function is f(x) = 2x – 5.
Therefore,

83

(i) f(0) = 2 × 0 – 5 = 0 – 5 = –5
(ii) f(7) = 2 × 7 – 5 = 14 – 5 = 9
(iii) f(–3) = 2 × (–3) – 5 = – 6 – 5 = –11

Question 4:

The function ‘t’ which maps temperature in degree Celsius into temperature in degree
Fahrenheit is defined by

.

Find (i) t (0) (ii) t (28) (iii) t (–10) (iv) The value of C, when t(C) = 212

Discussion

The given function is

.

Therefore,
(i)
(ii)

(iii)
(iv) It is given that t(C) = 212

84

Thus, the value of t, when t(C) = 212, is 100.

Question 5:

Find the range of each of the following functions.
(i) f(x) = 2 – 3x, x ∈ R, x > 0.

(ii) f(x) = x2 + 2, x, is a real number.
(iii) f(x) = x, x is a real number

Discussion

(i) f(x) = 2 – 3x, x ∈ R, x > 0

The values of f(x) for various values of real numbers x > 0 can be written in the
tabular form as
x

0.01 0.1

0.9

1

2

2.5

4

5

f(x) 1.97 1.7 –0.7 –1 –4 –5.5 –10 –13 …
Thus, it can be clearly observed that the range of f is the set of all real numbers less

85

than 2.
i.e., range of f = (–

, 2)

Alter:
Let x > 0

⇒ 3x > 0

⇒ 2 –3x < 2
⇒ f(x) < 2

∴Range of f = (–

, 2)

(ii) f(x) = x2 + 2, x, is a real number
The values of f(x) for various values of real numbers x can be written in the tabular
form as
x

0 ±0.3 ±0.8 ±1 ±2 ±3

f(x) 2 2.09 2.64

3

6

11

…..

Thus, it can be clearly observed that the range of f is the set of all real numbers greater
than 2.
i.e., range of f = [2,

)

Alter:
Let x be any real number.
Accordingly,
x2 ≥ 0

⇒ x2 + 2 ≥ 0 + 2

⇒ x2 + 2 ≥ 2 ⇒ f(x) ≥ 2 ∴ Range of f = [2,

)

86

(iii) f(x) = x, x is a real number It is clear that the range of f is the set of all real
numbers.
∴ Range of f = R

Exercise 2.4
Question 1:

The relation f is defined by

The relation g is defined by
Show that f is a function and g is not a function.

Discussion

The relation f is defined as
It is observed that for
0 ≤ x < 3, f(x) = x2
3 < x ≤ 10, f(x) = 3x
Also, at x = 3, f(x) = 32 = 9 or f(x) = 3 × 3 = 9
i.e., at x = 3, f(x) = 9
Therefore, for 0 ≤ x ≤ 10, the images of f(x) are unique.
Thus, the given relation is a function.

87

The relation g is defined as
It can be observed that for x = 2, g(x) = 22 = 4 and g(x) = 3 × 2 = 6
Hence, element 2 of the domain of the relation g corresponds to two different images
i.e., 4 and 6. Hence, this relation is not a function.

Question 2:

If f(x) = x2, find

.

Discussion

Question 3:

Find the domain of the function

Discussion

The given function is

.

88

It can be seen that function f is defined for all real numbers except at x = 6 and x = 2.
Hence, the domain of f is R – {2, 6}.

Question 4:

Find the domain and the range of the real function f defined by

.

Discussion

The given real function is
It can be seen that
i.e.,

.

is defined for (x – 1) ≥ 0.
is defined for x ≥ 1.

Therefore, the domain of f is the set of all real numbers greater than or equal to 1 i.e.,
the domain of f = [1, ).
As x ≥ 1 ⇒ (x – 1) ≥ 0 ⇒

Therefore, the range of f is the set of all real numbers greater than or equal to 0 i.e.,
the range of f = [0, ).

89

Question 5:

Find the domain and the range of the real function f defined by f (x) = |x – 1|.

Discussion

The given real function is f (x) = |x – 1|.
It is clear that |x – 1| is defined for all real numbers.
∴Domain of f = R

Also, for x ∈ R, |x – 1| assumes all real numbers. Hence, the range of f is the set of all
non-negative real numbers.

Question 6:

Let

be a function from R into R. Determine the range of f.

Discussion

The range of f is the set of all second elements. It can be observed that all these
elements are greater than or equal to 0 but less than 1.

90

[Denominator is greater numerator]
Thus, range of f = [0, 1)

Question 7:

Let f, g: R → R be defined, respectively by f(x) = x + 1, g(x) = 2x – 3. Find f + g, f –
g and

.

Discussion

f, g: R → R is defined as f(x) = x + 1, g(x) = 2x – 3
(f + g) (x) = f(x) + g(x) = (x + 1) + (2x – 3) = 3x – 2
∴(f + g) (x) = 3x – 2

(f – g) (x) = f(x) – g(x) = (x + 1) – (2x – 3) = x + 1 – 2x + 3 = – x + 4
∴ (f – g) (x) = –x + 4

Question 8:

Let f = {(1, 1), (2, 3), (0, –1), (–1, –3)} be a function from Z to Z defined by f(x)

91

= ax + b, for some integers a, b. Determine a, b.

Discussion

f = {(1, 1), (2, 3), (0, –1), (–1, –3)}
f(x) = ax + b
(1, 1) ∈ f

⇒ f(1) = 1

⇒a×1+b=1
⇒a+b=1
(0, –1) ∈ f

⇒ f(0) = –1

⇒ a × 0 + b = –1
⇒ b = –1

On substituting b = –1 in a + b = 1, we obtain a + (–1) = 1 ⇒ a = 1 + 1 = 2.
Thus, the respective values of a and b are 2 and –1.

Question 9:

Let R be a relation from N to N defined by R = {(a, b): a, b ∈ N and a = b2}. Are the
following true?
(i) (a, a) ∈ R, for all a ∈ N (ii) (a, b) ∈ R, implies (b, a) ∈ R
(iii) (a, b) ∈ R, (b, c) ∈ R implies (a, c) ∈ R.

92

Discussion

R = {(a, b): a, b ∈ N and a = b2}

(i) It can be seen that 2 ∈ N;however, 2 ≠ 22 = 4.

Therefore, the statement “(a, a) ∈ R, for all a ∈ N” is not true.
(ii) It can be seen that (9, 3) ∈ N because 9, 3 ∈ N and 9 = 32.
Now, 3 ≠ 92 = 81; therefore, (3, 9) ∉ N

Therefore, the statement “(a, b) ∈ R, implies (b, a) ∈ R” is not true.

(iii) It can be seen that (9, 3) ∈ R, (16, 4) ∈ R because 9, 3, 16, 4 ∈ N and 9 = 32 and
16 = 42.
Now, 9 ≠ 42 = 16; therefore, (9, 4) ∉ N

Therefore, the statement “(a, b) ∈ R, (b, c) ∈ R implies (a, c) ∈ R” is not true.

Question 10:

Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {1, 5, 9, 11, 15, 16} and f = {(1, 5), (2, 9), (3, 1), (4, 5), (2,
11)}. Are the following true?
(i) f is a relation from A to B (ii) f is a function from A to B.

Discussion

A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {1, 5, 9, 11, 15, 16}

93

∴A × B = {(1, 1), (1, 5), (1, 9), (1, 11), (1, 15), (1, 16), (2, 1), (2, 5), (2, 9), (2, 11), (2,
15), (2, 16), (3, 1), (3, 5), (3, 9), (3, 11), (3, 15), (3, 16), (4, 1), (4, 5), (4, 9), (4, 11),
(4, 15), (4, 16)}
It is given that f = {(1, 5), (2, 9), (3, 1), (4, 5), (2, 11)}
(i) A relation from a non-empty set A to a non-empty set B is a subset of the Cartesian
product A × B.
It is observed that f is a subset of A × B.
Thus, f is a relation from A to B.
(ii) Since the same first element i.e., 2 corresponds to two different images i.e., 9 and
11, relation f is not a function.

Question 11:

Let f be the subset of Z × Z defined by f = {(ab, a + b): a, b ∈ Z}. Is f a function
from Z to Z: justify your answer.

Discussion

The relation f is defined as f = {(ab, a + b): a, b ∈ Z}

We know that a relation f from a set A to a set B is said to be a function if every
element of set A has unique images in set B.
Since 2, 6, –2, –6 ∈ Z, (2 × 6, 2 + 6), (–2 × –6, –2 + (–6)) ∈ f
i.e., (12, 8), (12, –8) ∈ f

It can be seen that the same first element i.e., 12 corresponds to two different images
i.e., 8 and –8. Thus, relation f is not a function.

94

Question 12:

Let A = {9, 10, 11, 12, 13} and let f: A → N be defined by f(n) = the highest prime
factor of n. Find the range of f.

Discussion

A = {9, 10, 11, 12, 13}
f: A → N is defined as
f(n) = The highest prime factor of n
Prime factor of 9 = 3
Prime factors of 10 = 2, 5
Prime factor of 11 = 11
Prime factors of 12 = 2, 3
Prime factor of 13 = 13

∴f(9) = The highest prime factor of 9 = 3

f(10) = The highest prime factor of 10 = 5
f(11) = The highest prime factor of 11 = 11
f(12) = The highest prime factor of 12 = 3
f(13) = The highest prime factor of 13 = 13

The range of f is the set of all f(n), where n ∈ A.
∴Range of f = {3, 5, 11, 13}

95

Exercise: 3.1
Question 1:

Find the radian measures corresponding to the following degree measures:
(i) 25° (ii) – 47° 30' (iii) 240° (iv) 520°

Discussion

(i) 25°
We know that 180° = π radian

(ii) –47° 30'

–47° 30' =

degree [1° = 60']

degree
Since 180° = π radian

96

(iii) 240°
We know that 180° = π radian

(iv) 520°
We know that 180° = π radian

Question 2:

Find the degree measures corresponding to the following radian measures

.

(i)

(ii) – 4 (iii)

(iv)

Discussion

(i)
We know that π radian = 180°

97

(ii) – 4
We know that π radian = 180°

(iii)
We know that π radian = 180°

(iv)
We know that π radian = 180°

98

Question 3:

A wheel makes 360 revolutions in one minute. Through how many radians does it turn in one
second?

Discussion

Number of revolutions made by the wheel in 1 minute = 360
∴Number of revolutions made by the wheel in 1 second =

In one complete revolution, the wheel turns an angle of 2π radian.
Hence, in 6 complete revolutions, it will turn an angle of 6 × 2π radian, i.e.,
Thus, in one second, the wheel turns an angle of 12π radian.

Question 4:

Find the degree measure of the angle subtended at the centre of a circle of radius 100 cm by an
arc of length 22 cm

.

Discussion

We know that in a circle of radius r unit, if an arc of length l unit subtends an angle θ radian at
the centre, then

99

Therefore, forr = 100 cm, l = 22 cm, we have

Thus, the required angle is 12°36′.

Question 5:

In a circle of diameter 40 cm, the length of a chord is 20 cm. Find the length of minor arc of the
chord.

Discussion

Diameter of the circle = 40 cm
∴Radius (r) of the circle =

Let AB be a chord (length = 20 cm) of the circle.

In ΔOAB, OA = OB = Radius of circle = 20 cm
Also, AB = 20 cm
Thus, ΔOAB is an equilateral triangle.

100

∴θ = 60° =

We know that in a circle of radius r unit, if an arc of length l unit subtends an angle θ radian at
the centre, then

.

Thus, the length of the minor arc of the chord is

.

Question 6:

If in two circles, arcs of the same length subtend angles 60° and 75° at the centre, find the ratio of

Discussion

Let the radii of the two circles be and . Let an arc of length l subtend an angle of 60° at the
centre of the circle of radius r1, while let an arc of length l subtend an angle of 75° at the centre of
the circle of radius r2.

Now, 60° =

and 75° =

We know that in a circle of radius r unit, if an arc of length l unit subtends an angle θ radian at
the centre, then

.

101

Thus, the ratio of the radii is 5:4.

Question 7:

Find the angle in radian though which a pendulum swings if its length is 75 cm and the tip
describes an arc of length
(i) 10 cm (ii) 15 cm (iii) 21 cm

Discussion

We know that in a circle of radius r unit, if an arc of length l unit subtends an angle θ radian at
the centre, then

.

It is given that r = 75 cm
(i) Here, l = 10 cm

(ii) Here, l = 15 cm

(iii) Here, l = 21 cm

102

Exercise:3.2

Question 1:

Find the values of other five trigonometric functions if

Discussion

103

, x lies in third quadrant.

Since x lies in the 3rd quadrant, the value of sin x will be negative.

Question 2:

Find the values of other five trigonometric functions if

Discussion

104

, x lies in second quadrant.

Since x lies in the 2nd quadrant, the value of cos x will be negative

Question 3:

Find the values of other five trigonometric functions if

105

, x lies in third quadrant.

Discussion

Since x lies in the 3rd quadrant, the value of sec x will be negative.

Question 4:

106

Find the values of other five trigonometric functions if

Discussion

Since x lies in the 4th quadrant, the value of sin x will be negative.

107

, x lies in fourth quadrant.

Question 5:

Find the values of other five trigonometric functions if

Discussion

Since x lies in the 2nd quadrant, the value of sec x will be negative.
∴sec x =

108

, x lies in second quadrant.

Question 6:

Find the value of the trigonometric function sin 765°

Discussion

It is known that the values of sin x repeat after an interval of 2π or 360°.

Question 7:

Find the value of the trigonometric function cosec (–1410°)

Discussion

It is known that the values of cosec x repeat after an interval of 2π or 360°.

109

Question 8:

Find the value of the trigonometric function

Discussion

It is known that the values of tan x repeat after an interval of π or 180°.

Question 9:

Find the value of the trigonometric function

Discussion

It is known that the values of sin x repeat after an interval of 2π or 360°.

Question 10:

Find the value of the trigonometric function

110

Discussion

It is known that the values of cot x repeat after an interval of π or 180°.

111

Exercise:3.3
Question 1:

Discussion

L.H.S. =

Question 2:

Prove that

Discussion

L.H.S. =

112

Question 3:

Prove that

Discussion

L.H.S. =

Question 4:

Prove that

Discussion

113

L.H.S =

Question 5:

Find the value of:
(i) sin 75°
(ii) tan 15°

Discussion

(i) sin 75° = sin (45° + 30°)
= sin 45° cos 30° + cos 45° sin 30°
[sin (x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y]

(ii) tan 15° = tan (45° – 30°)

114

Question 6:

Prove that:

Discussion

115

Question 7:

Prove that:

Discussion

It is known that

∴L.H.S. =

Question 8:

116

Prove that

Discussion

Question 9:

Discussion

L.H.S. =

117

Question 10:

Prove that sin (n + 1)x sin (n + 2)x + cos (n + 1)x cos (n + 2)x = cos x

Discussion

L.H.S. = sin (n + 1)x sin(n + 2)x + cos (n + 1)x cos(n + 2)x

Question 11:

Prove that

118

Discussion

It is known that

.

∴L.H.S. =

Question 12:

Prove that sin2 6x – sin2 4x = sin 2x sin 10x

Discussion

It is known that
∴L.H.S. = sin26x – sin24x

= (sin 6x + sin 4x) (sin 6x – sin 4x)

119

= (2 sin 5x cos x) (2 cos 5x sin x)
= (2 sin 5x cos 5x) (2 sin x cos x)
= sin 10x sin 2x
= R.H.S.

Question 13:

Prove that cos2 2x – cos2 6x = sin 4x sin 8x

Discussion

It is known that
∴L.H.S. = cos2 2x – cos2 6x

= (cos 2x + cos 6x) (cos 2x – 6x)

= [2 cos 4x cos 2x] [–2 sin 4x (–sin 2x)]
= (2 sin 4x cos 4x) (2 sin 2x cos 2x)
= sin 8x sin 4x
= R.H.S.

120

Question 14:

Prove that sin 2x + 2sin 4x + sin 6x = 4cos2 x sin 4x

Discussion

L.H.S. = sin 2x + 2 sin 4x + sin 6x
= [sin 2x + sin 6x] + 2 sin 4x

= 2 sin 4x cos (– 2x) + 2 sin 4x
= 2 sin 4x cos 2x + 2 sin 4x
= 2 sin 4x (cos 2x + 1)
= 2 sin 4x (2 cos2 x – 1 + 1)
= 2 sin 4x (2 cos2 x)
= 4cos2 x sin 4x
= R.H.S.

Question 15:

Prove that cot 4x (sin 5x + sin 3x) = cot x (sin 5x – sin 3x)

121

Discussion

L.H.S = cot 4x (sin 5x + sin 3x)

= 2 cos 4x cos x
R.H.S. = cot x (sin 5x – sin 3x)

= 2 cos 4x. cos x
L.H.S. = R.H.S.

Question 16:

Prove that

Discussion

It is known that

122

∴L.H.S =

Question 17:

Prove that

Discussion

It is known that

∴L.H.S. =

123

Question 18:

Prove that

Discussion

It is known that

∴L.H.S. =

124

Question 19:

Prove that

Discussion

It is known that

∴L.H.S. =

Question 20:

Prove that

Discussion

It is known that

125

∴L.H.S. =

Question 21:

Prove that

Discussion

L.H.S. =

126

Question 22:

Prove that cot x cot 2x – cot 2x cot 3x – cot 3x cot x = 1

Discussion

L.H.S. = cot x cot 2x – cot 2x cot 3x – cot 3x cot x
= cot x cot 2x – cot 3x (cot 2x + cot x)
= cot x cot 2x – cot (2x + x) (cot 2x + cot x)

= cot x cot 2x – (cot 2x cot x – 1)
= 1 = R.H.S.

127

Question 23:

Prove that

Discussion

It is known that

∴L.H.S. = tan 4x = tan 2(2x)

.

128

Question 24:

Prove that cos 4x = 1 – 8sin2 x cos2 x

Discussion

L.H.S. = cos 4x
= cos 2(2x)
= 1 – 2 sin2 2x [cos 2A = 1 – 2 sin2 A]
= 1 – 2(2 sin x cos x)2 [sin2A = 2sin A cosA]
= 1 – 8 sin2x cos2x
= R.H.S.

Question 25:

Prove that: cos 6x = 32 cos6 x – 48 cos4 x + 18 cos2 x – 1

Discussion

L.H.S. = cos 6x
= cos 3(2x)
= 4 cos3 2x – 3 cos 2x [cos 3A = 4 cos3 A – 3 cos A]
= 4 [(2 cos2 x – 1)3 – 3 (2 cos2 x – 1) [cos 2x = 2 cos2 x – 1]
= 4 [(2 cos2 x)3 – (1)3 – 3 (2 cos2 x)2 + 3 (2 cos2 x)] – 6cos2 x + 3
= 4 [8cos6x – 1 – 12 cos4x + 6 cos2x] – 6 cos2x + 3
= 32 cos6x – 4 – 48 cos4x + 24 cos2 x – 6 cos2x + 3

129

= 32 cos6x – 48 cos4x + 18 cos2x – 1
= R.H.S.

Exercise:3.4
Question 1:

Find the principal and general solutions of the equation

Discussion

Therefore, the principal solutions are x =

and

.

130

Therefore, the general solution is

Question 2:

Find the principal and general solutions of the equation

Discussion

Therefore, the principal solutions are x =

and

.

Question 3:

Find the principal and general solutions of the equation

Discussion

Therefore, the principal solutions are x =

and

131

.

Therefore, the general solution is

Question 4:

Find the general solution of cosec x = –2

Discussion

cosec x = –2

Therefore, the principal solutions are x =

.

132

Therefore, the general solution is

Question 5:

Find the general solution of the equation

Discussion

133

Question 6:

Find the general solution of the equation

Discussion

Question 7:

Find the general solution of the equation

Discussion

134

Therefore, the general solution is

.

Question 8:

Find the general solution of the equation

Discussion

135

Therefore, the general solution is

.

Question 8:

Find the general solution of the equation

Discussion

136

Therefore, the general solution is

.

Therefore, the general solution is

, where n ∈ Z

Question 9:

Find the general solution of the equation

Discussion

137

Therefore, the general solution is

Exercise:3.5
Question 1:

Prove that:

138

Discussion

L.H.S.

= 0 = R.H.S

Question 2:

Prove that: (sin 3x + sin x) sin x + (cos 3x – cos x) cos x = 0

Discussion

L.H.S.

139

= (sin 3x + sin x) sin x + (cos 3x – cos x) cos x

= RH.S.

NCERT Solution Miscellaneous « Page 82

Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10

Question 3:

Prove that:

Discussion

L.H.S. =

140

Question 4:

Prove that:

Discussion

L.H.S. =

Question 5:

Prove that:

Discussion

It is known that

.

∴L.H.S. =

141

Question 6:

Prove that:

Discussion

It is known that

.

L.H.S. =

142

= tan 6x
= R.H.S.

NCERT Solution Miscellaneous « Page 82

Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10

Question 7:

Prove that:

Discussion

L.H.S. =

143

Question 8:

, x in quadrant II

Discussion

Here, x is in quadrant II.

i.e.,

144

Therefore,

are all positive.

As x is in quadrant II, cosx is negative.

Question 10:

Find

for

, x in quadrant II

Discussion

145

Here, x is in quadrant II.

Therefore,

, and

are all positive.

[cosx is negative in quadrant II]

146

Thus, the respective values of

are

147

.

Thus, the respective values of

are

Question 9:

Find

for

, x in quadrant III

Discussion

Here, x is in quadrant III.

Therefore,

and

are negative, whereas

148

is positive.

.

Now,

Thus, the respective values of

are

Exercise 4.1
Question 1:

Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for all n ∈ N:

149

.

Discussion

Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,

P(n): 1 + 3 + 32 + …+ 3n–1 =
For n = 1, we have

P(1): 1 =

, which is true.

Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,

We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true.
Consider
1 + 3 + 32 + … + 3k–1 + 3(k+1) – 1
= (1 + 3 + 32 +… + 3k–1) + 3k

150

Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers
i.e., n.

Question 2:

Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for

all n ∈ N:

Discussion

Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,

P(n):
For n = 1, we have

P(1): 13 = 1 =

, which is true.

Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,

We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true.
Consider
13 + 23 + 33 + … + k3 + (k + 1)3

151

= (13 + 23 + 33 + …. + k3) + (k + 1)3
Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers
i.e., n.

Question 3:

Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for

all n ∈ N:

Discussion

Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,

152

P(n):
For n = 1, we have

P(1): 1 =

which is true.

Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,

We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true.
Consider

153

Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers
i.e., n.

Question 4:

Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for all n ∈ N: 1.2.3 + 2.3.4
+ … + n(n + 1) (n + 2) =

Discussion

Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,

P(n): 1.2.3 + 2.3.4 + … + n(n + 1) (n + 2) =
For n = 1, we have

P(1): 1.2.3 = 6 =

, which is true.

Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,

1.2.3 + 2.3.4 + … + k(k + 1) (k + 2)
We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true.
Consider
1.2.3 + 2.3.4 + … + k(k + 1) (k + 2) + (k + 1) (k + 2) (k + 3)
= {1.2.3 + 2.3.4 + … + k(k + 1) (k + 2)} + (k + 1) (k + 2) (k + 3)

154

Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers
i.e., n.

Question 5:

Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for

all n ∈ N:

Discussion

Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,

P(n) :
For n = 1, we have

155

P(1): 1.3 = 3

, which is true.

Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,

We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true.
Consider
1.3 + 2.32 + 3.33 + … + k3k+ (k + 1) 3k+1
= (1.3 + 2.32 + 3.33 + …+ k.3k) + (k + 1) 3k+1

Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers
i.e., n.

Question 6:

156

Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for

all n ∈ N:

Discussion

Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,

P(n):
For n = 1, we have

P(1):

, which is true.

Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,

We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true.
Consider
1.2 + 2.3 + 3.4 + … + k.(k + 1) + (k + 1).(k + 2)
= [1.2 + 2.3 + 3.4 + … + k.(k + 1)] + (k + 1).(k + 2)

Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.

157

Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers
i.e., n.

Question 7:

Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for

all n ∈ N:

Discussion

Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,

P(n):
For n = 1, we have

, which is true.
Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,

We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true.
Consider
(1.3 + 3.5 + 5.7 + … + (2k – 1) (2k + 1) + {2(k + 1) – 1}{2(k + 1) + 1}

158

Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers
i.e., n.

Question 8:

Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for all n ∈ N: 1.2 + 2.22 +
3.22 + … + n.2n = (n – 1) 2n+1 + 2

159

Discussion

Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,
P(n): 1.2 + 2.22 + 3.22 + … + n.2n = (n – 1) 2n+1 + 2
For n = 1, we have
P(1): 1.2 = 2 = (1 – 1) 21+1 + 2 = 0 + 2 = 2, which is true.
Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,
1.2 + 2.22 + 3.22 + … + k.2k = (k – 1) 2k + 1 + 2 … (i)
We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true.
Consider

Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers
i.e., n.

Question 9:

Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for
all n ∈ N:

160

Discussion

Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,

P(n):
For n = 1, we have

P(1):

, which is true.

Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,

We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true.
Consider

Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers
i.e., n.

161

Question 10:

Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for

all n ∈ N:

Discussion

Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,

P(n):
For n = 1, we have

, which is true.
Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,

We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true.
Consider

162

Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers
i.e., n.

Question 11:

Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for

all n ∈ N:

Discussion

Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,

163

P(n):
For n = 1, we have

, which is true.
Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,

We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true.
Consider

164

Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers
i.e., n.

Question 12:

Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for

all n ∈ N:

Discussion

Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,

For n = 1, we have

, which is true.
Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,

165

We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true.
Consider

Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers
i.e., n.

Question 13:

Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for

all n ∈ N:

Discussion

Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,

166

For n = 1, we have

Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,

We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true.
Consider

Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers
i.e., n.

Question 14:

Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for

167

all n ∈ N:

Discussion

Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,

For n = 1, we have

, which is true.
Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,

We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true.
Consider

Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers
i.e., n.

168

Question 15:

Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for

all n ∈ N:

Discussion

Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,

Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,

We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true.
Consider

169

Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers
i.e., n.

Question 16:

Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for

all n ∈ N:

Discussion

Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,

Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,

170

We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true.
Consider

Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers
i.e., n.

Question 17:

Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for
all n ∈ N:

171

Discussion

Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,

For n = 1, we have

, which is true.
Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,

We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true.
Consider

172

Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers
i.e., n.

Question 18:

Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for

all n ∈ N:

Discussion

173

Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,

It can be noted that P(n) is true for n = 1 since

.

Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,

We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Consider

Hence,
Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers
i.e., n.

Question 19:

174

Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for all n ∈ N: n (n + 1) (n+
5) is a multiple of 3.

Discussion

Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,
P(n): n (n + 1) (n + 5), which is a multiple of 3.
It can be noted that P(n) is true for n = 1 since 1 (1 + 1) (1 + 5) = 12, which is a multiple of 3.
Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,
k (k + 1) (k + 5) is a multiple of 3.

∴k (k + 1) (k + 5) = 3m, where m ∈ N … (1)

We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Consider

Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers
i.e., n.

175

Question 20:

Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for all n ∈ N: 102n – 1 + 1 is
divisible by 11.

Discussion

Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,
P(n): 102n – 1 + 1 is divisible by 11.
It can be observed that P(n) is true for n = 1 since P(1) = 102.1 – 1 + 1 = 11, which is divisible by 11.
Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,
102k – 1 + 1 is divisible by 11.

∴102k – 1 + 1 = 11m, where m ∈ N … (1)

We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Consider

Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers

176

i.e., n.

Question 21:

Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for all n ∈ N: x2n – y2n is
divisible by x + y.

Discussion

Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,
P(n): x2n – y2n is divisible by x + y.
It can be observed that P(n) is true for n = 1.
This is so because x2 × 1 – y2 × 1 = x2 – y2 = (x + y) (x – y) is divisible by (x + y).
Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,
x2k – y2k is divisible by x + y.

∴x2k – y2k = m (x + y), where m ∈ N … (1)

We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Consider

177

Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers
i.e., n.

Question 22:

Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for all n ∈ N: 32n + 2 – 8n – 9
is divisible by 8.

Discussion

Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,
P(n): 32n + 2 – 8n – 9 is divisible by 8.
It can be observed that P(n) is true for n = 1 since 32 × 1 + 2 – 8 × 1 – 9 = 64, which is divisible by 8.
Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,
32k + 2 – 8k – 9 is divisible by 8.

∴32k + 2 – 8k – 9 = 8m; where m ∈ N … (1)

We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Consider

178

Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers
i.e., n.

Question 23:

Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for all n ∈ N: 41n – 14n is a
multiple of 27.

Discussion

Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,
P(n):41n – 14nis a multiple of 27.
It can be observed that P(n) is true for n = 1 since
Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,
41k – 14kis a multiple of 27

∴41k – 14k = 27m, where m ∈ N … (1)

179

, which is a multiple of 27.

We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Consider

Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers
i.e., n.

Question 24:

Prove the following by using the principle of mathematical induction for all
(2n +7) < (n + 3)2

Discussion

Let the given statement be P(n), i.e.,
P(n): (2n +7) < (n + 3)2
It can be observed that P(n) is true for n = 1 since 2.1 + 7 = 9 < (1 + 3)2 = 16, which is true.
Let P(k) be true for some positive integer k, i.e.,

180

(2k + 7) < (k + 3)2 … (1)
We shall now prove that P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Consider

Thus, P(k + 1) is true whenever P(k) is true.
Hence, by the principle of mathematical induction, statement P(n) is true for all natural numbers
i.e., n.

181

Exercise 5.1
Question 1:

Express the given complex number in the form a + ib:

Discussion

Question 2:

Express the given complex number in the form a + ib: i9 + i19

Discussion

Question 3:

182

Express the given complex number in the form a + ib: i–39

Discussion

Question 4:

Express the given complex number in the form a + ib: 3(7 + i7) + i(7 + i7)

Discussion

Question 5:

Express the given complex number in the form a + ib: (1 – i) – (–1 + i6)

Discussion

Question 6:

183

Express the given complex number in the form a + ib:

Discussion

Question 7:

Express the given complex number in the form a + ib:

Discussion

184

Question 8:

Express the given complex number in the form a + ib: (1 – i)4

Discussion

Question 9:

Express the given complex number in the form a + ib:

Discussion

185

Question 10:

Express the given complex number in the form a + ib:

Discussion

186

Question 11:

Find the multiplicative inverse of the complex number 4 – 3i

Discussion

Let z = 4 – 3i

Then,

= 4 + 3i and

Therefore, the multiplicative inverse of 4 – 3i is given by

187

Question 12:

Find the multiplicative inverse of the complex number

Discussion

Let z =

Therefore, the multiplicative inverse of

is given by

Question 13:

Find the multiplicative inverse of the complex number –i

Discussion

Let z = –i

Therefore, the multiplicative inverse of –i is given by

Question 14:

Express the following expression in the form of a + ib.

188

Discussion

189

Exercise;5.2
Question 1:

Find the modulus and the argument of the complex number

Discussion

On squaring and adding, we obtain

Since both the values of sin θ and cos θ are negative and sinθ and cosθ are negative in III quadrant,

Thus, the modulus and argument of the complex number

Question 2:

190

are 2 and

respectively.

Find the modulus and the argument of the complex number

Discussion

On squaring and adding, we obtain

Thus, the modulus and argument of the complex number

Question 3:

Convert the given complex number in polar form: 1 – i

Discussion

1–i
Let r cos θ = 1 and r sin θ = –1

191

are 2 and

respectively.

On squaring and adding, we obtain

This is

the required polar form.

Question 4:

Convert the given complex number in polar form: – 1 + i

Discussion

–1+i
Let r cos θ = –1 and r sin θ = 1
On squaring and adding, we obtain

192

It can be written,

This is the required polar form.

Question 5:

Convert the given complex number in polar form: – 1 – i

Discussion

–1–i
Let r cos θ = –1 and r sin θ = –1
On squaring and adding, we obtain

193

This is the

required polar form.

Question 6:

Convert the given complex number in polar form: –3

Discussion

–3
Let r cos θ = –3 and r sin θ = 0
On squaring and adding, we obtain

194

This is the required polar form.

NCERT Solution Exercise 5.2 « Page 108»

Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8

Question 7:

Convert the given complex number in polar form:

Discussion

Let r cos θ =

and r sin θ = 1

On squaring and adding, we obtain

This is the required polar form.

195

Question 8:

Convert the given complex number in polar form: i

Discussion

i
Let r cosθ = 0 and r sin θ = 1
On squaring and adding, we obtain

This is the required polar form.

196

Exercise 5.3
Question 1:

Solve the equation x2 + 3 = 0

Discussion

The given quadratic equation is x2 + 3 = 0
On comparing the given equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we obtain
a = 1, b = 0, and c = 3
Therefore, the discriminant of the given equation is

197

D = b2 – 4ac = 02 – 4 × 1 × 3 = –12
Therefore, the required solutions are

Question 2:

Solve the equation 2x2 + x + 1 = 0

Discussion

The given quadratic equation is 2x2 + x + 1 = 0
On comparing the given equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we obtain
a = 2, b = 1, and c = 1
Therefore, the discriminant of the given equation is
D = b2 – 4ac = 12 – 4 × 2 × 1 = 1 – 8 = –7
Therefore, the required solutions are

Question 3:

Solve the equation x2 + 3x + 9 = 0

198

Discussion

The given quadratic equation is x2 + 3x + 9 = 0
On comparing the given equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we obtain
a = 1, b = 3, and c = 9
Therefore, the discriminant of the given equation is
D = b2 – 4ac = 32 – 4 × 1 × 9 = 9 – 36 = –27
Therefore, the required solutions are

Question 4:

Solve the equation –x2 + x – 2 = 0

Discussion

The given quadratic equation is –x2 + x – 2 = 0
On comparing the given equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we obtain
a = –1, b = 1, and c = –2
Therefore, the discriminant of the given equation is
D = b2 – 4ac = 12 – 4 × (–1) × (–2) = 1 – 8 = –7
Therefore, the required solutions are

199

Question 5:

Solve the equation x2 + 3x + 5 = 0

Discussion

The given quadratic equation is x2 + 3x + 5 = 0
On comparing the given equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we obtain
a = 1, b = 3, and c = 5
Therefore, the discriminant of the given equation is
D = b2 – 4ac = 32 – 4 × 1 × 5 =9 – 20 = –11
Therefore, the required solutions are

Question 6:

Solve the equation x2 – x + 2 = 0

Discussion

The given quadratic equation is x2 – x + 2 = 0
On comparing the given equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we obtain
a = 1, b = –1, and c = 2
Therefore, the discriminant of the given equation is

200

D = b2 – 4ac = (–1)2 – 4 × 1 × 2 = 1 – 8 = –7
Therefore, the required solutions are

Question 7:

Solve the equation

Discussion

The given quadratic equation is
On comparing the given equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we obtain
a=

, b = 1, and c =

Therefore, the discriminant of the given equation is
D = b2 – 4ac = 12 –

= 1 – 8 = –7

Therefore, the required solutions are

Question 8:

Solve the equation

201

Discussion

The given quadratic equation is
On comparing the given equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we obtain
a=

,b=

, and c =

Therefore, the discriminant of the given equation is

D = b2 – 4ac =
Therefore, the required solutions are

v
Question 9:

Solve the equation

Discussion

The given quadratic equation is
This equation can also be written as
On comparing this equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we obtain
a=

,b=

, and c = 1

202

Therefore, the required solutions are

Question 10:

Solve the equation

Discussion

The given quadratic equation is
This equation can also be written as
On comparing this equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we obtain
a=

, b = 1, and c =

Therefore, the required solutions are

203

Exercise 5.4
Question 1:

Evaluate:

Discussion

Question 2:

204

For any two complex numbers z1 and z2, prove that
Re (z1z2) = Re z1 Re z2 – Im z1 Im z2

Discussion

Question 3:

Reduce

to the standard form.

Discussion

205

Question 4:

If x – iy =

prove that

.

Discussion

206

Question 5:

Convert the following in the polar form:

(i)

, (ii)

Discussion

(i) Here,

207

Let r cos θ = –1 and r sin θ = 1
On squaring and adding, we obtain
r2 (cos2 θ + sin2 θ) = 1 + 1
⇒ r2 (cos2 θ + sin2 θ) = 2
⇒ r2 = 2

[cos2 θ + sin2 θ = 1]

∴z = r cos θ + i r sin θ

This is the required polar form.

(ii) Here,

Let r cos θ = –1 and r sin θ = 1
On squaring and adding, we obtain

208

r2 (cos2 θ + sin2 θ) = 1 + 1
⇒r2 (cos2 θ + sin2 θ) = 2
⇒ r2 = 2

[cos2 θ + sin2 θ = 1]

∴z = r cos θ + i r sin θ

This is the required polar form.

Question 6:

Solve the equation

Discussion

The given quadratic equation is
This equation can also be written as
On comparing this equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we obtain
a = 9, b = –12, and c = 20
Therefore, the discriminant of the given equation is
D = b2 – 4ac = (–12)2 – 4 × 9 × 20 = 144 – 720 = –576
Therefore, the required solutions are

209

Question 7:

Solve the equation

Discussion

The given quadratic equation is
This equation can also be written as
On comparing this equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we obtain
a = 2, b = –4, and c = 3
Therefore, the discriminant of the given equation is
D = b2 – 4ac = (–4)2 – 4 × 2 × 3 = 16 – 24 = –8
Therefore, the required solutions are

Question 8:

Solve the equation 27x2 – 10x + 1 = 0

210

Discussion

The given quadratic equation is 27x2 – 10x + 1 = 0
On comparing the given equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we obtain
a = 27, b = –10, and c = 1
Therefore, the discriminant of the given equation is
D = b2 – 4ac = (–10)2 – 4 × 27 × 1 = 100 – 108 = –8
Therefore, the required solutions are

Question 11:

If a + ib =

, prove that a2 + b2 =

Discussion

On comparing real and imaginary parts, we obtain

211

Hence, proved.

Question 12:

Let

(i)

. Find

, (ii)

Discussion

(i)

On multiplying numerator and denominator by (2 – i), we obtain

212

On comparing real parts, we obtain

(ii)
On comparing imaginary parts, we obtain

Question 9:

Solve the equation 21x2 – 28x + 10 = 0

Discussion

The given quadratic equation is 21x2 – 28x + 10 = 0
On comparing the given equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0, we obtain
a = 21, b = –28, and c = 10
Therefore, the discriminant of the given equation is
D = b2 – 4ac = (–28)2 – 4 × 21 × 10 = 784 – 840 = –56
Therefore, the required solutions are

213

Question 10:

If

find

.

Discussion

Question 11:

214

If a + ib =

, prove that a2 + b2 =

Discussion

On comparing real and imaginary parts, we obtain

Hence, proved.

Question 12:

215

Let

(i)

. Find

, (ii)

Discussion

(i)

On multiplying numerator and denominator by (2 – i), we obtain

On comparing real parts, we obtain

(ii)
On comparing imaginary parts, we obtain

216

Question 13:

Find the modulus and argument of the complex number

.

Discussion

Let

, then

On squaring and adding, we obtain

Therefore, the modulus and argument of the given complex number are

Question 14:

217

respectively.

Find the real numbers x and y if (x – iy) (3 + 5i) is the conjugate of –6 – 24i.

Discussion

Let

It is given that,

Equating real and imaginary parts, we obtain

Multiplying equation (i) by 3 and equation (ii) by 5 and then adding them, we obtain

Putting the value of x in equation (i), we obtain

Thus, the values of x and y are 3 and –3 respectively.

Question 15:

218

Find the modulus of

.

Discussion

Question 16:

If (x + iy)3 = u + iv, then show that

.

Discussion

On equating real and imaginary parts, we obtain

219

Hence, proved.

Question 17:

If α and β are different complex numbers with

= 1, then find

Discussion

Let α = a + ib and β = x + iy
It is given that,

220

.

Question 18:

Find the number of non-zero integral solutions of the equation

Discussion

221

.

Thus, 0 is the only integral solution of the given equation. Therefore, the number of non-zero integral solutions of
the given equation is 0.

Question 19:

If (a + ib) (c + id) (e + if) (g + ih) = A + iB, then show that
(a2 + b2) (c2 + d2) (e2 + f2) (g2 + h2) = A2 + B2.

Discussion

On squaring both sides, we obtain
(a2 + b2) (c2 + d2) (e2 + f2) (g2 + h2) = A2 + B2
Hence, proved.

222

Question 20:

If

, then find the least positive integral value of m.

Discussion

Therefore, the least positive integer is 1.
Thus, the least positive integral value of m is 4 (= 4 × 1).

223

Exercise: 6.1
Question 1:

Solve 24x < 100, when (i) x is a natural number (ii) x is an integer

Discussion

The given inequality is 24x < 100.

(i) It is evident that 1, 2, 3, and 4 are the only natural numbers less than

.

Thus, when x is a natural number, the solutions of the given inequality are 1, 2, 3, and 4.
Hence, in this case, the solution set is {1, 2, 3, 4}.
(ii) The integers less than

are …–3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4.

Thus, when x is an integer, the solutions of the given inequality are
…–3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4.
Hence, in this case, the solution set is {…–3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4}.

224

Question 2:

Solve –12x > 30, when
(i) x is a natural number (ii) x is an integer

Discussion

The given inequality is –12x > 30.

(i) There is no natural number less than

.

Thus, when x is a natural number, there is no solution of the given inequality.

(ii) The integers less than

are …, –5, –4, –3.

Thus, when x is an integer, the solutions of the given inequality are
…, –5, –4, –3.
Hence, in this case, the solution set is {…, –5, –4, –3}.

Question 3:

Solve 5x– 3 < 7, when

225

(i) x is an integer (ii) x is a real number

Discussion

The given inequality is 5x– 3 < 7.

(i) The integers less than 2 are …, –4, –3, –2, –1, 0, 1.
Thus, when x is an integer, the solutions of the given inequality are
…, –4, –3, –2, –1, 0, 1.
Hence, in this case, the solution set is {…, –4, –3, –2, –1, 0, 1}.
(ii) When x is a real number, the solutions of the given inequality are given by x < 2, that
is, all real numbers x which are less than 2.
Thus, the solution set of the given inequality is x ∈ (–∞, 2).

Question 4:

Solve 3x + 8 > 2, when
(i) x is an integer (ii) x is a real number

Discussion

226

The given inequality is 3x + 8 > 2.

(i) The integers greater than –2 are –1, 0, 1, 2, …
Thus, when x is an integer, the solutions of the given inequality are
–1, 0, 1, 2 …
Hence, in this case, the solution set is {–1, 0, 1, 2, …}.
(ii) When x is a real number, the solutions of the given inequality are all the real
numbers, which are greater than –2.
Thus, in this case, the solution set is (– 2, ∞).

Question 5:

Solve the given inequality for real x: 4x + 3 < 5x + 7

Discussion

4x + 3 < 5x + 7

⇒ 4x + 3 – 7 < 5x + 7 – 7
⇒ 4x – 4 < 5x

⇒ 4x – 4 – 4x < 5x – 4x

227

⇒ –4 < x

Thus, all real numbers x,which are greater than –4, are the solutions of the given
inequality.
Hence, the solution set of the given inequality is (–4, ∞).

Question 6:

Solve the given inequality for real x: 3x – 7 > 5x – 1

Discussion

3x – 7 > 5x – 1

⇒ 3x – 7 + 7 > 5x – 1 + 7
⇒ 3x > 5x + 6

⇒ 3x – 5x > 5x + 6 – 5x
⇒ – 2x > 6

Thus, all real numbers x,which are less than –3, are the solutions of the given inequality.
Hence, the solution set of the given inequality is (–∞, –3).

228

Question 7:

Solve the given inequality for real x: 3(x – 1) ≤ 2 (x – 3)

Discussion

3(x – 1) ≤ 2(x – 3)
⇒ 3x – 3 ≤ 2x – 6

⇒ 3x – 3 + 3 ≤ 2x – 6 + 3
⇒ 3x ≤ 2x – 3

⇒ 3x – 2x ≤ 2x – 3 – 2x
⇒x≤–3

Thus, all real numbers x,which are less than or equal to –3, are the solutions of the given
inequality.
Hence, the solution set of the given inequality is (–∞, –3].

Question 8:

Solve the given inequality for real x: 3(2 – x) ≥ 2(1 – x)

Discussion

3(2 – x) ≥ 2(1 – x)
⇒ 6 – 3x ≥ 2 – 2x

229

⇒ 6 – 3x + 2x ≥ 2 – 2x + 2x
⇒6–x≥2

⇒6–x–6≥2–6
⇒ –x ≥ –4
⇒x≤4

Thus, all real numbers x,which are less than or equal to 4, are the solutions of the given
inequality.
Hence, the solution set of the given inequality is (–∞, 4].

Question 9:

Solve the given inequality for real x:

Discussion

230

Thus, all real numbers x,which are less than 6, are the solutions of the given inequality.
Hence, the solution set of the given inequality is (–∞, 6).

Question 10:

Solve the given inequality for real x:

Discussion

Thus, all real numbers x,which are less than –6, are the solutions of the given inequality.
Hence, the solution set of the given inequality is (–∞, –6).

Question 11:

Solve the given inequality for real x:

231

Discussion

Thus, all real numbers x,which are less than or equal to 2, are the solutions of the given
inequality.
Hence, the solution set of the given inequality is (–∞, 2].

Question 12:

Solve the given inequality for real x:

Discussion

232

Thus, all real numbers x,which are less than or equal to 120, are the solutions of the
given inequality.
Hence, the solution set of the given inequality is (–∞, 120].

Question 13:

Solve the given inequality for real x: 2(2x + 3) – 10 < 6 (x – 2)

Discussion

Thus, all real numbers x,which are greater than or equal to 4, are the solutions of the

233

given inequality.
Hence, the solution set of the given inequality is [4, ∞).

Question 14:

Solve the given inequality for real x: 37 – (3x + 5) ≥ 9x – 8(x – 3)

Discussion

Thus, all real numbers x,which are less than or equal to 2, are the solutions of the given
inequality.
Hence, the solution set of the given inequality is (–∞, 2].

Question 15:

Solve the given inequality for real x:

Discussion

234

Thus, all real numbers x,which are greater than 4, are the solutions of the given
inequality.
Hence, the solution set of the given inequality is (4, ∞).

Question 16:

Solve the given inequality for real x:

Discussion

235

Thus, all real numbers x,which are less than or equal to 2, are the solutions of the given
inequality.
Hence, the solution set of the given inequality is (–∞, 2].

Question 17:

Solve the given inequality and show the graph of the solution on number line: 3x – 2 <
2x +1

Discussion

3x – 2 < 2x +1

⇒ 3x – 2x < 1 + 2
⇒x<3

The graphical representation of the solutions of the given inequality is as follows.

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Question 19:

Solve the given inequality and show the graph of the solution on number line: 3(1 – x) <
2 (x + 4)

Discussion

The graphical representation of the solutions of the given inequality is as follows.

Question 20:

Solve the given inequality and show the graph of the solution on number
line:

237

Discussion

The graphical representation of the solutions of the given inequality is as follows.

Question 21:

Ravi obtained 70 and 75 marks in first two unit test. Find the minimum marks he should
get in the third test to have an average of at least 60 marks.

Discussion

Let x be the marks obtained by Ravi in the third unit test.

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Since the student should have an average of at least 60 marks,

Thus, the student must obtain a minimum of 35 marks to have an average of at least 60
marks.

Question 22:

To receive Grade ‘A’ in a course, one must obtain an average of 90 marks or more in
five examinations (each of 100 marks). If Sunita’s marks in first four examinations are
87, 92, 94 and 95, find minimum marks that Sunita must obtain in fifth examination to
get grade ‘A’ in the course.

Discussion

Let x be the marks obtained by Sunita in the fifth examination.
In order to receive grade ‘A’ in the course, she must obtain an average of 90 marks or
more in five examinations.
Therefore,

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Thus, Sunita must obtain greater than or equal to 82 marks in the fifth examination.

Question 23:

Find all pairs of consecutive odd positive integers both of which are smaller than 10 such
that their sum is more than 11.

Discussion

Let x be the smaller of the two consecutive odd positive integers. Then, the other integer
is x+ 2.
Since both the integers are smaller than 10,
x + 2 < 10

⇒ x < 10 – 2

⇒ x < 8 … (i)

Also, the sum of the two integers is more than 11.
∴x + (x + 2) > 11
⇒ 2x + 2 > 11
⇒ 2x > 11 – 2
⇒ 2x > 9

From (i) and (ii), we obtain

.

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Since x is an odd number, x can take the values, 5 and 7.
Thus, the required possible pairs are (5, 7) and (7, 9).

Question 24:

Find all pairs of consecutive even positive integers, both of which are larger than 5 such
that their sum is less than 23.

Discussion

Let x be the smaller of the two consecutive even positive integers. Then, the other integer
isx + 2.
Since both the integers are larger than 5,
x > 5 ... (1)
Also, the sum of the two integers is less than 23.
x + (x + 2) < 23
⇒ 2x + 2 < 23
⇒ 2x < 23 – 2
⇒ 2x < 21

From (1) and (2), we obtain 5 < x < 10.5.
Since x is an even number, x can take the values, 6, 8, and 10.
Thus, the required possible pairs are (6, 8), (8, 10), and (10, 12).

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Question 25:

The longest side of a triangle is 3 times the shortest side and the third side is 2 cm shorter
than the longest side. If the perimeter of the triangle is at least 61 cm, find the minimum
length of the shortest side.

Discussion

Let the length of the shortest side of the triangle be x cm.
Then, length of the longest side = 3x cm
Length of the third side = (3x – 2) cm
Since the perimeter of the triangle is at least 61 cm,

Thus, the minimum length of the shortest side is 9 cm.

Question 26:

A man wants to cut three lengths from a single piece of board of length 91 cm. The

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second length is to be 3 cm longer than the shortest and the third length is to be twice as
long as the shortest. What are the possible lengths of the shortest board if the third piece
is to be at least 5 cm longer than the second?
[Hint: If x is the length of the shortest board, then x, (x + 3) and 2x are the lengths of the
second and third piece, respectively. Thus, x = (x + 3) + 2x ≤ 91 and 2x ≥ (x + 3) + 5]

Discussion

Let the length of the shortest piece be x cm. Then, length of the second piece and the
third piece are (x + 3) cm and 2x cm respectively.
Since the three lengths are to be cut from a single piece of board of length 91 cm,
x cm + (x + 3) cm + 2x cm ≤ 91 cm
⇒ 4x + 3 ≤ 91
⇒ 4x ≤ 91 – 3
⇒ 4x ≤ 88

Also, the third piece is at least 5 cm longer than the second piece.
∴2x ≥ (x + 3) + 5
⇒ 2x ≥ x + 8

⇒ x ≥ 8 … (2)

From (1) and (2), we obtain
8 ≤ x ≤ 22
Thus, the possible length of the shortest board is greater than or equal to 8 cm but less
than or equal to 22 cm.

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Exercise: 6.2
Question 1:

Solve the given inequality graphically in two-dimensional plane: x + y < 5

Discussion

The graphical representation of x + y = 5 is given as dotted line in the figure below.
This line divides the xy-plane in two half planes, I and II.
Select a point (not on the line), which lies in one of the half planes, to determine whether
the point satisfies the given inequality or not.
We select the point as (0, 0).
It is observed that,
0 + 0 < 5 or, 0 < 5, which is true
Therefore, half plane II is not the solution region of the given inequality. Also, it is
evident that any point on the line does not satisfy the given strict inequality.
Thus, the solution region of the given inequality is the shaded half plane I excluding the
points on the line.
This can be represented as follows.

244

Question 2:

Solve the given inequality graphically in two-dimensional plane: 2x + y ≥ 6

Discussion

The graphical representation of 2x + y = 6 is given in the figure below.
This line divides the xy-plane in two half planes, I and II.
Select a point (not on the line), which lies in one of the half planes, to determine whether
the point satisfies the given inequality or not.
We select the point as (0, 0).
It is observed that,
2(0) + 0 ≥ 6 or 0 ≥ 6, which is false
Therefore, half plane I is not the solution region of the given inequality. Also, it is
evident that any point on the line satisfies the given inequality.
Thus, the solution region of the given inequality is the shaded half plane II including the

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points on the line.
This can be represented as follows.

Question 3:

Solve the given inequality graphically in two-dimensional plane: 3x + 4y ≤ 12

Discussion

3x + 4y ≤ 12
The graphical representation of 3x + 4y = 12 is given in the figure below.
This line divides the xy-plane in two half planes, I and II.
Select a point (not on the line), which lies in one of the half planes, to determine whether
the point satisfies the given inequality or not.
We select the point as (0, 0).
It is observed that,

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3(0) + 4(0) ≤ 12 or 0 ≤ 12, which is true
Therefore, half plane II is not the solution region of the given inequality. Also, it is
evident that any point on the line satisfies the given inequality.
Thus, the solution region of the given inequality is the shaded half plane I including the
points on the line.
This can be represented as follows.

Question 4:

Solve the given inequality graphically in two-dimensional plane: y + 8 ≥ 2x

Discussion

The graphical representation of y + 8 = 2x is given in the figure below.
This line divides the xy-plane in two half planes.
Select a point (not on the line), which lies in one of the half planes, to determine whether
the point satisfies the given inequality or not.

247

We select the point as (0, 0).
It is observed that,
0 + 8 ≥ 2(0) or 8 ≥ 0, which is true
Therefore, lower half plane is not the solution region of the given inequality. Also, it is
evident that any point on the line satisfies the given inequality.
Thus, the solution region of the given inequality is the half plane containing the point (0,
0) including the line.
The solution region is represented by the shaded region as follows.

Question 5:

Solve the given inequality graphically in two-dimensional plane: x – y ≤ 2

Discussion

248

The graphical representation of x – y = 2 is given in the figure below.
This line divides the xy-plane in two half planes.
Select a point (not on the line), which lies in one of the half planes, to determine whether
the point satisfies the given inequality or not.
We select the point as (0, 0).
It is observed that,
0 – 0 ≤ 2 or 0 ≤ 2, which is true
Therefore, the lower half plane is not the solution region of the given inequality. Also, it
is clear that any point on the line satisfies the given inequality.
Thus, the solution region of the given inequality is the half plane containing the point (0,
0) including the line.
The solution region is represented by the shaded region as follows.

Question 6:

Solve the given inequality graphically in two-dimensional plane: 2x – 3y > 6

249

Discussion

The graphical representation of 2x – 3y = 6 is given as dotted line in the figure below.
This line divides the xy-plane in two half planes.
Select a point (not on the line), which lies in one of the half planes, to determine whether
the point satisfies the given inequality or not.
We select the point as (0, 0).
It is observed that,
2(0) – 3(0) > 6 or 0 > 6, which is false
Therefore, the upper half plane is not the solution region of the given inequality. Also, it
is clear that any point on the line does not satisfy the given inequality.
Thus, the solution region of the given inequality is the half plane that does not contain
the point (0, 0) excluding the line.
The solution region is represented by the shaded region as follows.

Question 7:

250

Solve the given inequality graphically in two-dimensional plane: –3x + 2y ≥ –6

Discussion

The graphical representation of – 3x + 2y = – 6 is given in the figure below.
This line divides the xy-plane in two half planes.
Select a point (not on the line), which lies in one of the half planes, to determine whether
the point satisfies the given inequality or not.
We select the point as (0, 0).
It is observed that,
– 3(0) + 2(0) ≥ – 6 or 0 ≥ –6, which is true
Therefore, the lower half plane is not the solution region of the given inequality. Also, it
is evident that any point on the line satisfies the given inequality.
Thus, the solution region of the given inequality is the half plane containing the point (0,
0) including the line.
The solution region is represented by the shaded region as follows.

251

Question 8:

Solve the given inequality graphically in two-dimensional plane: 3y – 5x < 30

Discussion

The graphical representation of 3y – 5x = 30 is given as dotted line in the figure below.
This line divides the xy-plane in two half planes.
Select a point (not on the line), which lies in one of the half planes, to determine whether
the point satisfies the given inequality or not.
We select the point as (0, 0).
It is observed that,
3(0) – 5(0) < 30 or 0 < 30, which is true
Therefore, the upper half plane is not the solution region of the given inequality. Also, it
is evident that any point on the line does not satisfy the given inequality.
Thus, the solution region of the given inequality is the half plane containing the point (0,
0) excluding the line.
The solution region is represented by the shaded region as follows.

252

Question 9:

Solve the given inequality graphically in two-dimensional plane: y < –2

Discussion

The graphical representation of y = –2 is given as dotted line in the figure below. This
line divides the xy-plane in two half planes.
Select a point (not on the line), which lies in one of the half planes, to determine whether
the point satisfies the given inequality or not.
We select the point as (0, 0).
It is observed that,
0 < –2, which is false

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Also, it is evident that any point on the line does not satisfy the given inequality.
Hence, every point below the line, y = –2 (excluding all the points on the line),
determines the solution of the given inequality.
The solution region is represented by the shaded region as follows.

Question 10:

Solve the given inequality graphically in two-dimensional plane: x > –3

Discussion

The graphical representation of x = –3 is given as dotted line in the figure below. This
line divides the xy-plane in two half planes.
Select a point (not on the line), which lies in one of the half planes, to determine whether
the point satisfies the given inequality or not.
We select the point as (0, 0).

254

It is observed that,
0 > –3, which is true
Also, it is evident that any point on the line does not satisfy the given inequality.
Hence, every point on the right side of the line, x = –3 (excluding all the points on the
line), determines the solution of the given inequality.
The solution region is represented by the shaded region as follows.

Exercise 6.3
Question 1:

Solve the following system of inequalities graphically: x ≥ 3, y ≥ 2

255

Discussion

x ≥ 3 … (1)
y ≥ 2 … (2)
The graph of the lines, x = 3 and y = 2, are drawn in the figure below.
Inequality (1) represents the region on the right hand side of the line, x = 3 (including the
line x = 3), and inequality (2) represents the region above the line, y = 2 (including the
line y= 2).
Hence, the solution of the given system of linear inequalities is represented by the
common shaded region including the points on the respective lines as follows.

Question 2:

Solve the following system of inequalities graphically: 3x + 2y ≤ 12, x ≥ 1, y ≥ 2

256

Discussion

3x + 2y ≤ 12 … (1)
x ≥ 1 … (2)
y ≥ 2 … (3)
The graphs of the lines, 3x + 2y = 12, x = 1, and y = 2, are drawn in the figure below.
Inequality (1) represents the region below the line, 3x + 2y = 12 (including the line 3x +
2y= 12). Inequality (2) represents the region on the right side of the line, x = 1 (including
the line x = 1). Inequality (3) represents the region above the line, y = 2 (including the
line y = 2).
Hence, the solution of the given system of linear inequalities is represented by the
common shaded region including the points on the respective lines as follows.

Question 3:

257

Solve the following system of inequalities graphically: 2x + y≥ 6, 3x + 4y ≤ 12

Discussion

2x + y≥ 6 … (1)
3x + 4y ≤ 12 … (2)
The graph of the lines, 2x + y= 6 and 3x + 4y = 12, are drawn in the figure below.
Inequality (1) represents the region above the line, 2x + y= 6 (including the line 2x + y=
6), and inequality (2) represents the region below the line, 3x + 4y =12 (including the
line 3x + 4y =12).
Hence, the solution of the given system of linear inequalities is represented by the
common shaded region including the points on the respective lines as follows.

Question 4:

258

Solve the following system of inequalities graphically: x + y≥ 4, 2x – y > 0

Discussion

x + y≥ 4 … (1)
2x – y > 0 … (2)
The graph of the lines, x + y = 4 and 2x – y = 0, are drawn in the figure below.
Inequality (1) represents the region above the line, x + y = 4 (including the line x + y =
4).
It is observed that (1, 0) satisfies the inequality, 2x – y > 0. [2(1) – 0 = 2 > 0]
Therefore, inequality (2) represents the half plane corresponding to the line, 2x – y = 0,
containing the point (1, 0) [excluding the line 2x – y > 0].
Hence, the solution of the given system of linear inequalities is represented by the
common shaded region including the points on line x + y = 4 and excluding the points on
line 2x – y = 0 as follows.

259

Question 5:

Solve the following system of inequalities graphically: 2x – y > 1, x – 2y < –1

Discussion

2x – y > 1 … (1)
x – 2y < –1 … (2)
The graph of the lines, 2x – y = 1 and x – 2y = –1, are drawn in the figure below.
Inequality (1) represents the region below the line, 2x – y = 1 (excluding the line 2x – y =
1), and inequality (2) represents the region above the line, x – 2y = –1 (excluding the
line x – 2y= –1).
Hence, the solution of the given system of linear inequalities is represented by the
common shaded region excluding the points on the respective lines as follows.

260

Question 7:

Solve the following system of inequalities graphically: 2x + y≥ 8, x + 2y ≥ 10

Discussion

2x + y= 8 … (1)
x + 2y = 10 … (2)
The graph of the lines, 2x + y= 8 and x + 2y = 10, are drawn in the figure below.
Inequality (1) represents the region above the line, 2x + y = 8, and inequality (2)
represents the region above the line, x + 2y = 10.
Hence, the solution of the given system of linear inequalities is represented by the
common shaded region including the points on the respective lines as follows.

261

Question 8:

Solve the following system of inequalities graphically: x + y ≤ 9, y > x, x ≥ 0

Discussion

x+y≤9

... (1)

y>x

... (2)

x≥0

... (3)

The graph of the lines, x + y= 9 and y = x, are drawn in the figure below.
Inequality (1) represents the region below the line, x + y = 9 (including the line x + y =
9).
It is observed that (0, 1) satisfies the inequality, y > x. [1 > 0]
Therefore, inequality (2) represents the half plane corresponding to the line, y = x,
containing the point (0, 1) [excluding the line y = x].
Inequality (3) represents the region on the right hand side of the line, x = 0 or y-axis
(including y-axis).
Hence, the solution of the given system of linear inequalities is represented by the
common shaded region including the points on the lines, x + y = 9 and x = 0, and
excluding the points on line y = x as follows.

262

Question 9:

Solve the following system of inequalities graphically: 5x + 4y ≤ 20, x ≥ 1, y ≥ 2

Discussion

5x + 4y ≤ 20 … (1)
x ≥ 1 … (2)
y ≥ 2 … (3)
The graph of the lines, 5x + 4y = 20, x = 1, and y = 2, are drawn in the figure below.
Inequality (1) represents the region below the line, 5x + 4y = 20 (including the line 5x +
4y= 20). Inequality (2) represents the region on the right hand side of the line, x = 1
(including the line x = 1). Inequality (3) represents the region above the line, y = 2
(including the line y= 2).
Hence, the solution of the given system of linear inequalities is represented by the

263

common shaded region including the points on the respective lines as follows.

Question 10:

Solve the following system of inequalities graphically: 3x + 4y ≤ 60, x +
3y ≤ 30, x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0

Discussion

3x + 4y ≤ 60 … (1)
x + 3y ≤ 30 … (2)
The graph of the lines, 3x + 4y = 60 and x + 3y = 30, are drawn in the figure below.
Inequality (1) represents the region below the line, 3x + 4y = 60 (including the line 3x +
4y= 60), and inequality (2) represents the region below the line, x + 3y = 30 (including
the linex + 3y = 30).

264

Since x ≥ 0 and y ≥ 0, every point in the common shaded region in the first quadrant
including the points on the respective line and the axes represents the solution of the
given system of linear inequalities.

Question 9:

Solve the following system of inequalities graphically: 5x + 4y ≤ 20, x ≥ 1, y ≥ 2

Discussion

5x + 4y ≤ 20 … (1)
x ≥ 1 … (2)
y ≥ 2 … (3)
The graph of the lines, 5x + 4y = 20, x = 1, and y = 2, are drawn in the figure below.
Inequality (1) represents the region below the line, 5x + 4y = 20 (including the line 5x +

265

4y= 20). Inequality (2) represents the region on the right hand side of the line, x = 1
(including the line x = 1). Inequality (3) represents the region above the line, y = 2
(including the line y= 2).
Hence, the solution of the given system of linear inequalities is represented by the
common shaded region including the points on the respective lines as follows.

Question 11:

Solve the following system of inequalities graphically: 2x + y≥ 4, x + y ≤ 3, 2x – 3y ≤ 6

Discussion

2x + y≥ 4 … (1)
x + y ≤ 3 … (2)
2x – 3y ≤ 6 … (3)

266

The graph of the lines, 2x + y= 4, x + y = 3, and 2x – 3y = 6, are drawn in the figure
below.
Inequality (1) represents the region above the line, 2x + y= 4 (including the line 2x + y=
4). Inequality (2) represents the region below the line,
x + y = 3 (including the line x + y = 3). Inequality (3) represents the region above the
line, 2x– 3y = 6 (including the line 2x – 3y = 6).
Hence, the solution of the given system of linear inequalities is represented by the
common shaded region including the points on the respective lines as follows.

Question 12:

Solve the following system of inequalities graphically:
x – 2y ≤ 3, 3x + 4y ≥ 12, x ≥ 0, y ≥ 1

267

Discussion

x – 2y ≤ 3 … (1)
3x + 4y ≥ 12 … (2)
y ≥ 1 … (3)
The graph of the lines, x – 2y = 3, 3x + 4y = 12, and y = 1, are drawn in the figure below.
Inequality (1) represents the region above the line, x – 2y = 3 (including the line x – 2y =
3). Inequality (2) represents the region above the line, 3x + 4y = 12 (including the line
3x + 4y = 12). Inequality (3) represents the region above the line, y = 1 (including the
line y = 1).
The inequality, x ≥ 0, represents the region on the right hand side of y-axis (including yaxis).
Hence, the solution of the given system of linear inequalities is represented by the
common shaded region including the points on the respective lines and y- axis as
follows.

268

Question 13:

[[Q]]
Solve the following system of inequalities graphically:
4x + 3y ≤ 60, y ≥ 2x, x ≥ 3, x, y ≥ 0

Discussion

4x + 3y ≤ 60 … (1)
y ≥ 2x … (2)
x ≥ 3 … (3)
The graph of the lines, 4x + 3y = 60, y = 2x, and x = 3, are drawn in the figure below.
Inequality (1) represents the region below the line, 4x + 3y = 60 (including the line 4x +
3y= 60). Inequality (2) represents the region above the line, y = 2x (including the line y =
2x). Inequality (3) represents the region on the right hand side of the line, x = 3
(including the line x = 3).
Hence, the solution of the given system of linear inequalities is represented by the
common shaded region including the points on the respective lines as follows.

269

Question 14:

Solve the following system of inequalities graphically: 3x + 2y ≤ 150, x +
4y ≤ 80, x ≤ 15, y ≥ 0,x ≥ 0

Discussion

3x + 2y ≤ 150 … (1)
x + 4y ≤ 80 … (2)

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x ≤ 15 … (3)
The graph of the lines, 3x + 2y = 150, x + 4y = 80, and x = 15, are drawn in the figure
below.
Inequality (1) represents the region below the line, 3x + 2y = 150 (including the line 3x +
2y= 150). Inequality (2) represents the region below the line, x + 4y = 80 (including the
line x+ 4y = 80). Inequality (3) represents the region on the left hand side of the line, x =
15 (including the line x = 15).
Since x ≥ 0 and y ≥ 0, every point in the common shaded region in the first quadrant
including the points on the respective lines and the axes represents the solution of the
given system of linear inequalities.

Question 15:

Solve the following system of inequalities graphically: x + 2y ≤ 10, x + y ≥ 1, x –

271

y ≤ 0, x ≥ 0, y ≥0

Discussion

x + 2y ≤ 10 … (1)
x + y ≥ 1 … (2)
x – y ≤ 0 … (3)
The graph of the lines, x + 2y = 10, x + y = 1, and x – y = 0, are drawn in the figure
below.
Inequality (1) represents the region below the line, x + 2y = 10 (including the line x +
2y = 10). Inequality (2) represents the region above the line, x + y = 1 (including the
line x + y = 1). Inequality (3) represents the region above the line, x – y = 0 (including
the line x – y = 0).
Since x ≥ 0 and y ≥ 0, every point in the common shaded region in the first quadrant
including the points on the respective lines and the axes represents the solution of the
given system of linear inequalities.

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Exercise 6.4
Question 1:

Solve the inequality 2 ≤ 3x – 4 ≤ 5

273

Discussion

2 ≤ 3x – 4 ≤ 5

⇒ 2 + 4 ≤ 3x – 4 + 4 ≤ 5 + 4
⇒ 6 ≤ 3x ≤ 9
⇒2≤x≤3

Thus, all the real numbers, x, which are greater than or equal to 2 but less than or equal
to 3, are the solutions of the given inequality. The solution set for the given inequalityis
[2, 3].

Question 2:

Solve the inequality 6 ≤ –3(2x – 4) < 12

Discussion

6 ≤ – 3(2x – 4) < 12
⇒ 2 ≤ –(2x – 4) < 4
⇒ –2 ≥ 2x – 4 > –4

⇒ 4 – 2 ≥ 2x > 4 – 4
⇒ 2 ≥ 2x > 0
⇒1 ≥ x > 0

Thus, the solution set for the given inequalityis (0, 1].

Question 3:

274

Solve the inequality

Discussion

Thus, the solution set for the given inequalityis [–4, 2].

Question 4:

Solve the inequality

Discussion

⇒ –75 < 3(x – 2) ≤ 0

275

⇒ –25 < x – 2 ≤ 0

⇒ – 25 + 2 < x ≤ 2
⇒ –23 < x ≤ 2

Thus, the solution set for the given inequalityis (–23, 2].

Question 5:

Solve the inequality

Discussion

Thus, the solution set for the given inequalityis

276

.

Question 6:

Solve the inequality

Discussion

Thus, the solution set for the given inequalityis

.

Question 7:

Solve the inequalities and represent the solution graphically on number line: 5x + 1 > –
24, 5x – 1 < 24

Discussion

5x + 1 > –24
⇒ 5x > –25

⇒ x > –5 … (1)

277

5x – 1 < 24
⇒ 5x < 25

⇒ x < 5 … (2)

From (1) and (2), it can be concluded that the solution set for the given system of
inequalities is (–5, 5). The solution of the given system of inequalities can be represented
on number line as

Question 8:

Solve the inequalities and represent the solution graphically on number line: 2(x – 1)
< x + 5, 3(x+ 2) > 2 – x

Discussion

2(x – 1) < x + 5

⇒ 2x – 2 < x + 5
⇒ 2x – x < 5 + 2
⇒ x < 7 … (1)

3(x + 2) > 2 – x

⇒ 3x + 6 > 2 – x

⇒ 3x + x > 2 – 6

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⇒ 4x > – 4

⇒ x > – 1 … (2)

From (1) and (2), it can be concluded that the solution set for the given system of
inequalities is (–1, 7). The solution of the given system of inequalities can be represented
on number line as

Question 9:

Solve the following inequalities and represent the solution graphically on number line:
3x – 7 > 2(x – 6), 6 – x > 11 – 2x

Discussion

3x – 7 > 2(x – 6)

⇒ 3x – 7 > 2x – 12

⇒ 3x – 2x > – 12 + 7
⇒ x > –5 … (1)
6 – x > 11 – 2x

⇒ –x + 2x > 11 – 6
⇒ x > 5 … (2)

From (1) and (2), it can be concluded that the solution set for the given system of
inequalities is

. The solution of the given system of inequalities can be represented

279

on number line as

Question 10:

Solve the inequalities and represent the solution graphically on number line: 5(2x – 7) –
3(2x + 3) ≤ 0, 2x + 19 ≤ 6x + 47

Discussion

5(2x – 7) – 3(2x + 3) ≤ 0
⇒ 10x – 35 – 6x – 9 ≤ 0
⇒ 4x – 44 ≤ 0
⇒ 4x ≤ 44

⇒ x ≤ 11 … (1)

2x + 19 ≤ 6x + 47

⇒ 19 – 47 ≤ 6x – 2x
⇒ –28 ≤ 4x

⇒ –7 ≤ x … (2)

From (1) and (2), it can be concluded that the solution set for the given system of
inequalities is [–7, 11]. The solution of the given system of inequalities can be
represented on number line as

280

Question 11:

A solution is to be kept between 68°F and 77°F. What is the range in temperature in
degree Celsius (C) if the Celsius/Fahrenheit (F) conversion formula is given
by

Discussion

Since the solution is to be kept between 68°F and 77°F,
68 < F < 77
Putting

we obtain

Thus, the required range of temperature in degree Celsius is between 20°C and 25°C.

281

Question 12:

A solution of 8% boric acid is to be diluted by adding a 2% boric acid solution to it. The
resulting mixture is to be more than 4% but less than 6% boric acid. If we have 640 litres
of the 8% solution, how many litres of the 2% solution will have to be added?

Discussion

Let x litres of 2% boric acid solution is required to be added.
Then, total mixture = (x + 640) litres
This resulting mixture is to be more than 4% but less than 6% boric acid.
∴2%x + 8% of 640 > 4% of (x + 640)

And, 2% x + 8% of 640 < 6% of (x + 640)
2%x + 8% of 640 > 4% of (x + 640)
⇒ 2x + 5120 > 4x + 2560
⇒ 5120 – 2560 > 4x – 2x
⇒ 5120 – 2560 > 2x
⇒ 2560 > 2x
⇒ 1280 > x

2% x + 8% of 640 < 6% of (x + 640)

282

⇒ 2x + 5120 < 6x + 3840
⇒ 5120 – 3840 < 6x – 2x
⇒ 1280 < 4x
⇒ 320 < x

∴320 < x < 1280

Thus, the number of litres of 2% of boric acid solution that is to be added will have to be
more than 320 litres but less than 1280 litres.

Question 13:

How many litres of water will have to be added to 1125 litres of the 45% solution of acid
so that the resulting mixture will contain more than 25% but less than 30% acid content?

Discussion

Let x litres of water is required to be added.
Then, total mixture = (x + 1125) litres
It is evident that the amount of acid contained in the resulting mixture is 45% of 1125
litres.
This resulting mixture will contain more than 25% but less than 30% acid content.
∴30% of (1125 + x) > 45% of 1125

And, 25% of (1125 + x) < 45% of 1125
30% of (1125 + x) > 45% of 1125

283

25% of (1125 + x) < 45% of 1125

∴562.5 < x < 900

Thus, the required number of litres of water that is to be added will have to be more than
562.5 but less than 900.

Question 14:

IQ of a person is given by the formula

Where MA is mental age and CA is chronological age. If 80 ≤ IQ ≤ 140 for a group of
12 years old children, find the range of their mental age.

284

Discussion

It is given that for a group of 12 years old children, 80 ≤ IQ ≤ 140 … (i)
For a group of 12 years old children, CA = 12 years

Putting this value of IQ in (i), we obtain

Thus, the range of mental age of the group of 12 years old children is

Exercise 7.1
Question 1:

285

.

How many 3-digit numbers can be formed from the digits 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 assuming that
(i) repetition of the digits is allowed?
(ii) repetition of the digits is not allowed?

Discussion

(i)
There will be as many ways as there are ways of filling 3 vacant places
in succession by the given five digits. In this case, repetition of digits is
allowed. Therefore, the units place can be filled in by any of the given five digits.
Similarly, tens and hundreds digits can be filled in by any of the given five digits.
Thus, by the multiplication principle, the number of ways in which three-digit numbers
can be formed from the given digits is 5 × 5 × 5 = 125
(ii)
In this case, repetition of digits is not allowed. Here, if units place is filled in first, then it
can be filled by any of the given five digits. Therefore, the number of ways of filling the
units place of the three-digit number is 5.
Then, the tens place can be filled with any of the remaining four digits and the hundreds
place can be filled with any of the remaining three digits.
Thus, by the multiplication principle, the number of ways in which three-digit numbers
can be formed without repeating the given digits is 5 × 4 × 3 = 60

Question 2:

How many 3-digit even numbers can be formed from the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 if the

286

digits can be repeated?

Discussion

There will be as many ways as there are ways of filling 3 vacant places
in succession by the given six digits. In this case, the units place can be filled
by 2 or 4 or 6 only i.e., the units place can be filled in 3 ways. The tens place can be
filled by any of the 6 digits in 6 different ways and also the hundreds place can be filled
by any of the 6 digits in 6 different ways, as the digits can be repeated.
Therefore, by multiplication principle, the required number of three digit even numbers
is 3 × 6 × 6 = 108

Question 3:

How many 4-letter code can be formed using the first 10 letters of the English alphabet,
if no letter can be repeated?

Discussion

There are as many codes as there are ways of filling 4 vacant places
in
succession by the first 10 letters of the English alphabet, keeping in mind that the
repetition of letters is not allowed.
The first place can be filled in 10 different ways by any of the first 10 letters of the
English alphabet following which, the second place can be filled in by any of the
remaining letters in 9 different ways. The third place can be filled in by any of the
remaining 8 letters in 8 different ways and the fourth place can be filled in by any of the
remaining 7 letters in 7 different ways.
Therefore, by multiplication principle, the required numbers of ways in which 4 vacant

287

places can be filled is 10 × 9 × 8 × 7 = 5040
Hence, 5040 four-letter codes can be formed using the first 10 letters of the English
alphabet, if no letter is repeated.

Question 4:

How many 5–digit telephone numbers can be constructed using the digits 0 to 9 if each
number starts with 67 and no digit appears more than once?

Discussion

It is given that the 5-digit telephone numbers always start with 67.
Therefore, there will be as many phone numbers as there are ways of filling 3 vacant
places
by the digits 0 – 9, keeping in mind that the digits cannot be
repeated.
The units place can be filled by any of the digits from 0 – 9, except digits 6 and 7.
Therefore, the units place can be filled in 8 different ways following which, the tens
place can be filled in by any of the remaining 7 digits in 7 different ways, and the
hundreds place can be filled in by any of the remaining 6 digits in 6 different ways.
Therefore, by multiplication principle, the required number of ways in which 5-digit
telephone numbers can be constructed is 8 × 7 × 6 = 336

Question 5:

A coin is tossed 3 times and the outcomes are recorded. How many possible outcomes
are there?

288

Discussion

When a coin is tossed once, the number of outcomes is 2 (Head and tail) i.e., in each
throw, the number of ways of showing a different face is 2.
Thus, by multiplication principle, the required number of possible outcomes is 2 × 2 × 2
=8

Question 5:

A coin is tossed 3 times and the outcomes are recorded. How many possible outcomes
are there?

Discussion

When a coin is tossed once, the number of outcomes is 2 (Head and tail) i.e., in each
throw, the number of ways of showing a different face is 2.
Thus, by multiplication principle, the required number of possible outcomes is 2 × 2 × 2
=8

Question 6:

Given 5 flags of different colours, how many different signals can be generated if each
signal requires the use of 2 flags, one below the other?

Discussion

Each signal requires the use of 2 flags.
There will be as many flags as there are ways of filling in 2 vacant places
succession by the given 5 flags of different colours.

in

The upper vacant place can be filled in 5 different ways by any one of the 5 flags
following which, the lower vacant place can be filled in 4 different ways by any one of

289

the remaining 4 different flags.
Thus, by multiplication principle, the number of different signals that can be generated is
5 × 4 = 20

EXERCISE 7.2
Question 1:

Evaluate
(i) 8! (ii) 4! – 3!

Discussion

(i) 8! = 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 × 6 × 7 × 8 = 40320
(ii) 4! = 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 = 24

290

3! = 1 × 2 × 3 = 6

∴4! – 3! = 24 – 6 = 18
Question 2:

Is 3! + 4! = 7!?

Discussion

3! = 1 × 2 × 3 = 6
4! = 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 = 24
∴3! + 4! = 6 + 24 = 30

7! = 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 × 6 × 7 = 5040
∴ 3! + 4! ≠ 7!

Question 3:

Compute

Discussion

291

Question 4:

If

, find x.

Discussion

Question 5:

Evaluate

, when

(i) n = 6, r = 2 (ii) n = 9, r = 5

Discussion

292

(i) When n = 6, r = 2,

(ii) When n = 9, r = 5,

EXERCISE 7.3
Question 1:

How many 3-digit numbers can be formed by using the digits 1 to 9 if no digit is
repeated?

293

Discussion

3-digit numbers have to be formed using the digits 1 to 9.
Here, the order of the digits matters.
Therefore, there will be as many 3-digit numbers as there are permutations of 9 different
digits taken 3 at a time.

Therefore, required number of 3-digit numbers

Question 2:

How many 4-digit numbers are there with no digit repeated?

Discussion

The thousands place of the 4-digit number is to be filled with any of the digits from 1 to
9 as the digit 0 cannot be included. Therefore, the number of ways in which thousands
place can be filled is 9.
The hundreds, tens, and units place can be filled by any of the digits from 0 to 9.
However, the digits cannot be repeated in the 4-digit numbers and thousands place is
already occupied with a digit. The hundreds, tens, and units place is to be filled by the
remaining 9 digits.
Therefore, there will be as many such 3-digit numbers as there are permutations of 9
different digits taken 3 at a time.

294

Number of such 3-digit numbers

Thus, by multiplication principle, the required number of 4-digit numbers is
9 × 504 = 4536

Question 3:

How many 3-digit even numbers can be made using the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, if no digit
is repeated?

Discussion

3-digit even numbers are to be formed using the given six digits, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7,
without repeating the digits.
Then, units digits can be filled in 3 ways by any of the digits, 2, 4, or 6.
Since the digits cannot be repeated in the 3-digit numbers and units place is already
occupied with a digit (which is even), the hundreds and tens place is to be filled by the
remaining 5 digits.
Therefore, the number of ways in which hundreds and tens place can be filled with the
remaining 5 digits is the permutation of 5 different digits taken 2 at a time.

Number of ways of filling hundreds and tens place

295

Thus, by multiplication principle, the required number of 3-digit numbers is
3 × 20 = 60

Question 4:

Find the number of 4-digit numbers that can be formed using the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 if no
digit is repeated. How many of these will be even?

Discussion

4-digit numbers are to be formed using the digits, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.
There will be as many 4-digit numbers as there are permutations of 5 different digits
taken 4 at a time.

Therefore, required number of 4 digit numbers =

Among the 4-digit numbers formed by using the digits, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, even numbers end
with either 2 or 4.
The number of ways in which units place is filled with digits is 2.
Since the digits are not repeated and the units place is already occupied with a digit
(which is even), the remaining places are to be filled by the remaining 4 digits.
Therefore, the number of ways in which the remaining places can be filled is the
permutation of 4 different digits taken 3 at a time.

Number of ways of filling the remaining places

296

= 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 = 24
Thus, by multiplication principle, the required number of even numbers is
24 × 2 = 48

Question 5:

From a committee of 8 persons, in how many ways can we choose a chairman and a vice
chairman assuming one person cannot hold more than one position?

Discussion

From a committee of 8 persons, a chairman and a vice chairman are to be chosen in such
a way that one person cannot hold more than one position.
Here, the number of ways of choosing a chairman and a vice chairman is the permutation
of 8 different objects taken 2 at a time.

Thus, required number of ways =

Question 6:

Find n if

Discussion

297

Question 7:

Find r if (i)

(ii)

.

Discussion

(i)

298

It is known that,
∴0 ≤ r ≤ 5

Hence, r ≠ 10
∴r = 3
(ii)

299

It is known that,
∴0 ≤ r ≤ 5

Hence, r ≠ 9
∴r = 4

Question 8:

How many words, with or without meaning, can be formed using all the letters of the
word EQUATION, using each letter exactly once?

300

Discussion

There are 8 different letters in the word EQUATION.
Therefore, the number of words that can be formed using all the letters of the word
EQUATION, using each letter exactly once, is the number of permutations of 8 different
objects taken 8 at a time, which is

.

Thus, required number of words that can be formed = 8! = 40320

Question 9:

How many words, with or without meaning can be made from the letters of the word
MONDAY, assuming that no letter is repeated, if
(i) 4 letters are used at a time, (ii) all letters are used at a time,
(iii) all letters are used but first letter is a vowel?

Discussion

There are 6 different letters in the word MONDAY.
(i) Number of 4-letter words that can be formed from the letters of the word MONDAY,
without repetition of letters, is the number of permutations of 6 different objects taken 4
at a time, which is

.

Thus, required number of words that can be formed using 4 letters at a time is

(ii) Number of words that can be formed by using all the letters of the word MONDAY
at a time is the number of permutations of 6 different objects taken 6 at a time, which is

301

.
Thus, required number of words that can be formed when all letters are used at a time =
6! = 6 × 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 ×1 = 720
(iii) In the given word, there are 2 different vowels, which have to occupy the rightmost
place of the words formed. This can be done only in 2 ways.
Since the letters cannot be repeated and the rightmost place is already occupied with a
letter (which is a vowel), the remaining five places are to be filled by the remaining 5
letters. This can be done in 5! ways.
Thus, in this case, required number of words that can be formed is
5! × 2 = 120 × 2 = 240

Question 10:

In how many of the distinct permutations of the letters in MISSISSIPPI do the four I’s
not come together?

Discussion

In the given word MISSISSIPPI, I appears 4 times, S appears 4 times, P appears 2 times,
and M appears just once.
Therefore, number of distinct permutations of the letters in the given word

302

There are 4 Is in the given word. When they occur together, they are treated as a single
object
for the time being. This single object together with the remaining 7 objects
will account for 8 objects.

These 8 objects in which there are 4 Ss and 2 Ps can be arranged in
ways.

ways i.e., 840

Number of arrangements where all Is occur together = 840
Thus, number of distinct permutations of the letters in MISSISSIPPI in which four Is do
not come together = 34650 – 840 = 33810

Question 11:

In how many ways can the letters of the word PERMUTATIONS be arranged if the
(i) words start with P and end with S, (ii) vowels are all together,
(ii) there are always 4 letters between P and S?

Discussion

In the word PERMUTATIONS, there are 2 Ts and all the other letters appear only once.
(i) If P and S are fixed at the extreme ends (P at the left end and S at the right end), then
10 letters are left.
Hence, in this case, required number of arrangements
(ii) There are 5 vowels in the given word, each appearing only once.
Since they have to always occur together, they are treated as a single object for the time
being. This single object together with the remaining 7 objects will account for 8 objects.

303

These 8 objects in which there are 2 Ts can be arranged in

.

Corresponding to each of these arrangements, the 5 different vowels can be arranged in
5! ways.
Therefore, by multiplication principle, required number of arrangements in this case

(iii) The letters have to be arranged in such a way that there are always 4 letters between
P and S.
Therefore, in a way, the places of P and S are fixed. The remaining 10 letters in which
there are 2 Ts can be arranged in

.

Also, the letters P and S can be placed such that there are 4 letters between them in 2 × 7
= 14 ways.
Therefore, by multiplication principle, required number of arrangements in this case

EXERCISE 7.4
Question 1:

If

, find

.

Discussion

304

It is known that,
Therefore,

Question 2:

Determine n if
(i)

(ii)

Discussion

(i)

305

(ii)

306

Question 3:

How many chords can be drawn through 21 points on a circle?

Discussion

For drawing one chord on a circle, only 2 points are required.
To know the number of chords that can be drawn through the given 21 points on a circle,
the number of combinations have to be counted.
Therefore, there will be as many chords as there are combinations of 21 points taken 2 at
a time.

Thus, required number of chords =

Question 4:

In how many ways can a team of 3 boys and 3 girls be selected from 5 boys and 4 girls?

Discussion

A team of 3 boys and 3 girls is to be selected from 5 boys and 4 girls.

307

3 boys can be selected from 5 boys in

ways.

3 girls can be selected from 4 girls in

ways.

Therefore, by multiplication principle, number of ways in which a team of 3 boys and 3
girls can be selected

v

Question 5:

Find the number of ways of selecting 9 balls from 6 red balls, 5 white balls and 5 blue
balls if each selection consists of 3 balls of each colour.

Discussion

There are a total of 6 red balls, 5 white balls, and 5 blue balls.
9 balls have to be selected in such a way that each selection consists of 3 balls of each
colour.
Here,
3 balls can be selected from 6 red balls in

ways.

3 balls can be selected from 5 white balls in

ways.

3 balls can be selected from 5 blue balls in

ways.

Thus, by multiplication principle, required number of ways of selecting 9 balls

308

Question 6:

Determine the number of 5 card combinations out of a deck of 52 cards if there is exactly
one ace in each combination.

Discussion

In a deck of 52 cards, there are 4 aces. A combination of 5 cards have to be made in
which there is exactly one ace.
Then, one ace can be selected in
of the 48 cards in

ways and the remaining 4 cards can be selected out

ways.

Thus, by multiplication principle, required number of 5 card combinations

Question 7:

In how many ways can one select a cricket team of eleven from 17 players in which only

309

5 players can bowl if each cricket team of 11 must include exactly 4 bowlers?

Discussion

Out of 17 players, 5 players are bowlers.
A cricket team of 11 players is to be selected in such a way that there are exactly 4
bowlers.
4 bowlers can be selected in
the 12 players in

ways and the remaining 7 players can be selected out of

ways.

Thus, by multiplication principle, required number of ways of selecting cricket team

Question 8:

A bag contains 5 black and 6 red balls. Determine the number of ways in which 2 black
and 3 red balls can be selected.

Discussion

There are 5 black and 6 red balls in the bag.
2 black balls can be selected out of 5 black balls in
selected out of 6 red balls in

ways and 3 red balls can be

ways.

Thus, by multiplication principle, required number of ways of selecting 2 black and 3 red
balls

310

Question 9:

In how many ways can a student choose a programme of 5 courses if 9 courses are
available and 2 specific courses are compulsory for every student?

Discussion

There are 9 courses available out of which, 2 specific courses are compulsory for every
student.
Therefore, every student has to choose 3 courses out of the remaining 7 courses. This can
be chosen in

ways.

Thus, required number of ways of choosing the programme

311

EXERCISE 7.5
Question 1:

How many words, with or without meaning, each of 2 vowels and 3 consonants can be
formed from the letters of the word DAUGHTER?

Discussion

In the word DAUGHTER, there are 3 vowels namely, A, U, and E, and 5 consonants
namely, D, G, H, T, and R.
Number of ways of selecting 2 vowels out of 3 vowels =
Number of ways of selecting 3 consonants out of 5 consonants =
Therefore, number of combinations of 2 vowels and 3 consonants = 3 × 10 = 30
Each of these 30 combinations of 2 vowels and 3 consonants can be arranged among
themselves in 5! ways.
Hence, required number of different words = 30 × 5! = 3600

Question 2:

How many words, with or without meaning, can be formed using all the letters of the
word EQUATION at a time so that the vowels and consonants occur together?

312

Discussion

In the word EQUATION, there are 5 vowels, namely, A, E, I, O, and U, and 3
consonants, namely, Q, T, and N.
Since all the vowels and consonants have to occur together, both (AEIOU) and (QTN)
can be assumed as single objects. Then, the permutations of these 2 objects taken all at a
time are counted. This number would be
Corresponding to each of these permutations, there are 5! permutations of the five
vowels taken all at a time and 3! permutations of the 3 consonants taken all at a time.
Hence, by multiplication principle, required number of words = 2! × 5! × 3!
= 1440

Question 3:

A committee of 7 has to be formed from 9 boys and 4 girls. In how many ways can this
be done when the committee consists of:
(i) exactly 3 girls? (ii) atleast 3 girls? (iii) atmost 3 girls?

Discussion

A committee of 7 has to be formed from 9 boys and 4 girls.
i.

Since exactly 3 girls are to be there in every committee, each committee must
consist of (7 – 3) = 4 boys only.

Thus, in this case, required number of ways =

313

(ii) Since at least 3 girls are to be there in every committee, the committee can consist of
(a) 3 girls and 4 boys or (b) 4 girls and 3 boys
3 girls and 4 boys can be selected in

ways.

4 girls and 3 boys can be selected in

ways.

Therefore, in this case, required number of ways =

(iii) Since atmost 3 girls are to be there in every committee, the committee can consist of
(a) 3 girls and 4 boys (b) 2 girls and 5 boys
(c) 1 girl and 6 boys (d) No girl and 7 boys
3 girls and 4 boys can be selected in

ways.

2 girls and 5 boys can be selected in

ways.

1 girl and 6 boys can be selected in

ways.

No girl and 7 boys can be selected in

ways.

Therefore, in this case, required number of ways

314

Question 4:

If the different permutations of all the letter of the word EXAMINATION are listed as in
a dictionary, how many words are there in this list before the first word starting with E?

Discussion

In the given word EXAMINATION, there are 11 letters out of which, A, I, and N appear
2 times and all the other letters appear only once.
The words that will be listed before the words starting with E in a dictionary will be the
Therefore, to get the number of words starting with A, the letter A is fixed at the extreme
left position, and then the remaining 10 letters taken all at a time are rearranged.
Since there are 2 Is and 2 Ns in the remaining 10 letters,
Number of words starting with A =
Thus, the required numbers of words is 907200.

Question 5:

How many 6-digit numbers can be formed from the digits 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 which are
divisible by 10 and no digit is repeated?

Discussion

A number is divisible by 10 if its units digits is 0.
Therefore, 0 is fixed at the units place.

315

Therefore, there will be as many ways as there are ways of filling 5 vacant places
in succession by the remaining 5 digits (i.e., 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9).
The 5 vacant places can be filled in 5! ways.
Hence, required number of 6-digit numbers = 5! = 120

Question 6:

The English alphabet has 5 vowels and 21 consonants. How many words with two
different vowels and 2 different consonants can be formed from the alphabet?

Discussion

2 different vowels and 2 different consonants are to be selected from the English
alphabet.
Since there are 5 vowels in the English alphabet, number of ways of selecting 2 different
vowels from the alphabet =
Since there are 21 consonants in the English alphabet, number of ways of selecting 2
different consonants from the alphabet
Therefore, number of combinations of 2 different vowels and 2 different consonants = 10
× 210 = 2100
Each of these 2100 combinations has 4 letters, which can be arranged among themselves
in 4! ways.
Therefore, required number of words = 2100 × 4! = 50400

316

Question 7:

In an examination, a question paper consists of 12 questions divided into two parts i.e.,
Part I and Part II, containing 5 and 7 questions, respectively. A student is required to
attempt 8 questions in all, selecting at least 3 from each part. In how many ways can a
student select the questions?

Discussion

It is given that the question paper consists of 12 questions divided into two parts –
Part I and Part II, containing 5 and 7 questions, respectively.
A student has to attempt 8 questions, selecting at least 3 from each part.
This can be done as follows.
(a) 3 questions from part I and 5 questions from part II
(b) 4 questions from part I and 4 questions from part II
(c) 5 questions from part I and 3 questions from part II
3 questions from part I and 5 questions from part II can be selected in

ways.

4 questions from part I and 4 questions from part II can be selected in

ways.

5 questions from part I and 3 questions from part II can be selected in

ways.

Thus, required number of ways of selecting questions

317

Question 8:

Determine the number of 5-card combinations out of a deck of 52 cards if each selection
of 5 cards has exactly one king.

Discussion

From a deck of 52 cards, 5-card combinations have to be made in such a way that in each
selection of 5 cards, there is exactly one king.
In a deck of 52 cards, there are 4 kings.
1 king can be selected out of 4 kings in

ways.

4 cards out of the remaining 48 cards can be selected in
Thus, the required number of 5-card combinations is

ways.
.

Question 9:

It is required to seat 5 men and 4 women in a row so that the women occupy the even
places. How many such arrangements are possible?

Discussion

5 men and 4 women are to be seated in a row such that the women occupy the even
places.
The 5 men can be seated in 5! ways. For each arrangement, the 4 women can be seated
only at the cross marked places (so that women occupy the even places).

318

Therefore, the women can be seated in 4! ways.
Thus, possible number of arrangements = 4! × 5! = 24 × 120 = 2880

Question 10:

From a class of 25 students, 10 are to be chosen for an excursion party. There are 3
students who decide that either all of them will join or none of them will join. In how
many ways can the excursion party be chosen?

Discussion

From the class of 25 students, 10 are to be chosen for an excursion party.
Since there are 3 students who decide that either all of them will join or none of them
will join, there are two cases.
Case I: All the three students join.
Then, the remaining 7 students can be chosen from the remaining 22 students in
ways.
Case II: None of the three students join.
Then, 10 students can be chosen from the remaining 22 students in
Thus, required number of ways of choosing the excursion party is

319

ways.
.

Question 11:

In how many ways can the letters of the word ASSASSINATION be arranged so that all
the S’s are together?

Discussion

In the given word ASSASSINATION, the letter A appears 3 times, S appears 4 times, I
appears 2 times, N appears 2 times, and all the other letters appear only once.
Since all the words have to be arranged in such a way that all the Ss are together, SSSS
is treated as a single object for the time being. This single object together with the
remaining 9 objects will account for 10 objects.These 10 objects in which there are 3 As,
2 Is, and 2 Ns can be arranged in

ways.Thus, required number of ways of

arranging the letters of the given word

320

EXERCISE 8.1
Question 1:

Expand the expression (1– 2x)5

Discussion
Share

By using Binomial Theorem, the expression (1– 2x)5 can be expanded as

Question 2:

Expand the expression

Discussion
Share

By using Binomial Theorem, the expression

can be expanded as

321

Question 3:

Expand the expression (2x – 3)6

Discussion
Share

By using Binomial Theorem, the expression (2x – 3)6 can be expanded as

Question 4:

Expand the expression

Discussion
Share

By using Binomial Theorem, the expression

can be expanded as

322

Question 5:

Expand

Discussion
Share

By using Binomial Theorem, the expression

can be expanded as

Question 6:

Using Binomial Theorem, evaluate (96)3

Discussion
Share

96 can be expressed as the sum or difference of two numbers whose powers are easier to calculate and then,
binomial theorem can be applied.

323

It can be written that, 96 = 100 – 4

Question 7:

Using Binomial Theorem, evaluate (102)5

Discussion
Share

102 can be expressed as the sum or difference of two numbers whose powers are easier to calculate and then,
Binomial Theorem can be applied.
It can be written that, 102 = 100 + 2

Question 8:

Using Binomial Theorem, evaluate (101)4

Discussion
Share

101 can be expressed as the sum or difference of two numbers whose powers are easier to calculate and then,
Binomial Theorem can be applied.
It can be written that, 101 = 100 + 1

324

Question 9:

Using Binomial Theorem, evaluate (99)5

Discussion
Share

99 can be written as the sum or difference of two numbers whose powers are easier to calculate and then, Binomial
Theorem can be applied.
It can be written that, 99 = 100 – 1

Question 10:

Using Binomial Theorem, indicate which number is larger (1.1)10000 or 1000.

Discussion
Share

By splitting 1.1 and then applying Binomial Theorem, the first few terms of (1.1)10000 can be obtained as

325

Question 11:

Find (a + b)4 – (a – b)4. Hence, evaluate

.

Discussion
Share

Using Binomial Theorem, the expressions, (a + b)4 and (a – b)4, can be expanded as

Question 12:

Find (x + 1)6 + (x – 1)6. Hence or otherwise evaluate

.

Discussion

326

Share

Using Binomial Theorem, the expressions, (x + 1)6 and (x – 1)6, can be expanded as

By putting

, we obtain

Question 13:

Show that

is divisible by 64, whenever n is a positive integer.

Discussion
Share

In order to show that

is divisible by 64, it has to be proved that,
, where k is some natural number

By Binomial Theorem,

For a = 8 and m = n + 1, we obtain

327

Thus,

is divisible by 64, whenever n is a positive integer.

Question 14:

Prove that

.

Discussion
Share

By Binomial Theorem,

By putting b = 3 and a = 1 in the above equation, we obtain

Hence, proved.

328

EXERCISE 8.2
Question 1:

Find the coefficient of x5 in (x + 3)8

Discussion
Share

It is known that (r + 1)th term, (Tr+1), in the binomial expansion of (a + b)n is given by

.

Assuming that x5 occurs in the (r + 1)th term of the expansion (x + 3)8, we obtain

Comparing the indices of x in x5 and in Tr +1, we obtain
r=3

Thus, the coefficient of x5 is

Question 2:

Find the coefficient of a5b7 in (a – 2b)12

Discussion
Share

It is known that (r + 1)th term, (Tr+1), in the binomial expansion of (a + b)n is given by
Assuming that a5b7 occurs in the (r + 1)th term of the expansion (a – 2b)12, we obtain

329

.

Comparing the indices of a and b in a5 b7 and in Tr +1, we obtain
r=7
Thus, the coefficient
of a5b7 is

Question 3:

Write the general term in the expansion of (x2 – y)6

Discussion
Share

It is known that the general term Tr+1 {which is the (r + 1)th term} in the binomial expansion of (a + b)n is given
by

.

Thus, the general term in the expansion of (x2 – y6) is

Question 4:

Write the general term in the expansion of (x2 – yx)12, x ≠ 0

Discussion
Share

It is known that the general term Tr+1 {which is the (r + 1)th term} in the binomial expansion of (a + b)n is given
by

.

Thus, the general term in the expansion of(x2 – yx)12 is

Question 5:

Find the 4th term in the expansion of (x – 2y)12 .

330

Discussion
Share

It is known that (r + 1)th term, (Tr+1), in the binomial expansion of (a + b)n is given by

.

Thus, the 4th term in the expansion of (x – 2y)12 is

Question 6:

Find the 13th term in the expansion of

.

Discussion
Share

It is known that (r + 1)th term, (Tr+1), in the binomial expansion of (a + b)n is given by

Thus, 13th term in the expansion of

is

Question 7:

Find the middle terms in the expansions of

Discussion

331

.

Share

It is known that in the expansion of (a + b)n, if n is odd, then there are two middle terms, namely,

and

term.

Therefore, the middle terms in the expansion of
term

Thus, the middle terms in the expansion of

are

are

term and

.

Question 8:

Find the middle terms in the expansions of

Discussion
Share

It is known that in the expansion (a + b)n, if n is even, then the middle term is

Therefore, the middle term in the expansion of

is

332

term.

term

term

Thus, the middle term in the expansion of

is 61236 x5y5.

Question 9:

In the expansion of (1 + a)m + n, prove that coefficients of am and an are equal.

Discussion
Share

It is known that (r + 1)th term, (Tr+1), in the binomial expansion of (a + b)n is given by
Assuming that am occurs in the (r + 1)th term of the expansion (1 + a)m + n, we obtain

Comparing the indices of a in am and in Tr + 1, we obtain
r=m
Therefore, the coefficient of am is

Assuming that an occurs in the (k + 1)th term of the expansion (1 + a)m+n, we obtain

Comparing the indices of a in an and in Tk + 1, we obtain
k=n
Therefore, the coefficient of an is

333

.

Thus, from (1) and (2), it can be observed that the coefficients of am and an in the expansion of (1 + a)m + n are equal.

Question 10:

The coefficients of the (r – 1)th, rth and (r + 1)th terms in the expansion of
(x + 1)n are in the ratio 1:3:5. Find n and r.

Discussion
Share

It is known that (k + 1)th term, (Tk+1), in the binomial expansion of (a + b)n is given by

Therefore, (r – 1)th term in the expansion of (x + 1)n is

r th term in the expansion of (x + 1)n is

(r + 1)th term in the expansion of (x + 1)n is
Therefore, the coefficients of the (r – 1)th, rth, and (r + 1)th terms in the expansion of (x +
1)n are

respectively. Since these coefficients are in the ratio 1:3:5, we obtain

334

.

Multiplying (1) by 3 and subtracting it from (2), we obtain
4r – 12 = 0
⇒r=3

Putting the value of r in (1), we obtain
n – 12 + 5 = 0
⇒n=7

Thus, n = 7 and r = 3

Question 11:

Prove that the coefficient of xn in the expansion of (1 + x)2n is twice the coefficient of xn in the expansion of (1 + x)2n–
1
.

Discussion
Share

It is known that (r + 1)th term, (Tr+1), in the binomial expansion of (a + b)n is given by
Assuming that xn occurs in the (r + 1)th term of the expansion of (1 + x)2n, we obtain

Comparing the indices of x in xn and in Tr + 1, we obtain

335

.

r=n
Therefore, the coefficient of xn in the expansion of (1 + x)2n is

Assuming that xn occurs in the (k +1)th term of the expansion (1 + x)2n – 1, we obtain

Comparing the indices of x in xn and Tk + 1, we obtain
k=n
Therefore, the coefficient of xn in the expansion of (1 + x)2n –1 is

From (1) and (2), it is observed that

Therefore, the coefficient of xn in the expansion of (1 + x)2n is twice the coefficient of xn in the expansion of (1 + x)2n–
1
.
Hence, proved.

Question 12:

Find a positive value of m for which the coefficient of x2 in the expansion
(1 + x)m is 6.

Discussion
Share

It is known that (r + 1)th term, (Tr+1), in the binomial expansion of (a + b)n is given by

336

.

Assuming that x2 occurs in the (r + 1)th term of the expansion (1 +x)m, we obtain

Comparing the indices of x in x2 and in Tr + 1, we obtain
r=2
Therefore, the coefficient of x2 is

.

It is given that the coefficient of x2 in the expansion (1 + x)m is 6.

Thus, the positive value of m, for which the coefficient of x2 in the expansion
(1 + x)m is 6, is 4.

337

EXERCISE 8.3
Question 1:

Find a, b and n in the expansion of (a + b)n if the first three terms of the expansion are 729, 7290 and 30375,
respectively.

Discussion
Share

It is known that (r + 1)th term, (Tr+1), in the binomial expansion of (a + b)n is given by
The first three terms of the expansion are given as 729, 7290, and 30375 respectively.
Therefore, we obtain

Dividing (2) by (1), we obtain

Dividing (3) by (2), we obtain

338

.

From (4) and (5), we obtain

Substituting n = 6 in equation (1), we obtain
a6 = 729

From (5), we obtain

Thus, a = 3, b = 5, and n = 6.

Question 2:

Find a if the coefficients of x2 and x3 in the expansion of (3 + ax)9 are equal.

Discussion
Share

It is known that (r + 1)th term, (Tr+1), in the binomial expansion of (a + b)n is given by
Assuming that x2 occurs in the (r + 1)th term in the expansion of (3 + ax)9, we obtain

339

.

Comparing the indices of x in x2 and in Tr + 1, we obtain
r=2
Thus, the coefficient of x2 is

Assuming that x3 occurs in the (k + 1)th term in the expansion of (3 + ax)9, we obtain

Comparing the indices of x in x3 and in Tk+ 1, we obtain
k=3
Thus, the coefficient of x3 is

It is given that the coefficients of x2 and x3 are the same.

Thus, the required value of a is

.

Question 3:

Find the coefficient of x5 in the product (1 + 2x)6 (1 – x)7 using binomial theorem.

Discussion
Share

Using Binomial Theorem, the expressions, (1 + 2x)6 and (1 – x)7, can be expanded as

340

The complete multiplication of the two brackets is not required to be carried out. Only those terms, which
involve x5, are required.
The terms containing x5 are

Thus, the coefficient of x5 in the given product is 171.

Question 4:

If a and b are distinct integers, prove that a – b is a factor of an – bn, whenever n is a positive integer.
[Hint: write an = (a – b + b)n and expand]

Discussion
Share

In order to prove that (a – b) is a factor of (an – bn), it has to be proved that
an – bn = k (a – b), where k is some natural number
It can be written that, a = a – b + b

341

This shows that (a – b) is a factor of (an – bn), where n is a positive integer.

Question 5:

Evaluate

.

Discussion
Share

Firstly, the expression (a + b)6 – (a – b)6 is simplified by using Binomial Theorem.
This can be done as

Question 6:

342

Find the value of

.

Discussion
Share

Firstly, the expression (x + y)4 + (x – y)4 is simplified by using Binomial Theorem.
This can be done as

Question 7:

Find an approximation of (0.99)5 using the first three terms of its expansion.

Discussion
Share

0.99 = 1 – 0.01

343

Thus, the value of (0.99)5 is approximately 0.951.

Question 8:

Find n, if the ratio of the fifth term from the beginning to the fifth term from the end in the expansion

of

Discussion
Share

In the expansion,

,

Fifth term from the beginning
Fifth term from the end

Therefore, it is evident that in the expansion of

is

, the fifth term from the beginning

and the fifth term from the end is

.

It is given that the ratio of the fifth term from the beginning to the fifth term from the end is
from (1) and (2), we obtain

344

. Therefore,

Thus, the value of n is 10.

Question 9:

Expand using Binomial Theorem

.

Discussion
Share

Using Binomial Theorem, the given expression

can be expanded as

345

Again by using Binomial Theorem, we obtain

From (1), (2), and (3), we obtain

Question 10:

Find the expansion of

using binomial theorem.

346

Discussion
Share

Using Binomial Theorem, the given expression

can be expanded as

Again by using Binomial Theorem, we obtain

From (1) and (2), we obtai

347

EXERCISE 9.1
Question 1:

Write the first five terms of the sequences whose nth term is

Discussion
Share

Substituting n = 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, we obtain

Therefore, the required terms are 3, 8, 15, 24, and 35.

Question 2:

Write the first five terms of the sequences whose nth term is

Discussion
Share

Substituting n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, we obtain

348

Therefore, the required terms are

.

Question 3:

Write the first five terms of the sequences whose nth term is an = 2n

Discussion
Share

an = 2n
Substituting n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, we obtain

Therefore, the required terms are 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32.

Question 4:

Write the first five terms of the sequences whose nth term is

Discussion
Share

Substituting n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, we obtain

349

Therefore, the required terms are

.

Question 5:

Write the first five terms of the sequences whose nth term is

Discussion
Share

Substituting n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, we obtain

Therefore, the required terms are 25, –125, 625, –3125, and 15625.

Question 6:

Write the first five terms of the sequences whose nth term is

Discussion
Share

350

Substituting n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, we obtain

Therefore, the required terms are
Question 7:

Find the 17th term in the following sequence whose nth term is

Discussion
Share

Substituting n = 17, we obtain

Substituting n = 24, we obtain

Question 8:

Find the 7th term in the following sequence whose nth term is

Discussion
Share

351

Substituting n = 7, we obtain

Question 9:

Find the 9th term in the following sequence whose nth term is

Discussion
Share

Substituting n = 9, we obtain

Question 10:

Find the 20th term in the following sequence whose nth term is

Discussion
Share

Substituting n = 20, we obtain

Question 11:

Write the first five terms of the following sequence and obtain the corresponding series:

Discussion

352

Share

Hence, the first five terms of the sequence are 3, 11, 35, 107, and 323.
The corresponding series is 3 + 11 + 35 + 107 + 323 + …

Question 12:

Write the first five terms of the following sequence and obtain the corresponding series:

Discussion
Share

Hence, the first five terms of the sequence are

The corresponding series is

353

Question 12:

Write the first five terms of the following sequence and obtain the corresponding series:

Discussion
Share

Hence, the first five terms of the sequence are

The corresponding series is
Question 13:

Write the first five terms of the following sequence and obtain the corresponding series:

Discussion
Share

354

Hence, the first five terms of the sequence are 2, 2, 1, 0, and –1.
The corresponding series is 2 + 2 + 1 + 0 + (–1) + …

Question 14:

The Fibonacci sequence is defined by

Find

Discussion
Share

355

EXERCISE 9.2
Question 1:

Find the sum of odd integers from 1 to 2001.

Discussion
Share

The odd integers from 1 to 2001 are 1, 3, 5, …1999, 2001.
This sequence forms an A.P.
Here, first term, a = 1
Common difference, d = 2

Question 2:

Find the sum of all natural numbers lying between 100 and 1000, which are multiples of
5.

356

Discussion
Share

The natural numbers lying between 100 and 1000, which are multiples of 5, are 105,
110, … 995.

Question 3:

In an A.P, the first term is 2 and the sum of the first five terms is one-fourth of the next
five terms. Show that 20th term is –112.

Discussion
Share

First term = 2
Let d be the common difference of the A.P.
Therefore, the A.P. is 2, 2 + d, 2 + 2d, 2 + 3d, …
Sum of first five terms = 10 + 10d
Sum of next five terms = 10 + 35d

357

According to the given condition,

Thus, the 20th term of the A.P. is –112.
Question 4:

How many terms of the A.P.

are needed to give the sum –25?

Discussion
Share

Let the sum of n terms of the given A.P. be –25.
It is known that,
and d = common difference

, where n = number of terms, a = first term,

Here, a = –6

Therefore, we obtain

358

Question 5:

In an A.P., if pth term is

and qth term is

, prove that the sum of first pq terms

is

Discussion
Share

It is known that the general term of an A.P. is an = a + (n – 1)d
∴ According to the given information,

Subtracting (2) from (1), we obtain

359

Putting the value of d in (1), we obtain

Thus, the sum of first pq terms of the A.P. is

.

Question 6:

If the sum of a certain number of terms of the A.P. 25, 22, 19, … is 116. Find the last
term

Discussion
Share

Let the sum of n terms of the given A.P. be 116.

360

Here, a = 25 and d = 22 – 25 = – 3

However, n cannot be equal to

. Therefore, n = 8

∴ a8 = Last term = a + (n – 1)d = 25 + (8 – 1) (– 3)
= 25 + (7) (– 3) = 25 – 21
=4
Thus, the last term of the A.P. is 4.

Question 7:

Find the sum to n terms of the A.P., whose kth term is 5k + 1.

Discussion
Share

It is given that the kth term of the A.P. is 5k + 1.
kth term = ak = a + (k – 1)d
∴ a + (k – 1)d = 5k + 1

361

a + kd – d = 5k + 1
Comparing the coefficient of k, we obtain d = 5
a–d=1

⇒a–5=1
⇒a=6

Question 8:

If the sum of n terms of an A.P. is (pn + qn2), where p and q are constants, find the
common difference.

Discussion
Share

It is known that,
According to the given condition,

Comparing the coefficients of n2 on both sides, we obtain

362

∴d=2q

Thus, the common difference of the A.P. is 2q.

Question 9:

The sums of n terms of two arithmetic progressions are in the ratio 5n + 4: 9n + 6. Find
the ratio of their 18th terms.

Discussion
Share

Let a1, a2, and d1, d2 be the first terms and the common difference of the first and second
arithmetic progression respectively.
According to the given condition,

Substituting n = 35 in (1), we obtain

From (2) and (3), we obtain

363

Thus, the ratio of 18th term of both the A.P.s is 179: 321.

Question 10:

If the sum of first p terms of an A.P. is equal to the sum of the first q terms, then find the
sum of the first (p + q) terms.

Discussion
Share

Let a and d be the first term and the common difference of the A.P. respectively.
Here,

According to the given condition,

364

Thus, the sum of the first (p + q) terms of the A.P. is 0.

Question 11:

Sum of the first p, q and r terms of an A.P. are a, b and c, respectively.

Prove that

Discussion
Share

Let a1 and d be the first term and the common difference of the A.P. respectively.
According to the given information,

365

Subtracting (2) from (1), we obtain

Subtracting (3) from (2), we obtain

Equating both the values of d obtained in (4) and (5), we obtain

366

Dividing both sides by pqr, we obtain

Thus, the given result is proved.

Question 12:

The ratio of the sums of m and n terms of an A.P. is m2: n2. Show that the ratio
of mth and nth term is (2m – 1): (2n – 1).

Discussion
Share

Let a and b be the first term and the common difference of the A.P. respectively.
According to the given condition,

Putting m = 2m – 1 and n = 2n – 1 in (1), we obtain

367

From (2) and (3), we obtain

Thus, the given result is proved.

Question 13:

If the sum of n terms of an A.P. is

and its mth term is 164, find the value of m.

Discussion
Share

Let a and b be the first term and the common difference of the A.P. respectively.
am = a + (m – 1)d = 164 … (1)
Sum of n terms,
Here,

Comparing the coefficient of n2 on both sides, we obtain

368

Comparing the coefficient of n on both sides, we obtain

Therefore, from (1), we obtain
8 + (m – 1) 6 = 164

⇒ (m – 1) 6 = 164 – 8 = 156
⇒ m – 1 = 26
⇒ m = 27

Thus, the value of m is 27.

Question 14:

Insert five numbers between 8 and 26 such that the resulting sequence is an A.P.

Discussion
Share

Let A1, A2, A3, A4, and A5 be five numbers between 8 and 26 such that
8, A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, 26 is an A.P.
Here, a = 8, b = 26, n = 7
Therefore, 26 = 8 + (7 – 1) d
⇒ 6d = 26 – 8 = 18
⇒d=3

A1 = a + d = 8 + 3 = 11
A2 = a + 2d = 8 + 2 × 3 = 8 + 6 = 14

369

A3 = a + 3d = 8 + 3 × 3 = 8 + 9 = 17
A4 = a + 4d = 8 + 4 × 3 = 8 + 12 = 20
A5 = a + 5d = 8 + 5 × 3 = 8 + 15 = 23
Thus, the required five numbers between 8 and 26 are 11, 14, 17, 20, and 23.

Question 15:

If

is the A.M. between a and b, then find the value of n.

Discussion
Share

A.M. of a and b
According to the given condition,

Question 16:

Between 1 and 31, m numbers have been inserted in such a way that the resulting
sequence is an A.P. and the ratio of 7th and (m – 1)thnumbers is 5:9. Find the value of m.

370

Discussion
Share

Let A1, A2, … Am be m numbers such that 1, A1, A2, … Am, 31 is an A.P.
Here, a = 1, b = 31, n = m + 2
∴ 31 = 1 + (m + 2 – 1) (d)
⇒ 30 = (m + 1) d
A1 = a + d
A2 = a + 2d
A3 = a + 3d …
∴ A7 = a + 7d

Am–1 = a + (m – 1) d
According to the given condition,

371

Thus, the value of m is 14.

Question 17:

A man starts repaying a loan as first installment of Rs. 100. If he increases the
installment by Rs 5 every month, what amount he will pay in the 30th installment?

Discussion
Share

The first installment of the loan is Rs 100.
The second installment of the loan is Rs 105 and so on.
The amount that the man repays every month forms an A.P.
The A.P. is 100, 105, 110, …
First term, a = 100
Common difference, d = 5
A30 = a + (30 – 1)d

372

= 100 + (29) (5)
= 100 + 145
= 245
Thus, the amount to be paid in the 30th installment is Rs 245.

Question 18:

The difference between any two consecutive interior angles of a polygon is 5°. If the
smallest angle is 120°, find the number of the sides of the polygon.

Discussion
Share

The angles of the polygon will form an A.P. with common difference d as 5° and first
term a as 120°.
It is known that the sum of all angles of a polygon with n sides is 180° (n – 2).

373

EXERCISE 9.3
Question 1:

Find the 20th and nthterms of the G.P.

Discussion
Share

The given G.P. is
Here, a = First term =

r = Common ratio =

Question 2:

Find the 12th term of a G.P. whose 8th term is 192 and the common ratio is 2.

Discussion
Share

Common ratio, r = 2

374

Let a be the first term of the G.P.
∴ a8 = ar 8–1 = ar7
⇒ ar7 = 192
a(2)7 = 192

a(2)7 = (2)6 (3)

Question 3:

The 5th, 8th and 11th terms of a G.P. are p, q and s, respectively. Show that q2 = ps.

Discussion
Share

Let a be the first term and r be the common ratio of the G.P.
According to the given condition,
a5 = a r5–1 = a r4 = p … (1)
a8 = a r8–1 = a r7 = q … (2)
a11 = a r11–1 = a r10 = s … (3)
Dividing equation (2) by (1), we obtain

Dividing equation (3) by (2), we obtain

375

Equating the values of r3 obtained in (4) and (5), we obtain

Thus, the given result is proved.

Question 4:

The 4th term of a G.P. is square of its second term, and the first term is –3. Determine its
7th term.

Discussion
Share

Let a be the first term and r be the common ratio of the G.P.
∴ a = –3

It is known that, an = arn–1
∴a4 = ar3 = (–3) r3
a2 = a r1 = (–3) r

According to the given condition,
(–3) r3 = [ (–3) r]2
⇒ –3r3 = 9 r2
⇒ r = –3

a7 = a r 7–1 = a r6 = (–3) (–3)6 = – (3)7 = –2187

376

Thus, the seventh term of the G.P. is –2187.

Question 5:

Which term of the following sequences:
(a)

(b)

(c)

Discussion
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(a) The given sequence is

Here, a = 2 and r =
Let the nth term of the given sequence be 128.

Thus, the 13th term of the given sequence is 128.
(b) The given sequence is

Here,
Let the nth term of the given sequence be 729.

377

Thus, the 12th term of the given sequence is 729.
(c) The given sequence is
Here,
Let the nth term of the given sequence be

.

Thus, the 9th term of the given sequence is

.

Question 6:

For what values of x, the numbers

are in G.P?

378

Discussion
Share

The given numbers are

.

Common ratio =

Also, common ratio =

Thus, for x = ± 1, the given numbers will be in G.P.

Question 7:

Find the sum to 20 terms in the geometric progression 0.15, 0.015, 0.0015 …

Discussion
Share

The given G.P. is 0.15, 0.015, 0.00015, …
Here, a = 0.15 and

379

Question 8:

Find the sum to n terms in the geometric progression

Discussion
Share

The given G.P. is
Here,

380

Question 9:

Find the sum to n terms in the geometric progression

Discussion
Share

The given G.P. is
Here, first term = a1 = 1
Common ratio = r = – a

381

Question 10:

Find the sum to n terms in the geometric progression

Discussion
Share

The given G.P. is
Here, a = x3 and r = x2

Question 11:

Evaluate

Discussion
Share

The terms of this sequence 3, 32, 33, … forms a G.P.

382

Substituting this value in equation (1), we obtain

Question 12:

The sum of first three terms of a G.P. is
and the terms.

and their product is 1. Find the common ratio

Discussion
Share

Let

be the first three terms of the G.P.

From (2), we obtain
a3 = 1

⇒ a = 1 (Considering real roots only)

Substituting a = 1 in equation (1), we obtain

383

Thus, the three terms of G.P. are

.

Question 13:

How many terms of G.P. 3, 32, 33, … are needed to give the sum 120?

Discussion
Share

The given G.P. is 3, 32, 33, …
Let n terms of this G.P. be required to obtain the sum as 120.

Here, a = 3 and r = 3

384

∴n=4

Thus, four terms of the given G.P. are required to obtain the sum as 120.

Question 14:

The sum of first three terms of a G.P. is 16 and the sum of the next three terms is 128.
Determine the first term, the common ratio and the sum to n terms of the G.P.

Discussion
Share

Let the G.P. be a, ar, ar2, ar3, …
According to the given condition,
a + ar + ar2 = 16 and ar3 + ar4 + ar5 = 128
⇒ a (1 + r + r2) = 16 … (1)
ar3(1 + r + r2) = 128 … (2)

Dividing equation (2) by (1), we obtain

Substituting r = 2 in (1), we obtain

385

a (1 + 2 + 4) = 16
⇒ a (7) = 16

Question 15:

Given a G.P. with a = 729 and 7th term 64, determine S7.

Discussion
Share

a = 729
a7 = 64
Let r be the common ratio of the G.P.
It is known that, an = a rn–1
a7 = ar7–1 = (729)r6
⇒ 64 = 729 r6

Also, it is known that,

386

Question 16:

Find a G.P. for which sum of the first two terms is –4 and the fifth term is 4 times the
third term.

Discussion
Share

Let a be the first term and r be the common ratio of the G.P.
According to the given conditions,

a5 = 4 × a3
ar4 = 4ar2
⇒ r2 = 4

∴r=±2

From (1), we obtain

387

Thus, the required G.P. is
4, –8, 16, –32, …

Question 17:

If the 4th, 10th and 16th terms of a G.P. are x, y and z, respectively. Prove that x, y, z are in
G.P.

Discussion
Share

Let a be the first term and r be the common ratio of the G.P.
According to the given condition,
a4 = a r3 = x … (1)
a10 = a r9 = y … (2)
a16 = a r15 = z … (3)
Dividing (2) by (1), we obtain

388

Dividing (3) by (2), we obtain

Thus, x, y, z are in G. P.

Question 18:

Find the sum to n terms of the sequence, 8, 88, 888, 8888…

Discussion
Share

The given sequence is 8, 88, 888, 8888…
This sequence is not a G.P. However, it can be changed to G.P. by writing the terms as
Sn = 8 + 88 + 888 + 8888 + …………….. to n terms

389

Question 19:

Find the sum of the products of the corresponding terms of the sequences 2, 4, 8, 16, 32
and 128, 32, 8, 2,

.

Discussion
Share

Required sum =

Here, 4, 2, 1,

is a G.P.

First term, a = 4
Common ratio, r =

It is known that,

∴Required sum =
Question 20:

Show that the products of the corresponding terms of the
sequences
ratio.

form a G.P, and find the common

390

Discussion
Share

It has to be proved that the sequence, aA, arAR, ar2AR2, …arn–1ARn–1, forms a G.P.

Thus, the above sequence forms a G.P. and the common ratio is rR.

Question 21:

Find four numbers forming a geometric progression in which third term is greater than
the first term by 9, and the second term is greater than the 4th by 18.

Discussion
Share

Let a be the first term and r be the common ratio of the G.P.
a1 = a, a2 = ar, a3 = ar2, a4 = ar3
By the given condition,
a3 = a1 + 9

⇒ ar2 = a + 9 … (1)
a2 = a4 + 18

⇒ ar = ar3 + 18 … (2)

From (1) and (2), we obtain
a(r2 – 1) = 9 … (3)
ar (1– r2) = 18 … (4)
Dividing (4) by (3), we obtain

391

Substituting the value of r in (1), we obtain
4a = a + 9
⇒ 3a = 9
∴a=3

Thus, the first four numbers of the G.P. are 3, 3(– 2), 3(–2)2, and 3 (–2)3 i.e., 3¸–6, 12,
and –24.

Question 22:

If the

terms of a G.P. are a, b and c, respectively. Prove that

Discussion
Share

Let A be the first term and R be the common ratio of the G.P.
According to the given information,
ARp–1 = a
ARq–1 = b
ARr–1 = c
aq–r br–p cp–q
= Aq–r × R(p–1) (q–r) × Ar–p × R(q–1) (r-p) × Ap–q × R(r –1)(p–q)
= Aq – r + r – p + p – q × R (pr – pr – q + r) + (rq – r + p – pq) + (pr – p – qr + q)
= A0 × R0

392

=1
Thus, the given result is proved.

Question 23:

If the first and the nth term of a G.P. are a ad b, respectively, and if P is the product
of n terms, prove that P2 = (ab)n.

Discussion
Share

The first term of the G.P is a and the last term is b.
Therefore, the G.P. is a, ar, ar2, ar3, … arn–1, where r is the common ratio.
b = arn–1 … (1)
P = Product of n terms
= (a) (ar) (ar2) … (arn–1)
= (a × a ×…a) (r × r2 × …rn–1)
= an r 1 + 2 +…(n–1) … (2)
Here, 1, 2, …(n – 1) is an A.P.
∴1 + 2 + ……….+ (n – 1)

Thus, the given result is proved.

393

Question 24:

Show that the ratio of the sum of first n terms of a G.P. to the sum of terms
from

.

Discussion
Share

Let a be the first term and r be the common ratio of the G.P.

Since there are n terms from (n +1)th to (2n)th term,

Sum of terms from(n + 1)th to (2n)th term
a n +1 = ar n + 1 – 1 = arn

Thus, required ratio =
Thus, the ratio of the sum of first n terms of a G.P. to the sum of terms from (n + 1)th to
(2n)th term is

.

Question 25:

If a, b, c and d are in G.P. show that

.

Discussion
Share

a, b, c, d are in G.P.

394

Therefore,
bc = ad … (1)
b2 = ac … (2)
c2 = bd … (3)
It has to be proved that,
(a2 + b2 + c2) (b2 + c2 + d2) = (ab + bc – cd)2
R.H.S.
= (ab + bc + cd)2
= (ab + ad + cd)2 [Using (1)]
= [ab + d (a + c)]2
= a2b2 + 2abd (a + c) + d2 (a + c)2
= a2b2 +2a2bd + 2acbd + d2(a2 + 2ac + c2)
= a2b2 + 2a2c2 + 2b2c2 + d2a2 + 2d2b2 + d2c2 [Using (1) and (2)]
= a2b2 + a2c2 + a2c2 + b2c2 + b2c2 + d2a2 + d2b2 + d2b2 + d2c2
= a2b2 + a2c2 + a2d2 + b2 × b2 + b2c2 + b2d2 + c2b2 + c2 × c2 + c2d2
[Using (2) and (3) and rearranging terms]
= a2(b2 + c2 + d2) + b2 (b2 + c2 + d2) + c2 (b2+ c2 + d2)
= (a2 + b2 + c2) (b2 + c2 + d2)
= L.H.S.

∴ L.H.S. = R.H.S.

Question 26:

395

Insert two numbers between 3 and 81 so that the resulting sequence is G.P.

Discussion
Share

Let G1 and G2 be two numbers between 3 and 81 such that the series, 3, G1, G2, 81, forms
a G.P.
Let a be the first term and r be the common ratio of the G.P.
∴81 = (3) (r)3
⇒ r3 = 27

∴ r = 3 (Taking real roots only)
For r = 3,

G1 = ar = (3) (3) = 9
G2 = ar2 = (3) (3)2 = 27
Thus, the required two numbers are 9 and 27.

Question 27:

Find the value of n so that

may be the geometric mean between a and b.

Discussion
Share

G. M. of a and b is

.

By the given condition,
Squaring both sides, we obtain

396

Question 28:

The sum of two numbers is 6 times their geometric mean, show that numbers are in the
ratio

.

Discussion
Share

Let the two numbers be a and b.
G.M. =
According to the given condition,

Also,

397

Adding (1) and (2), we obtain

Substituting the value of a in (1), we obtain

Thus, the required ratio is

.

Question 28:

The sum of two numbers is 6 times their geometric mean, show that numbers are in the
ratio

.

Discussion
Share

Let the two numbers be a and b.
G.M. =
According to the given condition,

Also,

398

Adding (1) and (2), we obtain
Question 28:

The sum of two numbers is 6 times their geometric mean, show that numbers are in the
ratio

.

Discussion
Share

Let the two numbers be a and b.
G.M. =
According to the given condition,

Also,

Adding (1) and (2), we obtain

Substituting the value of a in (1), we obtain

399

Thus, the required ratio is

.

Question 31:

What will Rs 500 amounts to in 10 years after its deposit in a bank which pays annual
interest rate of 10% compounded annually?

Discussion
Share

The amount deposited in the bank is Rs 500.

At the end of first year, amount =

= Rs 500 (1.1)

At the end of 2nd year, amount = Rs 500 (1.1) (1.1)
At the end of 3rd year, amount = Rs 500 (1.1) (1.1) (1.1) and so on

∴Amount at the end of 10 years = Rs 500 (1.1) (1.1) … (10 times)
= Rs 500(1.1)10

Question 32:

If A.M. and G.M. of roots of a quadratic equation are 8 and 5, respectively, then obtain

Discussion
Share

400

Let the root of the quadratic equation be a and b.
According to the given condition,

The quadratic equation is given by,
x2– x (Sum of roots) + (Product of roots) = 0
x2 – x (a + b) + (ab) = 0
x2 – 16x + 25 = 0 [Using (1) and (2)]
Thus, the required quadratic equation is x2 – 16x + 25 = 0

Substituting the value of a in (1), we obtain

Thus, the required ratio is

.

Question 32:

If A.M. and G.M. of roots of a quadratic equation are 8 and 5, respectively, then obtain

401

Discussion
Share

Let the root of the quadratic equation be a and b.
According to the given condition,

The quadratic equation is given by,
x2– x (Sum of roots) + (Product of roots) = 0
x2 – x (a + b) + (ab) = 0
x2 – 16x + 25 = 0 [Using (1) and (2)]
Thus, the required quadratic equation is x2 – 16x + 25 = 0

Question 2:

Find the sum to n terms of the series 1 × 2 × 3 + 2 × 3 × 4 + 3 × 4 × 5 + …

Discussion
Share

The given series is 1 × 2 × 3 + 2 × 3 × 4 + 3 × 4 × 5 + …
nth term, an = n ( n + 1) ( n + 2)
= (n2 + n) (n + 2)
= n3 + 3n2 + 2n

402

Question 2:

Find the sum to n terms of the series 1 × 2 × 3 + 2 × 3 × 4 + 3 × 4 × 5 + …

Discussion
Share

The given series is 1 × 2 × 3 + 2 × 3 × 4 + 3 × 4 × 5 + …
nth term, an = n ( n + 1) ( n + 2)
= (n2 + n) (n + 2)
= n3 + 3n2 + 2n

403

Question 4:

Find the sum to n terms of the series

Discussion
Share

The given series is

nth term, an =

404

Adding the above terms column wise, we obtain

Question 5:

Find the sum to n terms of the series

Discussion
Share

The given series is 52 + 62 + 72 + … + 202
nth term, an = ( n + 4)2 = n2 + 8n + 16

16th term is (16 + 4)2 = 2022

405

Question 6:

Find the sum to n terms of the series 3 × 8 + 6 × 11 + 9 × 14 +…

Discussion
Share

The given series is 3 × 8 + 6 × 11 + 9 × 14 + …
an = (nth term of 3, 6, 9 …) × (nth term of 8, 11, 14, …)
= (3n) (3n + 5)
= 9n2 + 15n

406

Question 7:

Find the sum to n terms of the series 12 + (12 + 22) + (12 + 22 + 32) + …

Discussion
Share

The given series is 12 + (12 + 22) + (12 + 22 + 33 ) + …
an = (12 + 22 + 33 +…….+ n2)

407

Question 8:

Find the sum to n terms of the series whose nth term is given by n (n + 1) (n + 4).

Discussion
Share

an = n (n + 1) (n + 4) = n(n2 + 5n + 4) = n3 + 5n2 + 4n

408

Question 9:

Find the sum to n terms of the series whose nth terms is given by n2 + 2n

Discussion
Share

an = n2 + 2n

Consider
The above series 2, 22, 23, … is a G.P. with both the first term and common ratio equal to
2.

Therefore, from (1) and (2), we obtain

409

Question 10:

Find the sum to n terms of the series whose nth terms is given by (2n – 1)2

Discussion
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an = (2n – 1)2 = 4n2 – 4n + 1

EXERCISE 9.4
Question 1:

Show that the sum of (m + n)th and (m – n)th terms of an A.P. is equal to twice
the mth term.

410

Discussion
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Let a and d be the first term and the common difference of the A.P. respectively.
It is known that the kth term of an A. P. is given by
ak = a + (k –1) d

∴ am + n = a + (m + n –1) d
am – n = a + (m – n –1) d
am = a + (m –1) d

∴ am + n + am – n = a + (m + n –1) d + a + (m – n –1) d
= 2a + (m + n –1 + m – n –1) d
= 2a + (2m – 2) d
= 2a + 2 (m – 1) d
=2 [a + (m – 1) d]
= 2am
Thus, the sum of (m + n)th and (m – n)th terms of an A.P. is equal to twice the mth term.

Question 2:

If the sum of three numbers in A.P., is 24 and their product is 440, find the numbers.

Discussion
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Let the three numbers in A.P. be a – d, a, and a + d.
According to the given information,
(a – d) + (a) + (a + d) = 24 … (1)

411

⇒ 3a = 24
∴a=8

(a – d) a (a + d) = 440 … (2)
⇒ (8 – d) (8) (8 + d) = 440
⇒ (8 – d) (8 + d) = 55
⇒ 64 – d2 = 55

⇒ d2 = 64 – 55 = 9
⇒d=±3

Therefore, when d = 3, the numbers are 5, 8, and 11 and when d = –3, the numbers are
11, 8, and 5.
Thus, the three numbers are 5, 8, and 11.

Question 2:

If the sum of three numbers in A.P., is 24 and their product is 440, find the numbers.

Discussion
Share

Let the three numbers in A.P. be a – d, a, and a + d.
According to the given information,
(a – d) + (a) + (a + d) = 24 … (1)
⇒ 3a = 24
∴a=8

(a – d) a (a + d) = 440 … (2)
⇒ (8 – d) (8) (8 + d) = 440

412

⇒ (8 – d) (8 + d) = 55
⇒ 64 – d2 = 55

⇒ d2 = 64 – 55 = 9
⇒d=±3

Therefore, when d = 3, the numbers are 5, 8, and 11 and when d = –3, the numbers are
11, 8, and 5.
Thus, the three numbers are 5, 8, and 11.

Question 4:

Find the sum of all numbers between 200 and 400 which are divisible by 7.

Discussion
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The numbers lying between 200 and 400, which are divisible by 7, are
203, 210, 217, … 399
∴First term, a = 203
Last term, l = 399

Common difference, d = 7
Let the number of terms of the A.P. be n.
∴ an = 399 = a + (n –1) d
⇒ 399 = 203 + (n –1) 7
⇒ 7 (n –1) = 196
⇒ n –1 = 28
⇒ n = 29

413

Thus, the required sum is 8729.

Question 5:

Find the sum of integers from 1 to 100 that are divisible by 2 or 5.

Discussion
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The integers from 1 to 100, which are divisible by 2, are 2, 4, 6… 100.
This forms an A.P. with both the first term and common difference equal to 2.
⇒100 = 2 + (n –1) 2
⇒ n = 50

The integers from 1 to 100, which are divisible by 5, are 5, 10… 100.
This forms an A.P. with both the first term and common difference equal to 5.
∴100 = 5 + (n –1) 5
⇒ 5n = 100
⇒ n = 20

414

The integers, which are divisible by both 2 and 5, are 10, 20, … 100.
This also forms an A.P. with both the first term and common difference equal to 10.
∴100 = 10 + (n –1) (10)
⇒ 100 = 10n
⇒ n = 10

∴Required sum = 2550 + 1050 – 550 = 3050

Thus, the sum of the integers from 1 to 100, which are divisible by 2 or 5, is 3050.

Question 6:

Find the sum of all two digit numbers which when divided by 4, yields 1 as remainder.

Discussion
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The two-digit numbers, which when divided by 4, yield 1 as remainder, are
13, 17, … 97.
This series forms an A.P. with first term 13 and common difference 4.
Let n be the number of terms of the A.P.
It is known that the nth term of an A.P. is given by, an = a + (n –1) d

415

∴97 = 13 + (n –1) (4)
⇒ 4 (n –1) = 84
⇒ n – 1 = 21
⇒ n = 22

Sum of n terms of an A.P. is given by,

Thus, the required sum is 1210.

Question 7:

If f is a function satisfying
that

such
, find the value of n.

Discussion
Share

It is given that,

f (x + y) = f (x) × f (y) for all x, y ∈ N … (1)
f (1) = 3

Taking x = y = 1 in (1), we obtain
f (1 + 1) = f (2) = f (1) f (1) = 3 × 3 = 9
Similarly,
f (1 + 1 + 1) = f (3) = f (1 + 2) = f (1) f (2) = 3 × 9 = 27

416

f (4) = f (1 + 3) = f (1) f (3) = 3 × 27 = 81

∴ f (1), f (2), f (3), …, that is 3, 9, 27, …, forms a G.P. with both the first term and
common ratio equal to 3.
It is known that,

It is given that,

Thus, the value of n is 4.

Question 8:

The sum of some terms of G.P. is 315 whose first term and the common ratio are 5 and
2, respectively. Find the last term and the number of terms.

Discussion
Share

Let the sum of n terms of the G.P. be 315.

It is known that,
It is given that the first term a is 5 and common ratio r is 2.

417

∴Last term of the G.P = 6th term = ar6 – 1 = (5)(2)5 = (5)(32) = 160
Thus, the last term of the G.P. is 160.

Question 9:

The first term of a G.P. is 1. The sum of the third term and fifth term is 90. Find the
common ratio of G.P.

Discussion
Share

Let a and r be the first term and the common ratio of the G.P. respectively.
∴a=1

a3 = ar2 = r2
a5 = ar4 = r4

∴ r2 + r4 = 90

⇒ r4 + r2 – 90 = 0

Thus, the common ratio of the G.P. is ±3.

Question 10:

The sum of three numbers in G.P. is 56. If we subtract 1, 7, 21 from these numbers in
that order, we obtain an arithmetic progression. Find the numbers.

418

Discussion
Share

Let the three numbers in G.P. be a, ar, and ar2.
From the given condition, a + ar + ar2 = 56
⇒ a (1 + r + r2) = 56

… (1)
a – 1, ar – 7, ar2 – 21 forms an A.P.

∴(ar – 7) – (a – 1) = (ar2 – 21) – (ar – 7)
⇒ ar – a – 6 = ar2 – ar – 14
⇒ar2 – 2ar + a = 8

⇒ar2 – ar – ar + a = 8
⇒a(r2 + 1 – 2r) = 8

⇒ a (r – 1)2 = 8 … (2)
⇒7(r2 – 2r + 1) = 1 + r + r2

⇒7r2 – 14 r + 7 – 1 – r – r2 = 0
⇒ 6r2 – 15r + 6 = 0

⇒ 6r2 – 12r – 3r + 6 = 0

⇒ 6r (r – 2) – 3 (r – 2) = 0
⇒ (6r – 3) (r – 2) = 0

419

When r = 2, a = 8
When
Therefore, when r = 2, the three numbers in G.P. are 8, 16, and 32.
When

, the three numbers in G.P. are 32, 16, and 8.

Thus, in either case, the three required numbers are 8, 16, and 32.

Question 11:

A G.P. consists of an even number of terms. If the sum of all the terms is 5 times the sum
of terms occupying odd places, then find its common ratio.

Discussion
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Let the G.P. be T1, T2, T3, T4, … T2n.
Number of terms = 2n
According to the given condition,
T1 + T2 + T3 + …+ T2n = 5 [T1 + T3 + … +T2n–1]

⇒ T1 + T2 + T3 + … + T2n – 5 [T1 + T3 + … + T2n–1] = 0
⇒ T2 + T4 + … + T2n = 4 [T1 + T3 + … + T2n–1]
Let the G.P. be a, ar, ar2, ar3, …

Thus, the common ratio of the G.P. is 4.

420

Question 12:

The sum of the first four terms of an A.P. is 56. The sum of the last four terms is 112. If
its first term is 11, then find the number of terms.

Discussion
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Let the A.P. be a, a + d, a + 2d, a + 3d, ... a + (n – 2) d, a + (n – 1)d.
Sum of first four terms = a + (a + d) + (a + 2d) + (a + 3d) = 4a + 6d
Sum of last four terms = [a + (n – 4) d] + [a + (n – 3) d] + [a + (n – 2) d]
+ [a + n – 1) d]
= 4a + (4n – 10) d
According to the given condition,
4a + 6d = 56

⇒ 4(11) + 6d = 56 [Since a = 11 (given)]
⇒ 6d = 12
⇒d=2

∴ 4a + (4n –10) d = 112

⇒ 4(11) + (4n – 10)2 = 112
⇒ (4n – 10)2 = 68
⇒ 4n – 10 = 34
⇒ 4n = 44
⇒ n = 11

Thus, the number of terms of the A.P. is 11.

421

Question 13:

If

, then show that a, b, c and d are in G.P.

Discussion
Share

It is given that,

From (1) and (2), we obtain

Thus, a, b, c, and d are in G.P.

Question 14:

Let S be the sum, P the product and R the sum of reciprocals of n terms in a G.P. Prove
that P2Rn = Sn

422

Discussion
Share

Let the G.P. be a, ar, ar2, ar3, … arn – 1…
According to the given information,

Hence, P2 Rn = Sn

Question 15:

The pth, qth and rth terms of an A.P. are a, b, c respectively. Show that

423

Discussion
Share

Let t and d be the first term and the common difference of the A.P. respectively.
The nth term of an A.P. is given by, an = t + (n – 1) d
Therefore,
ap = t + (p – 1) d = a … (1)
aq = t + (q – 1)d = b … (2)
ar = t + (r – 1) d = c … (3)
Subtracting equation (2) from (1), we obtain
(p – 1 – q + 1) d = a – b
⇒ (p – q) d = a – b

Subtracting equation (3) from (2), we obtain
(q – 1 – r + 1) d = b – c
⇒ (q – r) d = b – c

Equating both the values of d obtained in (4) and (5), we obtain

424

Thus, the given result is proved.

Question 16:

If a

are in A.P., prove that a, b, c are in A.P.

Discussion
Share

It is given that a

are in A.P.

Thus, a, b, and c are in A.P.

Question 17:

If a, b, c, d are in G.P, prove that

are in G.P.

Discussion
Share

It is given that a, b, c,and d are in G.P.
∴b2 = ac … (1)

425

c2 = bd … (2)
ad = bc … (3)
It has to be proved that (an + bn), (bn + cn), (cn + dn) are in G.P. i.e.,
(bn + cn)2 = (an + bn) (cn + dn)
Consider L.H.S.
(bn + cn)2 = b2n + 2bncn + c2n
= (b2)n+ 2bncn + (c2) n
= (ac)n + 2bncn + (bd)n [Using (1) and (2)]
= an cn + bncn+ bn cn + bn dn
= an cn + bncn+ an dn + bn dn [Using (3)]
= cn (an + bn) + dn (an + bn)
= (an + bn) (cn + dn)
= R.H.S.

∴ (bn + cn)2 = (an + bn) (cn + dn)

Thus, (an + bn), (bn + cn), and (cn + dn) are in G.P.

Question 18:

If a and b are the roots of
are roots of
where a, b, c, d, form a G.P. Prove that (q + p): (q – p) = 17:15.

Discussion
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It is given that a and b are the roots of x2 – 3x + p = 0
∴ a + b = 3 and ab = p … (1)

426

,

Also, c and d are the roots of

∴c + d = 12 and cd = q … (2)

It is given that a, b, c, d are in G.P.
Let a = x, b = xr, c = xr2, d = xr3
From (1) and (2), we obtain
x + xr = 3

⇒ x (1 + r) = 3
xr2 + xr3 =12

⇒ xr2 (1 + r) = 12

On dividing, we obtain

Case I:
When r = 2 and x =1,
ab = x2r = 2
cd = x2r5 = 32

Case II:

427

When r = –2, x = –3,
ab = x2r = –18
cd = x2r5 = – 288

Thus, in both the cases, we obtain (q + p): (q – p) = 17:15

Question 19:

The ratio of the A.M and G.M. of two positive numbers a and b, is m: n. Show
that

.

Discussion
Share

Let the two numbers be a and b.
A.M

and G.M. =

According to the given condition,

Using this in the identity (a – b)2 = (a + b)2 – 4ab, we obtain

428

Adding (1) and (2), we obtain

Substituting the value of a in (1), we obtain

Question 20:

If a, b, c are in A.P,; b, c, d are in G.P and
G.P.

are in A.P. prove that a, c, e are in

Discussion
Share

It is given that a, b, c are in A.P.
∴ b – a = c – b … (1)

429

It is given that b, c, d, are in G.P.
∴ c2 = bd … (2)
Also,

are in A.P.

It has to be proved that a, c, e are in G.P. i.e., c2 = ae
From (1), we obtain

From (2), we obtain

Substituting these values in (3), we obtain

Thus, a, c, and e are in G.P.

430

Question 21:

Find four numbers forming a geometric progression in which third term is greater than
the first term by 9, and the second term is greater than the 4th by 18.

Discussion
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Let a be the first term and r be the common ratio of the G.P.
a1 = a, a2 = ar, a3 = ar2, a4 = ar3
By the given condition,
a3 = a1 + 9

⇒ ar2 = a + 9 … (1)
a2 = a4 + 18

⇒ ar = ar3 + 18 … (2)

From (1) and (2), we obtain
a(r2 – 1) = 9 … (3)
ar (1– r2) = 18 … (4)
Dividing (4) by (3), we obtain

Substituting the value of r in (1), we obtain
4a = a + 9
⇒ 3a = 9
∴a=3

431

Thus, the first four numbers of the G.P. are 3, 3(– 2), 3(–2)2, and 3 (–2)3 i.e., 3¸–6, 12,
and –24.

Question 22:

If the

terms of a G.P. are a, b and c, respectively. Prove that

Discussion
Share

Let A be the first term and R be the common ratio of the G.P.
According to the given information,
ARp–1 = a
ARq–1 = b
ARr–1 = c
aq–r br–p cp–q
= Aq–r × R(p–1) (q–r) × Ar–p × R(q–1) (r-p) × Ap–q × R(r –1)(p–q)
= Aq – r + r – p + p – q × R (pr – pr – q + r) + (rq – r + p – pq) + (pr – p – qr + q)
= A0 × R0
=1
Thus, the given result is proved.

Question 23:

If the first and the nth term of a G.P. are a ad b, respectively, and if P is the product
of n terms, prove that P2 = (ab)n.

Discussion
Share

432

The first term of the G.P is a and the last term is b.
Therefore, the G.P. is a, ar, ar2, ar3, … arn–1, where r is the common ratio.
b = arn–1 … (1)
P = Product of n terms
= (a) (ar) (ar2) … (arn–1)
= (a × a ×…a) (r × r2 × …rn–1)
= an r 1 + 2 +…(n–1) … (2)
Here, 1, 2, …(n – 1) is an A.P.
∴1 + 2 + ……….+ (n – 1)

Thus, the given result is proved.

Question 24:

Show that the ratio of the sum of first n terms of a G.P. to the sum of terms
from

.

Discussion
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Let a be the first term and r be the common ratio of the G.P.

433

Since there are n terms from (n +1)th to (2n)th term,

Sum of terms from(n + 1)th to (2n)th term
a n +1 = ar n + 1 – 1 = arn

Thus, required ratio =
Thus, the ratio of the sum of first n terms of a G.P. to the sum of terms from (n + 1)th to
(2n)th term is

.

Question 25:

If a, b, c and d are in G.P. show that

.

Discussion
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a, b, c, d are in G.P.
Therefore,
bc = ad … (1)
b2 = ac … (2)
c2 = bd … (3)
It has to be proved that,
(a2 + b2 + c2) (b2 + c2 + d2) = (ab + bc – cd)2
R.H.S.

434

= (ab + bc + cd)2
= (ab + ad + cd)2 [Using (1)]
= [ab + d (a + c)]2
= a2b2 + 2abd (a + c) + d2 (a + c)2
= a2b2 +2a2bd + 2acbd + d2(a2 + 2ac + c2)
= a2b2 + 2a2c2 + 2b2c2 + d2a2 + 2d2b2 + d2c2 [Using (1) and (2)]
= a2b2 + a2c2 + a2c2 + b2c2 + b2c2 + d2a2 + d2b2 + d2b2 + d2c2
= a2b2 + a2c2 + a2d2 + b2 × b2 + b2c2 + b2d2 + c2b2 + c2 × c2 + c2d2
[Using (2) and (3) and rearranging terms]
= a2(b2 + c2 + d2) + b2 (b2 + c2 + d2) + c2 (b2+ c2 + d2)
= (a2 + b2 + c2) (b2 + c2 + d2)
= L.H.S.

∴ L.H.S. = R.H.S.

Question 26:

Insert two numbers between 3 and 81 so that the resulting sequence is G.P.

Discussion
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Let G1 and G2 be two numbers between 3 and 81 such that the series, 3, G1, G2, 81, forms
a G.P.
Let a be the first term and r be the common ratio of the G.P.
∴81 = (3) (r)3

435

⇒ r3 = 27

∴ r = 3 (Taking real roots only)
For r = 3,

G1 = ar = (3) (3) = 9
G2 = ar2 = (3) (3)2 = 27
Thus, the required two numbers are 9 and 27.

Question 27:

Find the value of n so that

may be the geometric mean between a and b.

Discussion
Share

G. M. of a and b is

.

By the given condition,
Squaring both sides, we obtain

436

Question 28:

The sum of two numbers is 6 times their geometric mean, show that numbers are in the
ratio

.

Discussion
Share

Let the two numbers be a and b.
G.M. =
According to the given condition,

Also,

437

Adding (1) and (2), we obtain

Substituting the value of a in (1), we obtain

Thus, the required ratio is

.

Question 29:

If A and G be A.M. and G.M., respectively between two positive numbers, prove that the
numbers are

.

Discussion
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It is given that A and G are A.M. and G.M. between two positive numbers. Let these two
positive numbers be a and b.

From (1) and (2), we obtain
a + b = 2A … (3)
ab = G2 … (4)
Substituting the value of a and b from (3) and (4) in the identity (a – b)2 = (a + b)2 – 4ab,
we obtain

438

(a – b)2 = 4A2 – 4G2 = 4 (A2–G2)
(a – b)2 = 4 (A + G) (A – G)

From (3) and (5), we obtain

Substituting the value of a in (3), we obtain

Thus, the two numbers are

.

Question 30:

The number of bacteria in a certain culture doubles every hour. If there were 30 bacteria
present in the culture originally, how many bacteria will be present at the end of 2nd hour,
4th hour and nth hour?

Discussion
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It is given that the number of bacteria doubles every hour. Therefore, the number of
bacteria after every hour will form a G.P.
Here, a = 30 and r = 2

∴ a3 = ar2 = (30) (2)2 = 120

Therefore, the number of bacteria at the end of 2nd hour will be 120.
a5 = ar4 = (30) (2)4 = 480
The number of bacteria at the end of 4th hour will be 480.
an +1 = arn = (30) 2n

439

Thus, number of bacteria at the end of nth hour will be 30(2)n.

Question 31:

What will Rs 500 amounts to in 10 years after its deposit in a bank which pays annual
interest rate of 10% compounded annually?

Discussion
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The amount deposited in the bank is Rs 500.

At the end of first year, amount =

= Rs 500 (1.1)

At the end of 2nd year, amount = Rs 500 (1.1) (1.1)
At the end of 3rd year, amount = Rs 500 (1.1) (1.1) (1.1) and so on

∴Amount at the end of 10 years = Rs 500 (1.1) (1.1) … (10 times)
= Rs 500(1.1)10

Question 32:

If A.M. and G.M. of roots of a quadratic equation are 8 and 5, respectively, then obtain

Discussion
Share

Let the root of the quadratic equation be a and b.
According to the given condition,

440

The quadratic equation is given by,
x2– x (Sum of roots) + (Product of roots) = 0
x2 – x (a + b) + (ab) = 0
x2 – 16x + 25 = 0 [Using (1) and (2)]
Thus, the required quadratic equation is x2 – 16x + 25 = 0

EXERCISE 9.5
Question 1:

Find the sum to n terms of the series 1 × 2 + 2 × 3 + 3 × 4 + 4 × 5 + …

Discussion
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The given series is 1 × 2 + 2 × 3 + 3 × 4 + 4 × 5 + …
nth term, an = n ( n + 1)

441

Question 2:

Find the sum to n terms of the series 1 × 2 × 3 + 2 × 3 × 4 + 3 × 4 × 5 + …

Discussion
Share

The given series is 1 × 2 × 3 + 2 × 3 × 4 + 3 × 4 × 5 + …
nth term, an = n ( n + 1) ( n + 2)
= (n2 + n) (n + 2)
= n3 + 3n2 + 2n

442

Question 3:

Find the sum to n terms of the series 3 × 12 + 5 × 22 + 7 × 32 + …

Discussion
Share

The given series is 3 ×12 + 5 × 22 + 7 × 32 + …
nth term, an = ( 2n + 1) n2 = 2n3 + n2

443

Question 4:

Find the sum to n terms of the series

Discussion
Share

The given series is

nth term, an =

444

Adding the above terms column wise, we obtain

Question 5:

Find the sum to n terms of the series

Discussion
Share

The given series is 52 + 62 + 72 + … + 202
nth term, an = ( n + 4)2 = n2 + 8n + 16

16th term is (16 + 4)2 = 2022

445

Question 6:

Find the sum to n terms of the series 3 × 8 + 6 × 11 + 9 × 14 +…

Discussion
Share

The given series is 3 × 8 + 6 × 11 + 9 × 14 + …
an = (nth term of 3, 6, 9 …) × (nth term of 8, 11, 14, …)
= (3n) (3n + 5)
= 9n2 + 15n

446

Question 7:

Find the sum to n terms of the series 12 + (12 + 22) + (12 + 22 + 32) + …

Discussion
Share

The given series is 12 + (12 + 22) + (12 + 22 + 33 ) + …
an = (12 + 22 + 33 +…….+ n2)

447

Question 8:

Find the sum to n terms of the series whose nth term is given by n (n + 1) (n + 4).

Discussion
Share

an = n (n + 1) (n + 4) = n(n2 + 5n + 4) = n3 + 5n2 + 4n

448

Question 9:

Find the sum to n terms of the series whose nth terms is given by n2 + 2n

Discussion
Share

an = n2 + 2n

Consider
The above series 2, 22, 23, … is a G.P. with both the first term and common ratio equal to
2.

Therefore, from (1) and (2), we obtain

449

Question 10:

Find the sum to n terms of the series whose nth terms is given by (2n – 1)2

Discussion
Share

an = (2n – 1)2 = 4n2 – 4n + 1

450

EXERCISE 9.6
Question 1:

Show that the sum of (m + n)th and (m – n)th terms of an A.P. is equal to twice
the mth term.

Discussion
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Let a and d be the first term and the common difference of the A.P. respectively.
It is known that the kth term of an A. P. is given by
ak = a + (k –1) d

∴ am + n = a + (m + n –1) d
am – n = a + (m – n –1) d
am = a + (m –1) d

∴ am + n + am – n = a + (m + n –1) d + a + (m – n –1) d
= 2a + (m + n –1 + m – n –1) d
= 2a + (2m – 2) d
= 2a + 2 (m – 1) d
=2 [a + (m – 1) d]
= 2am
Thus, the sum of (m + n)th and (m – n)th terms of an A.P. is equal to twice the mth term.

Question 2:

If the sum of three numbers in A.P., is 24 and their product is 440, find the numbers.

451

Discussion
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Let the three numbers in A.P. be a – d, a, and a + d.
According to the given information,
(a – d) + (a) + (a + d) = 24 … (1)
⇒ 3a = 24
∴a=8

(a – d) a (a + d) = 440 … (2)
⇒ (8 – d) (8) (8 + d) = 440
⇒ (8 – d) (8 + d) = 55
⇒ 64 – d2 = 55

⇒ d2 = 64 – 55 = 9
⇒d=±3

Therefore, when d = 3, the numbers are 5, 8, and 11 and when d = –3, the numbers are
11, 8, and 5.
Thus, the three numbers are 5, 8, and 11.

Question 3:

Let the sum of n, 2n, 3n terms of an A.P. be S1, S2 and S3, respectively, show that S3 = 3
(S2– S1)

Discussion
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Let a and b be the first term and the common difference of the A.P. respectively.
Therefore,

452

From (1) and (2), we obtain

Hence, the given result is proved.

Question 4:

Find the sum of all numbers between 200 and 400 which are divisible by 7.

Discussion
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The numbers lying between 200 and 400, which are divisible by 7, are
203, 210, 217, … 399
∴First term, a = 203
Last term, l = 399

Common difference, d = 7
Let the number of terms of the A.P. be n.

453

∴ an = 399 = a + (n –1) d
⇒ 399 = 203 + (n –1) 7
⇒ 7 (n –1) = 196
⇒ n –1 = 28
⇒ n = 29

Thus, the required sum is 8729.

Question 5:

Find the sum of integers from 1 to 100 that are divisible by 2 or 5.

Discussion
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The integers from 1 to 100, which are divisible by 2, are 2, 4, 6… 100.
This forms an A.P. with both the first term and common difference equal to 2.
⇒100 = 2 + (n –1) 2
⇒ n = 50

454

The integers from 1 to 100, which are divisible by 5, are 5, 10… 100.
This forms an A.P. with both the first term and common difference equal to 5.
∴100 = 5 + (n –1) 5
⇒ 5n = 100
⇒ n = 20

The integers, which are divisible by both 2 and 5, are 10, 20, … 100.
This also forms an A.P. with both the first term and common difference equal to 10.
∴100 = 10 + (n –1) (10)
⇒ 100 = 10n
⇒ n = 10

∴Required sum = 2550 + 1050 – 550 = 3050

Thus, the sum of the integers from 1 to 100, which are divisible by 2 or 5, is 3050.

Question 6:

Find the sum of all two digit numbers which when divided by 4, yields 1 as remainder.

Discussion
Share

455

The two-digit numbers, which when divided by 4, yield 1 as remainder, are
13, 17, … 97.
This series forms an A.P. with first term 13 and common difference 4.
Let n be the number of terms of the A.P.
It is known that the nth term of an A.P. is given by, an = a + (n –1) d
∴97 = 13 + (n –1) (4)
⇒ 4 (n –1) = 84
⇒ n – 1 = 21
⇒ n = 22

Sum of n terms of an A.P. is given by,

Thus, the required sum is 1210.

Question 7:

If f is a function satisfying
that

such
, find the value of n.

Discussion
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It is given that,

f (x + y) = f (x) × f (y) for all x, y ∈ N … (1)

456

f (1) = 3
Taking x = y = 1 in (1), we obtain
f (1 + 1) = f (2) = f (1) f (1) = 3 × 3 = 9
Similarly,
f (1 + 1 + 1) = f (3) = f (1 + 2) = f (1) f (2) = 3 × 9 = 27
f (4) = f (1 + 3) = f (1) f (3) = 3 × 27 = 81

∴ f (1), f (2), f (3), …, that is 3, 9, 27, …, forms a G.P. with both the first term and
common ratio equal to 3.
It is known that,

It is given that,

Thus, the value of n is 4.

Question 8:

The sum of some terms of G.P. is 315 whose first term and the common ratio are 5 and
2, respectively. Find the last term and the number of terms.

Discussion
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Let the sum of n terms of the G.P. be 315.

457

It is known that,
It is given that the first term a is 5 and common ratio r is 2.

∴Last term of the G.P = 6th term = ar6 – 1 = (5)(2)5 = (5)(32) = 160
Thus, the last term of the G.P. is 160.

Question 9:

The first term of a G.P. is 1. The sum of the third term and fifth term is 90. Find the
common ratio of G.P.

Discussion
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Let a and r be the first term and the common ratio of the G.P. respectively.
∴a=1

a3 = ar2 = r2
a5 = ar4 = r4

∴ r2 + r4 = 90

⇒ r4 + r2 – 90 = 0

Thus, the common ratio of the G.P. is ±3.

458

Question 10:

The sum of three numbers in G.P. is 56. If we subtract 1, 7, 21 from these numbers in
that order, we obtain an arithmetic progression. Find the numbers.

Discussion
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Let the three numbers in G.P. be a, ar, and ar2.
From the given condition, a + ar + ar2 = 56
⇒ a (1 + r + r2) = 56

… (1)
a – 1, ar – 7, ar2 – 21 forms an A.P.

∴(ar – 7) – (a – 1) = (ar2 – 21) – (ar – 7)
⇒ ar – a – 6 = ar2 – ar – 14
⇒ar2 – 2ar + a = 8

⇒ar2 – ar – ar + a = 8
⇒a(r2 + 1 – 2r) = 8

⇒ a (r – 1)2 = 8 … (2)
⇒7(r2 – 2r + 1) = 1 + r + r2

⇒7r2 – 14 r + 7 – 1 – r – r2 = 0
⇒ 6r2 – 15r + 6 = 0

⇒ 6r2 – 12r – 3r + 6 = 0

459

⇒ 6r (r – 2) – 3 (r – 2) = 0
⇒ (6r – 3) (r – 2) = 0
When r = 2, a = 8
When
Therefore, when r = 2, the three numbers in G.P. are 8, 16, and 32.
When

, the three numbers in G.P. are 32, 16, and 8.

Thus, in either case, the three required numbers are 8, 16, and 32.

Question 11:

A G.P. consists of an even number of terms. If the sum of all the terms is 5 times the sum
of terms occupying odd places, then find its common ratio.

Discussion
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Let the G.P. be T1, T2, T3, T4, … T2n.
Number of terms = 2n
According to the given condition,
T1 + T2 + T3 + …+ T2n = 5 [T1 + T3 + … +T2n–1]

⇒ T1 + T2 + T3 + … + T2n – 5 [T1 + T3 + … + T2n–1] = 0
⇒ T2 + T4 + … + T2n = 4 [T1 + T3 + … + T2n–1]
Let the G.P. be a, ar, ar2, ar3, …

460

Thus, the common ratio of the G.P. is 4.

Question 12:

The sum of the first four terms of an A.P. is 56. The sum of the last four terms is 112. If
its first term is 11, then find the number of terms.

Discussion
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Let the A.P. be a, a + d, a + 2d, a + 3d, ... a + (n – 2) d, a + (n – 1)d.
Sum of first four terms = a + (a + d) + (a + 2d) + (a + 3d) = 4a + 6d
Sum of last four terms = [a + (n – 4) d] + [a + (n – 3) d] + [a + (n – 2) d]
+ [a + n – 1) d]
= 4a + (4n – 10) d
According to the given condition,
4a + 6d = 56

⇒ 4(11) + 6d = 56 [Since a = 11 (given)]
⇒ 6d = 12
⇒d=2

∴ 4a + (4n –10) d = 112

⇒ 4(11) + (4n – 10)2 = 112
⇒ (4n – 10)2 = 68
⇒ 4n – 10 = 34

461

⇒ 4n = 44
⇒ n = 11

Thus, the number of terms of the A.P. is 11.

Question 13:

If

, then show that a, b, c and d are in G.P.

Discussion
Share

It is given that,

From (1) and (2), we obtain

Thus, a, b, c, and d are in G.P.

462

Question 14:

Let S be the sum, P the product and R the sum of reciprocals of n terms in a G.P. Prove
that P2Rn = Sn

Discussion
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Let the G.P. be a, ar, ar2, ar3, … arn – 1…
According to the given information,

Hence, P2 Rn = Sn

463

Question 15:

The pth, qth and rth terms of an A.P. are a, b, c respectively. Show that

Discussion
Share

Let t and d be the first term and the common difference of the A.P. respectively.
The nth term of an A.P. is given by, an = t + (n – 1) d
Therefore,
ap = t + (p – 1) d = a … (1)
aq = t + (q – 1)d = b … (2)
ar = t + (r – 1) d = c … (3)
Subtracting equation (2) from (1), we obtain
(p – 1 – q + 1) d = a – b
⇒ (p – q) d = a – b

Subtracting equation (3) from (2), we obtain
(q – 1 – r + 1) d = b – c
⇒ (q – r) d = b – c

Equating both the values of d obtained in (4) and (5), we obtain

464

Thus, the given result is proved.

Question 16:

If a

are in A.P., prove that a, b, c are in A.P.

Discussion
Share

It is given that a

are in A.P.

Thus, a, b, and c are in A.P.

Question 17:

465

If a, b, c, d are in G.P, prove that

are in G.P.

Discussion
Share

It is given that a, b, c,and d are in G.P.
∴b2 = ac … (1)
c2 = bd … (2)

ad = bc … (3)
It has to be proved that (an + bn), (bn + cn), (cn + dn) are in G.P. i.e.,
(bn + cn)2 = (an + bn) (cn + dn)
Consider L.H.S.
(bn + cn)2 = b2n + 2bncn + c2n
= (b2)n+ 2bncn + (c2) n
= (ac)n + 2bncn + (bd)n [Using (1) and (2)]
= an cn + bncn+ bn cn + bn dn
= an cn + bncn+ an dn + bn dn [Using (3)]
= cn (an + bn) + dn (an + bn)
= (an + bn) (cn + dn)
= R.H.S.

∴ (bn + cn)2 = (an + bn) (cn + dn)

Thus, (an + bn), (bn + cn), and (cn + dn) are in G.P.

Question 18:

466

If a and b are the roots of
are roots of
where a, b, c, d, form a G.P. Prove that (q + p): (q – p) = 17:15.

Discussion
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It is given that a and b are the roots of x2 – 3x + p = 0
∴ a + b = 3 and ab = p … (1)
Also, c and d are the roots of

∴c + d = 12 and cd = q … (2)

It is given that a, b, c, d are in G.P.
Let a = x, b = xr, c = xr2, d = xr3
From (1) and (2), we obtain
x + xr = 3

⇒ x (1 + r) = 3
xr2 + xr3 =12

⇒ xr2 (1 + r) = 12

On dividing, we obtain

Case I:

467

,

When r = 2 and x =1,
ab = x2r = 2
cd = x2r5 = 32

Case II:
When r = –2, x = –3,
ab = x2r = –18
cd = x2r5 = – 288

Thus, in both the cases, we obtain (q + p): (q – p) = 17:15

Question 19:

The ratio of the A.M and G.M. of two positive numbers a and b, is m: n. Show
that

.

Discussion
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Let the two numbers be a and b.
A.M

and G.M. =

According to the given condition,

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Using this in the identity (a – b)2 = (a + b)2 – 4ab, we obtain

Adding (1) and (2), we obtain

Substituting the value of a in (1), we obtain

Question 20:

469

If a, b, c are in A.P,; b, c, d are in G.P and
G.P.

are in A.P. prove that a, c, e are in

Discussion
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It is given that a, b, c are in A.P.
∴ b – a = c – b … (1)

It is given that b, c, d, are in G.P.
∴ c2 = bd … (2)
Also,

are in A.P.

It has to be proved that a, c, e are in G.P. i.e., c2 = ae
From (1), we obtain

From (2), we obtain

Substituting these values in (3), we obtain

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Thus, a, c, and e are in G.P.

Question 21:

Find the sum of the following series up to n terms:
(i) 5 + 55 + 555 + … (ii) .6 +.66 +. 666 +…

Discussion
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(i) 5 + 55 + 555 + …
Let Sn = 5 + 55 + 555 + ….. to n terms

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(ii) .6 +.66 +. 666 +…
Let Sn = 06. + 0.66 + 0.666 + … to n terms

Question 22:

Find the 20th term of the series 2 × 4 + 4 × 6 + 6 × 8 + … + n terms.

Discussion
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The given series is 2 × 4 + 4 × 6 + 6 × 8 + … n terms
∴ nth term = an = 2n × (2n + 2) = 4n2 + 4n

a20 = 4 (20)2 + 4(20) = 4 (400) + 80 = 1600 + 80 = 1680
Thus, the 20th term of the series is 1680.

Question 23:

Find the sum of the first n terms of the series: 3 + 7 + 13 + 21 + 31 + …

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Discussion
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The given series is 3 + 7 + 13 + 21 + 31 + …
S = 3 + 7 + 13 + 21 + 31 + …+ an–1 + an
S = 3 + 7 + 13 + 21 + …. + an – 2 + an – 1 + an
On subtracting both the equations, we obtain
S – S = [3 + (7 + 13 + 21 + 31 + …+ an–1 + an)] – [(3 + 7 + 13 + 21 + 31 + …+ an–1) + an]
S – S = 3 + [(7 – 3) + (13 – 7) + (21 – 13) + … + (an – an–1)] – an
0 = 3 + [4 + 6 + 8 + … (n –1) terms] – an
an = 3 + [4 + 6 + 8 + … (n –1) terms]

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Question 24:

If S1, S2, S3 are the sum of first n natural numbers, their squares and their cubes,
respectively, show that

Discussion
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From the given information,

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Thus, from (1) and (2), we obtain

Question 25:

Find the sum of the following series up to n terms:

Discussion
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The nth term of the given series is

475

Question 26:

Show that

Discussion
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nth term of the numerator = n(n + 1)2 = n3 + 2n2 + n
nth term of the denominator = n2(n + 1) = n3 + n2

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From (1), (2), and (3), we obtain

477

Thus, the given result is proved.

Question 27:

A farmer buys a used tractor for Rs 12000. He pays Rs 6000 cash and agrees to pay the
balance in annual installments of Rs 500 plus 12% interest on the unpaid amount. How
much will be the tractor cost him?

Discussion
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It is given that the farmer pays Rs 6000 in cash.
Therefore, unpaid amount = Rs 12000 – Rs 6000 = Rs 6000
According to the given condition, the interest paid annually is
12% of 6000, 12% of 5500, 12% of 5000, …, 12% of 500
Thus, total interest to be paid = 12% of 6000 + 12% of 5500 + 12% of 5000 + … + 12%
of 500
= 12% of (6000 + 5500 + 5000 + … + 500)
= 12% of (500 + 1000 + 1500 + … + 6000)
Now, the series 500, 1000, 1500 … 6000 is an A.P. with both the first term and common
difference equal to 500.
Let the number of terms of the A.P. be n.
∴ 6000 = 500 + (n – 1) 500
⇒ 1 + (n – 1) = 12

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⇒ n = 12

∴Sum of the A.P

Thus, total interest to be paid = 12% of (500 + 1000 + 1500 + … + 6000)
= 12% of 39000 = Rs 4680
Thus, cost of tractor = (Rs 12000 + Rs 4680) = Rs 16680

Question 28:

Shamshad Ali buys a scooter for Rs 22000. He pays Rs 4000 cash and agrees to pay the
balance in annual installment of Rs 1000 plus 10% interest on the unpaid amount. How
much will the scooter cost him?

Discussion
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It is given that Shamshad Ali buys a scooter for Rs 22000 and pays Rs 4000 in cash.
∴Unpaid amount = Rs 22000 – Rs 4000 = Rs 18000

According to the given condition, the interest paid annually is
10% of 18000, 10% of 17000, 10% of 16000 … 10% of 1000
Thus, total interest to be paid = 10% of 18000 + 10% of 17000 + 10% of 16000 + … +
10% of 1000
= 10% of (18000 + 17000 + 16000 + … + 1000)
= 10% of (1000 + 2000 + 3000 + … + 18000)
Here, 1000, 2000, 3000 … 18000 forms an A.P. with first term and common difference
both equal to 1000.
Let the number of terms be n.

∴ 18000 = 1000 + (n – 1) (1000)

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⇒ n = 18

∴ Total interest paid = 10% of (18000 + 17000 + 16000 + … + 1000)
= 10% of Rs 171000 = Rs 17100

∴Cost of scooter = Rs 22000 + Rs 17100 = Rs 39100
Question 29:

A person writes a letter to four of his friends. He asks each one of them to copy the letter
and mail to four different persons with instruction that they move the chain similarly.
Assuming that the chain is not broken and that it costs 50 paise to mail one letter. Find
the amount spent on the postage when 8th set of letter is mailed.

Discussion
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The numbers of letters mailed forms a G.P.: 4, 42, … 48
First term = 4
Common ratio = 4
Number of terms = 8
It is known that the sum of n terms of a G.P. is given by

It is given that the cost to mail one letter is 50 paisa.

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∴Cost of mailing 87380 letters

= Rs 43690

Thus, the amount spent when 8th set of letter is mailed is Rs 43690.

Question 30:

A man deposited Rs 10000 in a bank at the rate of 5% simple interest annually. Find the
amount in 15th year since he deposited the amount and also calculate the total amount
after 20 years.

Discussion
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It is given that the man deposited Rs 10000 in a bank at the rate of 5% simple interest
annually.
∴ Interest in first year

∴Amount in 15th year = Rs
= Rs 10000 + 14 × Rs 500
= Rs 10000 + Rs 7000
= Rs 17000
Amount after 20 years =
= Rs 10000 + 20 × Rs 500
= Rs 10000 + Rs 10000
= Rs 20000

Question 31:

A manufacturer reckons that the value of a machine, which costs him Rs 15625, will

481

depreciate each year by 20%. Find the estimated value at the end of 5 years.

Discussion
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Cost of machine = Rs 15625
Machine depreciates by 20% every year.
Therefore, its value after every year is 80% of the original cost i.e.,
cost.
∴ Value at the end of 5 years =

of the original

= 5 × 1024 = 5120

Thus, the value of the machine at the end of 5 years is Rs 5120.

Question 32:

150 workers were engaged to finish a job in a certain number of days. 4 workers dropped
out on second day, 4 more workers dropped out on third day and so on. It took 8 more
days to finish the work. Find the number of days in which the work was completed.

Discussion
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Let x be the number of days in which 150 workers finish the work.
According to the given information,
150x = 150 + 146 + 142 + …. (x + 8) terms
The series 150 + 146 + 142 + …. (x + 8) terms is an A.P. with first term 146, common
difference –4 and number of terms as (x + 8)

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However, x cannot be negative.
∴x = 17

Therefore, originally, the number of days in which the work was completed is 17.
Thus, required number of days = (17 + 8) = 25

483

EXERCISE 10.1
Question 1:

Draw a quadrilateral in the Cartesian plane, whose vertices are (–4, 5), (0, 7), (5, –5) and (–4, –2). Also, find its area.

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Let ABCD be the given quadrilateral with vertices A (–4, 5), B (0, 7), C (5, –5), and D (–4, –2).
Then, by plotting A, B, C, and D on the Cartesian plane and joining AB, BC, CD, and DA, the given quadrilateral can be drawn as

To find the area of quadrilateral ABCD, we draw one diagonal, say AC.
Accordingly, area (ABCD) = area (ΔABC) + area (ΔACD)

We know that the area of a triangle whose vertices are (x1, y1), (x2, y2), and (x3, y3) is
Therefore, area of ΔABC

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Area of ΔACD

Thus, area (ABCD)

Question 2:

The base of an equilateral triangle with side 2a lies along they y-axis such that the mid point of the base is at the origin. Find vertices of the triangle.

Discussion
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Let ABC be the given equilateral triangle with side 2a.
Accordingly, AB = BC = CA = 2a
Assume that base BC lies along the y-axis such that the mid-point of BC is at the origin.
i.e., BO = OC = a, where O is the origin.
Now, it is clear that the coordinates of point C are (0, a), while the coordinates of point B are (0, –a).
It is known that the line joining a vertex of an equilateral triangle with the mid-point of its opposite side is perpendicular.

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Hence, vertex A lies on the y-axis.

On applying Pythagoras theorem to ΔAOC, we obtain
(AC)2 = (OA)2 + (OC)2
⇒ (2a)2 = (OA)2 + a2
⇒ 4a2 – a2 = (OA)2
⇒ (OA)2 = 3a2
⇒ OA =

∴Coordinates of point A =
Thus, the vertices of the given equilateral triangle are (0, a), (0, –a), and

or (0, a), (0, –a), and

.

Question 3:

Find the distance between

when: (i) PQ is parallel to the y-axis, (ii) PQ is parallel to the x-axis.

and

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The given points are

and

.

(i) When PQ is parallel to the y-axis, x1 = x2.

In this case, distance between P and Q

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(ii) When PQ is parallel to the x-axis, y1 = y2.

In this case, distance between P and Q

Question 4:

Find a point on the x-axis, which is equidistant from the points (7, 6) and (3, 4).

Discussion
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Let (a, 0) be the point on the x axis that is equidistant from the points (7, 6) and (3, 4).

On squaring both sides, we obtain
a2 – 14a + 85 = a2 – 6a + 25
⇒ –14a + 6a = 25 – 85
⇒ –8a = –60

Thus, the required point on the x-axis is

.

Question 5:

Find the slope of a line, which passes through the origin, and the mid-point of
the line segment joining the points P (0, –4) and B (8, 0).

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Discussion
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The coordinates of the mid-point of the line segment joining the points

P (0, –4) and B (8, 0) are

It is known that the slope (m) of a non-vertical line passing through the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is given by

.

Therefore, the slope of the line passing through (0, 0) and (4, –2) is

.

Hence, the required slope of the line is

.

Question 6:

Without using the Pythagoras theorem, show that the points (4, 4), (3, 5) and (–1, –1) are the vertices of a right angled triangle.

Discussion
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The vertices of the given triangle are A (4, 4), B (3, 5), and C (–1, –1).

It is known that the slope (m) of a non-vertical line passing through the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is given by

∴Slope of AB (m1)

Slope of BC (m2)

Slope of CA (m3)
It is observed that m1m3 = –1
This shows that line segments AB and CA are perpendicular to each other
i.e., the given triangle is right-angled at A (4, 4).
Thus, the points (4, 4), (3, 5), and (–1, –1) are the vertices of a right-angled triangle.

488

.

Question 7:

Find the slope of the line, which makes an angle of 30° with the positive direction of y-axis measured anticlockwise.

Discussion
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If a line makes an angle of 30° with the positive direction of the y-axis measured anticlockwise, then the angle made by the line with the positive direction
of the x-axis measured anticlockwise is 90° + 30° = 120°.

Thus, the slope of the given line is tan 120° = tan (180° – 60°) = –tan 60°

Question 8:

Find the value of x for which the points (x, –1), (2, 1) and (4, 5) are collinear.

Discussion
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If points A (x, –1), B (2, 1), and C (4, 5) are collinear, then
Slope of AB = Slope of BC

Thus, the required value of x is 1.

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Question 9:

Without using distance formula, show that points (–2, –1), (4, 0), (3, 3) and
(–3, 2) are vertices of a parallelogram.

Discussion
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Let points (–2, –1), (4, 0), (3, 3), and (–3, 2) be respectively denoted by A, B, C, and D.

Slope of AB

Slope of CD =

⇒ Slope of AB = Slope of CD

⇒ AB and CD are parallel to each other.

Now, slope of BC =

Slope of AD =

⇒ Slope of BC = Slope of AD

⇒ BC and AD are parallel to each other.

Therefore, both pairs of opposite sides of quadrilateral ABCD are parallel. Hence, ABCD is a parallelogram.
Thus, points (–2, –1), (4, 0), (3, 3), and (–3, 2) are the vertices of a parallelogram.

Question 10:

Find the angle between the x-axis and the line joining the points (3, –1) and (4, –2).

Discussion

490

Share

The slope of the line joining the points (3, –1) and (4, –2) is
Now, the inclination (θ ) of the line joining the points (3, –1) and (4, – 2) is given by
tan θ= –1

⇒ θ = (90° + 45°) = 135°

Thus, the angle between the x-axis and the line joining the points (3, –1) and (4, –2) is 135°.

Question 11:

The slope of a line is double of the slope of another line. If tangent of the angle between them is

, find the slopes of he lines.

Discussion
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Let

be the slopes of the two given lines such that

.

We know that if θisthe angle between the lines l1 and l2 with slopes m1 and m2, then

It is given that the tangent of the angle between the two lines is

.

Case I

491

.

If m = –1, then the slopes of the lines are –1 and –2.

If m =

, then the slopes of the lines are

and –1.

Case II

If m = 1, then the slopes of the lines are 1 and 2.

If m =

, then the slopes of the lines are

Hence, the slopes of the lines are –1 and –2 or

.

and –1 or 1 and 2 or

.

Question 12:

A line passes through

. If slope of the line is m, show that

Discussion
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492

.

The slope of the line passing through

is

.

It is given that the slope of the line is m.

Hence,

Question 13:

If three point (h, 0), (a, b) and (0, k) lie on a line, show that

.

Discussion
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If the points A (h, 0), B (a, b), and C (0, k) lie on a line, then
Slope of AB = Slope of BC

On dividing both sides by kh, we obtain

Hence,

Question 14:

Consider the given population and year graph. Find the slope of the line AB and using it, find what will be the population in the year 2010?

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Discussion
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Since line AB passes through points A (1985, 92) and B (1995, 97), its slope is
Let y be the population in the year 2010. Then, according to the given graph, line AB must pass through point C (2010, y).
∴Slope of AB = Slope of BC

Thus, the slope of line AB is

, while in the year 2010, the population will be 104.5 crores.

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EXERCISE 10.2
Question 1:

Write the equations for the x and y-axes.

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The y-coordinate of every point on the x-axis is 0.
Therefore, the equation of the x-axis is y = 0.
The x-coordinate of every point on the y-axis is 0.
Therefore, the equation of the y-axis is y = 0.

Question 2:

Find the equation of the line which passes through the point (–4, 3) with slope

.

Discussion
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We know that the equation of the line passing through point

, whose slope is m, is

495

.

Thus, the equation of the line passing through point (–4, 3), whose slope is

, is

Question 3:

Find the equation of the line which passes though (0, 0) with slope m.

Discussion
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, whose slope is m, is

We know that the equation of the line passing through point

.

Thus, the equation of the line passing through point (0, 0), whose slope is m,is
(y – 0) = m(x – 0)
i.e., y = mx

Question 4:

Find the equation of the line which passes though

and is inclined with the x-axis at an angle of 75°.

Discussion
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The slope of the line that inclines with the x-axis at an angle of 75° is
m = tan 75°

We know that the equation of the line passing through point

, whose slope is m, is

496

.

Thus, if a line passes though

and inclines with the x-axis at an angle of 75°, then the equation of the line is given as

Question 5:

Find the equation of the line which intersects the x-axis at a distance of 3 units to the left of origin with slope –2.

Discussion
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It is known that if a line with slope m makes x-intercept d, then the equation of the line is given as
y = m(x – d)
For the line intersecting the x-axis at a distance of 3 units to the left of the origin, d = –3.
The slope of the line is given as m = –2
Thus, the required equation of the given line is
y = –2 [x – (–3)]
y = –2x – 6
i.e., 2x + y + 6 = 0

Question 6:

Find the equation of the line which intersects the y-axis at a distance of 2 units above the origin and makes an angle of 30° with the positive direction of
the x-axis.

Discussion
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It is known that if a line with slope m makes y-intercept c, then the equation of the line is given as
y = mx + c

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Here, c = 2 and m = tan 30°

.

Thus, the required equation of the given line is

Question 7:

Find the equation of the line which passes through the points (–1, 1) and (2, –4).

Discussion
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It is known that the equation of the line passing through points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is

.

Therefore, the equation of the line passing through the points (–1, 1) and
(2, –4) is

Question 8:

Find the equation of the line which is at a perpendicular distance of 5 units from the origin and the angle made by the perpendicular with the positive xaxis is 30°

Discussion
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If p is the length of the normal from the origin to a line and ω is the angle made by the normal with the positive direction of the x-axis, then the equation of
the line is given by xcos ω + y sin ω = p.

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Here, p = 5 units and ω = 30°
Thus, the required equation of the given line is
x cos 30° + y sin 30° = 5

Question 9:

The vertices of ΔPQR are P (2, 1), Q (–2, 3) and R (4, 5). Find equation of the median through the vertex R.

Discussion
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It is given that the vertices of ΔPQR are P (2, 1), Q (–2, 3), and R (4, 5).
Let RL be the median through vertex R.
Accordingly, L is the mid-point of PQ.

By mid-point formula, the coordinates of point L are given by

It is known that the equation of the line passing through points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is
Therefore, the equation of RL can be determined by substituting (x1, y1) = (4, 5) and (x2, y2) = (0, 2).

Hence,

499

.

Thus, the required equation of the median through vertex R is

.

vQuestion 10:
Find the equation of the line passing through (–3, 5) and perpendicular to the line through the points (2, 5) and (–3, 6).

Discussion
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The slope of the line joining the points (2, 5) and (–3, 6) is
We know that two non-vertical lines are perpendicular to each other if and only if their slopes are negative reciprocals of each other.

Therefore, slope of the line perpendicular to the line through the points (2, 5) and (–3, 6)
Now, the equation of the line passing through point (–3, 5), whose slope is 5, is

Question 10:

Find the equation of the line passing through (–3, 5) and perpendicular to the line through the points (2, 5) and (–3, 6).

Discussion
Share

The slope of the line joining the points (2, 5) and (–3, 6) is
We know that two non-vertical lines are perpendicular to each other if and only if their slopes are negative reciprocals of each other.

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Therefore, slope of the line perpendicular to the line through the points (2, 5) and (–3, 6)
Now, the equation of the line passing through point (–3, 5), whose slope is 5, is

Question 11:

A line perpendicular to the line segment joining the points (1, 0) and (2, 3) divides it in the ratio 1:n. Find the equation of the line.

Discussion
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According to the section formula, the coordinates of the point that divides the line segment joining the points (1, 0) and (2, 3) in the ratio 1: n is given by

The slope of the line joining the points (1, 0) and (2, 3) is

We know that two non-vertical lines are perpendicular to each other if and only if their slopes are negative reciprocals of each other.

Therefore, slope of the line that is perpendicular to the line joining the points (1, 0) and (2, 3)

Now, the equation of the line passing through

and whose slope is

is given by

Question 12:

Find the equation of a line that cuts off equal intercepts on the coordinate axes and passes through the point (2, 3).

501

Discussion
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The equation of a line in the intercept form is

Here, a and b are the intercepts on x and y axes respectively.
It is given that the line cuts off equal intercepts on both the axes. This means that a = b.
Accordingly, equation (i) reduces to

Since the given line passes through point (2, 3), equation (ii) reduces to
2+3=a⇒a=5

On substituting the value of a in equation (ii), we obtain
x + y = 5, which is the required equation of the line

Question 13:

Find equation of the line passing through the point (2, 2) and cutting off intercepts on the axes whose sum is 9.

Discussion
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The equation of a line in the intercept form is

Here, a and b are the intercepts on x and y axes respectively.
It is given thata + b = 9 ⇒ b = 9 – a … (ii)
From equations (i) and (ii), we obtain

It is given that the line passes through point (2, 2). Therefore, equation (iii) reduces to

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If a = 6 and b = 9 – 6 = 3, then the equation of the line is

If a = 3 and b = 9 – 3 = 6, then the equation of the line is

Question 14:

Find equation of the line through the point (0, 2) making an angle
the y-axis at a distance of 2 units below the origin.

with the positive x-axis. Also, find the equation of line parallel to it and crossing

Discussion
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The slope of the line making an angle

with the positive x-axis is

Now, the equation of the line passing through point (0, 2) and having a slope

503

is

.

The slope of line parallel to line

It is given that the line parallel to line

is

.

crosses the y-axis 2 units below the origin i.e., it passes through point (0, –2).

Hence, the equation of the line passing through point (0, –2) and having a slope

is

Question 15:

The perpendicular from the origin to a line meets it at the point (– 2, 9), find the equation
of the line.

Discussion
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The slope of the line joining the origin (0, 0) and point (–2, 9) is
Accordingly, the slope of the line perpendicular to the line joining the origin and point (– 2, 9) is

Now, the equation of the line passing through point (–2, 9) and having a slope m2 is

vvQuestion 16:
The length L (in centimetre) of a copper rod is a linear function of its Celsius temperature C. In an experiment, if L = 124.942 when C = 20 and L =
125.134 when C = 110, express L in terms of C.

Discussion
Share

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It is given that when C = 20, the value of L is 124.942, whereas when C = 110, the value of L is 125.134.
Accordingly, points (20, 124.942) and (110, 125.134) satisfy the linear relation between L and C.
Now, assuming C along the x-axis and L along the y-axis, we have two points i.e., (20, 124.942) and (110, 125.134) in the XY plane.
Therefore, the linear relation between L and C is the equation of the line passing through points (20, 124.942) and (110, 125.134).

(L – 124.942) =

Question 17:

The owner of a milk store finds that, he can sell 980 litres of milk each week at Rs 14/litre and 1220 litres of milk each week at Rs 16/litre. Assuming a
linear relationship between selling price and demand, how many litres could he sell weekly at Rs 17/litre?

Discussion
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The relationship between selling price and demand is linear.
Assuming selling price per litre along the x-axis and demand along the y-axis, we have two points i.e., (14, 980) and (16, 1220) in the XY plane that
satisfy the linear relationship between selling price and demand.
Therefore, the linear relationship between selling price per litre and demand is the equation of the line passing through points (14, 980) and (16, 1220).

When x = Rs 17/litre,

Thus, the owner of the milk store could sell 1340 litres of milk weekly at Rs 17/litre.

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Question 18:

P (a, b) is the mid-point of a line segment between axes. Show that equation of the line is

Discussion
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Let AB be the line segment between the axes and let P (a, b) be its mid-point.

Let the coordinates of A and B be (0, y) and (x, 0) respectively.
Since P (a, b) is the mid-point of AB,

Thus, the respective coordinates of A and B are (0, 2b) and (2a, 0).
The equation of the line passing through points (0, 2b) and (2a, 0) is

On dividing both sides by ab, we obtain

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Thus,the equation of the line is

.

Question 19:

Point R (h, k) divides a line segment between the axes in the ratio 1:2. Find equation of the line.

Discussion
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Let AB be the line segment between the axes such that point R (h, k) divides AB in the ratio 1: 2.

Let the respective coordinates of A and B be (x, 0) and (0, y).
Since point R (h, k) divides AB in the ratio 1: 2, according to the section formula,

Therefore, the respective coordinates of A and B are

Now, the equation of line AB passing through points

and (0, 3k).

and

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(0, 3k) is

Thus,the required equation of the line is 2kx + hy = 3hk.

Question 20:

By using the concept of equation of a line, prove that the three points (3, 0),
(–2, –2) and (8, 2) are collinear.

Discussion

In order to show that points (3, 0), (–2, –2), and (8, 2) are collinear, it suffices to show that the line passing through points (3, 0) and (–2, –2) also
passes through point (8, 2). The equation of the line passing through points (3, 0) and (–2, –2) is
Share

It is observed that at x = 8 and y = 2,L.H.S. = 2 × 8 – 5 × 2 = 16 – 10 = 6 = R.H.S.Therefore, the line passing
through points (3, 0) and (–2, –2) also passes through point (8, 2). Hence, points (3, 0), (–2, –2), and (8, 2) are collinear.

EXERCISE 10.3
Question 1:

Reduce the following equations into slope-intercept form and find their slopes and the y-intercepts.
(i) x + 7y = 0 (ii) 6x + 3y – 5 = 0 (iii) y = 0

Discussion
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(i) The given equation is x + 7y = 0.
It can be written as

508

This equation is of the form y = mx + c, where

.

Therefore, equation (1) is in the slope-intercept form, where the slope and the y-intercept are

and 0 respectively.

(ii) The given equation is 6x + 3y – 5 = 0.
It can be written as

Therefore, equation (2) is in the slope-intercept form, where the slope and the y-intercept are–2 and

respectively.

(iii) The given equation is y = 0.
It can be written as
y = 0.x + 0 … (3)
This equation is of the form y = mx + c, where m = 0 and c = 0.
Therefore, equation (3) is in the slope-intercept form, where the slope and the y-intercept are 0 and 0 respectively.

Question 2:

Reduce the following equations into intercept form and find their intercepts on the axes.
(i) 3x + 2y – 12 = 0 (ii) 4x – 3y = 6 (iii) 3y + 2 = 0.

Discussion
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(i) The given equation is 3x + 2y – 12 = 0.
It can be written as

509

This equation is of the form

, where a = 4 and b = 6.

Therefore, equation (1) is in the intercept form, where the intercepts on the x and y axes are 4 and 6 respectively.
(ii) The given equation is 4x – 3y = 6.
It can be written as

This equation is of the form

, where a =

and b = –2.

Therefore, equation (2) is in the intercept form, where the intercepts on the x and y axes are

and –2 respectively.

(iii) The given equation is 3y + 2 = 0.
It can be written as

This equation is of the form

, where a = 0 and b =

.

Therefore, equation (3) is in the intercept form, where the intercept on the y-axis is

510

and it has no intercept on the x-axis.

Question 3:

Reduce the following equations into normal form. Find their perpendicular distances from the origin and angle between perpendicular and the positive xaxis.

(i)

(ii) y – 2 = 0 (iii) x – y = 4

Discussion
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(i) The given equation is

.

It can be reduced as:

On dividing both sides by

, we obtain

Equation (1) is in the normal form.
On comparing equation (1) with the normal form of equation of line
x cos ω + y sin ω = p, we obtain ω = 120° and p = 4.
Thus, the perpendicular distance of the line from the origin is 4, while the angle between the perpendicular and the positive x-axis is 120°.
(ii) The given equation is y – 2 = 0.
It can be reduced as 0.x + 1.y = 2

On dividing both sides by

⇒ x cos 90° + y sin 90° = 2 … (1)

, we obtain 0.x + 1.y = 2

Equation (1) is in the normal form.
On comparing equation (1) with the normal form of equation of line
x cos ω + y sin ω = p, we obtain ω = 90° and p = 2.

511

Thus, the perpendicular distance of the line from the origin is 2, while the angle between the perpendicular and the positive x-axis is 90°.
(iii) The given equation is x – y = 4.
It can be reduced as 1.x + (–1) y = 4

On dividing both sides by

, we obtain

Equation (1) is in the normal form.
On comparing equation (1) with the normal form of equation of line

x cos ω + y sin ω = p, we obtain ω = 315° and

Thus, the perpendicular distance of the line from the origin is

.

, while the angle between the perpendicular and the positive x-axis is 315°.

Question 4:

Find the distance of the point (–1, 1) from the line 12(x + 6) = 5(y – 2).

Discussion
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The given equation of the line is 12(x + 6) = 5(y – 2).
⇒ 12x + 72 = 5y – 10

⇒12x – 5y + 82 = 0 … (1)

On comparing equation (1) with general equation of line Ax + By + C = 0, we obtain A = 12, B = –5, and C = 82.

It is known that the perpendicular distance (d) of a line Ax + By + C = 0 from a point (x1, y1) is given by
The given point is (x1, y1) = (–1, 1).
Therefore, the distance of point (–1, 1) from the given line

512

.

Question 5:

Find the points on the x-axis, whose distances from the line

are 4 units.

Discussion
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The given equation of line is

On comparing equation (1) with general equation of line Ax + By + C = 0, we obtain A = 4, B = 3, and C = –12.
Let (a, 0) be the point on the x-axis whose distance from the given line is 4 units.

It is known that the perpendicular distance (d) of a line Ax + By + C = 0 from a point (x1, y1) is given by
Therefore,

Thus, the required points on the x-axis are (–2, 0) and (8, 0).

Question 6:

Find the distance between parallel lines
(i) 15x + 8y – 34 = 0 and 15x + 8y + 31 = 0
(ii) l (x + y) + p = 0 and l (x + y) – r = 0

Discussion

513

.

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It is known that the distance (d) between parallel lines Ax + By + C1 = 0 and Ax + By + C2 = 0 is given by
(i) The given parallel lines are 15x + 8y – 34 = 0 and 15x + 8y + 31 = 0.
Here, A = 15, B = 8, C1 = –34, and C2 = 31.
Therefore, the distance between the parallel lines is

(ii) The given parallel lines are l (x + y) + p = 0 and l (x + y) – r = 0.
lx + ly + p = 0 and lx + ly – r = 0
Here, A = l, B = l, C1 = p, and C2 = –r.
Therefore, the distance between the parallel lines is

Question 7:

Find equation of the line parallel to the line 3x – 4y + 2 = 0 and passing through the point (–2, 3).

Discussion
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The equation of the given line is

, which is of the form y = mx + c

∴ Slope of the given line

It is known that parallel lines have the same slope.

514

.

∴ Slope of the other line =

Now, the equation of the line that has a slope of

and passes through the point (–2, 3) is

Question 8:

Find equation of the line perpendicular to the line x – 7y + 5 = 0 and having x intercept 3.

Discussion
Share

The given equation of line is

.

, which is of the form y = mx + c

∴Slope of the given line

The slope of the line perpendicular to the line having a slope of

is

The equation of the line with slope –7 and x-intercept 3 is given by
y = m (x – d)

⇒ y = –7 (x – 3)
⇒ y = –7x + 21
⇒ 7x + y = 21
Question 9:

Find angles between the lines

515

Discussion
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The given lines are

The slope of line (1) is

.

, while the slope of line (2) is

.

The acute angle i.e., θ between the two lines is given by

Thus, the angle between the given lines is either 30° or 180° – 30° = 150°.

vQuestion 10:
The line through the points (h, 3) and (4, 1) intersects the line 7x – 9y – 19 = 0. at right angle. Find the value of h.

Discussion
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The slope of the line passing through points (h, 3) and (4, 1) is

The slope of line 7x – 9y – 19 = 0 or

is

.

516

It is given that the two lines are perpendicular.

Thus, the value of h is

.

Question 11:

Prove that the line through the point (x1, y1) and parallel to the line Ax + By + C = 0 is A (x –x1) + B (y – y1) = 0.

Discussion
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The slope of line Ax + By + C = 0 or

is

It is known that parallel lines have the same slope.

∴ Slope of the other line =

The equation of the line passing through point (x1, y1) and having a slope

is

Hence, the line through point (x1, y1) and parallel to line Ax + By + C = 0 is
A (x –x1) + B (y – y1) = 0

Question 12:

517

Two lines passing through the point (2, 3) intersects each other at an angle of 60°. If slope of one line is 2, find equation of the other line.

Discussion
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It is given that the slope of the first line, m1 = 2.
Let the slope of the other line be m2.
The angle between the two lines is 60°.

The equation of the line passing through point (2, 3) and having a slope of

518

is

In this case, the equation of the other line is

.

The equation of the line passing through point (2, 3) and having a slope of

is

In this case, the equation of the other line is

.

Thus, the required equation of the other line is
or

.

vQuestion 13:
Find the equation of the right bisector of the line segment joining the points (3, 4) and (–1, 2).

Discussion
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The right bisector of a line segment bisects the line segment at 90°.
The end-points of the line segment are given as A (3, 4) and B (–1, 2).

Accordingly, mid-point of AB

Slope of AB

519

∴Slope of the line perpendicular to AB =

The equation of the line passing through (1, 3) and having a slope of –2 is
(y – 3) = –2 (x – 1)
y – 3 = –2x + 2
2x + y = 5
Thus, the required equation of the line is 2x + y = 5.

Question 14:

Find the coordinates of the foot of perpendicular from the point (–1, 3) to the line 3x – 4y – 16 = 0.

Discussion
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Let (a, b) be the coordinates of the foot of the perpendicular from the point (–1, 3) to the line 3x – 4y – 16 = 0.

Slope of the line joining (–1, 3) and (a, b), m1

Slope of the line 3x – 4y – 16 = 0 or
Since these two lines are perpendicular, m1m2 = –1

520

Point (a, b) lies on line 3x – 4y = 16.
∴3a – 4b = 16 … (2)

On solving equations (1) and (2), we obtain

Thus, the required coordinates of the foot of the perpendicular are

.

Question 15:

The perpendicular from the origin to the line y = mx + c meets it at the point
(–1, 2). Find the values of m and c.

Discussion
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The given equation of line is y = mx + c.
It is given that the perpendicular from the origin meets the given line at (–1, 2).
Therefore, the line joining the points (0, 0) and (–1, 2) is perpendicular to the given line.

∴Slope of the line joining (0, 0) and (–1, 2)
The slope of the given line is m.

Since point (–1, 2) lies on the given line, it satisfies the equation y = mx + c.

Thus, the respective values of m and c are

.

521

Question 16:

If p and q are the lengths of perpendiculars from the origin to the lines x cos θ – y sin θ = k cos 2θ and x sec θ+ y cosec θ = k, respectively, prove that p2 +
4q2 = k2

Discussion
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The equations of given lines are
x cos θ – y sinθ = k cos 2θ … (1)
x secθ + y cosec θ= k … (2)

The perpendicular distance (d) of a line Ax + By + C = 0 from a point (x1, y1) is given by

.

On comparing equation (1) to the general equation of line i.e., Ax + By + C = 0, we obtain A = cosθ, B = –sinθ, and C = –k cos 2θ.
It is given that p is the length of the perpendicular from (0, 0) to line (1).

On comparing equation (2) to the general equation of line i.e., Ax + By + C = 0, we obtain A = secθ, B = cosecθ, and C = –k.
It is given that q is the length of the perpendicular from (0, 0) to line (2).

From (3) and (4), we have

522

Hence, we proved that p2 + 4q2 = k2.

Question 17:

In the triangle ABC with vertices A (2, 3), B (4, –1) and C (1, 2), find the equation and length of altitude from the vertex A.

Discussion
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Let AD be the altitude of triangle ABC from vertex A.

The equation of the line passing through point (2, 3) and having a slope of 1 is

523

(y – 3) = 1(x – 2)
⇒x–y+1=0
⇒y–x=1

Therefore, equation of the altitude from vertex A = y – x = 1.
Length of AD = Length of the perpendicular from A (2, 3) to BC
The equation of BC is

The perpendicular distance (d) of a line Ax + By + C = 0 from a point (x1, y1) is given by

.

On comparing equation (1) to the general equation of line Ax + By + C = 0, we obtain A = 1, B = 1, and C = –3.

Thus, the equation and the length of the altitude from vertex A are y – x = 1 and

units respectively.

Question 18:

If p is the length of perpendicular from the origin to the line whose intercepts on the axes are a and b, then show that

Discussion
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It is known that the equation of a line whose intercepts on the axes are a and b is

524

.

The perpendicular distance (d) of a line Ax + By + C = 0 from a point (x1, y1) is given by
On comparing equation (1) to the general equation of line Ax + By + C = 0, we obtain A = b, B = a, and C = –ab.
Therefore, if p is the length of the perpendicular from point (x1, y1) = (0, 0) to line (1), we obtain

On squaring both sides, we obtain

Hence, we showed that

.

525

.

EXERCISE 10.4
Question 1:

Find the values of k for which the line

is

(a) Parallel to the x-axis,
(b) Parallel to the y-axis,
(c) Passing through the origin.

Discussion
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The given equation of line is
(k – 3) x – (4 – k2) y + k2 – 7k + 6 = 0 … (1)
(a) If the given line is parallel to the x-axis, then
Slope of the given line = Slope of the x-axis
The given line can be written as
(4 – k2) y = (k – 3) x + k2 – 7k + 6 = 0

, which is of the form y = mx + c.

∴Slope of the given line =
Slope of the x-axis = 0

Thus, if the given line is parallel to the x-axis, then the value of k is 3.
(b) If the given line is parallel to the y-axis, it is vertical. Hence, its slope will be undefined.

526

The slope of the given line is

Now,

.

is undefined at k2 = 4

k2 = 4

⇒ k = ±2

Thus, if the given line is parallel to the y-axis, then the value of k is ±2.
(c) If the given line is passing through the origin, then point (0, 0) satisfies the
given equation of line.

Thus, if the given line is passing through the origin, then the value of k is either 1 or 6.
Question 2:

Find the values of θand p, if the equation

is the normal form of the line

Discussion
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The equation of the given line is

.

This equation can be reduced as

On dividing both sides by

, we obtain

527

.

On comparing equation (1) to

, we obtain

Since the values of sin θ and cos θ are negative,

Thus, the respective values of θand p are

and 1

Question 3:

Find the equations of the lines, which cut-off intercepts on the axes whose sum and product are 1 and –6, respectively.

Discussion
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Let the intercepts cut by the given lines on the axes be a and b.
It is given that
a + b = 1 … (1)
ab = –6 … (2)
On solving equations (1) and (2), we obtain
a = 3 and b = –2 or a = –2 and b = 3
It is known that the equation of the line whose intercepts on the axes are a and b is

Case I: a = 3 and b = –2
In this case, the equation of the line is –2x + 3y + 6 = 0, i.e., 2x – 3y = 6.
Case II: a = –2 and b = 3

528

In this case, the equation of the line is 3x – 2y + 6 = 0, i.e., –3x + 2y = 6.
Thus, the required equation of the lines are 2x – 3y = 6 and –3x + 2y = 6.
Question 4:

What are the points on the y-axis whose distance from the line

is 4 units.

Discussion
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Let (0, b) be the point on the y-axis whose distance from line

is 4 units.

The given line can be written as 4x + 3y – 12 = 0 … (1)
On comparing equation (1) to the general equation of line Ax + By + C = 0, we obtain A = 4, B = 3, and C = –12.
It is known that the perpendicular distance (d) of a line Ax + By + C = 0 from a point (x1, y1) is given by

.

Therefore, if (0, b) is the point on the y-axis whose distance from line

Thus, the required points are

and

.

Question 5:

529

is 4 units, then:

Find the perpendicular distance from the origin to the line joining the points

Discussion
Share

The equation of the line joining the points

is given by

It is known that the perpendicular distance (d) of a line Ax + By + C = 0 from a point (x1, y1) is given by

.
Therefore, the perpendicular distance (d) of the given line from point (x1, y1) = (0, 0) is

530

Question 6:

Find the equation of the line parallel to y-axis and drawn through the point of intersection of the lines x – 7y + 5 = 0 and 3x + y =
0.

Discussion
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The equation of any line parallel to the y-axis is of the form
x = a … (1)
The two given lines are
x – 7y + 5 = 0 … (2)
3x + y = 0 … (3)

On solving equations (2) and (3), we obtain

.

531

Therefore,

is the point of intersection of lines (2) and (3).

Since line x = a passes through point

,

Thus, the required equation of the line is

.

.

Question 7:

through the point, where it meets the y-axis.

Find the equation of a line drawn perpendicular to the line

Discussion
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The equation of the given line is

.

This equation can also be written as 3x + 2y – 12 = 0

, which is of the form y = mx + c
∴Slope of the given line
∴Slope of line perpendicular to the given line

Let the given line intersect the y-axis at (0, y).

On substituting x with 0 in the equation of the given line, we obtain
∴The given line intersects the y-axis at (0, 6).
The equation of the line that has a slope of

and passes through point (0, 6) is

532

Thus, the required equation of the line is

.

Question 8:

Find the area of the triangle formed by the lines y – x = 0, x + y = 0 and x – k = 0.

Discussion
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The equations of the given lines are
y – x = 0 … (1)
x + y = 0 … (2)
x – k = 0 … (3)
The point of intersection of lines (1) and (2) is given by
x = 0 and y = 0
The point of intersection of lines (2) and (3) is given by
x = k and y = –k
The point of intersection of lines (3) and (1) is given by
x = k and y = k
Thus, the vertices of the triangle formed by the three given lines are (0, 0), (k, –k), and (k, k).
We know that the area of a triangle whose vertices are (x1, y1), (x2, y2), and (x3, y3) is
.
Therefore, area of the triangle formed by the three given lines

533

Question 9:

Find the value of p so that the three lines 3x + y – 2 = 0, px + 2y – 3 = 0 and 2x – y – 3 = 0 may intersect at one point.

Discussion
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The equations of the given lines are
3x + y – 2 = 0 … (1)
px + 2y – 3 = 0 … (2)
2x – y – 3 = 0 … (3)
On solving equations (1) and (3), we obtain
x = 1 and y = –1
Since these three lines may intersect at one point, the point of intersection of lines (1) and (3) will also satisfy line (2).
p (1) + 2 (–1) – 3 = 0
p–2–3=0
p=5
Thus, the required value of p is 5.
Question 10:

If three lines whose equations are

concurrent, then show that

Discussion
Share

534

The equations of the given lines are
y = m1x + c1 … (1)
y = m2x + c2 … (2)
y = m3x + c3 … (3)
On subtracting equation (1) from (2), we obtain

On substituting this value of x in (1), we obtain

is the point of intersection of lines (1) and (2).
It is given that lines (1), (2), and (3) are concurrent. Hence, the point of intersection of lines (1) and (2) will also satisfy equation
(3).

Hence,
Question 11:

535

Find the equation of the lines through the point (3, 2) which make an angle of 45° with the line x –2y = 3.

Discussion
Share

Let the slope of the required line be m1.

The given line can be written as

, which is of the form y = mx + c

∴Slope of the given line =

It is given that the angle between the required line and line x – 2y = 3 is 45°.

We know that if θisthe acute angle between lines l1 and l2 with slopes m1 and m2 respectively, then

Case I: m1 = 3
The equation of the line passing through (3, 2) and having a slope of 3 is:

536

.

y – 2 = 3 (x – 3)
y – 2 = 3x – 9
3x – y = 7

Case II: m1 =

The equation of the line passing through (3, 2) and having a slope of

is:

Thus, the equations of the lines are 3x – y = 7 and x + 3y = 9.
Question 12:

Find the equation of the line passing through the point of intersection of the lines 4x + 7y – 3 = 0 and 2x – 3y + 1 = 0 that has
equal intercepts on the axes.

Discussion
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Let the equation of the line having equal intercepts on the axes be

On solving equations 4x + 7y – 3 = 0 and 2x – 3y + 1 = 0, we obtain

is the point of intersection of the two given lines.

Since equation (1) passes through point

,

537

.

∴ Equation (1) becomes
Thus, the required equation of the line is

.

Question 13:

Show that the equation of the line passing through the origin and making an angle θwith the line

.

Discussion
Share

Let the equation of the line passing through the origin be y = m1x.
If this line makes an angle of θ with line y = mx + c, then angle θ is given by

Case I:

538

Case II:

Therefore, the required line is given by

.

Question 14:

In what ratio, the line joining (–1, 1) and (5, 7) is divided by the line
x + y = 4?

Discussion
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The equation of the line joining the points (–1, 1) and (5, 7) is given by

539

The equation of the given line is
x + y – 4 = 0 … (2)
The point of intersection of lines (1) and (2) is given by
x = 1 and y = 3
Let point (1, 3) divide the line segment joining (–1, 1) and (5, 7) in the ratio 1:k. Accordingly, by section formula,

Thus, the line joining the points (–1, 1) and (5, 7) is divided by line
x + y = 4 in the ratio 1:2.
Question 15:

Find the distance of the line 4x + 7y + 5 = 0 from the point (1, 2) along the line 2x – y = 0.

Discussion
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The given lines are
2x – y = 0 … (1)
4x + 7y + 5 = 0 … (2)

540

A (1, 2) is a point on line (1).
Let B be the point of intersection of lines (1) and (2).

On solving equations (1) and (2), we obtain
∴Coordinates of point B are

.

.

By using distance formula, the distance between points A and B can be obtained as

Thus, the required distance is

.

Question 16:

541

Find the direction in which a straight line must be drawn through the point (–1, 2) so that its point of intersection with the
line x + y = 4 may be at a distance of 3 units from this point.

Discussion
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Let y = mx + c be the line through point (–1, 2).
Accordingly, 2 = m (–1) + c.
⇒ 2 = –m + c
⇒c=m+2

∴ y = mx + m + 2 … (1)
The given line is
x + y = 4 … (2)
On solving equations (1) and (2), we obtain

is the point of intersection of lines (1) and (2).
Since this point is at a distance of 3 units from point (– 1, 2), according to distance formula,

Thus, the slope of the required line must be zero i.e., the line must be parallel to the x-axis.

542

Question 18:

Find the image of the point (3, 8) with respect to the line x + 3y = 7 assuming the line to be a plane mirror.

Discussion
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The equation of the given line is
x + 3y = 7 … (1)
Let point B (a, b) be the image of point A (3, 8).
Accordingly, line (1) is the perpendicular bisector of AB.

Since line (1) is perpendicular to AB,

The mid-point of line segment AB will also satisfy line (1).
Hence, from equation (1), we have

543

On solving equations (2) and (3), we obtain a = –1 and b = –4.
Thus, the image of the given point with respect to the given line is (–1, –4).
Question 19:

If the lines y = 3x + 1 and 2y = x + 3 are equally inclined to the line y = mx + 4, find the value of m.

Discussion
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The equations of the given lines are
y = 3x + 1 … (1)
2y = x + 3 … (2)
y = mx + 4 … (3)
Slope of line (1), m1 = 3

Slope of line (2),
Slope of line (3), m3 = m
It is given that lines (1) and (2) are equally inclined to line (3). This means that
the angle between lines (1) and (3) equals the angle between lines (2) and (3).

544

Thus, the required value of m is

.

Question 20:

If sum of the perpendicular distances of a variable point P (x, y) from the lines x + y – 5 = 0 and 3x – 2y + 7 = 0 is always 10.
Show that P must move on a line.

Discussion
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The equations of the given lines are
x + y – 5 = 0 … (1)
3x – 2y + 7 = 0 … (2)

545

The perpendicular distances of P (x, y) from lines (1) and (2) are respectively given by

It is given that

.

, which is the equation of a line.

Similarly, we can obtain the equation of line for any signs of

.

Thus, point P must move on a line.
Question 22:

A ray of light passing through the point (1, 2) reflects on the x-axis at point A and the reflected ray passes through the point (5,
3). Find the coordinates of A.

Discussion
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546

Let the coordinates of point A be (a, 0).
Draw a line (AL) perpendicular to the x-axis.
We know that angle of incidence is equal to angle of reflection. Hence, let
∠BAL = ∠CAL = Φ
Let ∠CAX = θ

∴∠OAB = 180° – (θ + 2Φ) = 180° – [θ + 2(90° – θ)]
= 180° – θ – 180° + 2θ

∴∠BAX = 180° – θ

From equations (1) and (2), we obtain

547

Thus, the coordinates of point A are

.

Question 23:

Prove that the product of the lengths of the perpendiculars drawn from the points

Discussion
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The equation of the given line is

Length of the perpendicular from point

Length of the perpendicular from point

to line (1) is

to line (2) is

On multiplying equations (2) and (3), we obtain

548

Hence, proved.
Question 24:

A person standing at the junction (crossing) of two straight paths represented by the equations 2x – 3y + 4 = 0 and 3x + 4y – 5 =
0 wants to reach the path whose equation is 6x – 7y + 8 = 0 in the least time. Find equation of the path that he should follow.

Discussion
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The equations of the given lines are
2x – 3y + 4 = 0 … (1)
3x + 4y – 5 = 0 … (2)
6x – 7y + 8 = 0 … (3)

549

The person is standing at the junction of the paths represented by lines (1) and (2).

On solving equations (1) and (2), we obtain

Thus, the person is standing at point

.

.

The person can reach path (3) in the least time if he walks along the perpendicular line to (3) from point

∴Slope of the line perpendicular to line (3)
The equation of the line passing through

and having a slope of

Hence, the path that the person should follow is

.

550

is given by

.

EXERCISE 11.1
Question 1:
Find the equation of the circle with centre (0, 2) and radius 2

Discussion
Share
The equation of a circle with centre (h, k) and radius r is given as
(x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2
It is given that centre (h, k) = (0, 2) and radius (r) = 2.
Therefore, the equation of the circle is
(x – 0)2 + (y – 2)2 = 22
x2 + y 2 + 4 – 4 y = 4
x2 + y2 – 4y = 0

Question 2:
Find the equation of the circle with centre (–2, 3) and radius 4

Discussion
Share
The equation of a circle with centre (h, k) and radius r is given as
(x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2
It is given that centre (h, k) = (–2, 3) and radius (r) = 4.
Therefore, the equation of the circle is
(x + 2)2 + (y – 3)2 = (4)2
x2 + 4x + 4 + y2 – 6y + 9 = 16

551

x2 + y2 + 4x – 6y – 3 = 0

Question 3:

Find the equation of the circle with centre

Discussion
Share
The equation of a circle with centre (h, k) and radius r is given as
(x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2

It is given that centre (h, k) =

and radius (r) =

.

Therefore, the equation of the circle is

Question 4:
Find the equation of the circle with centre (1, 1) and radius

Discussion
Share
The equation of a circle with centre (h, k) and radius r is given as
(x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2

It is given that centre (h, k) = (1, 1) and radius (r) =

552

.

Therefore, the equation of the circle is

Question 5:

Find the equation of the circle with centre (–a, –b) and radius

Discussion
Share
The equation of a circle with centre (h, k) and radius r is given as
(x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2

It is given that centre (h, k) = (–a, –b) and radius (r) =

.

Therefore, the equation of the circle is

Question 6:
Find the centre and radius of the circle (x + 5)2 + (y – 3)2 = 36

Discussion
Share
The equation of the given circle is (x + 5)2 + (y – 3)2 = 36.
(x + 5)2 + (y – 3)2 = 36

⇒ {x – (–5)}2 + (y – 3)2 = 62, which is of the form (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2, where h = –5, k = 3, and r = 6.
Thus, the centre of the given circle is (–5, 3), while its radius is 6.

Question 7:
Find the centre and radius of the circle x2 + y2 – 4x – 8y – 45 = 0

553

Discussion
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The equation of the given circle is x2 + y2 – 4x – 8y – 45 = 0.
x2 + y2 – 4x – 8y – 45 = 0

⇒ (x2 – 4x) + (y2 – 8y) = 45

⇒ {x2 – 2(x)(2) + 22} + {y2 – 2(y)(4)+ 42} – 4 –16 = 45
⇒ (x – 2)2 + (y –4)2 = 65
⇒ (x – 2)2 + (y –4)2 =

, which is of the form (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2, where h = 2, k = 4, and

.

Thus, the centre of the given circle is (2, 4), while its radius is

.

Question 8:
Find the centre and radius of the circle x2 + y2 – 8x + 10y – 12 = 0

Discussion
Share
The equation of the given circle is x2 + y2 – 8x + 10y – 12 = 0.
x2 + y2 – 8x + 10y – 12 = 0

⇒ (x2 – 8x) + (y2 + 10y) = 12

⇒ {x2 – 2(x)(4) + 42} + {y2 + 2(y)(5) + 52}– 16 – 25 = 12
⇒ (x – 4)2 + (y + 5)2 = 53

, which is of the form (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2, where h = 4, k = –5,
and

.

Thus, the centre of the given circle is (4, –5), while its radius is

Question 9:
Find the centre and radius of the circle 2x2 + 2y2 – x = 0

554

.

Discussion
Share
The equation of the given circle is 2x2 + 2y2 – x = 0.

, which is of the form (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2, where h =

, k = 0, and

.

Thus, the centre of the given circle is

, while its radius is

.

Question 10:
Find the equation of the circle passing through the points (4, 1) and (6, 5) and whose centre is on the line
4x + y = 16.

Discussion
Share
Let the equation of the required circle be (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2.
Since the circle passes through points (4, 1) and (6, 5),
(4 – h)2 + (1 – k)2 = r2 … (1)
(6 – h)2 + (5 – k)2 = r2 … (2)
Since the centre (h, k) of the circle lies on line 4x + y = 16,
4h + k = 16 … (3)
From equations (1) and (2), we obtain
(4 – h)2 + (1 – k)2 = (6 – h)2 + (5 – k)2

555

⇒ 16 – 8h + h2 + 1 – 2k + k2 = 36 – 12h + h2 + 25 – 10k + k2
⇒ 16 – 8h + 1 – 2k = 36 – 12h + 25 – 10k
⇒ 4h + 8k = 44

⇒ h + 2k = 11 … (4)

On solving equations (3) and (4), we obtain h = 3 and k = 4.
On substituting the values of h and k in equation (1), we obtain
(4 – 3)2 + (1 – 4)2 = r2
⇒ (1)2 + (– 3)2 = r2
⇒ 1 + 9 = r2
⇒ r2 = 10

Thus, the equation of the required circle is

(x – 3)2 + (y – 4)2 =
x2 – 6x + 9 + y2 – 8y + 16 = 10
x2 + y2 – 6x – 8y + 15 = 0

Question 11:
Find the equation of the circle passing through the points (2, 3) and (–1, 1) and whose centre is on the line
x – 3y – 11 = 0.

Discussion
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Let the equation of the required circle be (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2.
Since the circle passes through points (2, 3) and (–1, 1),
(2 – h)2 + (3 – k)2 = r2 … (1)
(–1 – h)2 + (1 – k)2 = r2 … (2)
Since the centre (h, k) of the circle lies on line x – 3y – 11 = 0,
h – 3k = 11 … (3)

556

From equations (1) and (2), we obtain
(2 – h)2 + (3 – k)2 = (–1 – h)2 + (1 – k)2

⇒ 4 – 4h + h2 + 9 – 6k + k2 = 1 + 2h + h2 + 1 – 2k + k2
⇒ 4 – 4h + 9 – 6k = 1 + 2h + 1 – 2k
⇒ 6h + 4k = 11 … (4)

On solving equations (3) and (4), we obtain

.

On substituting the values of h and k in equation (1), we obtain

Thus, the equation of the required circle is

Question 12:
Find the equation of the circle with radius 5 whose centre lies on x-axis and passes through the point (2, 3).

Discussion
Share

557

Let the equation of the required circle be (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2.
Since the radius of the circle is 5 and its centre lies on the x-axis, k = 0 and r = 5.
Now, the equation of the circle becomes (x – h)2 + y2 = 25.
It is given that the circle passes through point (2, 3).

When h = –2, the equation of the circle becomes
(x + 2)2 + y2 = 25
x2 + 4x + 4 + y2 = 25
x2 + y2 + 4x – 21 = 0
When h = 6, the equation of the circle becomes
(x – 6)2 + y2 = 25
x2 – 12x +36 + y2 = 25
x2 + y2 – 12x + 11 = 0

Question 13:
Find the equation of the circle passing through (0, 0) and making intercepts a and b on the coordinate axes.

Discussion
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Let the equation of the required circle be (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2.
Since the centre of the circle passes through (0, 0),
(0 – h)2 + (0 – k)2 = r2
⇒ h2 + k2 = r2

The equation of the circle now becomes (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = h2 + k2.

558

It is given that the circle makes intercepts a and b on the coordinate axes. This means that the circle
passes through points (a, 0) and (0, b). Therefore,
(a – h)2 + (0 – k)2 = h2 + k2 … (1)
(0 – h)2 + (b – k)2 = h2 + k2 … (2)
From equation (1), we obtain
a2 – 2ah + h2 + k2 = h2 + k2
⇒ a2 – 2ah = 0

⇒ a(a – 2h) = 0

⇒ a = 0 or (a – 2h) = 0

However, a ≠ 0; hence, (a – 2h) = 0 ⇒ h =

.

From equation (2), we obtain
h2 + b2 – 2bk + k2 = h2 + k2
⇒ b2 – 2bk = 0

⇒ b(b – 2k) = 0

⇒ b = 0 or(b – 2k) = 0

However, b ≠ 0; hence, (b – 2k) = 0 ⇒ k =

.

Thus, the equation of the required circle is

Question 14:
Find the equation of a circle with centre (2, 2) and passes through the point (4, 5).

Discussion

559

Share
The centre of the circle is given as (h, k) = (2, 2).
Since the circle passes through point (4, 5), the radius (r) of the circle is the distance between the points
(2, 2) and (4, 5).

Thus, the equation of the circle is

Question 15:
Does the point (–2.5, 3.5) lie inside, outside or on the circle x2 + y2 = 25?

Discussion
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The equation of the given circle is x2 + y2 = 25.
x2 + y2 = 25

⇒ (x – 0)2 + (y – 0)2 = 52, which is of the form (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2, where h = 0, k = 0, and r = 5.
∴Centre = (0, 0) and radius = 5

Distance between point (–2.5, 3.5) and centre (0, 0)

Since the distance between point (–2.5, 3.5) and centre (0, 0) of the circle is less than the radius of the
circle, point (–2.5, 3.5) lies inside the circle.

560

EXERCISE 11.2
Question 1:
Find the coordinates of the focus, axis of the parabola, the equation of directrix and the length of the latus
rectum for y2 = 12x

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The given equation is y2 = 12x.
Here, the coefficient of x is positive. Hence, the parabola opens towards the right.
On comparing this equation with y2 = 4ax, we obtain
4a = 12 ⇒ a = 3

∴Coordinates of the focus = (a, 0) = (3, 0)

Since the given equation involves y2, the axis of the parabola is the x-axis.
Equation of direcctrix, x = –a i.e., x = – 3 i.e., x + 3 = 0
Length of latus rectum = 4a = 4 × 3 = 12

Question 2:
Find the coordinates of the focus, axis of the parabola, the equation of directrix and the length of the latus
rectum for x2 = 6y

Discussion
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The given equation is x2 = 6y.
Here, the coefficient of y is positive. Hence, the parabola opens upwards.

561

On comparing this equation with x2 = 4ay, we obtain

∴Coordinates of the focus = (0, a) =

Since the given equation involves x2, the axis of the parabola is the y-axis.

Equation of directrix,
Length of latus rectum = 4a = 6

Question 3:
Find the coordinates of the focus, axis of the parabola, the equation of directrix and the length of the latus
rectum for y2 = – 8x

Discussion
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The given equation is y2 = –8x.
Here, the coefficient of x is negative. Hence, the parabola opens towards the left.
On comparing this equation with y2 = –4ax, we obtain
–4a = –8 ⇒ a = 2

∴Coordinates of the focus = (–a, 0) = (–2, 0)

Since the given equation involves y2, the axis of the parabola is the x-axis.
Equation of directrix, x = a i.e., x = 2
Length of latus rectum = 4a = 8

Question 3:

Find the coordinates of the focus, axis of the parabola, the equation of directrix and the length of
the latus rectum for y2 = – 8x

Discussion
Share

562

The given equation is y2 = –8x.
Here, the coefficient of x is negative. Hence, the parabola opens towards the left.
On comparing this equation with y2 = –4ax, we obtain
–4a = –8 ⇒ a = 2

∴Coordinates of the focus = (–a, 0) = (–2, 0)

Since the given equation involves y2, the axis of the parabola is the x-axis.
Equation of directrix, x = a i.e., x = 2
Length of latus rectum = 4a = 8
Question 4:

Find the coordinates of the focus, axis of the parabola, the equation of directrix and the length of
the latus rectum for x2 = – 16y

Discussion
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The given equation is x2 = –16y.
Here, the coefficient of y is negative. Hence, the parabola opens downwards.
On comparing this equation with x2 = – 4ay, we obtain
–4a = –16 ⇒ a = 4

∴Coordinates of the focus = (0, –a) = (0, –4)

Since the given equation involves x2, the axis of the parabola is the y-axis.
Equation of directrix, y = a i.e., y = 4
Length of latus rectum = 4a = 16
Question 5:

Find the coordinates of the focus, axis of the parabola, the equation of directrix and the length of
the latus rectum for y2 = 10x

563

Discussion
Share

The given equation is y2 = 10x.
Here, the coefficient of x is positive. Hence, the parabola opens towards the right.
On comparing this equation with y2 = 4ax, we obtain

∴Coordinates of the focus = (a, 0)

Since the given equation involves y2, the axis of the parabola is the x-axis.

Equation of directrix,
Length of latus rectum = 4a = 10
Question 6:

Find the coordinates of the focus, axis of the parabola, the equation of directrix and the length of
the latus rectum for x2 = –9y

Discussion
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The given equation is x2 = –9y.
Here, the coefficient of y is negative. Hence, the parabola opens downwards.
On comparing this equation with x2 = –4ay, we obtain

∴Coordinates of the focus =

564

Since the given equation involves x2, the axis of the parabola is the y-axis.

Equation of directrix,
Length of latus rectum = 4a = 9
Question 7:

Find the equation of the parabola that satisfies the following conditions: Focus (6, 0);
directrix x = –6

Discussion
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Focus (6, 0); directrix, x = –6
Since the focus lies on the x-axis, the x-axis is the axis of the parabola.
Therefore, the equation of the parabola is either of the form y2 = 4ax or
y2 = – 4ax.
It is also seen that the directrix, x = –6 is to the left of the y-axis, while the focus (6, 0) is to the
right of the y-axis. Hence, the parabola is of the form y2 = 4ax.
Here, a = 6
Thus, the equation of the parabola is y2 = 24x.
Question 8:

Find the equation of the parabola that satisfies the following conditions: Focus (0, –3);
directrix y = 3

Discussion
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Focus = (0, –3); directrix y = 3
Since the focus lies on the y-axis, the y-axis is the axis of the parabola.
Therefore, the equation of the parabola is either of the form x2 = 4ay or

565

x2 = – 4ay.
It is also seen that the directrix, y = 3 is above the x-axis, while the focus
(0, –3) is below the x-axis. Hence, the parabola is of the form x2 = –4ay.
Here, a = 3
Thus, the equation of the parabola is x2 = –12y.
Question 9:

Find the equation of the parabola that satisfies the following conditions: Vertex (0, 0); focus (3,
0)

Discussion
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Vertex (0, 0); focus (3, 0)
Since the vertex of the parabola is (0, 0) and the focus lies on the positive x-axis, x-axis is the
axis of the parabola, while the equation of the parabola is of the form y2 = 4ax.
Since the focus is (3, 0), a = 3.
Thus, the equation of the parabola is y2 = 4 × 3 × x, i.e., y2 = 12x
Question 10:

Find the equation of the parabola that satisfies the following conditions: Vertex (0, 0) focus (–2,
0)

Discussion
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Vertex (0, 0) focus (–2, 0)
Since the vertex of the parabola is (0, 0) and the focus lies on the negative x-axis, x-axis is the
axis of the parabola, while the equation of the parabola is of the form y2 = –4ax.
Since the focus is (–2, 0), a = 2.
Thus, the equation of the parabola is y2 = –4(2)x, i.e., y2 = –8x

566

Question 11:

Find the equation of the parabola that satisfies the following conditions: Vertex (0, 0) passing
through (2, 3) and axis is along x-axis

Discussion
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Since the vertex is (0, 0) and the axis of the parabola is the x-axis, the equation of the parabola is
either of the form y2 = 4ax or y2 = –4ax.
The parabola passes through point (2, 3), which lies in the first quadrant.
Therefore, the equation of the parabola is of the form y2 = 4ax, while point
(2, 3) must satisfy the equation y2 = 4ax.

Thus, the equation of the parabola is

Question 12:

Find the equation of the parabola that satisfies the following conditions: Vertex (0, 0), passing
through (5, 2) and symmetric with respect toy-axis

Discussion
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Since the vertex is (0, 0) and the parabola is symmetric about the y-axis, the equation of the
parabola is either of the form x2 = 4ay or x2= –4ay.
The parabola passes through point (5, 2), which lies in the first quadrant.
Therefore, the equation of the parabola is of the form x2 = 4ay, while point

567

(5, 2) must satisfy the equation x2 = 4ay.

Thus, the equation of the parabola is

EXERCISE 11.3
Question 1:

Find the coordinates of the foci, the vertices, the length of major axis, the minor axis, the
eccentricity and the length of the latus rectum of the ellipse

Discussion
Share

The given equation is

Here, the denominator of

.

is greater than the denominator of

.

Therefore, the major axis is along the x-axis, while the minor axis is along the y-axis.

On comparing the given equation with

, we obtain a = 6 and b = 4.

568

Therefore,
The coordinates of the foci are

.

The coordinates of the vertices are (6, 0) and (–6, 0).
Length of major axis = 2a = 12
Length of minor axis = 2b = 8

Length of latus rectum
Question 2:

Find the coordinates of the foci, the vertices, the length of major axis, the minor axis, the
eccentricity and the length of the latus rectum of the ellipse

Discussion
Share

The given equation is

Here, the denominator of

.

is greater than the denominator of

.

Therefore, the major axis is along the y-axis, while the minor axis is along the x-axis.

On comparing the given equation with

, we obtain b = 2 and a = 5.

Therefore,

569

The coordinates of the foci are

.

The coordinates of the vertices are (0, 5) and (0, –5)
Length of major axis = 2a = 10
Length of minor axis = 2b = 4

Length of latus rectum
Question 3:

Find the coordinates of the foci, the vertices, the length of major axis, the minor axis, the
eccentricity and the length of the latus rectum of the ellipse

Discussion
Share

The given equation is

Here, the denominator of

.

is greater than the denominator of

.

Therefore, the major axis is along the x-axis, while the minor axis is along the y-axis.

, we obtain a = 4 and b = 3.

On comparing the given equation with

Therefore,
The coordinates of the foci are

.

570

The coordinates of the vertices are

.

Length of major axis = 2a = 8
Length of minor axis = 2b = 6

Length of latus rectum
Question 4:

Find the coordinates of the foci, the vertices, the length of major axis, the minor axis, the
eccentricity and the length of the latus rectum of the ellipse

Discussion
Share

The given equation is

Here, the denominator of

.

is greater than the denominator of

.

Therefore, the major axis is along the y-axis, while the minor axis is along the x-axis.

, we obtain b = 5 and a = 10.

On comparing the given equation with

Therefore,
The coordinates of the foci are

.

The coordinates of the vertices are (0, ±10).
Length of major axis = 2a = 20

571

Length of minor axis = 2b = 10

Length of latus rectum
Question 5:

Find the coordinates of the foci, the vertices, the length of major axis, the minor axis, the
eccentricity and the length of the latus rectum of the ellipse

Discussion
Share

The given equation is

Here, the denominator of

.

is greater than the denominator of

.

Therefore, the major axis is along the x-axis, while the minor axis is along the y-axis.

, we obtain a = 7 and b = 6.

On comparing the given equation with

Therefore,
The coordinates of the foci are

.

The coordinates of the vertices are (± 7, 0).
Length of major axis = 2a = 14
Length of minor axis = 2b = 12

572

Length of latus rectum
Question 6:

Find the coordinates of the foci, the vertices, the length of major axis, the minor axis, the
eccentricity and the length of the latus rectum of the ellipse

Discussion
Share

The given equation is

Here, the denominator of

.

is greater than the denominator of

.

Therefore, the major axis is along the y-axis, while the minor axis is along the x-axis.

, we obtain b = 10 and a = 20.

On comparing the given equation with

Therefore,
The coordinates of the foci are

.

The coordinates of the vertices are (0, ±20)
Length of major axis = 2a = 40
Length of minor axis = 2b = 20

573

Length of latus rectum
Question 7:

Find the coordinates of the foci, the vertices, the length of major axis, the minor axis, the
eccentricity and the length of the latus rectum of the ellipse 36x2 + 4y2 = 144

Discussion
Share

The given equation is 36x2 + 4y2 = 144.
It can be written as

Here, the denominator of

is greater than the denominator of

.

Therefore, the major axis is along the y-axis, while the minor axis is along the x-axis.

, we obtain b = 2 and a = 6.

On comparing equation (1) with

Therefore,
The coordinates of the foci are

.

The coordinates of the vertices are (0, ±6).
Length of major axis = 2a = 12
Length of minor axis = 2b = 4

574

Length of latus rectum
Question 8:

Find the coordinates of the foci, the vertices, the length of major axis, the minor axis, the
eccentricity and the length of the latus rectum of the ellipse 16x2 + y2 = 16

Discussion
Share

The given equation is 16x2 + y2 = 16.
It can be written as

Here, the denominator of

is greater than the denominator of

.

Therefore, the major axis is along the y-axis, while the minor axis is along the x-axis.

, we obtain b = 1 and a = 4.

On comparing equation (1) with

Therefore,
The coordinates of the foci are

.

The coordinates of the vertices are (0, ±4).
Length of major axis = 2a = 8

575

Length of minor axis = 2b = 2

Length of latus rectum
Question 9:

Find the coordinates of the foci, the vertices, the length of major axis, the minor axis, the
eccentricity and the length of the latus rectum of the ellipse 4x2 + 9y2 = 36

Discussion
Share

The given equation is 4x2 + 9y2 = 36.
It can be written as

Here, the denominator of

is greater than the denominator of

.

Therefore, the major axis is along the x-axis, while the minor axis is along the y-axis.

, we obtain a = 3 and b = 2.

On comparing the given equation with

Therefore,
The coordinates of the foci are

.

The coordinates of the vertices are (±3, 0).

576

Length of major axis = 2a = 6
Length of minor axis = 2b = 4

Length of latus rectum
Question 10:

Find the equation for the ellipse that satisfies the given conditions: Vertices (±5, 0), foci (±4, 0)

Discussion
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Vertices (±5, 0), foci (±4, 0)
Here, the vertices are on the x-axis.

, where a is the semi-major

Therefore, the equation of the ellipse will be of the form
axis.
Accordingly, a = 5 and c = 4.
It is known that

.

Thus, the equation of the ellipse is

.

Question 11:

Find the equation for the ellipse that satisfies the given conditions: Vertices (0, ±13), foci (0, ±5)

577

Discussion
Share

Vertices (0, ±13), foci (0, ±5)
Here, the vertices are on the y-axis.

, where a is the semi-major

Therefore, the equation of the ellipse will be of the form
axis.
Accordingly, a = 13 and c = 5.
It is known that

.

Thus, the equation of the ellipse is

.

Question 12:

Find the equation for the ellipse that satisfies the given conditions: Vertices (±6, 0), foci (±4, 0)

Discussion
Share

Vertices (±6, 0), foci (±4, 0)
Here, the vertices are on the x-axis.

Therefore, the equation of the ellipse will be of the form
axis.
Accordingly, a = 6, c = 4.
It is known that

.

578

, where a is the semi-major

Thus, the equation of the ellipse is

.

Question 13:

Find the equation for the ellipse that satisfies the given conditions: Ends of major axis (±3, 0),
ends of minor axis (0, ±2)

Discussion
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Ends of major axis (±3, 0), ends of minor axis (0, ±2)
Here, the major axis is along the x-axis.

, where a is the semi-major

Therefore, the equation of the ellipse will be of the form
axis.
Accordingly, a = 3 and b = 2.

Thus, the equation of the ellipse is

.

Question 14:

Find the equation for the ellipse that satisfies the given conditions: Ends of major axis
, ends of minor axis (±1, 0)

Discussion
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Ends of major axis

, ends of minor axis (±1, 0)

579

Here, the major axis is along the y-axis.

, where a is the semi-major

Therefore, the equation of the ellipse will be of the form
axis.
Accordingly, a =

and b = 1.

Thus, the equation of the ellipse is

.

Question 15:

Find the equation for the ellipse that satisfies the given conditions: Length of major axis 26, foci
(±5, 0)

Discussion
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Length of major axis = 26; foci = (±5, 0).
Since the foci are on the x-axis, the major axis is along the x-axis.

, where a is the semi-major

Therefore, the equation of the ellipse will be of the form
axis.
Accordingly, 2a = 26 ⇒ a = 13 and c = 5.
It is known that

.

Thus, the equation of the ellipse is

.

Question 16:

580

Find the equation for the ellipse that satisfies the given conditions: Length of minor axis 16, foci
(0, ±6)

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Length of minor axis = 16; foci = (0, ±6).
Since the foci are on the y-axis, the major axis is along the y-axis.

, where a is the semi-major

Therefore, the equation of the ellipse will be of the form
axis.
Accordingly, 2b = 16 ⇒ b = 8 and c = 6.
It is known that

.

Thus, the equation of the ellipse is

.

Question 17:

Find the equation for the ellipse that satisfies the given conditions: Foci (±3, 0), a = 4

Discussion
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Foci (±3, 0), a = 4
Since the foci are on the x-axis, the major axis is along the x-axis.

Therefore, the equation of the ellipse will be of the form
axis.
Accordingly, c = 3 and a = 4.

581

, where a is the semi-major

It is known that

.

Thus, the equation of the ellipse is

.

Question 18:

Find the equation for the ellipse that satisfies the given conditions: b = 3, c = 4, centre at the
origin; foci on the x axis.

Discussion
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It is given that b = 3, c = 4, centre at the origin; foci on the x axis.
Since the foci are on the x-axis, the major axis is along the x-axis.

Therefore, the equation of the ellipse will be of the form
axis.

, where a is the semi-major

Accordingly, b = 3, c = 4.
It is known that

.

Question 19:

Find the equation for the ellipse that satisfies the given conditions: Centre at (0, 0), major axis
on the y-axis and passes through the points (3, 2) and (1, 6).

Discussion
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Since the centre is at (0, 0) and the major axis is on the y-axis, the equation of the ellipse will be
of the form

582

The ellipse passes through points (3, 2) and (1, 6). Hence,

On solving equations (2) and (3), we obtain b2 = 10 and a2 = 40.

Thus, the equation of the ellipse is

.

Thus, the equation of the ellipse is

.

Question 20:

Find the equation for the ellipse that satisfies the given conditions: Major axis on the x-axis and
passes through the points (4, 3) and (6, 2).

Discussion
Share Since

the major axis is on the x-axis, the equation of the ellipse will be of the form

The ellipse passes through points (4, 3) and (6, 2). Hence,

On solving equations (2) and (3), we obtain a2 = 52 and b2 = 13.

583

Thus, the equation of the ellipse is

.

EXERCISE 11.4
Question 1:

Find the coordinates of the foci and the vertices, the eccentricity, and the length of the latus
rectum of the hyperbola

Discussion
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The given equation is

.

On comparing this equation with the standard equation of hyperbola i.e.,
obtain a = 4 and b = 3.

, we

We know that a2 + b2 = c2.

Therefore,
The coordinates of the foci are (±5, 0).
The coordinates of the vertices are (±4, 0).

Length of latus rectum
Question 2:

Find the coordinates of the foci and the vertices, the eccentricity, and the length of the latus
rectum of the hyperbola

584

Discussion
Share

The given equation is

.

On comparing this equation with the standard equation of hyperbola i.e.,
obtain a = 3 and

, we

.

We know that a2 + b2 = c2.

Therefore,
The coordinates of the foci are (0, ±6).
The coordinates of the vertices are (0, ±3).

Length of latus rectum
Question 3:

Find the coordinates of the foci and the vertices, the eccentricity, and the length of the latus
rectum of the hyperbola 9y2 – 4x2 = 36

Discussion
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The given equation is 9y2 – 4x2 = 36.
It can be written as
9y2 – 4x2 = 36

585

On comparing equation (1) with the standard equation of hyperbola i.e.,
obtain a = 2 and b = 3.

, we

We know that a2 + b2 = c2.

Therefore,
The coordinates of the foci are
The coordinates of the vertices are

.
.

Length of latus rectum
Question 4:

Find the coordinates of the foci and the vertices, the eccentricity, and the length of the latus
rectum of the hyperbola 16x2 – 9y2 = 576

Discussion
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The given equation is 16x2 – 9y2 = 576.
It can be written as
16x2 – 9y2 = 576

586

On comparing equation (1) with the standard equation of hyperbola i.e.,
obtain a = 6 and b = 8.

, we

We know that a2 + b2 = c2.

Therefore,
The coordinates of the foci are (±10, 0).
The coordinates of the vertices are (±6, 0).

Length of latus rectum
Question 5:

Find the coordinates of the foci and the vertices, the eccentricity, and the length of the latus
rectum of the hyperbola 5y2 – 9x2 = 36

Discussion
Share

The given equation is 5y2 – 9x2 = 36.

587

On comparing equation (1) with the standard equation of hyperbola i.e.,
obtain a =

, we

and b = 2.

We know that a2 + b2 = c2.

Therefore, the coordinates of the foci are

The coordinates of the vertices are

.

.

Length of latus rectum
Question 6:

Find the coordinates of the foci and the vertices, the eccentricity, and the length of the latus
rectum of the hyperbola 49y2 – 16x2 = 784

Discussion
Share

The given equation is 49y2 – 16x2 = 784.
It can be written as
49y2 – 16x2 = 784

588

On comparing equation (1) with the standard equation of hyperbola i.e.,
obtain a = 4 and b = 7.

, we

We know that a2 + b2 = c2.

Therefore,
The coordinates of the foci are

.

The coordinates of the vertices are (0, ±4).

Length of latus rectum
Question 7:

Find the equation of the hyperbola satisfying the give conditions: Vertices (±2, 0), foci (±3, 0)

Discussion
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Vertices (±2, 0), foci (±3, 0)
Here, the vertices are on the x-axis.

Therefore, the equation of the hyperbola is of the form
Since the vertices are (±2, 0), a = 2.

589

.

Since the foci are (±3, 0), c = 3.
We know that a2 + b2 = c2.

Thus, the equation of the hyperbola is

.

Question 8:

Find the equation of the hyperbola satisfying the give conditions: Vertices (0, ±5), foci (0, ±8)

Discussion
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Vertices (0, ±5), foci (0, ±8)
Here, the vertices are on the y-axis.

Therefore, the equation of the hyperbola is of the form

.

Since the vertices are (0, ±5), a = 5.
Since the foci are (0, ±8), c = 8.
We know that a2 + b2 = c2.

Thus, the equation of the hyperbola is

.

Question 9:

Find the equation of the hyperbola satisfying the give conditions: Vertices (0, ±3), foci (0, ±5)

Discussion
Share

590

Vertices (0, ±3), foci (0, ±5)
Here, the vertices are on the y-axis.

Therefore, the equation of the hyperbola is of the form

.

Since the vertices are (0, ±3), a = 3.
Since the foci are (0, ±5), c = 5.
We know that a2 + b2 = c2.
∴32 + b2 = 52

⇒ b2 = 25 – 9 = 16
Thus, the equation of the hyperbola is

.

Question 10:

Find the equation of the hyperbola satisfying the give conditions: Foci (±5, 0), the transverse
axis is of length 8.

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Foci (±5, 0), the transverse axis is of length 8.
Here, the foci are on the x-axis.

Therefore, the equation of the hyperbola is of the form
Since the foci are (±5, 0), c = 5.

Since the length of the transverse axis is 8, 2a = 8 ⇒ a = 4.
We know that a2 + b2 = c2.
∴42 + b2 = 52

591

.

⇒ b2 = 25 – 16 = 9
Thus, the equation of the hyperbola is

.

Question 11:

Find the equation of the hyperbola satisfying the give conditions: Foci (0, ±13), the conjugate
axis is of length 24.

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Foci (0, ±13), the conjugate axis is of length 24.
Here, the foci are on the y-axis.

Therefore, the equation of the hyperbola is of the form

.

Since the foci are (0, ±13), c = 13.

Since the length of the conjugate axis is 24, 2b = 24 ⇒ b = 12.
We know that a2 + b2 = c2.
∴a2 + 122 = 132

⇒ a2 = 169 – 144 = 25
Thus, the equation of the hyperbola is

.

Question 12:

Find the equation of the hyperbola satisfying the give conditions: Foci
rectum is of length 8.

Discussion
Share

592

, the latus

Foci

, the latus rectum is of length 8.

Here, the foci are on the x-axis.

Therefore, the equation of the hyperbola is of the form
Since the foci are

,c=

.

.

Length of latus rectum = 8

We know that a2 + b2 = c2.
∴a2 + 4a = 45

⇒ a2 + 4a – 45 = 0

⇒ a2 + 9a – 5a – 45 = 0
⇒ (a + 9) (a – 5) = 0
⇒ a = –9, 5

Since a is non-negative, a = 5.
∴b2 = 4a = 4 × 5 = 20

Thus, the equation of the hyperbola is

.

Question 13:

Find the equation of the hyperbola satisfying the give conditions: Foci (±4, 0), the latus rectum
is of length 12

Discussion
Share

593

Foci (±4, 0), the latus rectum is of length 12.
Here, the foci are on the x-axis.

Therefore, the equation of the hyperbola is of the form

.

Since the foci are (±4, 0), c = 4.
Length of latus rectum = 12

We know that a2 + b2 = c2.
∴a2 + 6a = 16

⇒ a2 + 6a – 16 = 0

⇒ a2 + 8a – 2a – 16 = 0
⇒ (a + 8) (a – 2) = 0
⇒ a = –8, 2

Since a is non-negative, a = 2.
∴b2 = 6a = 6 × 2 = 12

Thus, the equation of the hyperbola is

.

Question 14:

Find the equation of the hyperbola satisfying the give conditions: Vertices (±7, 0),

Discussion
Share

594

Vertices (±7, 0),
Here, the vertices are on the x-axis.

Therefore, the equation of the hyperbola is of the form

.

Since the vertices are (±7, 0), a = 7.

It is given that

We know that a2 + b2 = c2.

Thus, the equation of the hyperbola is

.

Question 15:

Find the equation of the hyperbola satisfying the give conditions: Foci
through (2, 3)

Discussion
Share

595

, passing

Foci

, passing through (2, 3)

Here, the foci are on the y-axis.

Therefore, the equation of the hyperbola is of the form
Since the foci are

,c=

.

We know that a2 + b2 = c2.
∴ a2 + b2 = 10

⇒ b2 = 10 – a2 … (1)

Since the hyperbola passes through point (2, 3),

From equations (1) and (2), we obtain

In hyperbola, c > a, i.e., c2 > a2
∴ a2 = 5

⇒ b2 = 10 – a2 = 10 – 5 = 5
Thus, the equation of the hyperbola is

.

596

.

EXERCISE 11.5
Question 1:

If a parabolic reflector is 20 cm in diameter and 5 cm deep, find the focus.

Discussion
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The origin of the coordinate plane is taken at the vertex of the parabolic reflector in such a way
that the axis of the reflector is along the positive x-axis.
This can be diagrammatically represented as

The equation of the parabola is of the form y2 = 4ax (as it is opening to the right).
Since the parabola passes through point A (10, 5), 102 = 4a(5)

597

⇒ 100 = 20a

Therefore, the focus of the parabola is (a, 0) = (5, 0), which is the mid-point of the diameter.
Hence, the focus of the reflector is at the mid-point of the diameter.
Question 2:

An arch is in the form of a parabola with its axis vertical. The arch is 10 m high and 5 m wide at
the base. How wide is it 2 m from the vertex of the parabola?

Discussion
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The origin of the coordinate plane is taken at the vertex of the arch in such a way that its vertical
axis is along the positive y-axis.
This can be diagrammatically represented as

The equation of the parabola is of the form x2 = 4ay (as it is opening upwards).

It can be clearly seen that the parabola passes through point

598

.

Therefore, the arch is in the form of a parabola whose equation is

.

When y = 2 m,

Hence, when the arch is 2 m from the vertex of the parabola, its width is approximately 2.23 m.
Question 3:

The cable of a uniformly loaded suspension bridge hangs in the form of a parabola. The
roadway which is horizontal and 100 m long is supported by vertical wires attached to the cable,
the longest wire being 30 m and the shortest being 6 m. Find the length of a supporting wire
attached to the roadway 18 m from the middle.

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The vertex is at the lowest point of the cable. The origin of the coordinate plane is taken as the
vertex of the parabola, while its vertical axis is taken along the positive y-axis. This can be
diagrammatically represented as

Here, AB and OC are the longest and the shortest wires, respectively, attached to the cable.
DF is the supporting wire attached to the roadway, 18 m from the middle.

599

Here, AB = 30 m, OC = 6 m, and

.

The equation of the parabola is of the form x2 = 4ay (as it is opening upwards).
The coordinates of point A are (50, 30 – 6) = (50, 24).
Since A (50, 24) is a point on the parabola,

∴Equation of the parabola,

or 6x2 = 625y

The x-coordinate of point D is 18.
Hence, at x = 18,

∴DE = 3.11 m

DF = DE + EF = 3.11 m + 6 m = 9.11 m
Thus, the length of the supporting wire attached to the roadway 18 m from the middle is
approximately 9.11 m.
Question 4:

An arch is in the form of a semi-ellipse. It is 8 m wide and 2 m high at the centre. Find the
height of the arch at a point 1.5 m from one end.

Discussion
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Since the height and width of the arc from the centre is 2 m and 8 m respectively, it is clear that
the length of the major axis is 8 m, while the length of the semi-minor axis is 2 m.

600

The origin of the coordinate plane is taken as the centre of the ellipse, while the major axis is
taken along the x-axis. Hence, the semi-ellipse can be diagrammatically represented as

The equation of the semi-ellipse will be of the form
major axis
Accordingly, 2a = 8 ⇒ a = 4
b=2

Therefore, the equation of the semi-ellipse is
Let A be a point on the major axis such that AB = 1.5 m.
Draw AC⊥ OB.
OA = (4 – 1.5) m = 2.5 m
The x-coordinate of point C is 2.5.
On substituting the value of x with 2.5 in equation (1), we obtain

601

, where a is the semi-

∴AC = 1.56 m

Thus, the height of the arch at a point 1.5 m from one end is approximately 1.56 m.
Question 6:

Find the area of the triangle formed by the lines joining the vertex of the parabola x2 = 12y to the
ends of its latus rectum.

Discussion
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The given parabola is x2 = 12y.

On comparing this equation with x2 = 4ay, we obtain 4a = 12 ⇒ a = 3
∴The coordinates of foci are S (0, a) = S (0, 3)

Let AB be the latus rectum of the given parabola.
The given parabola can be roughly drawn as

602

At y = 3, x2 = 12 (3) ⇒ x2 = 36 ⇒ x = ±6

∴The coordinates of A are (–6, 3), while the coordinates of B are (6, 3).
Therefore, the vertices of ΔOAB are O (0, 0), A (–6, 3), and B (6, 3).

Thus, the required area of the triangle is 18 unit2.
Question 7:

A man running a racecourse notes that the sum of the distances from the two flag posts form
him is always 10 m and the distance between the flag posts is 8 m. find the equation of the posts
traced by the man.

Discussion
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Let A and B be the positions of the two flag posts and P(x, y) be the position of the man.
Accordingly, PA + PB = 10.

603

We know that if a point moves in a plane in such a way that the sum of its distances from two
fixed points is constant, then the path is an ellipse and this constant value is equal to the length
of the major axis of the ellipse.
Therefore, the path described by the man is an ellipse where the length of the major axis is 10 m,
while points A and B are the foci.
Taking the origin of the coordinate plane as the centre of the ellipse, while taking the major axis
along the x-axis, the ellipse can be diagrammatically represented as

The equation of the ellipse will be of the form
Accordingly, 2a = 10 ⇒ a = 5

, where a is the semi-major axis

Distance between the foci (2c) = 8
⇒c=4

On using the relation

, we obtain

Thus, the equation of the path traced by the man is
Question 8:

604

.

An equilateral triangle is inscribed in the parabola y2 = 4 ax, where one vertex is at the vertex of
the parabola. Find the length of the side of the triangle.

Discussion
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Let OAB be the equilateral triangle inscribed in parabola y2 = 4ax.
Let AB intersect the x-axis at point C.

Let OC = k
From the equation of the given parabola, we have

∴The respective coordinates of points A and B are
AB = CA + CB =

Since OAB is an equilateral triangle, OA2 = AB2.

Thus, the side of the equilateral triangle inscribed
in parabola y2 = 4 ax is

605

EXERCISE 12.1
Question 1:

A point is on the x-axis. What are its y-coordinates and z-coordinates?

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If a point is on the x-axis, then its y-coordinates and z-coordinates are zero.
Question 2:

A point is in the XZ-plane. What can you say about its y-coordinate?

Discussion
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If a point is in the XZ plane, then its y-coordinate is zero.
Question 3:

Name the octants in which the following points lie:
(1, 2, 3), (4, –2, 3), (4, –2, –5), (4, 2, –5), (–4, 2, –5), (–4, 2, 5),
(–3, –1, 6), (2, –4, –7)

Discussion
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606

The x-coordinate, y-coordinate, and z-coordinate of point (1, 2, 3) are all positive.
Therefore, this point lies in octant I.
The x-coordinate, y-coordinate, and z-coordinate of point (4, –2, 3) are positive, negative,
and positive respectively. Therefore, this point lies in octant IV.
The x-coordinate, y-coordinate, and z-coordinate of point (4, –2, –5) are positive,
negative, and negative respectively. Therefore, this point lies in octant VIII.
The x-coordinate, y-coordinate, and z-coordinate of point (4, 2, –5) are positive, positive,
and negative respectively. Therefore, this point lies in octant V.
The x-coordinate, y-coordinate, and z-coordinate of point (–4, 2, –5) are negative,
positive, and negative respectively. Therefore, this point lies in octant VI.
The x-coordinate, y-coordinate, and z-coordinate of point (–4, 2, 5) are negative, positive,
and positive respectively. Therefore, this point lies in octant II.
The x-coordinate, y-coordinate, and z-coordinate of point (–3, –1, 6) are negative,
negative, and positive respectively. Therefore, this point lies in octant III.
The x-coordinate, y-coordinate, and z-coordinate of point (2, –4, –7) are positive,
negative, and negative respectively. Therefore, this point lies in octant VIII.
Question 4:

Fill in the blanks:

Discussion
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(i) The x-axis and y-axis taken together determine a plane known as
(ii) The coordinates of points in the XY-plane are of the form
(iii) Coordinate planes divide the space into

EXERCISE 12.2

607

octants.

.
.

Question 1:

Find the distance between the following pairs of points:
(i) (2, 3, 5) and (4, 3, 1) (ii) (–3, 7, 2) and (2, 4, –1)
(iii) (–1, 3, –4) and (1, –3, 4) (iv) (2, –1, 3) and (–2, 1, 3)

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The distance between points P(x1, y1, z1) and P(x2, y2, z2) is given
by
(i) Distance between points (2, 3, 5) and (4, 3, 1)

(ii) Distance between points (–3, 7, 2) and (2, 4, –1)

(iii) Distance between points (–1, 3, –4) and (1, –3, 4)

(iv) Distance between points (2, –1, 3) and (–2, 1, 3)

608

Question 2:

Show that the points (–2, 3, 5), (1, 2, 3) and (7, 0, –1) are collinear.

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Let points (–2, 3, 5), (1, 2, 3), and (7, 0, –1) be denoted by P, Q, and R respectively.
Points P, Q, and R are collinear if they lie on a line.

609

Here, PQ + QR

= PR

Hence, points P(–2, 3, 5), Q(1, 2, 3), and R(7, 0, –1) are collinear.
Question 3:

Verify the following:
(i) (0, 7, –10), (1, 6, –6) and (4, 9, –6) are the vertices of an isosceles triangle.
(ii) (0, 7, 10), (–1, 6, 6) and (–4, 9, 6) are the vertices of a right angled triangle.
(iii) (–1, 2, 1), (1, –2, 5), (4, –7, 8) and (2, –3, 4) are the vertices of a parallelogram.

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(i) Let points (0, 7, –10), (1, 6, –6), and (4, 9, –6) be denoted by A, B, and C
respectively.

Here, AB = BC ≠ CA
Thus, the given points are the vertices of an isosceles triangle.

610

(ii) Let (0, 7, 10), (–1, 6, 6), and (–4, 9, 6) be denoted by A, B, and C respectively.

Therefore, by Pythagoras theorem, ABC is a right triangle.
Hence, the given points are the vertices of a right-angled triangle.
(iii) Let (–1, 2, 1), (1, –2, 5), (4, –7, 8), and (2, –3, 4) be denoted by A, B, C, and D
respectively.

611

Here, AB = CD = 6, BC = AD =
Hence, the opposite sides of quadrilateral ABCD, whose vertices are taken in order, are
equal.
Therefore, ABCD is a parallelogram.
Hence, the given points are the vertices of a parallelogram.
Question 4:

Find the equation of the set of points which are equidistant from the points (1, 2, 3) and
(3, 2, –1).

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Let P (x, y, z) be the point that is equidistant from points A(1, 2, 3) and B(3, 2, –1).
Accordingly, PA = PB

612

⇒ x2 – 2x + 1 + y2 – 4y + 4 + z2 – 6z + 9 = x2 – 6x + 9 + y2 – 4y + 4 + z2 + 2z + 1
⇒ –2x –4y – 6z + 14 = –6x – 4y + 2z + 14
⇒ – 2x – 6z + 6x – 2z = 0
⇒ 4x – 8z = 0
⇒ x – 2z = 0

Thus, the required equation is x – 2z = 0.
Question 4:

Find the equation of the set of points which are equidistant from the points (1, 2, 3) and
(3, 2, –1).

Discussion
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Let P (x, y, z) be the point that is equidistant from points A(1, 2, 3) and B(3, 2, –1).
Accordingly, PA = PB

⇒ x2 – 2x + 1 + y2 – 4y + 4 + z2 – 6z + 9 = x2 – 6x + 9 + y2 – 4y + 4 + z2 + 2z + 1
⇒ –2x –4y – 6z + 14 = –6x – 4y + 2z + 14
⇒ – 2x – 6z + 6x – 2z = 0
⇒ 4x – 8z = 0
⇒ x – 2z = 0

Thus, the required equation is x – 2z = 0.

613

EXERCISE 12.3

Question 1:

Find the coordinates of the point which divides the line segment joining the points (–2, 3,
5) and (1, –4, 6) in the ratio (i) 2:3 internally, (ii) 2:3 externally.

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(i) The coordinates of point R that divides the line segment joining points P (x1, y1, z1) and
Q (x2, y2, z2) internally in the ratio m: n are

.
Let R (x, y, z) be the point that divides the line segment joining points(–2, 3, 5) and (1, –
4, 6) internally in the ratio 2:3

Thus, the coordinates of the required point are

.

(ii) The coordinates of point R that divides the line segment joining points P (x1, y1, z1)
and Q (x2, y2, z2) externally in the ratio m: n are

.
Let R (x, y, z) be the point that divides the line segment joining points(–2, 3, 5) and (1, –
4, 6) externally in the ratio 2:3

614

Thus, the coordinates of the required point are (–8, 17, 3).
Question 2:

Given that P (3, 2, –4), Q (5, 4, –6) and R (9, 8, –10) are collinear. Find the ratio in
which Q divides PR.

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Let point Q (5, 4, –6) divide the line segment joining points P (3, 2, –4) and R (9, 8, –10)
in the ratio k:1.
Therefore, by section formula,

Thus, point Q divides PR in the ratio 1:2.
Question 3:

Find the ratio in which the YZ-plane divides the line segment formed by joining the
points (–2, 4, 7) and (3, –5, 8).

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Let the YZ planedivide the line segment joining points (–2, 4, 7) and (3, –5, 8) in the
ratio k:1.
Hence, by section formula, the coordinates of point of intersection are given by

615

On the YZ plane, the x-coordinate of any point is zero.

Thus, the YZ plane divides the line segment formed by joining the given points in the
ratio 2:3.

Question 4:

Using section formula, show that the points A (2, –3, 4), B (–1, 2, 1) and
collinear.

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The given points are A (2, –3, 4), B (–1, 2, 1), and

.

Let P be a point that divides AB in the ratio k:1.
Hence, by section formula, the coordinates of P are given by

Now, we find the value of k at which point P coincides with point C.
By taking

, we obtain k = 2.

616

are

For k = 2, the coordinates of point P are

i.e.,
point P.

.

is a point that divides AB externally in the ratio 2:1 and is the same as

Hence, points A, B, and C are collinear.
Question 5:

Find the coordinates of the points which trisect the line segment joining the points P (4,
2, –6) and Q (10, –16, 6).

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Let A and B be the points that trisect the line segment joining points P (4, 2, –6) and Q
(10, –16, 6)

Point A divides PQ in the ratio 1:2. Therefore, by section formula, the coordinates of
point A are given by

Point B divides PQ in the ratio 2:1. Therefore, by section formula, the coordinates of
point B are given by

Thus, (6, –4, –2) and (8, –10, 2) are the points that trisect the line segment joining points
P (4, 2, –6) and Q (10, –16, 6).

617

EXERCISE 13.1

Question 1:

Evaluate the Given limit:

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Question 2:

Evaluate the Given limit:

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Question 3:

618

Evaluate the Given limit:

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Question 4:

Evaluate the Given limit:

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Question 5:

Evaluate the Given limit:

Discussion
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Question 6:

Evaluate the Given limit:

Discussion
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619

Put x + 1 = y so that y → 1 as x → 0.

Question 7:

Evaluate the Given limit:

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At x = 2, the value of the given rational function takes the form

Question 8:

620

.

Evaluate the Given limit:

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At x = 2, the value of the given rational function takes the form

Question 9:

Evaluate the Given limit:

Discussion
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Question 10:

Evaluate the Given limit:

621

.

Discussion
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At z = 1, the value of the given function takes the form
Put

so that z →1 as x → 1.

Question 11:

Evaluate the Given limit:

Discussion
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622

.

Question 12:

Evaluate the Given limit:

Discussion
Share

At x = –2, the value of the given function takes the form

Question 13:

Evaluate the Given limit:

Discussion

623

.

Share

At x = 0, the value of the given function takes the form

.

Question 14:

Evaluate the Given limit:

Discussion
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At x = 0, the value of the given function takes the form

624

.

Question 15:

Evaluate the Given limit:

Discussion
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It is seen that x → π ⇒ (π – x) → 0

Question 16:

Evaluate the given limit:

625

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Question 17:

Evaluate the Given limit:

Discussion
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At x = 0, the value of the given function takes the form
Now,

626

.

Question 18:

Evaluate the Given limit:

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At x = 0, the value of the given function takes the form

627

.

Now,

Question 19:

Evaluate the Given limit:

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Question 20:

Evaluate the Given limit:

Discussion
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At x = 0, the value of the given function takes the form
Now,

628

.

Question 21:

Evaluate the Given limit:

Discussion
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At x = 0, the value of the given function takes the form
Now,
Question 23:

Find

f(x) and

f(x), where f(x) =

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The given function is

629

.

f(x) =

Question 22:

630

Discussion
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At

, the value of the given function takes the form

Now, put

so that

.

Question 24:

Find

f(x), where f(x) =

Discussion
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The given function is

Question 25:

631

.

Evaluate

f(x), where f(x) =

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The given function is

f(x) =

632

Question 26:

Find

f(x), where f(x) =

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The given function is

633

Question 27:

Find

f(x), where f(x) =

Discussion
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The given function is f(x) =

.

634

Question 28:

Suppose f(x) =

and if

f(x) = f(1) what are possible values of a and b?

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The given function is

Thus, the respective possible values of a and b are 0 and 4.

635

Question 29:

Let

What is

be fixed real numbers and define a function

f(x)? For some

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The given function is

.

Question 30:

If f(x) =

.

For what value (s) of a does

f(x).

compute

f(x) exists?

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636

The given function is

When a < 0,

When a > 0

637

Thus,

exists for all a ≠ 0.

Question 31:

If the function f(x) satisfies

, evaluate

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Question 32:

638

.

. For what integers m and n does

If
and

exist?

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The given function is

Thus,

exists if m = n.

Thus,

exists for any integral value of m and n.

639

EXERCISE 13.2

Question 1:

Find the derivative of x2 – 2 at x = 10.

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Let f(x) = x2 – 2. Accordingly,

Thus, the derivative of x2 – 2 at x = 10 is 20.
Question 2:

Find the derivative of 99x at x = 100.

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Let f(x) = 99x. Accordingly,

640

Thus, the derivative of 99x at x = 100 is 99.
Question 3:

Find the derivative of x at x = 1.

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Let f(x) = x. Accordingly,

Thus, the derivative of x at x = 1 is 1.
Question 4:

Find the derivative of the following functions from first principle.
(i) x3 – 27 (ii) (x – 1) (x – 2)
(ii)

(iv)

641

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(i) Let f(x) = x3 – 27. Accordingly, from the first principle,

(ii) Let f(x) = (x – 1) (x – 2). Accordingly, from the first principle,

(iii) Let

. Accordingly, from the first principle,

642

(iv) Let

. Accordingly, from the first principle,

643

Question 5:

For the function

Prove that

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The given function is

Thus,
Question 6:

for some fixed real number a.

Find the derivative of

Discussion

644

Share

Let

Question 7:

For some constants a and b, find the derivative of
(i) (x – a) (x – b) (ii) (ax2 + b)2 (iii)

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(i) Let f (x) = (x – a) (x – b)

(ii) Let

645

(iii)

By quotient rule,

Question 8:

Find the derivative of

for some constant a.

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646

By quotient rule,

Question 9:

Find the derivative of
(i)

(ii) (5x3 + 3x – 1) (x – 1)

(iii) x–3 (5 + 3x) (iv) x5 (3 – 6x–9)

(v) x–4 (3 – 4x–5) (vi)

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(i) Let

647

(ii) Let f (x) = (5x3 + 3x – 1) (x – 1)
By Leibnitz product rule,

(iii) Let f (x) = x– 3 (5 + 3x)
By Leibnitz product rule,

(iv) Let f (x) = x5 (3 – 6x–9)
By Leibnitz product rule,

648

(v) Let f (x) = x–4 (3 – 4x–5)
By Leibnitz product rule,

(vi) Let f (x) =

By quotient rule,

649

Question 10:

Find the derivative of cos x from first principle.

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Let f (x) = cos x. Accordingly, from the first principle,

650

Question 11:

Find the derivative of the following functions:
(i) sin x cos x (ii) sec x (iii) 5 sec x + 4 cos x
(iv) cosec x (v) 3cot x + 5cosec x
(vi) 5sin x – 6cos x + 7 (vii) 2tan x – 7sec x

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(i) Let f (x) = sin x cos x. Accordingly, from the first principle,

651

(ii) Let f (x) = sec x. Accordingly, from the first principle,

652

(iii) Let f (x) = 5 sec x + 4 cos x. Accordingly, from the first principle,

653

(iv) Let f (x) = cosec x. Accordingly, from the first principle,

654

(v) Let f (x) = 3cot x + 5cosec x. Accordingly, from the first principle,

655

656

From (1), (2), and (3), we obtain

(vi) Let f (x) = 5sin x – 6cos x + 7. Accordingly, from the first principle,

657

(vii) Let f (x) = 2 tan x – 7 sec x. Accordingly, from the first principle,

658

659

EXERCISE 13.3
Question 1:

Find the derivative of the following functions from first principle:
(i) –x (ii) (–x)–1 (iii) sin (x + 1)

(iv)

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(i) Let f(x) = –x. Accordingly,
By first principle,

(ii) Let

. Accordingly,

By first principle,

660

(iii) Let f(x) = sin (x + 1). Accordingly,
By first principle,

661

(iv) Let

. Accordingly,

By first principle,

662

Question 2:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers): (x + a)

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Let f(x) = x + a. Accordingly,
By first principle,

663

Question 3:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers):

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By Leibnitz product rule,

Question 4:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,

664

q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers): (ax + b) (cx + d)2

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Let
By Leibnitz product rule,

Question 5:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers):

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Let
By quotient rule,

665

Question 6:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers):

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By quotient rule,

666

Question 7:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers):

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Let
By quotient rule,

Question 8:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers):

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By quotient rule,

667

Question 9:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers):

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By quotient rule,

Question 10:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,

668

q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers):

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Question 10:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers):

Discussion
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Question 12:

669

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers): (ax + b)n

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By first principle,

Question 13:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,

670

q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers): (ax + b)n (cx + d)m

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Let
By Leibnitz product rule,

671

Therefore, from (1), (2), and (3), we obtain

Question 14:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers): sin (x + a)

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Let

By first principle,

672

Question 15:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers): cosec x cot x

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Let
By Leibnitz product rule,

By first principle,

673

Now, let f2(x) = cosec x. Accordingly,
By first principle,

674

From (1), (2), and (3), we obtain

Question 15:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers): cosec x cot x

675

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Let
By Leibnitz product rule,

By first principle,

Now, let f2(x) = cosec x. Accordingly,
By first principle,

676

From (1), (2), and (3), we obtain

Question 17:

677

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers):

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Let
By quotient rule,

Question 18:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers):

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Let

678

By quotient rule,

Question 19:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers): sinn x

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Let y = sinn x.
Accordingly, for n = 1, y = sin x.

679

For n = 2, y = sin2 x.

For n = 3, y = sin3 x.

We assert that
Let our assertion be true for n = k.
i.e.,

Thus, our assertion is true for n = k + 1.

680

Hence, by mathematical induction,
Question 20:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers):

Discussion
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By quotient rule,

Question 21:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers):

Discussion
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681

Let
By quotient rule,

By first principle,

From (i) and (ii), we obtain

682

Question 22:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers): x4 (5 sin x – 3 cos x)

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Let
By product rule,

Question 23:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers): (x2 + 1) cos x

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Let
By product rule,

683

Question 24:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers): (ax2 + sin x)
(p + q cos x)

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Let
By product rule,

Question 25:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers):

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Let
By product rule,

684

Let

. Accordingly,

By first principle,

Therefore, from (i) and (ii), we obtain

685

Question 26:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers):

Discussion
Share

Let
By quotient rule,

Question 27:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers):

Discussion

686

Share

Let
By quotient rule,

Question 28:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers):

Discussion
Share

Let

By first principle,

687

From (i) and (ii), we obtain

Question 29:

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers): (x + sec x) (x – tan x)

Discussion
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Let
By product rule,

688

689

From (i), (ii), and (iii), we obtain

Question 30:

690

Find the derivative of the following functions (it is to be understood that a, b, c, d, p,
q, r and s are fixed non-zero constants and m and n are integers):

Discussion
Share

Let
By quotient rule,

It can be easily shown that
Therefore,

691

EXERCISE 14.1
Question 1:

Which of the following sentences are statements? Give reasons for your answer.
(i) There are 35 days in a month.
(ii) Mathematics is difficult.
(iii) The sum of 5 and 7 is greater than 10.
(iv) The square of a number is an even number.
(v) The sides of a quadrilateral have equal length.
(vi) Answer this question.
(vii) The product of (–1) and 8 is 8.
(viii) The sum of all interior angles of a triangle is 180°.
(ix) Today is a windy day.
(x) All real numbers are complex numbers.

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(i) This sentence is incorrect because the maximum number of days in a month is 31.
Hence, it is a statement.
(ii) This sentence is subjective in the sense that for some people, mathematics can be
easy and for some others, it can be difficult. Hence, it is not a statement.

692

(iii) The sum of 5 and 7 is 12, which is greater than 10. Therefore, this sentence is
always correct. Hence, it is a statement.
(iv) This sentence is sometimes correct and sometimes incorrect. For example, the
square of 2 is an even number. However, the square of 3 is an odd number. Hence, it
is not a statement.
(v) This sentence is sometimes correct and sometimes incorrect. For example, squares
and rhombus have sides of equal lengths. However, trapezium and rectangles have
sides of unequal lengths. Hence, it is not a statement.
(vi) It is an order. Therefore, it is not a statement.
(vii) The product of (–1) and 8 is (–8). Therefore, the given sentence is incorrect.
Hence, it is a statement.
(viii) This sentence is correct and hence, it is a statement.
(ix) The day that is being referred to is not evident from the sentence. Hence, it is not
a statement.
(x) All real numbers can be written as a × 1 + 0 × i. Therefore, the given sentence is
always correct. Hence, it is a statement.
Question 2:

Give three examples of sentences which are not statements. Give reasons for the

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three examples of sentences, which are not statements, are as follows.

(i) He is a doctor.
It is not evident from the sentence as to whom ‘he’ is referred to. Therefore, it is not a
statement. (ii) Geometry is difficult.
This is not a statement because for some people, geometry can be easy and for some
others, it can be difficult (iii) Where is she going?

693

This is a question, which also contains ‘she’, and it is not evident as to who ‘she’ is.
Hence, it is not a statement.

EXERCISE 14.2
Question 1:

Write the negation of the following statements:
(i) Chennai is the capital of Tamil Nadu.
(ii)

is not a complex number.

(iii) All triangles are not equilateral triangle.
(iv) The number 2 is greater than 7.
(v) Every natural number is an integer.

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(i) Chennai is not the capital of Tamil Nadu.
(ii)

is a complex number.

(iii) All triangles are equilateral triangles.
(iv) The number 2 is not greater than 7.
(v) Every natural number is not an integer.
Question 2:

Are the following pairs of statements negations of each other?
(i) The number x is not a rational number.
The number x is not an irrational number.

694

(ii) The number x is a rational number.
The number x is an irrational number.

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(i) The negation of the first statement is “the number x is a rational number”.
This is same as the second statement. This is because if a number is not an irrational
number, then it is a rational number.
Therefore, the given statements are negations of each other.
(ii) The negation of the first statement is “the number x is not a rational number”.
This means that the number x is an irrational number, which is the same as the second
statement.
Therefore, the given statements are negations of each other.
Question 3:

Find the component statements of the following compound statements and check
whether they are true or false.
(i) Number 3 is prime or it is odd.
(ii) All integers are positive or negative.
(iii) 100 is divisible by 3, 11 and 5.

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Share (i) The

component statements are as follows.

p: Number 3 is prime. q: Number 3 is odd. Both the statements are true.
(ii) The component statements are as follows.
p: All integers are positive. q: All integers are negative.Both the statements are false.

695

(iii) The component statements are as follows.p: 100 is divisible by 3.q: 100 is
divisible by 11. r: 100 is divisible by 5.
Here, the statements, p and q, are false and statement r is true.

EXERCISE 14.3
Question 1:

For each of the following compound statements first identify the connecting words
and then break it into component statements.
(i) All rational numbers are real and all real numbers are not complex.
(ii) Square of an integer is positive or negative.
(iii) The sand heats up quickly in the Sun and does not cool down fast at night.
(iv) x = 2 and x = 3 are the roots of the equation 3x2 – x – 10 = 0.

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(i) Here, the connecting word is ‘and’.
The component statements are as follows.
p: All rational numbers are real.
q: All real numbers are not complex.
(ii) Here, the connecting word is ‘or’.
The component statements are as follows.
p: Square of an integer is positive.
q: Square of an integer is negative.

696

(iii) Here, the connecting word is ‘and’.
The component statements are as follows.
p: The sand heats up quickly in the sun.
q: The sand does not cool down fast at night.
(iv) Here, the connecting word is ‘and’.
The component statements are as follows.
p: x = 2 is a root of the equation 3x2 – x – 10 = 0
q: x = 3 is a root of the equation 3x2 – x – 10 = 0
Question 2:

Identify the quantifier in the following statements and write the negation of the
statements.
(i) There exists a number which is equal to its square.
(ii) For every real number x, x is less than x + 1.
(iii) There exists a capital for every state in India.

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(i) The quantifier is “There exists”.
The negation of this statement is as follows.
There does not exist a number which is equal to its square.
(ii) The quantifier is “For every”.
The negation of this statement is as follows.
There exist a real number x such that x is not less than x + 1.

697

(iii) The quantifier is “There exists”.
The negation of this statement is as follows.
There exists a state in India which does not have a capital.
Question 3:

Check whether the following pair of statements is negation of each other. Give
reasons for the answer.
(i) x + y = y + x is true for every real numbers x and y.
(ii) There exists real number x and y for which x + y = y + x.

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The negation of statement (i) is as follows.
There exists real number x and y for which x + y ≠ y + x. This is not the same as
statement (ii).
Thus, the given statements are not the negation of each other.
Question 4:

State whether the “Or” used in the following statements is “exclusive “or” inclusive.
(i) Sun rises or Moon sets.
(ii) To apply for a driving licence, you should have a ration card or a passport.
(iii) All integers are positive or negative.

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(i) Here, “or” is exclusive because it is not possible for the Sun to rise and the moon

698

to set together.
(ii) Here, “or” is inclusive since a person can have both a ration card and a passport to
apply for a driving licence.
(iii) Here, “or” is exclusive because all integers cannot be both positive and negative.

EXERCISE 14.4
Question 1:

Rewrite the following statement with “if-then” in five different ways conveying the
same meaning.
If a natural number is odd, then its square is also odd.

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The given statement can be written in five different ways as follows.
(i) A natural number is odd implies that its square is odd.
(ii) A natural number is odd only if its square is odd.
(iii) For a natural number to be odd, it is necessary that its square is odd.
(iv) For the square of a natural number to be odd, it is sufficient that the number is
odd.
(v) If the square of a natural number is not odd, then the natural number is not odd.
Question 2:

Write the contrapositive and converse of the following statements.

699

(i) If x is a prime number, then x is odd.
(ii) It the two lines are parallel, then they do not intersect in the same plane.
(iii) Something is cold implies that it has low temperature.
(iv) You cannot comprehend geometry if you do not know how to reason deductively.
(v) x is an even number implies that x is divisible by 4

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(i) The contrapositive is as follows.
If a number x is not odd, then x is not a prime number.
The converse is as follows.
If a number x is odd, then it is a prime number.
(ii) The contrapositive is as follows.
If two lines intersect in the same plane, then they are not parallel.
The converse is as follows.
If two lines do not intersect in the same plane, then they are parallel.
(iii) The contrapositive is as follows. If something does not have low temperature,
then it is not cold.
The converse is as follows. If something is at low temperature, then it is cold.
(iv) The contrapositive is as follows.
If you know how to reason deductively, then you can comprehend geometry.
The converse is as follows.If you do not know how to reason deductively, then you
cannot comprehend geometry.
(v) The given statement can be written as follows. If x is an even number, then x is

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divisible by 4.
The contrapositive is as follows. If x is not divisible by 4, then x is not an even
number.
The converse is as follows. If x is divisible by 4, then x is an even number.
Question 3:

Writ of following statement in the form “if-then”.(i) You get a job implies that your
credentials are good.(ii) The Banana trees will bloom if it stays warm for a month.(iii)
A quadrilateral is a parallelogram if its diagonals bisect each other.(iv) To get A+ in
the class, it is necessary that you do the exercises of the book.

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(i) If you get a job, then your credentials are good.
(ii) If the Banana tree stays warm for a month, then it will bloom.
(iii) If the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other, then it is a parallelogram.
(iv) If you want to get an A+ in the class, then you do all the exercises of the book.
Question 4:

Given statements in (a) and (b). Identify the statements given below as contrapositive
or converse of each other.
(a) If you live in Delhi, then you have winter clothes. (i) If you do not have winter
clothes, then you do not live in Delhi. (ii) If you have winter clothes, then you live in
Delhi.
(b) If a quadrilateral is a parallelogram, then its diagonals bisect each other.(i) If the
diagonals of a quadrilateral do not bisect each other, then the quadrilateral is not a
parallelogram.(ii) If the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other, then it is a
parallelogram.

701

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(a) (i) This is the contrapositive of the given statement (a).
(ii) This is the converse of the given statement (a).
(b) (i) This is the contrapositive of the given statement (b).
(ii) This is the converse of the given statement (b).

EXERCISE 14.5
Question 1:

Show that the statement
p: “If x is a real number such that x3 + 4x = 0, then x is 0” is true by
(i) direct method
(ii) method of contradiction
(iii) method of contrapositive

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p: “If x is a real number such that x3 + 4x = 0, then x is 0”.
Let q: x is a real number such that x3 + 4x = 0
r: x is 0.
(i) To show that statement p is true, we assume that q is true and then show that r is
true.

702

Therefore, let statement q be true.
∴ x3 + 4x = 0

x (x2 + 4) = 0

⇒ x = 0 or x2 + 4 = 0

However, since x is real, it is 0.
Thus, statement r is true.
Therefore, the given statement is true.
(ii) To show statement p to be true by contradiction, we assume that p is not true.
Let x be a real number such that x3 + 4x = 0 and let x is not 0.
Therefore, x3 + 4x = 0
x (x2 + 4) = 0
x = 0 or x2 + 4 = 0
x = 0 or x2 = – 4
However, x is real. Therefore, x = 0, which is a contradiction since we have assumed
that x is not 0.
Thus, the given statement p is true.
(iii) To prove statement p to be true by contrapositive method, we assume that r is
false and prove that q must be false.
Here, r is false implies that it is required to consider the negation of statement r. This
obtains the following statement.
∼r: x is not 0.

It can be seen that (x2 + 4) will always be positive.
x ≠ 0 implies that the product of any positive real number with x is not zero.

703

Let us consider the product of x with (x2 + 4).
∴ x (x2 + 4) ≠ 0
⇒ x3 + 4x ≠ 0

This shows that statement q is not true.
Thus, it has been proved that
∼r ⇒ ∼q

Therefore, the given statement p is true.
Question 2:

Show that the statement “For any real numbers a and b, a2 = b2 implies that a = b” is
not true by giving a counter-example.

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The given statement can be written in the form of “if-then” as follows.
If a and b are real numbers such that a2 = b2, then a = b.
Let p: a and b are real numbers such that a2 = b2.
q: a = b
The given statement has to be proved false. For this purpose, it has to be proved that
if p, then ∼q. To show this, two real numbers, a andb, with a2 = b2 are required such
that a ≠ b.
Let a = 1 and b = –1
a2 = (1)2 = 1 and b2 = (– 1)2 = 1
∴ a2 = b2

However, a ≠ b

704

Thus, it can be concluded that the given statement is false.
Question 3:

Show that the following statement is true by the method of contrapositive.
p: If x is an integer and x2 is even, then x is also even.

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p: If x is an integer and x2 is even, then x is also even.
Let q: x is an integer and x2 is even.
r: x is even.
To prove that p is true by contrapositive method, we assume that r is false, and prove
that q is also false.
Let x is not even.
To prove that q is false, it has to be proved that x is not an integer or x2 is not even.
x is not even implies that x2 is also not even.
Therefore, statement q is false.
Thus, the given statement p is true.
Question 4:

By giving a counter example, show that the following statements are not true.
(i) p: If all the angles of a triangle are equal, then the triangle is an obtuse angled
triangle.
(ii) q: The equation x2 – 1 = 0 does not have a root lying between 0 and 2.

Discussion

705

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(i) The given statement is of the form “if q then r”.
q: All the angles of a triangle are equal.
r: The triangle is an obtuse-angled triangle.
The given statement p has to be proved false. For this purpose, it has to be proved
that if q, then ∼r.
To show this, angles of a triangle are required such that none of them is an obtuse
angle.

It is known that the sum of all angles of a triangle is 180°. Therefore, if all the three
angles are equal, then each of them is of measure 60°, which is not an obtuse angle.
In an equilateral triangle, the measure of all angles is equal. However, the triangle is
not an obtuse-angled triangle.
Thus, it can be concluded that the given statement p is false.
(ii) The given statement is as follows.
q: The equation x2 – 1 = 0 does not have a root lying between 0 and 2.
This statement has to be proved false. To show this, a counter example is required.
Consider x2 – 1 = 0
x2 = 1
x=±1
One root of the equation x2 – 1 = 0, i.e. the root x = 1, lies between 0 and 2.
Thus, the given statement is false.
Question 5:

Which of the following statements are true and which are false? In each case give a
valid reason for saying so.

706

(i) p: Each radius of a circle is a chord of the circle.
(ii) q: The centre of a circle bisects each chord of the circle.
(iii) r: Circle is a particular case of an ellipse.
(iv) s: If x and y are integers such that x > y, then –x < –y.
(v) t:

is a rational number.

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(i) The given statement p is false.
According to the definition of chord, it should intersect the circle at two distinct
points.
(ii) The given statement q is false.
If the chord is not the diameter of the circle, then the centre will not bisect that chord.
In other words, the centre of a circle only bisects the diameter, which is the chord of
the circle.
(iii) The equation of an ellipse is,

If we put a = b = 1, then we obtain
x2 + y2 = 1, which is an equation of a circle
Therefore, circle is a particular case of an ellipse.
Thus, statement r is true.
(iv) x > y

⇒ –x < –y (By a rule of inequality)

707

Thus, the given statement s is true.
(v) 11 is a prime number and we know that the square root of any prime number is an
irrational number. Therefore,

is an irrational number.

Thus, the given statement t is false.

EXERCISE 14.6
Question 1:

Write the negation of the following statements:
(i) p: For every positive real number x, the number x – 1 is also positive.
(ii) q: All cats scratch.
(iii) r: For every real number x, either x > 1 or x < 1.
(iv) s: There exists a number x such that 0 < x < 1.

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(i) The negation of statement p is as follows.
There exists a positive real number x, such that x – 1 is not positive.

708

(ii) The negation of statement q is as follows.
There exists a cat that does not scratch.
(iii) The negation of statement r is as follows.
There exists a real number x, such that neither x > 1 nor x < 1.
(iv) The negation of statement s is as follows.
There does not exist a number x, such that 0 < x < 1.

.
Question 2:

State the converse and contrapositive of each of the following statements:
(i) p: A positive integer is prime only if it has no divisors other than 1 and itself.
(ii) q: I go to a beach whenever it is a sunny day.
(iii) r: If it is hot outside, then you feel thirsty.

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(i) Statement p can be written as follows.
If a positive integer is prime, then it has no divisors other than 1 and itself.
The converse of the statement is as follows.
If a positive integer has no divisors other than 1 and itself, then it is prime.
The contrapositive of the statement is as follows.
If positive integer has divisors other than 1 and itself, then it is not prime.
(ii) The given statement can be written as follows.

709

If it is a sunny day, then I go to a beach.
The converse of the statement is as follows.
If I go to a beach, then it is a sunny day.
The contrapositive of the statement is as follows.
If I do not go to a beach, then it is not a sunny day.
(iii) The converse of statement r is as follows.
If you feel thirsty, then it is hot outside.
The contrapositive of statement r is as follows.
If you do not feel thirsty, then it is not hot outside.
Question 3:

Write each of the statements in the form “if p, then q”.
(i) p: It is necessary to have a password to log on to the server.
(ii) q: There is traffic jam whenever it rains.
(iii) r: You can access the website only if you pay a subscription fee.

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(i) Statement p can be written as follows.
If you log on to the server, then you have a password.
(ii) Statement q can be written as follows.
If it rains, then there is a traffic jam.
(iii) Statement r can be written as follows.
If you can access the website, then you pay a subscription fee.

710

Question 4:

Re write each of the following statements in the form “p if and only if q”.
(i) p: If you watch television, then your mind is free and if your mind is free, then you
watch television.
(ii) q: For you to get an A grade, it is necessary and sufficient that you do all the
homework regularly.
(iii) r: If a quadrilateral is equiangular, then it is a rectangle and if a quadrilateral is a
rectangle, then it is equiangular.

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(i) You watch television if and only if your mind is free.
(ii) You get an A grade if and only if you do all the homework regularly.
(iii) A quadrilateral is equiangular if and only if it is a rectangle.
Question 5:

Given below are two statements
p: 25 is a multiple of 5.
q: 25 is a multiple of 8.
Write the compound statements connecting these two statements with “And” and
“Or”. In both cases check the validity of the compound statement.

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711

The compound statement with ‘And’ is “25 is a multiple of 5 and 8”.
This is a false statement, since 25 is not a multiple of 8.
The compound statement with ‘Or’ is “25 is a multiple of 5 or 8”.
This is a true statement, since 25 is not a multiple of 8 but it is a multiple of 5.
Question 6:

Check the validity of the statements given below by the method given against it.
(i) p: The sum of an irrational number and a rational number is irrational (by
(ii) q: If n is a real number with n > 3, then n2 > 9 (by contradiction method).

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(i) The given statement is as follows. p: the sum of an irrational number and a rational
number is irrational. Let us assume that the given statement, p, is false. That is, we
assume that the sum of an irrational number and a rational number is
rational.Therefore,

, where

is irrational and b, c, d, e are integers.

is a rational number and
is an irrational number.This is a contradiction. Therefore,
our assumption is wrong.Therefore, the sum of an irrational number and a rational
number is rational.Thus, the given statement is true.
(ii) The given statement, q, is as follows. If n is a real number with n > 3, then n2 > 9
.Let us assume that n is a real number with n > 3, but n2 > 9 is not true.That is, n2 < 9
Then, n > 3 and n is a real number.Squaring both the sides, we obtain n2 > (3)2 ⇒ n2 >
9, which is a contradiction, since we have assumed that n2 < 9. Thus, the given
statement is true. That is, if n is a real number with n > 3, then n2 > 9.
Question 7:

Write the following statement in five different ways, conveying the same meaning.
p: If triangle is equiangular, then it is an obtuse angled triangle.

712

Discussion
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The given statement can be written in five different ways as follows.
(i) A triangle is equiangular implies that it is an obtuse-angled triangle.
(ii) A triangle is equiangular only if it is an obtuse-angled triangle.
(iii) For a triangle to be equiangular, it is necessary that the triangle is an obtuseangled triangle.
(iv) For a triangle to be an obtuse-angled triangle, it is sufficient that the triangle is
equiangular.
(v) If a triangle is not an obtuse-angled triangle, then the triangle is not equiangular.

713

EXERCISE 15.1
Question 1:

Find the mean deviation about the mean for the data
4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 17

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The given data is
4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 17
Mean of the data,
The deviations of the respective observations from the mean
–6, – 3, –2, –1, 0, 2, 3, 7
The absolute values of the deviations, i.e.

, are

6, 3, 2, 1, 0, 2, 3, 7
The required mean deviation about the mean is

Question 2:

Find the mean deviation about the mean for the data

714

are

38, 70, 48, 40, 42, 55, 63, 46, 54, 44

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The given data is
38, 70, 48, 40, 42, 55, 63, 46, 54, 44
Mean of the given data,

The deviations of the respective observations from the mean
–12, 20, –2, –10, –8, 5, 13, –4, 4, –6
The absolute values of the deviations, i.e.

, are

12, 20, 2, 10, 8, 5, 13, 4, 4, 6
The required mean deviation about the mean is

Question 3:

Find the mean deviation about the median for the data.
13, 17, 16, 14, 11, 13, 10, 16, 11, 18, 12, 17

Discussion
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715

are

The given data is
13, 17, 16, 14, 11, 13, 10, 16, 11, 18, 12, 17
Here, the numbers of observations are 12, which is even.
Arranging the data in ascending order, we obtain
10, 11, 11, 12, 13, 13, 14, 16, 16, 17, 17, 18

The deviations of the respective observations from the median, i.e.
–3.5, –2.5, –2.5, –1.5, –0.5, –0.5, 0.5, 2.5, 2.5, 3.5, 3.5, 4.5
The absolute values of the deviations,

, are

3.5, 2.5, 2.5, 1.5, 0.5, 0.5, 0.5, 2.5, 2.5, 3.5, 3.5, 4.5
The required mean deviation about the median is

Question 4:

Find the mean deviation about the median for the data
36, 72, 46, 42, 60, 45, 53, 46, 51, 49

716

are

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The given data is
36, 72, 46, 42, 60, 45, 53, 46, 51, 49
Here, the number of observations is 10, which is even.
Arranging the data in ascending order, we obtain
36, 42, 45, 46, 46, 49, 51, 53, 60, 72

The deviations of the respective observations from the median, i.e.
–11.5, –5.5, –2.5, –1.5, –1.5, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 12.5, 24.5
The absolute values of the deviations,

, are

11.5, 5.5, 2.5, 1.5, 1.5, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 12.5, 24.5
Thus, the required mean deviation about the median is

Question 5:

Find the mean deviation about the mean for the data.

717

are

xi 5 10 15 20 25
fi 7

4

6

3

5

xi

fi

fi x i

5

7

35

9

63

10

4

40

4

16

15

6

90

1

6

20

3

60

6

18

25

5

125

11

55

Discussion
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25 350

158

Question 6:

Find the mean deviation about the mean for the data

718

xi 10 30 50 70 90
fi

4

24 28 16

8

Discussion
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xi

fi

fi x i

10

4

40

40

160

30 24

720

20

480

50 28 1400

0

0

70 16 1120

20

320

90

40

320

8

720

80 4000

1280

Question 7:

Find the mean deviation about the median for the data.
xi 5 7 9 10 12 15
fi 8 6 2

2

2

6

719

Discussion
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The given observations are already in ascending order.
Adding a column corresponding to cumulative frequencies of the given data, we
obtain the following table.
xi

fi c.f.

5

8

8

7

6

14

9

2

16

10 2

18

12 2

20

15 6

26

Here, N = 26, which is even.
Median is the mean of 13th and 14th observations. Both of these observations lie in the
cumulative frequency 14, for which the corresponding observation is 7.

The absolute values of the deviations from median, i.e.
|xi – M|

2

0 2 3

5

8

fi

8

6 2 2

2

6

720

are

16 0 4 6 10 48
fi |xi – M|

and

EXERCISE 15.2
Question 1:

The mean and variance of eight observations are 9 and 9.25, respectively. If six of the
observations are 6, 7, 10, 12, 12 and 13, find the remaining two observations.

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Let the remaining two observations be x and y.
Therefore, the observations are 6, 7, 10, 12, 12, 13, x, y.

721

From (1), we obtain
x2 + y2 + 2xy = 144 …(3)
From (2) and (3), we obtain
2xy = 64 … (4)
Subtracting (4) from (2), we obtain
x2 + y2 – 2xy = 80 – 64 = 16
⇒ x – y = ± 4 … (5)

Therefore, from (1) and (5), we obtain
x = 8 and y = 4, when x – y = 4
x = 4 and y = 8, when x – y = –4
Thus, the remaining observations are 4 and 8.
Question 2:

722

The mean and variance of 7 observations are 8 and 16, respectively. If five of the
observations are 2, 4, 10, 12 and 14. Find the remaining two observations.

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Let the remaining two observations be x and y.
The observations are 2, 4, 10, 12, 14, x, y.

From (1), we obtain
x2 + y2 + 2xy = 196 … (3)
From (2) and (3), we obtain
2xy = 196 – 100

⇒ 2xy = 96 … (4)

Subtracting (4) from (2), we obtain

723

x2 + y2 – 2xy = 100 – 96
⇒ (x – y)2 = 4

⇒ x – y = ± 2 … (5)

Therefore, from (1) and (5), we obtain
x = 8 and y = 6 when x – y = 2
x = 6 and y = 8 when x – y = – 2
Thus, the remaining observations are 6 and 8.
Question 3:

The mean and standard deviation of six observations are 8 and 4, respectively. If each
observation is multiplied by 3, find the new mean and new standard deviation of the
resulting observations.

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Let the observations be x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, and x6.
It is given that mean is 8 and standard deviation is 4.

If each observation is multiplied by 3 and the resulting observations are yi, then

724

From (1) and (2), it can be observed that,

Substituting the values of xi and

in (2), we obtain

Therefore, variance of new observations =
Hence, the standard deviation of new observations is
Question 4:

Given that is the mean and σ2 is the variance of n observations x1, x2 … xn. Prove
that the mean and variance of the observations ax1, ax2,ax3 …axn are
and a2 σ2,
respectively (a ≠ 0).

725

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The given n observations are x1, x2 … xn.
Mean =
Variance = σ2

If each observation is multiplied by a and the new observations are yi, then

Therefore, mean of the observations, ax1, ax2 … axn, is
Substituting the values of xiand

.

in (1), we obtain

Thus, the variance of the observations, ax1, ax2 … axn, is a2 σ2.
Question 5:

The mean and standard deviation of 20 observations are found to be 10 and 2,
respectively. On rechecking, it was found that an observation 8 was incorrect.
Calculate the correct mean and standard deviation in each of the following cases:
(i) If wrong item is omitted.
(ii) If it is replaced by 12.

726

Discussion
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(i) Number of observations (n) = 20
Incorrect mean = 10
Incorrect standard deviation = 2

That is, incorrect sum of observations = 200
Correct sum of observations = 200 – 8 = 192
∴ Correct mean

727

(ii) When 8 is replaced by 12,
Incorrect sum of observations = 200

∴ Correct sum of observations = 200 – 8 + 12 = 204

728

Question 6:

The mean and standard deviation of marks obtained by 50 students of a class in three
subjects, Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry are given below:
Subject

Mathematics Physics Chemistry

Mean

42

32

40.9

Standard deviation

12

15

20

Which of the three subjects shows the highest variability in marks and which shows
the lowest?

729

Discussion
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Standard deviation of Mathematics = 12
Standard deviation of Physics = 15
Standard deviation of Chemistry = 20
The coefficient of variation (C.V.) is given by

.

The subject with greater C.V. is more variable than others.
Therefore, the highest variability in marks is in Chemistry and the lowest variability
in marks is in Mathematics.
Question 7:

The mean and standard deviation of a group of 100 observations were found to be 20
and 3, respectively. Later on it was found that three observations were incorrect,
which were recorded as 21, 21 and 18. Find the mean and standard deviation if the
incorrect observations are omitted.

Discussion
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Number of observations (n) = 100
Incorrect mean
Incorrect standard deviation

730

∴ Incorrect sum of observations = 2000

⇒ Correct sum of observations = 2000 – 21 – 21 – 18 = 2000 – 60 = 1940

Question 9:

Find the mean deviation about the mean for the data.
Income per day Number of persons
0-100

4

731

100-200
200-300

9

300-400

10

400-500

7

500-600

5

600-700

4

700-800

8

3

Discussion
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The following table is formed.
Income per
day

Number of
persons fi

Midpoint xi

fi x i

0 – 100

4

50

200

308

1232

100 – 200

8

150

1200

208

1664

200 – 300

9

250

2250

108

972

300 – 400

10

350

3500

8

80

400 – 500

7

450

3150

92

644

500 – 600

5

550

2750

192

960

600 – 700

4

650

2600

292

1168

732

700 – 800

3

750

50

17900

Here,

Question 10:

Find the mean deviation about the mean for the data
Height in cms Number of boys
95-105

13

115-125

26

125-135

30

135-145

12

145-155

9

105-115

2250

10

Discussion
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The following table is formed.

733

392

1176
7896

Height in
cms

Number of
boys fi

Midpoint xi

fi x i

95-105

9

100

900

25.3

227.7

105-115

13

110

1430

15.3

198.9

115-125

26

120

3120

5.3

137.8

125-135

30

130

3900

4.7

141

135-145

12

140

1680

14.7

176.4

145-155

10

150

1500

24.7

247

Here,

Question 11:

Find the mean deviation about median for the following data:
Marks Number of girls
0-10

6

10-20

8

20-30

14

734

30-40
40-50

4

50-60

16

2

Discussion
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The following table is formed.
Marks

Number of
boys fi

Cumulative
frequency (c.f.)

Midpoint xi

|xi –
Med.|

fi |xi –
Med.|

0-10

6

6

5

22.85

137.1

10-20

8

14

15

12.85

102.8

20-30

14

28

25

2.85

39.9

30-40

16

44

35

7.15

114.4

40-50

4

48

45

17.15

68.6

50-60

2

50

55

27.15

54.3

50

The class interval containing the

517.1

or 25th item is 20 – 30.

Therefore, 20 – 30 is the median class.
It is known that,

735

Here, l = 20, C = 14, f = 14, h = 10, and N = 50
∴ Median =

Thus, mean deviation about the median is given by,

Question 12:

Calculate the mean deviation about median age for the age distribution of 100
persons given below:
Age
16-20

5

21-25

6

26-30

12

31-35

14

36-40

26

41-45

12

46-50

16

51-55

Number

9

Discussion

736

Share

The given data is not continuous. Therefore, it has to be converted into continuous
frequency distribution by subtracting 0.5 from the lower limit and adding 0.5 to the
upper limit of each class interval.
The table is formed as follows.
Age

Number fi

Cumulative
frequency (c.f.)

Midpoint xi

|xi –
Med.|

fi |xi –
Med.|

15.520.5

5

5

18

20

100

20.525.5

6

11

23

15

90

25.530.5

12

23

28

10

120

30.535.5

14

37

33

5

70

35.540.5

26

63

38

0

0

40.545.5

12

75

43

5

60

45.550.5

16

91

48

10

160

50.555.5

9

100

53

15

135

100

735

737

The class interval containing the

or 50th item is 35.5 – 40.5.

Therefore, 35.5 – 40.5 is the median class.
It is known that,

Here, l = 35.5, C = 37, f = 26, h = 5, and N = 100

Thus, mean deviation about the median is given by,

EXERCISE 15.3
Question 1:

Find the mean and variance for the data 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 4, 8, 12

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738

6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 4, 8, 12

Mean,
The following table is obtained.
xi
6

–3

9

7

–2

4

10

–1

1

12

3

9

13

4

16

4

–5

25

8

–1

1

12

3

9
74

Question 2:

Find the mean and variance for the first n natural numbers

Discussion

739

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The mean of first n natural numbers is calculated as follows.

Question 3:

Find the mean and variance for the first 10 multiples of 3

Discussion
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The first 10 multiples of 3 are
3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30

740

Here, number of observations, n = 10

The following table is obtained.
xi
3

–13.5

182.25

6

–10.5

110.25

9

–7.5

56.25

12

–4.5

20.25

15

–1.5

2.25

18

1.5

2.25

21

4.5

20.25

24

7.5

56.25

27

10.5

110.25

30

13.5

182.25
742.5

Question 4:

741

Find the mean and variance for the data
xi 6 10 14 18 24 28 30
fi 2 4

7

12 8

4

Share

Discussion

3

The data is obtained in tabular form as follows.
xi

fi

f ix i

6

2

12

–13

169

338

10

4

40

–9

81

324

14

7

98

–5

25

175

18 12 216

–1

1

12

24

8

192

5

25

200

28

4

112

9

81

324

30

3

90

11

121

363

40 760

1736

Here, N = 40,

742

Question 5:

Find the mean and variance for the data
xi 92 93 97 98 102 104 109
fi 3

3

2

6

3

3

Share

2

Discussion

The data is obtained in tabular form as follows.
xi

fi

f ix i

92

3

276

–8

64

192

93

2

186

–7

49

98

97

3

291

–3

9

27

98

2

196

–2

4

8

102

6

612

2

4

24

104

3

312

4

16

48

109

3

327

9

81

243

22 2200

640

Here, N = 22,

743

Question 6:

Find the mean and standard deviation
using short-cut method.
xi 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68
fi

2

1

12 29 25 12 10 4

Discussion
Share

5

The data is obtained in tabular form as follows.

xi

fi

yi2

fiyi

fiyi2

60

2

–4

16

–8

32

61

1

–3

9

–3

9

62

12

–2

4

–24

48

63

29

–1

1

–29

29

64

25

0

0

0

0

65

12

1

1

12

12

66

10

2

4

20

40

67

4

3

9

12

36

68

5

4

16

20

80

100

220

0

286

744

Mean,

Question 7:

Find the mean and variance for the following frequency distribution.
Classes

0-30 30-60 60-90 90-120 120-150 150-180 180-210

Frequencies

2

3

5

10

3

5

2

on
Share

Class

Frequency fi Mid-point xi

Discussi

yi2 fiyi fiyi2

0-30

2

15

–3

9

–6

18

30-60

3

45

–2

4

–6

12

60-90

5

75

–1

1

–5

5

90-120

10

105

0

0

0

0

120-150

3

135

1

1

3

3

150-180

5

165

2

4

10

20

745

180-210

2

195

3

9

18

2

30

6

76

Mean,

Question 8:

Find the mean and variance for the following frequency distribution.
Classes

0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50

Frequencies 5

8

15

16

6

Share

Class

Frequency
fi

Mid-point xi

Discussion

yi2

fiyi

fiyi2

0-10

5

5

–2

4

–10 20

10-20

8

15

–1

1

–8

8

20-30

15

25

0

0

0

0

30-40

16

35

1

1

16

16

746

40-50

6

45

2

12

24

10

50

4

68

Mean,

Question 9:

Find the mean, variance and standard deviation using short-cut method
Height

No. of children

in cms
70-75

3

75-80

4

80-85

7

85-90

7

90-95

15

95-100

9

747

100-105

6

105-110

6

110-115

3

Discussion

Share

Class
Interv
al

Frequenc
y fi

Midpoint
xi

70-75

3

72.5

–4

75-80

4

77.5

80-85

7

85-90

fi
yi

fiyi

1
6

1
2

48

–3

9

1
2

36

82.5

–2

4

1
4

28

7

87.5

–1

1

7

7

90-95

15

92.5

0

0

0

0

95100

9

97.5

1

1

9

9

100105

6

102.5

2

4

1
2

24

105110

6

107.5

3

9

1
8

54

110-

3

112.5

4

1

1

48

748

yi2

2

115

6
60

2
6

25
4

fi
yi

fiyi

Mean,

Question 10:

The diameters of circles (in mm) drawn in a design are given below:
Diameters No. of children
33-36

15

37-40

17

41-44

21

45-48

22

49-52

25

Discussion

Share

Class
Frequenc
Interv
y fi
al

Midpoint
xi

32.536.5

15

34.5

–2

4

3
0

60

36.5-

17

38.5

–1

1

17

749

fi
2

2

40.5

1
7

40.544.5

21

42.5

0

0

0

0

44.548.5

22

46.5

1

1

2
2

22

48.552.5

25

50.5

2

4

5
0

10
0

2
5

19
9

100

Here, N = 100, h = 4
Let the assumed mean, A, be 42.5.

Mean,

750

EXERCISE 15.4
Question 1:

From the data given below state which group is more variable, A or B?
Marks

10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 70-80

Group A

17

32

33

40

10

9

Group B

9
10

20

30

25

43

15

7

Discussion
Share

Firstly, the standard deviation of group A is calculated as follows.

Marks Group A fi Mid-point xi

yi2

fiyi

fiyi2

10-20

9

15

–3

9

–27

81

20-30

17

25

–2

4

–34

68

30-40

32

35

–1

1

–32

32

40-50

33

45

0

0

0

0

751

50-60

40

55

1

1

40

40

60-70

10

65

2

4

20

40

70-80

9

75

3

9

27

81

–6

342

150
Here, h = 10, N = 150, A = 45

The standard deviation of group B is calculated as follows.
yi2

Marks Group B Mid-point

fiyi

fiyi2

fi

xi

10-20

10

15

–3

9

–30

90

20-30

20

25

–2

4

–40

80

30-40

30

35

–1

1

–30

30

40-50

25

45

0

0

0

0

752

50-60

43

55

1

1

43

43

60-70

15

65

2

4

30

60

70-80

7

75

3

9

21

63

–6

366

150

Since the mean of both the groups is same, the group with greater standard deviation
will be more variable.
Thus, group B has more variability in the marks.
Question 2:

From the prices of shares X and Y below, find out which is more stable in value:
X

35

54

52

53

56

58

52

50

51

49

Y 108 107 105 105 106 107 104 103 104 101

Discussion
Share

The prices of the shares X are

753

35, 54, 52, 53, 56, 58, 52, 50, 51, 49
Here, the number of observations, N = 10

The following table is obtained corresponding to shares X.
xi
35

–16

256

54

3

9

52

1

1

53

2

4

56

5

25

58

7

49

52

1

1

50

–1

1

51

0

0

49

–2

4
350

754

The prices of share Y are
108, 107, 105, 105, 106, 107, 104, 103, 104, 101

The following table is obtained corresponding to shares Y.
yi
108

3

9

107

2

4

105

0

0

105

0

0

106

1

1

107

2

4

104

–1

1

103

–2

4

104

–1

1

101

–4

16

755

40

C.V. of prices of shares X is greater than the C.V. of prices of shares Y.
Thus, the prices of shares Y are more stable than the prices of shares X.
Question 3:

An analysis of monthly wages paid to workers in two firms A and B, belonging to the
same industry, gives the following results:
Firm A

Firm B

586

648

No. of wage earners
Mean of monthly wages

Rs 5253 Rs 5253

Variance of the distribution of wages

100

121

(i) Which firm A or B pays larger amount as monthly wages?
(ii) Which firm, A or B, shows greater variability in individual wages?

Discussion
Share

(i) Monthly wages of firm A = Rs 5253
Number of wage earners in firm A = 586
∴Total amount paid = Rs 5253 × 586

756

Monthly wages of firm B = Rs 5253
Number of wage earners in firm B = 648
∴Total amount paid = Rs 5253 × 648

Thus, firm B pays the larger amount as monthly wages as the number of wage earners
in firm B are more than the number of wage earners in firm A.
(ii) Variance of the distribution of wages in firm A

= 100

∴ Standard deviation of the distribution of wages in firm
A ((σ1) =

Variance of the distribution of wages in firm

= 121

∴ Standard deviation of the distribution of wages in firm

The mean of monthly wages of both the firms is same i.e., 5253. Therefore, the firm
with greater standard deviation will have more variability.
Thus, firm B has greater variability in the individual wages.
Question 4:

The following is the record of goals scored by team A in a football session:
No. of goals scored 0 1 2 3 4
No. of matches

1 9 7 5 3

For the team B, mean number of goals scored per match was 2 with a standard
deviation 1.25 goals. Find which team may be considered more consistent?

Discussion
Share

757

The mean and the standard deviation of goals scored by team A are calculated as
follows.
No. of goals scored No. of matches fixi xi2

f ix i2

0

1

0

0

0

1

9

9

1

9

2

7

14

4

28

3

5

15

9

45

4

3

12 16

48

25

50

130

Thus, the mean of both the teams is same.

The standard deviation of team B is 1.25 goals.
The average number of goals scored by both the teams is same i.e., 2. Therefore, the
team with lower standard deviation will be more consistent.

758

Thus, team A is more consistent than team B.
Question 5:

The sum and sum of squares corresponding to length x (in cm) and weight y
(in gm) of 50 plant products are given below:

Which is more varying, the length or weight?

Discussion
Share

Here, N = 50
∴ Mean,

759

Mean,

Thus, C.V. of weights is greater than the C.V. of lengths. Therefore, weights vary
more than the lengths.

760

EXERCISE 16.1
Question 1:

Describe the sample space for the indicated experiment: A coin is tossed three times.

Discussion
Share

A coin has two faces: head (H) and tail (T).
When a coin is tossed three times, the total number of possible outcomes is 2 3 = 8
Thus, when a coin is tossed three times, the sample space is given by:
S = {HHH, HHT, HTH, HTT, THH, THT, TTH, TTT}
Question 2:

Describe the sample space for the indicated experiment: A die is thrown two times.

Discussion
Share

When a die is thrown, the possible outcomes are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6.
When a die is thrown two times, the sample space is given by S = {(x, y): x, y = 1, 2, 3, 4,
5, 6}
The number of elements in this sample space is 6 × 6 = 36, while the sample space is
given by:
S = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (1, 5), (1, 6), (2, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (2, 4), (2, 5), (2, 6), (3,
1), (3, 2), (3, 3), (3, 4), (3, 5), (3, 6), (4, 1), (4, 2), (4, 3), (4, 4), (4, 5), (4, 6), (5, 1), (5, 2),

761

(5, 3), (5, 4), (5, 5), (5, 6), (6, 1), (6, 2), (6, 3), (6, 4), (6, 5), (6, 6)}
Question 3:

Describe the sample space for the indicated experiment: A coin is tossed four times.

Discussion
Share

When a coin is tossed once, there are two possible outcomes: head (H) and tail (T).
When a coin is tossed four times, the total number of possible outcomes is 2 4 = 16
Thus, when a coin is tossed four times, the sample space is given by:
S = {HHHH, HHHT, HHTH, HHTT, HTHH, HTHT, HTTH, HTTT, THHH, THHT,
THTH, THTT, TTHH, TTHT, TTTH, TTTT}
Question 4:

Describe the sample space for the indicated experiment: A coin is tossed and a die is
thrown.

Discussion
Share

A coin has two faces: head (H) and tail (T).
A die has six faces that are numbered from 1 to 6, with one number on each face.
Thus, when a coin is tossed and a die is thrown, the sample space is given by:
S = {H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6}
Question 5:

Describe the sample space for the indicated experiment: A coin is tossed and then a die is
rolled only in case a head is shown on the coin.

Discussion

762

Share

A coin has two faces: head (H) and tail (T).
A die has six faces that are numbered from 1 to 6, with one number on each face.
Thus, when a coin is tossed and then a die is rolled only in case a head is shown on the
coin, the sample space is given by:
S = {H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6, T}
Question 6:

2 boys and 2 girls are in Room X, and 1 boy and 3 girls in Room Y. Specify the sample
space for the experiment in which a room is selected and then a person.

Discussion
Share

Let us denote 2 boys and 2 girls in room X as B1, B2 and G1, G2 respectively. Let us
denote 1 boy and 3 girls in room Y as B3, and G3, G4, G5 respectively.
Accordingly, the required sample space is given by S = {XB1, XB2, XG1, XG2, YB3, YG3,
YG4, YG5}
Question 7:

One die of red colour, one of white colour and one of blue colour are placed in a bag.
One die is selected at random and rolled, its colour and the number on its uppermost face
is noted. Describe the sample space.

Discussion
Share

A die has six faces that are numbered from 1 to 6, with one number on each face.
Let us denote the red, white, and blue dices as R, W, and B respectively.
Accordingly, when a die is selected and then rolled, the sample space is given by
S = {R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, W1, W2, W3, W4, W5, W6, B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6}

763

Question 8:

An experiment consists of recording boy-girl composition of families with 2 children.
(i) What is the sample space if we are interested in knowing whether it is a boy or girl in
the order of their births?
(ii) What is the sample space if we are interested in the number of girls in the family?

Discussion
Share

(i) When the order of the birth of a girl or a boy is considered, the sample space is given
by S = {GG, GB, BG, BB}
(ii) Since the maximum number of children in each family is 2, a family can either have
2 girls or 1 girl or no girl. Hence, the required sample space is S = {0, 1, 2}
Question 9:

A box contains 1 red and 3 identical white balls. Two balls are drawn at random in
succession without replacement. Write the sample space for this experiment.

Discussion
Share

It is given that the box contains 1 red ball and 3 identical white balls. Let us denote the
red ball with R and a white ball with W.
When two balls are drawn at random in succession without replacement, the sample
space is given by
S = {RW, WR, WW}
Question 10:

An experiment consists of tossing a coin and then throwing it second time if a head
occurs. If a tail occurs on the first toss, then a die is rolled once. Find the sample space.

Discussion

764

Share

A coin has two faces: head (H) and tail (T).
A die has six faces that are numbered from 1 to 6, with one number on each face.
Thus, in the given experiment, the sample space is given by
S = {HH, HT, T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6}
Question 11:

Suppose 3 bulbs are selected at random from a lot. Each bulb is tested and classified as
defective (D) or non-defective (N). Write the sample space of this experiment?

Discussion
Share

3 bulbs are to be selected at random from the lot. Each bulb in the lot is tested and
classified as defective (D) or non-defective (N).
The sample space of this experiment is given by
S = {DDD, DDN, DND, DNN, NDD, NDN, NND, NNN}
Question 12:

A coin is tossed. If the out come is a head, a die is thrown. If the die shows up an even
number, the die is thrown again. What is the sample space for the experiment?

Discussion
Share

When a coin is tossed, the possible outcomes are head (H) and tail (T).
When a die is thrown, the possible outcomes are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6.
Thus, the sample space of this experiment is given by:
S = {T, H1, H3, H5, H21, H22, H23, H24, H25, H26, H41, H42, H43, H44, H45, H46,
H61, H62, H63, H64, H65, H66}

765

Question 13:

The numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4 are written separately on four slips of paper. The slips are put
in a box and mixed thoroughly. A person draws two slips from the box, one after the
other, without replacement. Describe the sample space for the experiment.

Discussion
Share

If 1 appears on the first drawn slip, then the possibilities that the number appears on the
second drawn slip are 2, 3, or 4. Similarly, if 2 appears on the first drawn slip, then the
possibilities that the number appears on the second drawn slip are 1, 3, or 4. The same
holds true for the remaining numbers too.
Thus, the sample space of this experiment is given by S = {(1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 1), (2,
3), (2, 4), (3, 1), (3, 2), (3, 4), (4, 1), (4, 2), (4, 3)}
Question 14:

An experiment consists of rolling a die and then tossing a coin once if the number on the
die is even. If the number on the die is odd, the coin is tossed twice. Write the sample
space for this experiment.

Discussion
Share

A die has six faces that are numbered from 1 to 6, with one number on each face. Among
these numbers, 2, 4, and 6 are even numbers, while 1, 3, and 5 are odd numbers.
A coin has two faces: head (H) and tail (T).
Hence, the sample space of this experiment is given by:
S = {2H, 2T, 4H, 4T, 6H, 6T, 1HH, 1HT, 1TH, 1TT, 3HH, 3HT, 3TH, 3TT, 5HH, 5HT,
5TH, 5TT}

Question 15:

766

A coin is tossed. If it shows a tail, we draw a ball from a box which contains 2 red and 3
black balls. If it shows head, we throw a die. Find the sample space for this experiment.

Discussion
Share

The box contains 2 red balls and 3 black balls. Let us denote the 2 red balls as R 1, R2 and
the 3 black balls as B1, B2, and B3.
The sample space of this experiment is given by
S = {TR1, TR2, TB1, TB2, TB3, H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6}
Question 16:

A die is thrown repeatedly until a six comes up. What is the sample space for this
experiment?

Discussion
Share

In this experiment, six may come up on the first throw, the second throw, the third throw
and so on till six is obtained.
Hence, the sample space of this experiment is given by
S = {6, (1, 6), (2, 6), (3, 6), (4, 6), (5, 6), (1, 1, 6), (1, 2, 6), … , (1, 5, 6), (2, 1, 6), (2, 2,
6), … , (2, 5, 6), … ,(5, 1, 6), (5, 2, 6), …}

767

EXERCISE 16.2
Question 1:

A die is rolled. Let E be the event “die shows 4” and F be the event “die shows even
number”. Are E and F mutually exclusive?

Discussion
Share

When a die is rolled, the sample space is given by
S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
Accordingly, E = {4} and F = {2, 4, 6}
It is observed that E ∩ F = {4} ≠ Φ
Therefore, E and F are not mutually exclusive events.
Question 2:

A die is thrown. Describe the following events:
(i) A: a number less than 7 (ii) B: a number greater than 7 (iii) C: a multiple of 3
(iv) D: a number less than 4 (v) E: an even number greater than 4 (vi) F: a number not
less than 3
Also find

768

Discussion
Share

When a die is thrown, the sample space is given by S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}.
Accordingly:
(i) A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
(ii) B = Φ
(iii) C = {3, 6}
(iv) D = {1, 2, 3}
(v) E = {6}
(vi) F = {3, 4, 5, 6}
A ∪ B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}, A ∩ B = Φ
B ∪ C = {3, 6}, E ∩ F = {6}

D ∩ E =Φ, A – C = {1, 2, 4, 5}
D – E = {1, 2, 3},
Question 3:

An experiment involves rolling a pair of dice and recording the numbers that come up.
Describe the following events:
A: the sum is greater than 8, B: 2 occurs on either die
C: The sum is at least 7 and a multiple of 3.
Which pairs of these events are mutually exclusive?

Discussion
Share

769

When a pair of dice is rolled, the sample space is given by

It is observed that
A ∩ B =Φ
B ∩ C =Φ

Hence, events A and B and events B and C are mutually exclusive.
Question 4:

Three coins are tossed once. Let A denote the event ‘three heads show”, B denote the
event “two heads and one tail show”. C denote the event “three tails show” and D denote
the event ‘a head shows on the first coin”. Which events are
(i) mutually exclusive? (ii) simple? (iii) compound?

Discussion
Share

When three coins are tossed, the sample space is given by
S = {HHH, HHT, HTH, HTT, THH, THT, TTH, TTT}

770

Accordingly,
A = {HHH}
B = {HHT, HTH, THH}
C = {TTT}
D = {HHH, HHT, HTH, HTT}
We now observe that
A ∩ B =Φ, A ∩ C =Φ, A ∩ D = {HHH} ≠ Φ
B ∩ C =Φ, B ∩ D = {HHT, {HTH} ≠ Φ
C∩ D =Φ
(i) Event A and B; event A and C; event B and C; and event C and D are all mutually
exclusive.
(ii) If an event has only one sample point of a sample space, it is called a simple event.
Thus, A and C are simple events.
(iii) If an event has more than one sample point of a sample space, it is called a
compound event. Thus, B and D are compound events.
Question 5:

Three coins are tossed. Describe
(i) Two events which are mutually exclusive.
(ii) Three events which are mutually exclusive and exhaustive.
(iii) Two events, which are not mutually exclusive.
(iv) Two events which are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive.
(v) Three events which are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive.

Discussion
Share

771

When three coins are tossed, the sample space is given by
S = {HHH, HHT, HTH, HTT, THH, THT, TTH, TTT}
(i) Two events that are mutually exclusive can be
A: getting no heads and B: getting no tails
This is because sets A = {TTT} and B = {HHH} are disjoint.
(ii) Three events that are mutually exclusive and exhaustive can be
A: getting no heads
B: getting exactly one head
C: getting at least two heads
i.e.,
A = {TTT}
B = {HTT, THT, TTH}
C = {HHH, HHT, HTH, THH}

This is because A ∩ B = B ∩ C = C ∩ A = Φand A ∪ B ∪ C = S
(iii) Two events that are not mutually exclusive can be
A: getting three heads
B: getting at least 2 heads
i.e.,
A = {HHH}
B = {HHH, HHT, HTH, THH}
This is because A ∩ B = {HHH} ≠ Φ
(iv) Two events which are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive can be

772

A: getting exactly one head
B: getting exactly one tail
That is
A = {HTT, THT, TTH}
B = {HHT, HTH, THH}

It is because, A ∩ B =Φ, but A ∪ B ≠ S

(v) Three events that are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive can be
A: getting exactly three heads
B: getting one head and two tails
C: getting one tail and two heads
i.e.,
A = {HHH}
B = {HTT, THT, TTH}
C = {HHT, HTH, THH}

This is because A ∩ B = B ∩ C = C ∩ A = Φ, but A ∪ B ∪ C ≠ S
Question 6:

Two dice are thrown. The events A, B and C are as follows:
A: getting an even number on the first die.
B: getting an odd number on the first die.
C: getting the sum of the numbers on the dice ≤ 5
Describe the events
(i)

(ii) not B (iii) A or B

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(iv) A and B (v) A but not C (vi) B or C
(vii) B and C (viii)

Discussion
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When two dice are thrown, the sample space is given by

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(vii) B and C = B ∩ C

Question 7:

Two dice are thrown. The events A, B and C are as follows:
A: getting an even number on the first die.
B: getting an odd number on the first die.
C: getting the sum of the numbers on the dice ≤ 5

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State true or false: (give reason for your answer)
(i) A and B are mutually exclusive
(ii) A and B are mutually exclusive and exhaustive
(iii)
(iv) A and C are mutually exclusive
(v) A and
(vi)

are mutually exclusive
are mutually exclusive and exhaustive.

Discussion
Share

(i) It is observed that A ∩ B = Φ

∴ A and B are mutually exclusive.
Thus, the given statement is true.

(ii) It is observed that A ∩ B = Φ and A ∪ B = S

∴ A and B are mutually exclusive and exhaustive.
Thus, the given statement is true.
(iii) It is observed that

Thus, the given statement is true.

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(iv) It is observed that A ∩ C = {(2, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (4, 1)} ≠ Φ
∴A and C are not mutually exclusive.
Thus, the given statement is false.
(v)
∴A and

are not mutually exclusive.

Thus, the given statement is false.
(vi) It is observed that

;

However,
Therefore, events

are not mutually exclusive and exhaustive.

Thus, the given statement is false.

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EXERCISE 16.3
Question 1:

Which of the following can not be valid assignment of probabilities for outcomes of
sample space S =
Assignment

ω1

(a)

ω2

ω3

ω4

ω5

ω6

ω7

0.1

0.01 0.05 0.03 0.01 0.2

0.6

(c)

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

(d)

–0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

–0.2 0.1

0.3

(b)

(e)

Discussion
Share

(a)
ω1

ω2

ω3

ω4

ω5

ω6

ω7

0.1 0.01 0.05 0.03 0.01 0.2 0.6
Here, each of the numbers p(ωi) is positive and less than 1.
Sum of probabilities

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Thus, the assignment is valid.
(b)
ω1

ω2

ω3

ω4

ω5

ω6

ω7

Here, each of the numbers p(ωi) is positive and less than 1.
Sum of probabilities

Thus, the assignment is valid.
(c)
ω1

ω2

ω3

ω4

ω5

ω6

ω7

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
Here, each of the numbers p(ωi) is positive and less than 1.
Sum of probabilities

Thus, the assignment is not valid.
(d)
ω1

ω2

ω3

ω4

ω5

ω6

ω7

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–0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 –0.2 0.1 0.3
Here, p(ω1) and p(ω5) are negative.
Hence, the assignment is not valid.
(e)
ω1

ω2

ω3

ω4

ω5

ω6

ω7

Here,
Hence, the assignment is not valid.

Question 2:

A coin is tossed twice, what is the probability that at least one tail occurs?

Discussion
Share

When a coin is tossed twice, the sample space is given by
S = {HH, HT, TH, TT}
Let A be the event of the occurrence of at least one tail.
Accordingly, A = {HT, TH, TT}

780

Question 3:

A die is thrown, find the probability of following events:
(i) A prime number will appear,
(ii) A number greater than or equal to 3 will appear,
(iii) A number less than or equal to one will appear,
(iv) A number more than 6 will appear,
(v) A number less than 6 will appear.

Discussion
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The sample space of the given experiment is given by
S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
(i) Let A be the event of the occurrence of a prime number.
Accordingly, A = {2, 3, 5}

(ii) Let B be the event of the occurrence of a number greater than or equal to 3.
Accordingly, B = {3, 4, 5, 6}

(iii) Let C be the event of the occurrence of a number less than or equal to one.

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Accordingly, C = {1}

(iv) Let D be the event of the occurrence of a number greater than 6.
Accordingly, D = Φ

(v) Let E be the event of the occurrence of a number less than 6.
Accordingly, E = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

Question 4:

A card is selected from a pack of 52 cards.
(a) How many points are there in the sample space?
(b) Calculate the probability that the card is an ace of spades.
(c) Calculate the probability that the card is (i) an ace (ii) black card.

Discussion
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(a) When a card is selected from a pack of 52 cards, the number of possible outcomes is
52 i.e., the sample space contains 52 elements.
Therefore, there are 52 points in the sample space.
(b) Let A be the event in which the card drawn is an ace of spades.
Accordingly, n(A) = 1

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(c) (i)Let E be the event in which the card drawn is an ace.
Since there are 4 aces in a pack of 52 cards, n(E) = 4

(ii)Let F be the event in which the card drawn is black.
Since there are 26 black cards in a pack of 52 cards, n(F) = 26

Question 5:

A fair coin with 1 marked on one face and 6 on the other and a fair die are both tossed.
Find the probability that the sum of numbers that turn up is (i) 3 (ii) 12

Discussion
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Since the fair coin has 1 marked on one face and 6 on the other, and the die has six faces
that are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, the sample space is given by
S = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (1, 3), (1, 4), (1, 5), (1, 6), (6, 1), (6, 2), (6, 3), (6, 4), (6, 5), (6, 6)}
Accordingly, n(S) = 12
(i) Let A be the event in which the sum of numbers that turn up is 3.
Accordingly, A = {(1, 2)}

(ii) Let B be the event in which the sum of numbers that turn up is 12.
Accordingly, B = {(6, 6)}

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Question 6:

There are four men and six women on the city council. If one council member is selected
for a committee at random, how likely is it that it is a woman?

Discussion
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There are four men and six women on the city council.
As one council member is to be selected for a committee at random, the sample space
contains 10 (4 + 6) elements.
Let A be the event in which the selected council member is a woman.
Accordingly, n(A) = 6

Question 7:

A fair coin is tossed four times, and a person win Re 1 for each head and lose Rs 1.50 for
each tail that turns up. From the sample space calculate how many different amounts of
money you can have after four tosses and the probability of having each of these
amounts.

Discussion
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Since the coin is tossed four times, there can be a maximum of 4 heads or tails.
When 4 heads turns up,

is the gain.

When 3 heads and 1 tail turn up, Re 1 + Re 1 + Re 1 – Rs 1.50 = Rs 3 – Rs 1.50 = Rs
1.50 is the gain.

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When 2 heads and 2 tails turns up, Re 1 + Re 1 – Rs 1.50 – Rs 1.50 = – Re 1, i.e., Re 1 is
the loss.
When 1 head and 3 tails turn up, Re 1 – Rs 1.50 – Rs 1.50 – Rs 1.50 = – Rs 3.50, i.e., Rs
3.50 is the loss.
When 4 tails turn up, – Rs 1.50 – Rs 1.50 – Rs 1.50 – Rs 1.50 = – Rs 6.00, i.e., Rs 6.00 is
the loss.
There are 24 = 16 elements in the sample space S, which is given by:
S = {HHHH, HHHT, HHTH, HTHH, THHH, HHTT, HTTH, TTHH, HTHT, THTH,
THHT, HTTT, THTT, TTHT, TTTH, TTTT}
∴n(S) = 16

The person wins Rs 4.00 when 4 heads turn up, i.e., when the event {HHHH} occurs.
∴Probability (of winning Rs 4.00) =

The person wins Rs 1.50 when 3 heads and one tail turn up, i.e., when the event {HHHT,
HHTH, HTHH, THHH} occurs.
∴Probability (of winning Rs 1.50) =

The person loses Re 1.00 when 2 heads and 2 tails turn up, i.e., when the event {HHTT,
HTTH, TTHH, HTHT, THTH, THHT} occurs.
∴Probability (of losing Re 1.00)

The person loses Rs 3.50 when 1 head and 3 tails turn up, i.e., when the event {HTTT,
THTT, TTHT, TTTH} occurs.
Probability (of losing Rs 3.50) =
The person loses Rs 6.00 when 4 tails turn up, i.e., when the event {TTTT} occurs.
Probability (of losing Rs 6.00) =

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Question 8:

Three coins are tossed once. Find the probability of getting
(i) 3 heads (ii) 2 heads (iii) at least 2 heads
(iv) at most 2 heads (v) no head (vi) 3 tails
(vii) exactly two tails (viii) no tail (ix) at most two tails.

Discussion
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When three coins are tossed once, the sample space is given by
S = {HHH, HHT, HTH, THH, HTT, THT, TTH, TTT}
∴Accordingly, n(S) = 8

It is known that the probability of an event A is given by

(i) Let B be the event of the occurrence of 3 heads. Accordingly, B = {HHH}
∴P(B) =

(ii) Let C be the event of the occurrence of 2 heads. Accordingly, C = {HHT, HTH,
THH}
∴P(C) =

(iii) Let D be the event of the occurrence of at least 2 heads.
Accordingly, D = {HHH, HHT, HTH, THH}
∴P(D) =

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(iv) Let E be the event of the occurrence of at most 2 heads.
Accordingly, E = {HHT, HTH, THH, HTT, THT, TTH, TTT}
∴P(E) =

(v) Let F be the event of the occurrence of no head.
Accordingly, F = {TTT}
∴P(F) =

(vi) Let G be the event of the occurrence of 3 tails.
Accordingly, G = {TTT}
∴P(G) =

(vii) Let H be the event of the occurrence of exactly 2 tails.
Accordingly, H = {HTT, THT, TTH}
∴P(H) =

(viii) Let I be the event of the occurrence of no tail.
Accordingly, I = {HHH}
∴P(I) =

(ix) Let J be the event of the occurrence of at most 2 tails.
Accordingly, I = {HHH, HHT, HTH, THH, HTT, THT, TTH}
∴P(J) =

787

Question 9:

If

is the probability of an event, what is the probability of the event ‘not A’.

Discussion
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It is given that P(A) =

.

Accordingly, P(not A) = 1 – P(A)
Question 10:

A letter is chosen at random from the word ‘ASSASSINATION’. Find the probability
that letter is (i) a vowel (ii) an consonant

Discussion
Share

There are 13 letters in the word ASSASSINATION.
∴Hence, n(S) = 13

(i) There are 6 vowels in the given word.
∴Probability (vowel) =

(ii) There are 7 consonants in the given word.
∴Probability (consonant) =
Question 11:

In a lottery, person choses six different natural numbers at random from 1 to 20, and if
these six numbers match with the six numbers already fixed by the lottery committee, he

788

wins the prize. What is the probability of winning the prize in the game? [Hint: order of
the numbers is not important.]

Discussion
Share

Total number of ways in which one can choose six different numbers from 1 to
20
Hence, there are 38760 combinations of 6 numbers.
Out of these combinations, one combination is already fixed by the lottery committee.
∴ Required probability of winning the prize in the game =
Question 12:

Check whether the following probabilities P(A) and P(B) are consistently defined
(i) P(A) = 0.5, P(B) = 0.7, P(A ∩ B) = 0.6

(ii) P(A) = 0.5, P(B) = 0.4, P(A ∪ B) = 0.8
Discussion
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(i) P(A) = 0.5, P(B) = 0.7, P(A ∩ B) = 0.6

It is known that if E and F are two events such that E ⊂ F, then P(E) ≤ P(F).
However, here, P(A ∩ B) > P(A).

Hence, P(A) and P(B) are not consistently defined.
(ii)P(A) = 0.5, P(B) = 0.4, P(A ∪ B) = 0.8

It is known that if E and F are two events such that E ⊂ F, then P(E) ≤ P(F).
Here, it is seen that P(A ∪ B) > P(A) and P(A ∪ B) > P(B).

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Hence, P(A) and P(B) are consistently defined.
Question 13:

Fill in the blanks in following table:

(i)

P(A) P(B) P(A ∩ B) P(A ∪ B)

(ii)

0.25

0.6

(iii)

0.35
0.5

0.35

0.7

Discussion
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(i) Here,
We know that
(ii) Here, P(A) = 0.35, P(A ∩ B) = 0.25, P(A ∪ B) = 0.6
We know that P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A ∩ B)
∴0.6 = 0.35 + P(B) – 0.25

⇒ P(B) = 0.6 – 0.35 + 0.25
⇒ P(B) = 0.5

(iii)Here, P(A) = 0.5, P(B) = 0.35, P(A ∪ B) = 0.7

We know that P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A ∩ B)

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∴0.7 = 0.5 + 0.35 – P(A ∩ B)

⇒ P(A ∩ B) = 0.5 + 0.35 – 0.7
⇒ P(A ∩ B) = 0.15
Question 14:

Given P(A) =

and P(B) =

. Find P(A or B), if A and B are mutually exclusive events.

Discussion
Share

Here, P(A) =

, P(B) =

For mutually exclusive events A and B,
P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B)
∴ P(A or B)

Question 15:

If E and F are events such that P(E) =
F), (ii) P(not E and not F).

, P(F) =

and P(E and F) =

Discussion
Share

Here, P(E) =

, P(F) =

, and P(E and F) =

(i) We know that P(E or F) = P(E) + P(F) – P(E and F)
∴P(E or F) =

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, find:(i) P(E or

(ii) From (i), P(E or F) = P (E ∪ F) =

Question 16:

Events E and F are such that P(not E or not F) = 0.25, State whether E and F are
mutually exclusive.

Discussion
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It is given that P (not E or not F) = 0.25

Thus, E and F are not mutually exclusive.
Question 17:

A and B are events such that P(A) = 0.42, P(B) = 0.48 and P(A and B) = 0.16. Determine
(i) P(not A), (ii) P (not B) and (iii) P(A or B).

Discussion

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Share

It is given that P(A) = 0.42, P(B) = 0.48, P(A and B) = 0.16
(i) P(not A) = 1 – P(A) = 1 – 0.42 = 0.58
(ii) P(not B) = 1 – P(B) = 1 – 0.48 = 0.52
(iii) We know that P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A and B)
∴ P(A or B) = 0.42 + 0.48 – 0.16 = 0.74
Question 18:

In Class XI of a school 40% of the students study Mathematics and 30% study Biology.
10% of the class study both Mathematics and Biology. If a student is selected at random
from the class, find the probability that he will be studying Mathematics or Biology.

Discussion
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Let A be the event in which the selected student studies Mathematics and B be the event
in which the selected student studies Biology.
Accordingly, P(A) = 40% =

=

P(B) = 30%
P(A or B) = 10%
We know that P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A and B)

Thus, the probability that the selected student will be studying Mathematics or Biology
is 0.6.
Question 19:

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In an entrance test that is graded on the basis of two examinations, the probability of a
randomly chosen student passing the first examination is 0.8 and the probability of
passing the second examination is 0.7. The probability of passing at least one of them is
0.95. What is the probability of passing both?

Discussion
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Let A and B be the events of passing first and second examinations respectively.
Accordingly, P(A) = 0.8, P(B) = 0.7 and P(A or B) = 0.95
We know that P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A and B)
∴0.95 = 0.8 + 0.7 – P(A and B)

⇒ P(A and B) = 0.8 + 0.7 – 0.95 = 0.55

Thus, the probability of passing both the examinations is 0.55.
Question 20:

The probability that a student will pass the final examination in both English and Hindi
is 0.5 and the probability of passing neither is 0.1. If the probability of passing the
English examination is 0.75, what is the probability of passing the Hindi examination?

Discussion
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Let A and B be the events of passing English and Hindi examinations respectively.
Accordingly, P(A and B) = 0.5, P(not A and not B) = 0.1, i.e.,
P(A) = 0.75

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We know that P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A and B)
∴0.9 = 0.75 + P(B) – 0.5

⇒ P(B) = 0.9 – 0.75 + 0.5
⇒ P(B) = 0.65

Thus, the probability of passing the Hindi examination is 0.65.
Question 21:

In a class of 60 students, 30 opted for NCC, 32 opted for NSS and 24 opted for both
NCC and NSS. If one of these students is selected at random, find the probability that
(i) The student opted for NCC or NSS.
(ii) The student has opted neither NCC nor NSS.
(iii) The student has opted NSS but not NCC.

Discussion
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Let A be the event in which the selected student has opted for NCC and B be the event in
which the selected student has opted for NSS.
Total number of students = 60
Number of students who have opted for NCC = 30
∴ P(A) =

Number of students who have opted for NSS = 32

Number of students who have opted for both NCC and NSS = 24

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(i) We know that P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A and B)

Thus, the probability that the selected student has opted for NCC or NSS is

.

(ii)

Thus, the probability that the selected students has neither opted for NCC nor NSS is
(iii) The given information can be represented by a Venn diagram as

It is clear that
Number of students who have opted for NSS but not NCC
= n(B – A) = n(B) – n(A ∩ B) = 32 – 24 = 8
Thus, the probability that the selected student has opted for NSS but not for NCC
=

796

.

EXERCISE 16.4
Question 1:

A box contains 10 red marbles, 20 blue marbles and 30 green marbles. 5 marbles are
drawn from the box, what is the probability that
(i) all will be blue? (ii) atleast one will be green?

Discussion
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Total number of marbles = 10 + 20 + 30 = 60
Number of ways of drawing 5 marbles from 60 marbles =
(i) All the drawn marbles will be blue if we draw 5 marbles out of 20 blue marbles.
5 blue marbles can be drawn from 20 blue marbles in

ways.

∴Probability that all marbles will be blue =

(ii) Number of ways in which the drawn marble is not green =
∴Probability that no marble is green =

∴Probability that at least one marble is green =
Question 2:

4 cards are drawn from a well-shuffled deck of 52 cards. What is the probability of
obtaining 3 diamonds and one spade?

Discussion
Share

797

Number of ways of drawing 4 cards from 52 cards =
In a deck of 52 cards, there are 13 diamonds and 13 spades.
∴Number of ways of drawing 3 diamonds and one spade =

Thus, the probability of obtaining 3 diamonds and one spade =

.

Question 3:

A die has two faces each with number ‘1’, three faces each with number ‘2’ and one face
with number ‘3’. If die is rolled once, determine
(i) P(2) (ii) P(1 or 3) (iii) P(not 3)

Discussion
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Total number of faces = 6
(i) Number faces with number ‘2’ = 3

(ii) P (1 or 3) = P (not 2) = 1 – P (2)
(iii) Number of faces with number ‘3’ = 1

Question 4:

In a certain lottery, 10,000 tickets are sold and ten equal prizes are awarded. What is the
probability of not getting a prize if you buy (a) one ticket (b) two tickets (c) 10 tickets?

798

Discussion
Share

Total number of tickets sold = 10,000
Number prizes awarded = 10
(i) If we buy one ticket, then
P (getting a prize) =
∴P (not getting a prize) =

(ii) If we buy two tickets, then
Number of tickets not awarded = 10,000 – 10 = 9990

P (not getting a prize) =
(iii) If we buy 10 tickets, then

P (not getting a prize) =
Question 5:

Out of 100 students, two sections of 40 and 60 are formed. If you and your friend are
among the 100 students, what is the probability that
(a) you both enter the same sections?
(b) you both enter the different sections?

Discussion
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My friend and I are among the 100 students.

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Total number of ways of selecting 2 students out of 100 students =
(a) The two of us will enter the same section if both of us are among 40 students or
among 60 students.
∴ Number of ways in which both of us enter the same section =
∴ Probability that both of us enter the same section

(b) P(we enter different sections)
= 1 – P(we enter the same section)
=
Question 6:

Three letters are dictated to three persons and an envelope is addressed to each of them,
the letters are inserted into the envelopes at random so that each envelope contains
exactly one letter. Find the probability that at least one letter is in its proper envelope.

Discussion
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Let L1, L2, L3 be three letters and E1, E2, and E3 be their corresponding envelops
respectively.
There are 6 ways of inserting 3 letters in 3 envelops. These are as follows:

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There are 4 ways in which at least one letter is inserted in a proper envelope.
Thus, the required probability is

.

Question 7:

A and B are two events such that P(A) = 0.54, P(B) = 0.69 and P(A ∩ B) = 0.35.

Find (i) P(A ∪ B) (ii) P(A′ ∩ B′) (iii) P(A ∩ B′) (iv) P(B ∩ A′)
Discussion
Share

It is given that P(A) = 0.54, P(B) = 0.69, P(A ∩ B) = 0.35
(i) We know that P (A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A ∩ B)
∴P (A ∪ B) = 0.54 + 0.69 – 0.35 = 0.88

(ii) A′ ∩ B′ = (A ∪ B)′ [by De Morgan’s law]

∴P(A′ ∩ B′) = P(A ∪ B)′ = 1 – P(A ∪ B) = 1 – 0.88 = 0.12
(iii) P(A ∩ B′) = P(A) – P(A ∩ B) = 0.54 – 0.35 = 0.19
(iv) We know that

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Question 8:

From the employees of a company, 5 persons are selected to represent them in the
managing committee of the company. Particulars of five persons are as follows:
S. No.

Name

Sex Age in years

1.

Harish

M

30

2.

Rohan

M

33

3.

Sheetal

F

46

4.

Alis

F

28

5.

Salim

M

41

A person is selected at random from this group to act as a spokesperson. What is the
probability that the spokesperson will be either male or over 35 years?

Discussion
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Let E be the event in which the spokesperson will be a male and F be the event in which
the spokesperson will be over 35 years of age.
Accordingly, P(E) =

and P(F) =

Since there is only one male who is over 35 years of age,

We know that

Thus, the probability that the spokesperson will either be a male or over 35 years of age

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is

.

Question 9:

If 4-digit numbers greater than 5,000 are randomly formed from the digits 0, 1, 3, 5, and
7, what is the probability of forming a number divisible by 5 when, (i) the digits are
repeated? (ii) the repetition of digits is not allowed?

Discussion
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(i) When the digits are repeated
Since four-digit numbers greater than 5000 are formed, the leftmost digit is either 7 or 5.
The remaining 3 places can be filled by any of the digits 0, 1, 3, 5, or 7 as repetition of
digits is allowed.
∴Total number of 4-digit numbers greater than 5000 = 2 × 5 × 5 × 5 = 250
A number is divisible by 5 if the digit at its units place is either 0 or 5.

∴Total number of 4-digit numbers greater than 5000 that are divisible by 5 = 2 × 5 × 5 ×
2 = 100
Thus, the probability of forming a number divisible by 5 when the digits are repeated is
.
(ii) When repetition of digits is not allowed
The thousands place can be filled with either of the two digits 5 or 7.
The remaining 3 places can be filled with any of the remaining 4 digits.

∴Total number of 4-digit numbers greater than 5000 = 2 × 4 × 3 × 2 = 48

When the digit at the thousands place is 5, the units place can be filled only with 0 and
the tens and hundreds places can be filled with any two of the remaining 3 digits.
∴Here, number of 4-digit numbers starting with 5 and divisible by 5 = 3 × 2 = 6

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When the digit at the thousands place is 7, the units place can be filled in two ways (0 or
5) and the tens and hundreds places can be filled with any two of the remaining 3 digits.

∴ Here, number of 4-digit numbers starting with 7 and divisible by 5 = 1 × 2 × 3 × 2 = 12
∴Total number of 4-digit numbers greater than 5000 that are divisible by 5 = 6 + 12 = 18
Thus, the probability of forming a number divisible by 5 when the repetition of digits is
not allowed is

.

Question 10:

The number lock of a suitcase has 4 wheels, each labelled with ten digits i.e., from 0 to
9. The lock opens with a sequence of four digits with no repeats. What is the probability
of a person getting the right sequence to open the suitcase?

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The number lock has 4 wheels, each labelled with ten digits i.e., from 0 to 9.
Number of ways of selecting 4 different digits out of the 10 digits =
Now, each combination of 4 different digits can be arranged in
∴Number of four digits with no repetitions =

There is only one number that can open the suitcase.
Thus, the required probability is

.

804

ways.

805

806