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Title: FLEXIBLE WORKING AT XXX

For Assignment or Dissertation Help, Please Contact:
Muhammad Sajid Saeed +44 141 4161015 Email: tosajidsaeed@hotmail.com Skype ID: tosajidsaeed

Research Project

Marking Scheme (Year 2010-11)
Comments 1.1 1.2 Introduction The introduction is clear and concise and has very clear and achievable objectives. A little more detail on the sponsoring organisation would have been useful but the reader is still able to get a flavour for it. The executive summary is well laid out and informative. Weigh ting Poss mark Actual Mark

E.g. Feasibility of topic with justification of research question(s), aims and objectives, overview of sponsoring organisation, terms of reference, executive summary.

25%

100%

1.3

Literature Review

E.g., evidence of relevant academic theories/published research employed to support and build project context; evidence of evaluative element is present throughout. Key themes identified Summary justifying primary research questions

An analytical section which aptly demonstrates knowledge and understanding of the key themes and is able to present this in a critical manner.

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13 1.4 Methodology E.g., choice of primary research methodology deployed is clearly substantiated by academic theory and relates to aims and objectives. Details of and justification for selected primary and secondary sources A bit more information on the sources of secondary information would have been useful ie. In terms of any problems in access and getting contemporary research. Although advantages and disadvantages of the methods chosen are presented, there is little in the way of academic theory to justify this. However overall this is a good section with a clear understanding and justification for the methods chosen. 20% 75%

12 1.5 Data Analysis & Presentation E.g. Techniques used to analyse data are relevant to the data gathering approach The data is well presented with clear tables and graphs. 15%

19 1.6 Critical Interpretation of data E.g. evidence of having established key relationship(s) , important themes, patterns, trends etc. from the data available Good integration of primary and secondary research. Demonstration of analysis and evaluation of research findings together with secondary literature.

25%

17 1.7 Conclusions E.g., relevance of conclusions i.e. reflective thought, to findings. Has research question been answered? Good conclusions. Well presented and again referring back to literature and findings in a consistent and informative manner. 25% The recommendations are useful although they do seem to suggest that the sponsoring organisation just continue what it is doing – there are not really new creative solutions suggested.

1.8

Recommendations

E.g., suggested course(s) of action in keeping with conclusions, the context of sponsoring organisation, while evidencing creativity and originality of approach

1.9

Written Presentation

E.g. layout, style, tone, register appropriate for intended audience, use of graphical, tabular and other non text formats where appropriate. Source Selection, In -text Citations, List of References

Overall the presentation is very good. Referencing is accurate, and the bibliography is correct and extensive. Tables and graphs are well-presented and informative and this is a professional piece of work. Total

12 15%

100%

75%

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to thank my family and friends for their support and encouragement; and would like to thank my lecturers, especially my Project Supervisor. I also say thank you to the staff at Zz College who provided help and support even although they were not my lecturers. Thank you to the staff at Xxx who completed the questionnaire and to those managers who allowed me to interview them as this provided the primary information used to write up this project. I would also like to thank my fellow students at Zz College who helped by testing the questionnaires and being there to discuss problem with.

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CONTENTS PAGE
Section Page

Acknowledgments

i

Executive Summary

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1. Introduction 2. Literature Review 3. Methodology 4. (Initial) Data Analysis and Presentation 5. Critical Interpretation of Data 6. Conclusions 7. Recommendations References Appendices

2 4 7 10 15 18 20 21 25

Figures Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3 Figure 4.4 Figure 4.5 Figure 4.6 Figure 4.7 Figure 4.8 Figure 4.9 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 14

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The purpose of this investigation is to analyse how Xxx integrate their staff into the organisation and make recommendations on possible improvements. The research identifies the positives and negatives of employing flexible workers and if there are any alternatives to doing this.

The justification of carrying out this research is that it helps Xxx to assess whether they are making best use of resources but at the same time still integrating staff effectively.

The report found that induction, the main part of integrating flexible workers into the permanent workforce, needed improving. It was found improvements are already happening to ensure flexible workers receive the same standard of induction as others and are not treated less favourably. Secondary research shows, in some cases, flexible employees have received less favourable treatment. The recommendation was to continue to implement the new standardised national induction to ensure all are treated equally.

Flexible working practices are employed for a variety of reasons which include giving employees a better work-life balance, as providing this can help attract and retain good employees. A specific advantage for Xxx is it allows them to open longer hours when demand for the Information Centres is at its highest. A negative is the cost involved in integrating flexible employees who may only be with Xxx a short time. The recommendation made was to continue employing flexible workers but encourage seasonal staff to return the following year. Hence meeting the business needs but ensuring more return from the investment made to recruit and integrate these employees into the organisation.

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 OVERVIEW

The sponsor organisation Xxx is the ‘national tourism organisation…[of] Scotland’ (Xxx c. 2009). The Visitor Services department provide the Information Centres (Xxx 2008). Many of the employees work flexibly; including seasonal working.

This research will look into the flexible working practices within Xxx; how well flexible employees are integrated and if they are necessary. Through the use of primary and secondary data the main advantages and disadvantages of flexible working will be discussed.

1.2

JUSTIFICATION

Xxx’s budget will be reduced and they must look carefully to ensure they make the best of resources. This research will assist the organisation in ensuring their current use of flexible staff is the best way to maximise use of their staffing budget. This will be useful to the organisation when planning how they will ‘deliver more by doing less’ (Roughead 2010). This project will look into the integration process for flexible staff and this will be interesting as Xxx want to ensure they are making the best use of resources when integrating staff.

1.3

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The aim of this research project is to analyse how Xxx integrate their flexible staff into the organisation and make recommendations into any possible improvements that could be made. The research will look into whether it is necessary for Xxx to employ flexible employees. In order to meet the aim the objectives are:

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To evaluate the methods the organisation use to integrate their flexible staff into the organisation and permanent full time work force

 

To look for possible improvements to the integration process

To identify the reasons why Xxx employ staff on flexible working patterns and discuss the positive and negatives of these to the organisation

To identify whether or not flexible staff are necessary

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2. LITERATURE REVIEW
The term ‘flexible working’ relates to the working practices within an organisation in terms of working time, location and the pattern of working (CIPD 2010). There are a variety of flexible working practices including: part time working, home working, temporary contracts, seasonal working and job sharing (Acas n.d.) and (The Aston Centre for Human Resources 2008). In the 1990’s the number of temporary

employees was on the increase (Stredwick and Ellis 1998) and this trend has continued. Around half of all employers, including a good majority of public sector bodies, employ people on a fixed term basis (Torrington, Hall and Taylor 2008).

People with children now have the right to request flexible working (Lewis and Sargeant 2009). An employer does not have to honour a request but they must give it serious consideration and have a good justification to refuse. Although both men and women have the right to request flexible working arrangements it is mainly women who do this. Smithson and Stokoe (2005) argue that the common perception is that flexible working is an issue for women. This perception is due in part to the fact the most common type of flexible work is part time work (CIPD 2010) and with the male usually adopting the role of breadwinner (Atkinson and Hall 2009) it is therefore the female who usually takes on the domestic chores (Lewis 2001). The result is that they are more likely to work flexibly to fit work around these responsibilities.

Integrating fixed term workers into the permanent workforce can be difficult. Employee participation is key to helping with integration (Skyrme 1994). Permanent employees can help train the flexible employee and may help improve the integration process with some new ideas (CIPD 2010). Increased employee involvement helps build trust (Austin and Giles 2008) therefore allowing permanent employees to participate in the integration process will help build trust and a good working relationship between the permanent workforce and fixed term workers.

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One reason to employ flexible staff is too reduced employee turnover (Skyrme 1994), by offering flexible working arrangements the business can retain good employees who otherwise may have left due to changing commitments. Flexible working can also help attract good employees as it can provide a work-life balance which appeals to some (Actnow Flex n.d.). Flexible working can mean a better worklife balance for employees (CIPD 2010) and motivates them by allowing them to fit their work around their life (Real Business 2010). This motivation makes them less likely to be absent and more productive (Real Business 2010) which helps give synergy by getting more work done in less time. Opening times can be extended and this leads to increased customer contact (Thomson 2008) which helps improve customer service therefore increasing customer loyalty and profits.

One barrier which arises with flexible working is the perception that it may be seen by some that working flexibly shows a lack of commitment (BRBM 2009). The fear of being seen as less committed may lead to a reduction for requests to work flexibly at present due to the recession causing uncertainty regarding job security, people will not want to be seen as less committed and risk their job (Cooper 2009). It can be hard to keep employees informed if their flexible working pattern involves them working away from the office and they may feel ‘out of the loop’ (Peacock 2007) on important information.

There are issues with employers treating flexible workers less favourably; this can be seen in the case of Brett v Royal Mail Group plc (Equal Opportunities Review 2004) where an employee was treated less favourably due to working part time. This may create a situation where employees are less likely to elect to work flexibly. A result of less favourable treatment is poor motivation of employees and less productivity as a result of this poor motivation.

This review has shown that everyone has the right to apply for flexible working and employers must have justifiable reasons to refuse requests. There has been an increase of flexible workers in the past few years but it is still mainly women who

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take on flexible working patterns. There are advantages to working flexibly such as employees getting a better work-life balance and this

can motivate them and increase productivity providing benefits to the employer. Barriers do sometimes exist for flexible workers through less favourable treatment or the perception that they are seen as not being committed.

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3. METHODOLOGY
The methodology of this project involved the collection of both primary and secondary data.

As the University of Maryland (2006) explains secondary research involves the use of existing data which was collected for another purpose but is relevant to this project. The secondary data collected while researching current literature was analysed to carry out a literature review. This evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of flexible working practices; the integration of flexible workers in organisations and perceptions of flexible working. The secondary data collected came from a variety of sources including textbooks, journals and reports. The secondary data collected from within Xxx was readily accessible, current and of use. It was particularly useful in evaluating the methods they use to integrate flexible staff.

The first method of collecting primary data was the use of semi structured interviews carried out with an area manager and line managers. The reasoning behind semistructured interviews was so the interview had some structure to ensure it stayed on track but allowed freedom for the interviewee to discuss things they felt relevant and gather extra information. This reduced interviewer bias but ensured the interviewer did not get lots of useless information that would have had to be discarded. These interviews allowed qualitative information to be collected and were useful to find out how well management felt staff are integrated into the organisation, what they do to assist with this and how important they feel flexible staff are to helping Xxx operate. These managers have been selected using a non-probability sampling methodconvenience sampling (Bryman & Bell 2007: 197). It had been chosen due to the fact that the sample was easily available and willing to take part in interviews.

All the participants remained anonymous and were informed that only one person would be involved in the collection and analysis of data (Management Help n.d.) to 46

prevent anonymity being breached. They were fully aware of what they were participating in and what would happen with the data supplied.

The second method was a questionnaire given to a sample of both permanent and flexible staff. The potential participants were split into groups based on whether they are permanent or flexible employees and then sex and age so that a proportional sample, of about 30 employees, were taken to get a representative sample of the population.

The questionnaire was piloted with volunteers. This allowed any uncertainty/ errors to be rectified. The questionnaire was emailed out to the participants and returned by email or post. The questionnaire used a mix of open and closed ended questions. A questionnaire was used due to it being low cost and less time consuming than other methods. By emailing it the researcher was able to see if the participants has opened the email therefore ensuring they has received it as well as saving on postage costs. All staff regularly use their email so it was the best ways to issue the questionnaire.

The disadvantages of a questionnaire are that it relies on participants understanding all the questions and to complete and return it. It does not allow for extra information to be given by the respondent as they can not deviate from the questions posed. The sponsor sent an email to staff encouraging those selected to fill out the questionnaire and this helped increase the response rate but a couple of participants did not respond (which was disappointing but expected). One was not completed fully and was discarded; this may have been down to not understanding a question or just not making the effort to complete it.

Problems with the methodology were that using questionnaires can lead to a low response. In order to combat this; the sponsor allowed employees time off to complete the questionnaire. This led to only a couple not being returned and one being completed incorrectly which does lower the validity of the

results but is a great response rate. A second issue was that due to most of the investigation being carried out in late Winter/ early Spring when there was less 47

seasonal staff working so fewer flexible staff, from which to take a sample, were working hence this affected the validity of the results. In order to combat this some seasonal staff who were not working were contacted and agreed to take part. This allowed for a more representative sample to be taken and help increase credibility of the results.

The results were input in Excel to allow analysis and graphs to be created to demonstrate results to the reader in an effective manner. Originally it was planned to use SSPS but due to limited access and lack of knowledge of SSPS it was decided to use excel.

It was agreed, with the sponsor, to make chances to the objectives in order to meet the aim and satisfy the sponsor’s needs better.

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4. (INITIAL) DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
These are the initial findings obtained from the questionnaires (see Appendix B and D). Initial results from the interviews (see Appendix F for questions) will be included. The results from the questionnaires are displayed in Appendices C and E.

Figure 4.1 Involvement with integration

11%

6% Yes No 83% No Opinion

Permanent employees were asked if they felt they were involved in the integration of new flexible employees, see above for the results.

Flexible employees were asked if they felt induction helped them to integrate into their job and the organisation, see below for results.

Figure 4.2 Did induction help flexible staff integrate?

Does Induction Help Integrate?
6 4 2 0 Yes No Somewhat

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Suggestions made on how to improve the induction were:

Figure 4.3 Suggestions for improvement

Improvements
5% 23% 72% Increase familarisation trips Increase presentation based learning Increase practical learning

Figure 4.4 Explanation of improvements in figure 4.3

Improvement Presentation based learning

Explanation       ‘Theory’ based learning Carried out in classroom Being spoken too rather than participating ‘Hands on’ Trying things for yourself- ‘doing’ rather than watching E.g. using booking system in training mode to simulate how system would be used when working in Information Centre   

Practical learning

Familiarisation trips

Visits to attractions Able to learn more about them to pass on to visitors Helps recommend places and looks more professional as have more knowledge

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Figure 4.5 Does the integration process need improvement?

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Flexible Permanent Management

Yes No Don't Know

The above shows (in percentage) the opinions of each group. The majority thought the integration process needed improvement.

In their interviews two managers said that a new national induction program had just been introduced to integrate flexible staff. Figure 4.6 is therefore not surprising as it shows the majority of flexible employees questioned felt new starts are given a different induction from them.

Figure 4.6 Do employees think the induction has changed?

Has Induction Changed?
33% 67% 0% Yes No Don't Know

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Figure 4.7 Reasons for employing flexible staff (given by managers in interviews)

Reason

Number of managers who said this (out of five)

Need extra staff as open longer hours Busier (more customers) so need extra staff to take off pressure Ensure customer wait is minimised (more staff to serve on counter) Help with administration duties (increase due to extra customers) Help increase range of skills (at time when most customers use Information Centres)

4 5 3 3 2

Figure 4.8 Are flexible employees are essential to operate?

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

55.6 50

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Strongly Agree 27.8 22.2 16.6 11.1 11.1 5.6 0 Flexible Permanent 0 0 Management 0 20 20 Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree

This displays employees’ and managers’ opinions on the necessity of flexible employees for the business to operate. No one strongly disagrees and only 20% (or below) disagree. The largest percentages in every group agree or strongly agree (see figure 4.9) that flexible employees are essential. The numbers who agree/ strongly agree are:

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Figure 4.9 The numbers who agree/ strongly agree

Group Flexible Employees Permanent Employees Management

Percentage 77.8% 55.6% 80%

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5. CRITICAL INTERPRETATION OF DATA
In the interviews two managers said changes had been made to the induction. A national induction training scheme to ensure every flexible employee received the same induction has been introduced. This is backed up in Figure 4.6 where 67% of flexible staff thought new starts were being given a different induction. The reason given for this from the regional manager was: “… previous research carried out by Xxx’s HR Department suggested that there were differences in induction training and some flexible employees were being disadvantaged”

Sometimes flexible employees are treated less favourably -as in case of Brett v Royal Mail Group Plc (Equal Opportunities Review 2004)- compared with permanent colleagues. This will lead to them feeling ‘out of the loop’ (Peacock 2007). This is what happened previously in Xxx as some flexible employees did not receive the same quality of induction as others.

A negative of employing flexible workers identified by managers were it is expensive to recruit and integrate them and when this is invested in someone on a short term contract it is a large investment for what sometimes is only a couple of months work. Investment is especially wasted if it is on a seasonal employee who does not return the following year.

The opportunity for permanent staff to get overtime is limited when flexible workers are employed. This can mean permanent employees are not happy as they see someone who is only with the organisation temporarily being given the hours causing poor team relations. It is therefore essential to encourage teams to develop good relations. One way to do this is involving permanent staff in the integration of flexible workers to help build trust (Austin and Giles 2008) and hence good relations follow helping avoid conflict and permanent employees expecting better treatment (e.g. being offered overtime over flexible staff). 54

Figure 4.8 displays opinions from Xxx staff on whether they think flexible employees are essential to the operation of the business. The overall results show the majority think it is essential to have flexible workers. It is interesting to note more permanent employees disagree with the statement that flexible employees are essential; whereas more flexible employees agree that they are essential.

The obvious reason for this is that each group will be bias with flexible workers believing themselves to be important and the permanent employees being subjective and believing they are more important (and some would say they feel flexible staff are not essential). This creates an ‘us and them’ situation and teams may be divided instead of working together. Some permanent employees may hold the perception that working flexibly shows a lack of commitment (BRBM 2009) therefore leading to less favourable treatment of flexible staff. Flexible employees will feel this unjust as they are doing the same job when working so should not be treated differently and the courts agree as was shown in Brett v Royal Mail (Equal Opportunities Review 2004) where the outcome showed that unfavourable treatment of a flexible worker is wrong.

The solution to this is to get permanent and flexible employees working together and this can start by involving permanent employees in the integration of flexible workers to ensure trust is built (Austin and Giles 2008) leading to good working relationships. By encouraging permanent workers to train new flexible employees they can share ideas (CIPD 2010) which again helps get staff interacting and building positive working relationships. The overall results from staff and managers’ opinions were that flexible workers are essential to the operation of

Xxx and without them the staff and customers would suffer. By offering flexible contracts Xxx may attract and retain good employees by offers a better work-life balance which is appeals to some (Actnow Flex n.d.) especially women who are more likely to require work to fit around their domestic life (Lewis 2001).

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The only alternatives, suggested by the mangers, were to increase permanent employee numbers but have them each working less hours or to cut the opening hours.

These would result in unhappy staff and less applicants for permanent posts in the Information Centres as well as poorer service to customers as opening hours at busy times would be limited. As was said by one manager: “[to not employ flexible staff would lead to]…the customer being dissatisfied… and excellent employees leaving… skills and knowledge that we would lose”.

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6. CONCLUSION
The results found that the induction process requires improvement. Around 80% of all respondent said integration needed improving and nearly half of the flexible staff said the induction, the main part of integration, required improvement. The majority (72%) of flexible staff said that there needed to be more practical learning involved in the induction training.

A positive action that Xxx take is involving permanent staff in the integration process. Permanent employees help train the flexible employees and this helps improve the integration process with some new ideas (CIPD 2010). Increased employee involvement helps build trust (Austin and Giles 2008) therefore helping build better working relationships between permanent and flexible employees.

Flexible workers are employed for a variety of reasons including improving employees’ work-life balance (CIPD 2010) and motivating them by allowing them to fit work around their lives (Real Business 2010). This can help reduce employee turnover (Skyrme 1994). A couple of reasons identified by the managers were to allow extending opening hours; help reduce workload at peak times and provide a range of skills through having a variety of employees.

Positives to employing flexible workers are it allows Xxx to meet customer needs and provide good service. It also helps ease the pressure on the permanent workforce by giving them help at the busy times. The negative of this is the cost of recruiting and integrating these staff. This can involve large investment for a small return if the employee only works fixed-term for a short time.

The negatives are small in comparison to the benefits of employing flexible workers and the conclusion is that the Xxx should continue to employee flexible staff. The only alternatives, such as increasing permanent

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staff levels and reducing their hours during the winter, are impractical or would lead to poor staff morale; resulting in a poorer service for customers and may lower local tourism spends.

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7. RECOMMENDATIONS
Drawing from the findings of this report the recommendations being made to Xxx are: 

Continue with the implementation of the new induction training scheme as the results have shown that the previous induction training was not helping all staff integrate. With the new induction being a national scheme it will ensure all new starts get the same induction and costs can be cut by having employees in different Centres receive the induction at the same time by one manager instead of each manager training their own individual staff.

Continue the involvement of permanent staff with integration as the secondary research demonstrates it can have a positive impact by helping build a stronger team. To increase their involvement, encourage permanent staff to talk to the new starts and ask how they feel integration is going and find out if the permanent staff can help to make their integration easier. This will ensure integration occurs smoothly and help build good team relations.

Continue to employ flexible staff but be more proactive in encouraging the employees (especially seasonal employees) to see the job as one they can return to in the future e.g. seasonal worker returning every summer. This will mean increased benefits are gained from the high costs of recruiting and integrating and in the long term will reduce these costs as less recruitment (and therefore integration) will have to be carried out.

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REFERENCES
Acas (n.d.) Flexible Work [online]. Available from <http://www.acas.org.uk/index.aspx?articleid=1616> [8 December 2010]

Actnow Flex (n.d.) How can your business benefit? [online]. Available from <http://www.flexible-working.org/employers/howCanYourBusinessBenefit.html> [25 November 2010] Atkinson, C. and Hall, L. (2009) ‘The Role of Gender in Various Forms of Flexible Working.’ Gender, Work and Organisation [online] 16, (6) 173-198. Available from <http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?hid=15&sid=f22dfaef-4b9645e3-8f81-6d37fae7ff85%40sessionmgr12&vid=4> [12 February 2011]

Austin, K. and Giles, H. (2008) Human Resource Management and Employee Engagement [online]. Available from <http://www.lhf.org.uk/publications/NeedsStatement_ExecSum.pdf> [15 December 2010]

BRBM (2009) Flexible working: benefits and barriers Perceptions of working parents [online] London: Government Equalities Office. Available from <http://www.equalities.gov.uk/PDF/294951_GEO_flexible_working_acc.pdf> [28 November 2010]

Bryman, A. and Bell, E. (2007) Business Research Methods. (2nd edition) Oxford: Oxford University Press

CIPD (2010) Employee Voice [online]. Available from <http://www.cipd.co.uk/hrresources/factsheets/employee-voice.aspx> [2 February 2011]

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CIPD (2010) Flexible Working [online]. Available from <http://www.cipd.co.uk/subjects/hrpract/flexibleworkingpractices/flexwkgfst.htm> [8 December 2010]

CIPD (2010) Flexible working: Working for Families, Working for Business [online]. Available from <http://www.cipd.co.uk/hr-resources/research/flexible-workingfamilies-business.aspx > [10 October 2010]

Cooper, C. (2009) The impact of extending the right to request flexible working [online]. Available from <http://www.hrmagazine.co.uk/news/search/911993/impactextending-right-request-flexible-working/> [12 January 2011]

Cranfield School of Management (2008) Flexible working and performance [online] London: SOM Cranfield. Available from <http://www.som.cranfield.ac.uk/som/dinamic-content/media/WFDA%20Flex%20Working%20Report.pdf> [20 January 2011]

Equal Opportunities Review (2004) Part-time employee treated less favourably when all posts are designated full time [online]. Available from <http://www.eortrial.co.uk/default.aspx?id=1096290> [19 March 2011] Lewis, S. (2001) ‘Restructuring workplace cultures: the ultimate family-friendly challenge?’ Women in Management Review, 16 (1) 21–29

Lewis, D. and Sargeant, M. (2009) Essentials of Employment Law. (10th edition) London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development

Management Help (n.d.) Basics of Developing Questionnaires [online]. Available from <http://www.managementhelp.org/evaluatn/questnrs.htm> [28 October 2010]

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Peacock, L. (2007) Flexible Working Hidden Disadvantages Revealed by Research [online]. Available from <http://www.personneltoday.com/articles/2007/09/11/42284/flexible-working-hiddendisadvantages-revealed-by-research.html> [20 January 2011]

Real Business (2010) How to motivate employees [online]. Available from <http://realbusiness.co.uk/advice_and_guides/how_to_motivate_employees/page:2> [20 January 2011] Roughead, M. (2010) Malcolm’s Message [letter] to colleagues. [25 October 2010] Smithson, J. and Stokoe, E.H. (2005) ‘Discourses of work–life balance: negotiating ‘genderblind’ terms in organizations.’ Gender, Work & Organization, 12 (2) 147–168

Stredwick, J., Steve, Ellis. (1998) Flexible Working Practices Techniques and Innovations. (1st edition) London: Institute of Personnel and Development Skyrme, D. J. (1994) ‘Flexible Working: Building a Lean and Responsive Organization.’ Long Range Planning [online] 27, (5) 98-110. Available from <http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V6K-45MGSHG9&_user=7351893&_coverDate=10%2F31%2F1994&_alid=1658972897&_rdoc=8&_ fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_item&_cdi=5817&_sort=r&_ st=13&_docanchor=&view=c&_ct=131005&_acct=C000060389&_version=1&_urlVer sion=0&_userid=7351893&md5=001909fdfab2af9d1ae792c379f7bda7&searchtype= a> [12 January 2011] Thomson, P. (2008) ‘The business benefits of flexible working’ Strategic HR Review [online] 7, (2) 17-22. Available from <http://www.emeraldinsight.com.eor.uhi.ac.uk/search.htm?PHPSESSID=f7mc6rud7b 0s72327ju4tuheh1&st1=flexible+working&ct=all> [2 February 2011]

The Aston Centre for Human Resources (2008) Strategic Human Resource Management: Building research-based practice. (1st edition) London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development 62

The University of Maryland (2006) Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sources. [online]. Available from <http://www.lib.umd.edu/guides/primary-sources.html> [2 February 2011]

Torrington, D., Hall, L. and Taylor, S. (2008) Human Resource Management. (7th edition) Harlow: Prentice Hall Financial Times

Xxx (2008) Organisation Departments [online]. Available from <https://intranet.xxx.com/Pages/hub.aspx> [15 October 2010]

Xxx (c. 2009) About Us [online]. Available from <http://www.xxx.org/about_us.aspx> [6 November 2010]

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APPENDICES
Page Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Questionnaire Flexible Staff Frequency Tables Flexible Staff Questionnaire Permanent Staff Frequency Tables Permanent Staff Interview Questions Managers 65 67 69 71 73

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Appendix A QUESTIONNAIRE: Flexible Staff The following questionnaire is part of the research for my third year project. You will not be personally identified in any part of my project. The only person who will see this questionnaire is myself therefore anonymity is assured. By filling out this questionnaire you are consenting to the answers given being used as part of my project. Please circle your selected answer (where appropriate): 1) SEX: Male 2) AGE: 16-20 Female 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 61+

3) Please rate your induction when you started as a seasonal: 1 = Very Poor to 5 = Excellent 1 2 3 4 5

Please give brief details of what you induction covered:

4) Do you think your induction helped you integrate into your job role and the organisation? Yes No Somewhat 5) Do you think the induction given to new flexible employees is different from the induction you received? Yes No Don’t know 6) It was easy for me to integrate and fit in alongside the permanent employees: Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree

7) Do you think the process to integrate seasonal staff into the business needs improved? Yes No Don’t Know Please list any ideas you may have to improve the integration process:

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8) Staff on flexible contracts (e.g. seasonal contracts) are essential for the business to operate? Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree

If you can think of any alternatives to employing seasonal staff please list:

If you have any questions please contact me either in person or by email on scott.innes@xxx.com Thank you for completing this questionnaire

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Appendix B FREQUENCY TABLES: Flexible Staff Responses SEX:
Frequency 1 8 9 Percent 11.1 88.9 100

Male Female TOTAL

AGE:
Frequency 2 5 1 0 1 0 9 Percent 22.2 55.6 11.1 0 11.1 0 100

16-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 61+ TOTAL

Please rate your induction when you started as a seasonal:
Frequency 0 1 6 2 0 9 Percent 0 11.1 66.7 22.2 0 100

1 (Very poor) 2 3 4 5 (Excellent) TOTAL

Do you think your induction helped you integrate into your job role and the organisation?
Frequency 5 1 3 9 Percent 55.6 11.1 33.3 100

Yes No Somewhat TOTAL

Do you think the induction given to new flexible employees is different from the induction you received?
Yes No Don’t Know TOTAL Frequency 6 0 3 9 Percent 66.7 0 33.3 100

It was easy for me to integrate and fit in alongside the permanent employees: 67

Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree TOTAL

Frequency 3 5 0 1 0 9

Percent 33.3 55.6 0 11.1 0 100

Do you think the process to integrate seasonal staff into the business needs improved?
Frequency 7 0 2 9 Percent 77.8 0 22.2 100

Yes No Don’t Know TOTAL

Staff on flexible contracts (e.g. seasonal contracts) are essential for the business to operate?
Frequency 2 5 1 1 0 9 Percent 22.2 55.6 11.1 11.1 0 100

Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree TOTAL

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Appendix C QUESTIONNAIRE: Permanent Staff The following questionnaire is part of the research for my third year project. You will not be personally identified in any part of my project. The only person who will see this questionnaire is myself therefore anonymity is assured. By filling out this questionnaire you are consenting to the answers given being used as part of my project. Please circle your selected answer (where appropriate): 1) SEX: Male 2) AGE: 16-20 Female 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 61+

3) Have you ever been employed on a flexible contract (e.g. seasonal)? Yes No 4) Do you think you have an active role in helping seasonal staff integrate into their job? Yes No No Opinion

If you answered yes, please give details of what you do to help staff integrate:

5) Please rate the current process for integrating seasonal staff: 1 = Very poor to 5 = Excellent 1 2 3 4 5

6) Do you think any improvements needs to be made to the process? Yes No Don’t Know Please list some ideas for improvements:

7) Staff on flexible contracts (e.g. seasonal contracts) are essential for the business to operate? Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree

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If you can think of any alternatives to employing seasonal staff please list:

If you have any questions please contact me either in person or by email on scott.innes@xxx.com Thank you for completing this questionnaire

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Appendix D FREQUENCY TABLES: Permanent Staff Responses SEX:
Frequency 3 15 18 Percent 16.7 83.3 100

Male Female TOTAL

AGE:
Frequency 0 1 2 5 8 2 18 Percent 0 5.6 11.1 27.8 44.4 11.1 100

16-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 51-60 61+ TOTAL

Have you ever been employed on a flexible contract (e.g. seasonal)?
Frequency 13 5 18 Percent 72.2 27.8 100

Yes No TOTAL

Do you think you have an active role in helping seasonal staff integrate into their job?
Frequency 15 2 1 18 Percent 83.3 11.1 5.6 100

Yes No No Opinion TOTAL

Please rate the current process for integrating seasonal staff:
Frequency 0 1 5 10 2 18 Percent 0 5.6 27.8 55.5 11.1 100

1 (Very poor) 2 3 4 5 (Excellent) TOTAL

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Do you think any improvements need to be made to the process?
Frequency 15 1 2 18 Percent 83.3 5.6 11.1 100

Yes No Don’t Know TOTAL

Staff on flexible contracts (e.g. seasonal contracts) are essential for the business to operate?
Frequency 1 9 5 3 0 18 Percent 5.6 50 27.8 16.6 0 100

Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree TOTAL

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Appendix E INTERVIEW QUESTIONS: Managers           How long have you worked for Xxx? Can you work flexibly (e.g. home working)? Have you worked flexibly in the past? What methods do you currently use to integrate flexible staff into their new job role and the organisation? Does the integration of flexible staff need improved? If yes, give examples of what could be done to make improvements or alternative ways to integrate flexible staff? What are the main reasons for employing flexible staff? What are the positives of employing flexible staff? What are the negatives of employing flexible staff? ‘Flexible employees are essential for the business to operate’... do you strongly agree, agree, have no opinion, disagree or strongly disagree with this statement?   Do you think there are alternatives to employing flexible staff? Do you have and other thoughts or opinions you would like to share?

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