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# Pavement Structural Design Flexible Pavement Design

Traffic Analysis for AASHTO and Asphalt Intitute Design Methods

Mohamed Ibrahim El-Sharkawi Attia, PhD.

 Number of repetitions
 Contact area  Speed

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Dr. Mohamed El-Sharkawi

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http://training.ce.washington.edu/wsdot/

Tridem Axle
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Dr. Mohamed El-Sharkawi

 Equivalent single axle load (ESAL).
 The most common approach is to convert wheel loads

of various magnitudes to an equivalent number of "standard" or "equivalent" loads.
 The most commonly used equivalent load in the U.S. is

the 80 kN (18,000 lbs) equivalent single axle load
 Used in The 2002 Guide for the Design of New and

Rehabilitated Pavement Structures.
 Used in Rigid Pavement Design by PCA Method

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Dr. Mohamed El-Sharkawi

Damage

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Dr. Mohamed El-Sharkawi

Traffic Analysis For Flexible Pavement Design Using AASHTO Design Method
 AASHTO: American Association of State Highway

and Transportation Officials
 Load repetitions, expressed in terms of an 18-kip

(80-kN) single-axle load, are determined from traffic estimates using AASHTO equivalent factors.
 Asphalt Institute uses a structural number (SN) of

5 and a terminal serviceability index pt of 2.5.

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Dr. Mohamed El-Sharkawi

EALF = Equivalent Axle Load Factor

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EALF
 An equivalent axle load factor (EALF) defines the

Damage per pass to a pavement by the axle in question relative to the damage per pass of a standard axle load, usually the18-kip (80-kN) singleaxle load.

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Dr. Mohamed El-Sharkawi

EALF
 EALF Approximate relations:

lb

ton

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Dr. Mohamed El-Sharkawi

EALF
 The EALF depends on:
 Type of pavements,

 Thickness or structural capacity,
 Terminal conditions at which the pavement is

considered failed.
 Most of the EALFs in use today are based on

experience.
 The EALF can be determined theoretically based on

the critical stresses, and strains in the pavement and the failure criteria.
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Dr. Mohamed El-Sharkawi

ESAL
 The pavement design is based on the total number

of passes of the standard axle load during the design period, defined as the equivalent single-axle load (ESAL) and computed by

 Where: m is the number of axle load groups,  Fi is the EALF for the ith-axle load group,  ni is the number of passes of the ith-axle load group

during the design period.
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Dr. Mohamed El-Sharkawi

Example
A pavement is subjected to the axle loads shown in Table below in the design lane. Determine the ESAL.
Axle Type Axle Load (Kip) Single Single Single Tandem 12 16 20 30 Number of repetition

50,000 60,000 40,000 75,000

Tandem Tandem
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34 41

50,000 25,000

Dr. Mohamed El-Sharkawi

Solution
Given Axle Type Axle Load (Kip) Single Single Single Tandem Tandem Tandem 12 16 20 30 34 41 Number of repetition (n) 50,000 60,000 40,000 75,000 50,000 25,000

Solution EALF 0.19 0.62 1.51 0.66 1.1 2.29 EALF*n 9500 37200 60400 49500 55000 57250 268850

ESAL =∑EALF*n
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Dr. Mohamed El-Sharkawi

ESAL
 In general we do not have the number of load

repetition directly but we normally have:

 Annual growth rate (r)
 Number of design years (Y)  Directional distribution of traffic (D)

 Lane distribution factor (L)

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Dr. Mohamed El-Sharkawi

 Where:
 AADT0: the initial number of average annual daily traffic

(ADT can be used) (2 way traffic)  G: is the Total growth factor  D: is the directional distribution factor, which is usually assumed to be 0.5 unless the traffic in two directions is different  L: is the lane distribution factor  Y: Design Period  Pi: Percentage of load group within the AADT,  Fi: Equivalent axle load factor (EALF) for the ith load group

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Dr. Mohamed El-Sharkawi

Growth Factor
 Total Growth Factor (G) =

Where:  r: annual growth rate  Y: the number of design years

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 Table 6.15: D*L: Consider combined effect of directional

distribution and lane distribution factors  Table 6.16: L: is based on one direction traffic data

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Example
A pavement is subjected to the axle loads shown in Table below in the design lane. Determine the ESAL for a design period of 20 years, annual growth rate is 5%.
Single Axle Axle Load (Kip) 12 14 16 18 20 22
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Tandem Axle Axle Load (Kip) 28 30 34 36 38 40 Number of repetition/day 100 300

Number of repetition/day 100 300

120
40

350
90

80
250

35
250

Dr. Mohamed El-Sharkawi

Solution

Single Axle Axle Number of repetition/day (2) Load (Kip) 12 100 14 300 16 120 18 40 20 80 22 250 Tandem Axle 28 100 30 300 34 350 36 90 38 35 40 250 ∑

EALF EALF * n (3) (2*3)

G=33.06 ESAL = 2237.7* 33.06*365 =27,002,223 = 27*10^6

0.19 0.36 0.62 1 1.51 2.18
0.46 0.66 1.1 1.38 1.7 2.08

18.9 108 74.76 40 120.8 545
45.9 197.4 383.25 124.2 59.5 520 2237.7

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Truck Factor (TF)
38000 24000 4000

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Tf: Truck factor: is the number of 18-kip (80-kN) single-axle load applications per truck EALF for 4000 (Single) = 0.002 EALF for 24000 (Single) = 3.03 EALF for 38000 (Tandem) = 1.75 TF = 1*0.002 + 1* 3.03+ 1*1.75= 4.78

Example 2:
 If the distribution of trucks is as shown in Table below,

compute the TF for this highway.
Single Unit Trucks 2 axle 4 tire 2 axle, 6 tires 3 axle or more Multiple Unit Trucks Percentage of Truck factor truck traffic 73 0.017 10 4 0.41 1.26

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4 axles or less 2 5 axles 10 6 axles or more 1

0.37 1.67 2.21

Solution
Single Unit Trucks 2 axle 4 tire 2 axle, 6 tires 3 axle or more Percentage of Truck factor ∑truck factor truck traffic (2) (3) (2*3) 73 10 4 0.017 0.41 1.26 0.01241 0.041 0.0504

Multiple Unit Trucks 4 axles or less 5 axles 2 10 0.37 1.67 0.0074 0.167

6 axles or more

1

2.21

0.0221

TF

0.3003

Note: ∑ percentage trucks = 100%
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Truck Factor
 Where:
 T: Percentage of trucks in daily traffic  Pi: Percentage of load group within the AADT,  Fi: Equivalent axle load factor (EALF) for the ith load

group  A:Average number of axles per truck  Tf: Truck factor: is the number of 18-kip (80-kN) single-axle load applications per truck

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Example 3:
 A two-lane major rural highway has an AADT of 4000

during the first year of traffic, 25% trucks, 4% annual growth rate, and 50% on the design lane . If the distribution of trucks is the same as shown in Table below, compute the ESAL for a design period of 20 years.
Single Unit Trucks
2 axle 4 tire

Percentage of truck traffic
73

Truck factor
0.017

2 axle, 6 tires
3 axle or more Multiple Unit Trucks 4 axles or less 5 axles
25

10
4 2 10 1

0.41
1.26 0.37 1.67 2.21

6 axles or more

Solution
Single Unit Trucks 2 axle 4 tire 2 axle, 6 tires 3 axle or more Percentage of truck traffic (2) 73 10 4 Truck factor (3) 0.017 0.41 1.26

∑truck factor (2*3)
0.01241 0.041 0.0504

Multiple Unit Trucks 4 axles or less 5 axles 6 axles or more 2 10 1 ∑
 G (4%,20Years) =29.78  ESAL = 0.3* (4000*0.25)*29.78*365*0.5*1=1630455 =1.63*10^6
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0.37 1.67 2.21

0.0074 0.167 0.0221 0.30031

Dr. Mohamed El-Sharkawi

Example 4
 A four-lane two way major rural highway has an AADT

of 2000 (2 directions traffic) during the first year of traffic, 20% trucks, 4% annual growth rate, and directional distribution factor of 0.6. If the distribution of trucks is 25% truck 1, 35% truck 2, 40% of truck 3 (the trucks are shown in the figure below). Which one of the trucks has the most damaging impact on the flexible pavement according to AASHTO factors? Compute the ESAL for a design period of 20 years.

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Dr. Mohamed El-Sharkawi

42000

24000

4000

42000

24000

4000

Truck 2

Truck 1

42000

24000

4000

Truck 3

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Dr. Mohamed El-Sharkawi

Solution
Truck 1 Load 4000 (single) 24000 (single) 42000 (tandem) Truck factor 1

EALF 0.002 3.03 2.51 5.542

Truck 2 Load 4000 (single) 24000 (single) 42000 (tridem) Truck factor 2

EALF 0.002 3.03 0.597 3.629

Truck 3 Load 4000 (single) 24000 (tandem) 42000 (tandem) Truck factor 3
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EALF 0.002 0.26 2.51 2.772

TF = 5.542*0.25 + 3.629*0.35 +2.772*0.4 = 3.76
Dr. Mohamed El-Sharkawi

Solution
 T =20%  Tf =3.76  ADT=2000  G= 29.78  D=0.6  L= from 80 to 100% use L = 0.9  ESAL =0.2*3.76*2000*29.78*0.6*0.9*365 = 8,827,936

= 8.9*10^6 = 8.9 million ESAL

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References
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Huang, Y. H. Pavement Analysis and Design. Second Edition ASPHALT PAVING DESIGN GUIDE. Published by the Asphalt Paving Association of Iowa Washington State Department of Transportation's Pavement Guide Interactive http://training.ce.washington.edu/wsdot/ Course Notes, Pavement Design. North Dakota State University Asphalt Institute http://www.asphaltinstitute.org/public/engineering/Maintenance_Rehab/Maint_Rehab _FAQs.asp http://pavementinteractive.org Geotechnical Aspects of Pavements Reference Manual, U.S. Department of Transportation Publication No. FHWA NHI-05-037, Federal Highway Administration, May 2006 http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/engineering/geotech/pubs/05037/05037.pdf

 

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