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When an induction motor is started directly on line, it takes a starting current 6(six) times the full load current. For large motor the high starting current causes voltage drop in the power system which may trip other motors in the systems. The utility companies restrict the rating of the motor which can be started directly on line. To reduce the starting current of an induction motor the voltage across the motor need to be reduced. This can be done by autotransformer starter, star-delta starter or resistor starter. Now-adays VF drive used extensively for speed control serves this purpose also. For star-delta connection the motor windings are connected in star during starting. The connection is changed to delta when the motor starts running. The starting current and starting torque of DOL started and start-delta connected motors are as follows: Starting method Starting current Starting Torque DOL 6I 2T Star-delta (1/root3)^2x6I (1/root3)^2x2T =2I =2T/3 Thus it can be seen that the starting current and starting torque are both reduced. The motor should be capable to start at such reduced torque with load.

**When the windings of a 3-phase motor are connected in STAR:
**

the voltage applied to each winding is reduced to only (1 /.'/'3) [1 divided by root three] of the voltage applied to the winding when it is connected directly across two incoming power service line phases in DELTA. the current per winding is reduced to only (1 /.'/'3) [1 divided by root three] of the normal running current taken when it is connected in DELTA. so, because of the power law V [in volts] x I [in amps] = P [in watts], the total output power when the motor is connected in STAR is: PS = (1 /.'/'3 VL) x (1 /.'/'3 ID) = 1/3 [one third] PD where VL is the phase line voltage ID is the line current drawn in DELTA PS is the total power the motor can produce when running in STAR PD is the total power it can produce when running in DELTA.

and their frequency and amplitudes are equal. and i31p are the phase currents. i23p. ν1p. the voltages differ in phase 120°. Figure 3-18. or Δ-Δ connections are present. i2p.42 Equation 3. The phase voltages of a three-phase supply can be given as Equation 3. 3-18. ν1s. ν23p. Two three-phase load connections that are commonly used in the ac circuits were given in Fig..and Delta-Connected Loads A three-phase ac system consists of three voltage sources that supply power to loads connected to the supply lines. i2L. the analysis of such a circuit can be simplified on a per-phase basis. shown in Fig. and ν31 are the line-to-line voltages (or simply line voltages). and ν12. ν3s. NEWWWWWWWWWWWW…. and i3L are the line currents. i3p. It is very convenient to carry out the calculations in a per-phase star-connected line to neutral basis. the parameters on Δ side(s) are transformed to Y-connection. ν3p. If the three-phase loads are balanced (each having equal impedances). i1p.43 Equation 3. 3-18. and computations are carried out. ν23. Y-Δ. a further disadvantage when the motor is connected in STAR is that its total output torque is only 1/3 of the total torque it can produce when running in DELTA. ν2s. Two common balanced-load connections in three-phase ac circuits. This follows from the relationship that the per-phase real power and reactive power are one-third of the total real power and reactive power. In three-phase systems. 3-15. In this section. Similarly. In Fig. i12p. the voltage and the current functions are examined while the three-phase loads are connected to the star-connected three-phase supplies.6 Voltage and Currents in Star. 3. and i1L. ν2p.44 . and ν31p are the phase voltage functions. which can be connected to either delta (Δ) or star (Y) configurations as stated previously. ν12p. If Δ-Y. respectively.

Refer to Fig. Voltage and current relationships in three-phase circuits. 3-18.47 A three-phase load is balanced when the line voltages are equal in magnitude and mutually displaced in phase by 2π/3 in radians and the line currents are equal.In the case of sinusoidal steady-state operation. which can be obtained from the phasor quantities or the time-varying expressions of the voltages and the currents. and study Table 3-1. Star-Connected Balanced Load Delta-Connected Balanced Load Phase current: I1p = I1L. Table 3-1. Equation 3. I2p = I2L. which depend on the phase angle of the balanced load inductances. The voltage and current relationships in three-phase ac circuits can be simplified by using the rms values (I and V) of the quantities. similar expressions can be written for the current waveforms with identical phase difference θ. there is a very simple relationship between the line and phase quantities. I3p = I3L Line current: IL = I1L = I2L = I3L Phase current: Line current: IL = I1L = I2L = I3L and Ip = I12p = I23p = I31p Phase voltage: Line voltage: VL = V12 = V23 = V31 Phase voltage: V12 = V12p. V31 = V31p Line voltage: VL = V12 = V23 = V31 and . V23 = V23p.46 Equation 3.45 Equation 3. In a balanced three-phase system.

and investigate the following questions. The front panel and brief user guide of Voltage and currents in delta/star loads. The VI provides a visual aid to understanding the definitions of phase and line voltages and phase and line currents in the delta. In addition. 2: Study the concept in question 1 this time for the line currents and the phase currents in the case of a delta-connected three-phase load.2 Self-Study Questions Open and run the custom-written VI named Voltage and currents in delta/star loads.6.vi. 1: Show that the line voltage Vline in the three-phase system is times the phase voltage Vphase. 3-19 shows the front panel of the VI named Voltage and currents in delta/star loads.vi. 3. 3. 4: Use the single-phase equivalent circuit in each load configuration and calculate the phase . the instantaneous voltage and currents are displayed in the front panel of the VI. 3: In question 2.Star-Connected Balanced Load Delta-Connected Balanced Load Vp = V1p = V2p = V3p The voltages across the impedances and the currents in the impedances are 120° out of phase. Figure 3-19.1 Virtual Instrument Panel Fig.and the star-connected ac systems that contain the loads as well as the ac supplies.6. find out the angles in degrees between the phase and the line quantities on the supply side and the load side.vi in the Chapter 3 folder. and verify the result by using the VI for a given phase voltage.

line voltage) and 50 Hz threephase star-connected supply.2 Volts.currents for given values of the voltage and the load impedance. is 400/SQRT(3) or 231. and in a different way. Verify the results analytically. the voltage across the resistors. If the line voltage is 415 V (rms) and the line current is 100 A (rms). 6: Three load resistors are connected in the delta form. The phase to ground voltage.456/3 or 4. and therefore. Let's try this.46 A (rms). 120 V (rms) are connected in the delta form. The single phase apparent power will be 12. but let's try. We will do this by magnitude only as the motor is balanced.2/18 . 5: Three incandescent lamps rated 60 W. and the resistance of each resistor. Let us now convert the problem to single phase (and in a Wye configuration by the way) where three of these single phase circuits will amount to the three phase circuit from whence we started. Calculate the phase and line currents. calculate the current in each resistor. we need not use the phasors. The impedance of this phase load (Phase voltage divided by Phase current) is 231. It is so difficult to do this without a blackboard or graphics. A7: Answer: 5. 7: Each phase of a delta-connected load comprises a resistor of 50 Ω and a capacitor of 50 μF in series. 9.152 VA per phase. as you stated. The three-phase load is connected to a 440 V (rms.46 A (rms) Additional…………. 456 VA for three phases. What line voltage is needed so that the lamps burn normally (at rated conditions)? What are the line and phase currents in the circuit? Hint: First calculate and set the resistance of the lamps using the controls provided. The three phase motor draws 18 line amperes with a line to line voltage of 400 Volts. This amounts to an apparent power of SQRT(3) * 400 * 18 or 12.

2 Volts per phase directly across a 12. (Figure below) .83*12. E. but indeed the impedance.83*12.456 VA of Apparent power for three phase. the product of which is calculated by VL-L * I Phase or line * SQRT(3) and has three 38. The equation to transform each impedance from Wye per phase (which we just calculated) to Delta per leg is Rda = (Rw1*Rw2+Rw1*Rw3+Rw2*Rw3)/Rw3 or in our case Rda = (12. you will also note it is composed of three single phase circuits of 231. you will have a three phase circuit with 400 volts line to line and 18 Amperes in each line which amounts to 12.83 Ohm impedance which also results in a line current of 18 Amperes.83+12. the product of which is calculated by 3 * VL-G * I Phase or line and has three 12. Therefore the motor consumes 12.83)/12. I noted I used the wrong side of my slide rule to calculate Cos(-85) and came up with 0.49 Ohm impedances configured in Delta on a 400 Volt source which draws 18 Amperes.83*12. If you connect three of these circuits together with a common neutral. used for the Delta configuration is three times the impedance used for the Wye configuration.49 Ohms (your Delta impedance per leg).83 = 38. The power is the same.87 in my original reply rather than the 0.83 Ohm impedances configured in Wye on a 400 Volt source which draws 18 Amperes. Or Therefore the motor consumes 12.456 VA (our original problem).book…… Three-phase Y and Delta configurations Initially we explored the idea of three-phase power systems by connecting three voltage sources together in what is commonly known as the “Y” (or “star”) configuration. If you look at the very same circuit. the impedances have the three to one relationship.83 Ohms/phase. The power to each motor (Delta or Wye) and whether (Apparent.Amperes or 12. Real or Reactive) Power is independent of the internal connection.83+12.087 it should be. My apologies. This configuration of voltage sources is characterized by a common connection point joining one side of each source. There is a transformation equation for Wye to Delta connected impedances which you can verify on-line quite easily.456 VA of Apparent power for three phase.

. Three-phase. the “Y” configuration becomes more obvious in Figure below. there may or may not (Figure below) be a neutral wire attached at the junction point in the middle. while the windings themselves are typically called phases. If we draw a circuit showing each voltage source to be a coil of wire (alternator or transformer winding) and do some slight rearranging. The three conductors leading away from the voltage sources (windings) toward a load are typically called lines. as discussed earlier. In a Yconnected system. four-wire “Y” connection uses a "common" fourth wire.Three-phase “Y” connection has three voltage sources connected to a common point. although it certainly helps alleviate potential problems should one element of a three-phase load fail open.

Line voltage refers to the amount of voltage measured between any two line conductors in a balanced three-phase system. the line voltage is roughly 208 volts. When we measure voltage and current in three-phase systems. we need to be specific as to where we're measuring. The terms line current and phase current follow the same logic: the former referring to current through any one line conductor. . three-wire “Y” connection does not use the neutral wire. Phase voltage refers to the voltage measured across any one component (source winding or load impedance) in a balanced three-phase source or load. the line voltage will be equal to the phase voltage times the square root of 3: However. and the latter to current through any one component.” for its geometric resemblance to the Greek letter of the same name (Δ). Take close notice of the polarity for each winding in Figure below. and line currents equal to phase currents. Another configuration is known as the “Delta. If the Y-connected source or load is balanced. For the circuit shown above. With the above circuit. Y-connected sources and loads always have line voltages greater than phase voltages. the “Y” configuration is not the only valid one for connecting three-phase voltage source or load elements together. the phase voltage is 120 volts.Three-phase.

One quick check of this is to use Kirchhoff's Voltage Law to see if the three voltages around the loop add up to zero. however. Another way to verify the fact that these three voltage sources can be connected together in a loop without resulting in circulating currents is to open up the loop at one junction point and calculate voltage across the break: (Figure below) . our KVL expression looks something like this: Indeed. three-wire Δ connection has no common. Due to the phase angles of these three voltage sources.Three-phase. they do add up to zero. Starting with the top winding and progressing counter-clockwise. then there will be no voltage available to push current around and around that loop. If they do. this is not the case. At first glance it seems as though three voltage sources like this would create a short-circuit. electrons flowing around the triangle with nothing but the internal impedance of the windings to hold them back. if we add these three vector quantities together. and consequently there will be no circulating current.

telling us that no current will circulate within the triangular loop of windings when that connection is made complete. we turn to its practical use as a source of power in threephase circuits. Not surprisingly. our KVL equation looks like this: Sure enough. there will be zero voltage across the break. the line voltage will be equal to the phase voltage. Conversely. the resulting equations for a Δ configuration are as follows: Let's see how this works in an example circuit: (Figure below) . the line current will be the vector sum of the two joining phase currents. Having established that a Δ-connected three-phase voltage source will not burn itself to a crisp due to circulating currents. Because each pair of line conductors is connected directly across a single winding in a Δ circuit. Starting with the right winding (120 V ∠ 120o) and progressing counter-clockwise. because each line conductor attaches at a node between two windings.Voltage across open Δ should be zero.

This is not necessary (or even possible!) in a Δ-connected circuit. One distinct advantage of a Δ-connected system is its lack of a neutral wire.34 amps. With each load resistance receiving 120 volts from its respective phase winding at the source.The load on the Δ source is wired in a Δ. in order to keep the phase voltages at the load from changing. it is still less than the 1000+ pounds of copper required for a singlephase system delivering the same power (30 kW) at the same voltage (120 volts conductorto-conductor). necessitating thicker. The answer is no. a neutral wire was needed in case one of the phase loads were to fail open (or be turned off). which is substantially more than the line currents in the Y-connected system we looked at earlier. more costly wire. One might wonder if we've lost all the advantages of three-phase power here. given the fact that we have such greater conductor currents.33 amps: So each line current in this three-phase power system is equal to 144. With a Yconnected system. Although this circuit would require three number 1 gage copper conductors (at 1000 feet of distance between source and load this equates to a little over 750 pounds of copper for the whole system). the current in each phase of this circuit will be 83. With each load phase element directly .

The only consequence of a source winding failing open for a Δ-connected source is increased phase current in the remaining windings. The only difference is extra current in the remaining functional source windings.connected across a respective source phase winding. With a Δ-connected load. A Y-connected load suffers an even worse fate (Figure below) with the same winding failure in a Y-connected source . two of the resistances suffer reduced voltage while one remains at the original line voltage. 208. Perhaps the greatest advantage of the Δ-connected source is its fault tolerance. the phase voltage will be constant regardless of open failures in the load elements. It is possible for one of the windings in a Δ-connected three-phase source to fail open (Figure below) without affecting load voltage or current! Even with a source winding failure. Open “Y” source winding halves the voltage on two loads of a Δ connected load. the line voltage is still 120 V. Compare this fault tolerance with a Y-connected system suffering an open source winding in Figure below. and load phase voltage is still 120 V.

Phase current is the current through any one component comprising a three-phase source or load. In this case.Open source winding of a "Y-Y" system halves the voltage on two loads. line voltage is equal to phase voltage. line voltage is equal to phase voltage times the square root of 3. In balanced Δ circuits. and looses one load entirely. Line current is the current through any one line between a three-phase source and load.g. while line current is equal to phase current times the square root of 3. Δ-connected sources are preferred for reliability. 120/208) or preferred for lower line currents. However. if dual voltages are needed (e. In balanced “Y” circuits. Y-connected systems are the configuration of choice. two load resistances suffer reduced voltage while the third loses supply voltage completely! For this reason. Line voltage is the voltage measured between any two lines in a three-phase circuit. REVIEW: The conductors connected to the three points of a three-phase source or load are called lines. while line current is equal to phase current. The three components comprising a three-phase source or load are called phases. . Phase voltage is the voltage measured across a single component in a three-phase source or load.

Δ-connected three-phase voltage sources give greater reliability in the event of winding failure than Y-connected sources. However. Y-connected sources can deliver the same amount of power with less line current than Δ-connected sources. .

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