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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 28, NO. 6, JUNE 2013

Photovoltaic Generator as an Input Source for Power Electronic Converters
Lari Nousiainen, Student Member, IEEE, Joonas Puukko, Student Member, IEEE, Anssi M¨ ki, Student Member, IEEE, a Tuomas Messo, Student Member, IEEE, Juha Huusari, Student Member, IEEE, Juha Jokipii, Student Member, IEEE, Jukka Viinam¨ ki, Diego Torres Lobera, Student Member, IEEE, Seppo Valkealahti, Member, IEEE, a and Teuvo Suntio, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract—A photovoltaic (PV) generator is internally a powerlimited nonlinear current source having both constant-currentand constant-voltage-like properties depending on the operating point. This paper investigates the dynamic properties of a PV generator and demonstrates that it has a profound effect on the operation of the interfacing converter. The most important properties an input source should have in order to emulate a real PV generator are defined. These properties are important, since a power electronic substitute is often used in the validation process instead of a real PV generator. This paper also qualifies two commercial solar array simulators as an example in terms of the defined properties. Investigations are based on extensive practical measurements of real PV generators and the two commercial solar array simulators interfaced with dc–dc as well as three- and single-phase dc–ac converters. Index Terms—Converter, inverter, photovoltaics (PVs), solar array simulator, validation.

I. INTRODUCTION

I

NSTALLED capacity of photovoltaic generator (PVG)based energy systems is rapidly growing due to advantageous public and political climates [1]. Such systems are interfaced to dc or ac loads with power electronic devices, which have been shown to cause, e.g., harmonic distortion, reduce damping in the utility grid, and suffer from reliability problems [2]–[5]. These phenomena can even lead to instability or production outages and are expected to increase as the penetration depth of distributed generation grows [6], [7]. Therefore, an extensive validation process, which characterizes dynamic properties of the proposed interfacing converters, is of utmost importance to overcome or minimize the problems. The input source has a significant effect on converter dynamics, as discussed in detail in [8]–[10]. A PVG is internally a

power-limited nonlinear current source having both constantcurrent (CC) and constant-voltage (CV) like properties depending on the operating point [11], which implies that the dynamics of a photovoltaic interfacing converter (PVIC) cannot be validated solely by using a voltage or current source as the input source. Therefore, the validation should be performed using a real PVG as the input source. If a real PVG is to be used in the PVIC validation process, an artificial light source providing controllable illumination should be used to guarantee the repeatability of the measurements. This can be accomplished cost effectively in small scale, e.g., for a single PV module, but is impractical for larger systems. Therefore, a PVG is usually replaced with a power electronic substitute, i.e., a solar array simulator, so that time-invariant conditions can be guaranteed in the validation. This paper presents the dynamic properties of a real PVG, defines the most significant parameters that will have an effect on PVIC dynamics, and demonstrates these effects by experimental measurements based on dc–dc as well as singleand three-phase dc–ac converters. This paper also qualifies two commercial solar array simulators as an example in terms of the defined properties and analyzes the differences between the solar array simulators and real PVGs both in time and frequency domains. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. The dynamic properties of PVGs are reviewed in Section II. The effects of PVG on the interfacing converter dynamics are presented in Section III. Section IV compares the dynamic properties of the commercial solar array simulators with real PVGs and defines the characteristics an input source should have in order to emulate a real PVG. Conclusions are drawn in Section V. II. DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF A PV GENERATOR

Manuscript received April 10, 2012; revised June 12, 2012; accepted July 10, 2012. Date of current version December 7, 2012. Recommended for publication by Associate Editor Q.-C. Zhong. L. Nousiainen and J. Puukko were with the Department of Electrical Energy Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Finland. They are now with ABB Drives, Helsinki, Finland (e-mail: lari.nousiainen@fi.abb.com; joonas.puukko@fi.abb.com). A. M¨ ki, T. Messo, J. Jokipii, J. Viinam¨ ki, D. T. Lobera, a a S. Valkealahti, and T. Suntio are with the Department of Electrical Energy Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland (e-mail: anssi.maki@tut.fi; tuomas.messo@tut.fi; juha.jokipii@tut.fi; jukka.viinamaki@ tut.fi; diego.torres@tut.fi; seppo.valkealahti@tut.fi; teuvo.suntio@tut.fi). J. Huusari is with ABB Corporate Research, Baden-D¨ ttwil, Switzerland a (e-mail: juha.huusari@ch.abb.com). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPEL.2012.2209899

A simplified electrical equivalent circuit of a PV cell composes of a photocurrent source with parallel-connected diode and parasitic elements, as depicted in Fig. 1 [11], [12]. In Fig. 1, ipv and upv are the output current and voltage of the PV cell, respectively, iph is the photocurrent, which is linearly proportional to the irradiance, icpv is the current through the shunt capacitance cpv , and irsh is the current through the shunt resistance rsh . The shunt and series resistances rsh and rs represent various nonidealities in a real PV cell. The relation between diode current id and voltage ud can be modeled with an exponential equation, yielding a nonlinear resistance rd that can be used instead of the diode symbol in Fig. 1 [11], [13]. The

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if the direction of positive current flow is defined out of the device as in Figs. According to circuit theory and control engineering principles. and open circuit (OC).0 1.2 0. III. PVG impedances at short circuit (SC). by scaling model parameters. 2 is negative and has to be multiplied by “−1” to obtain the correct impedance.) CV ipv MPP 10 10 1. The measured static and dynamic characteristics of a PV module are shown in Fig. this means that an input-voltage-controlled converter (as usually adopted in PV applications for enabling maximum power transfer [16]) has to be analyzed as a current-fed system (i. Simplified electrical equivalent circuit of a photovoltaic cell.u. Static and dynamic terminal behavior of a PVG. The same power stage can be supplied either by a source that has current or voltage-source-like properties.NOUSIAINEN et al. i. respectively. which in turn define the possible feedback variables. 45 0 −45 −90 1 10 10 2 OC MPP SC 10 10 Frequency (Hz) 3 4 5 6 CC 1. input current is an uncontrollable input variable and input voltage is a controllable output variable) as will be done in the following sections. 2.: PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATOR AS AN INPUT SOURCE FOR POWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS 3029 ipv Magnitude (dBΩ) 60 40 20 0 −20 1 10 90 SC MPP OC 10 2 id iph icpv irsh rsh rs upv ud rd cpv 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 Phase (deg) Fig. In CV region. as presented in more detail in Section III.0 0.2 Fig.6 0. power.u. (2) slightly unCC region. DC–AC Interfacing Figs. The static current–voltage and power–voltage characteristics show that the PV module is a highly nonlinear current source having limited output voltage and power. In order to maximally utilize the energy of solar radiation by using a PVG. in turn. 4 and 5 show conventional single.) values. 2 as normalized (p. A.2 Current.and three-phase VSItype PV inverters usually applied in interfacing PVGs to the where Ipv and Upv are the MPP current and voltage. 1 and 2.2 0. The converter dynamics are completely different in these two cases.) rpv ppv Fig. since rd rsh derestimates cpv since rd rsh and rs are in the same order of magnitude. the input variables are uncontrollable and only the output variables can be controlled.0 0. resistance and capacitance (p. The dynamic capacitance. one-diode model can also be used to model the operation of a PV module. Fig. 3) as cpv ≈ 1 2πrpv f−3dB (2) cpv 1. but is still sufficiently accurate.u.6 0. the analyzed or measured output impedance of a device is −Z. MPP. 3 and is the most significant variable that will have an effect on the PVIC dynamics. The dynamic behavior of the PV module is shown in Fig. 1. as presented in [12]. The dynamic resistance represents the low-frequency value of the impedance shown in Fig. According to Kirchhoff’s laws.8 Voltage (p. a series connection of PV cells. the dynamic resistance rpv (or the incremental resistance as named in [15]) is in fact positive since Δupv /Δipv in Fig...0 0. In practice.e.4 0.8 0. It has been shown in detail in [8]–[10] that the input source has a profound effect on the dynamics of the converter connected to it. Equation (2) gives a good estimate for cpv in the rs . which are nonlinear and dependent on the operating point. the operating point has to be kept at the maximum power point (MPP) in which dipv d(upv ipv ) dppv = = Ipv + Upv =0 dupv dupv dupv (1) where f−3dB is the cutoff frequency of the impedance magnitude curve.e.4 0. DYNAMIC EFFECTS ON THE CONVERTER Dynamic properties of a power electronic converter are determined not only by the power stage but also by the type of source and load subsystems. The measurement setup has been reported earlier in detail in [14]. 2 in terms of its dynamic resistance rpv = rd rsh + rs and capacitance cpv . Thus. 3. can be approximated from PVG impedance (see .

to model the effect of the source. NO. 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 + Z in ˆ Toi uo ˆ Gci d ˆ Gio iin ˆ Gco d + Phase (deg) ˆ iin ˆ io ˆ uin ˆ iinS ˆ uo Yo _ YS _ ˆ uo 270 180 90 0 −90 −180 −270 −360 0 10 CC MPP CV 10 1 10 10 Frequency (Hz) 2 3 10 4 ˆ d Fig. According to the notations of Figs. JUNE 2013 iin iC P L iL rL iP ˆ iin + io Z in ˆ Toi-d uod ˆ iod uL ˆ uod ˆ Gio-d iin ˆ ˆ ˆ Gcr-qd uoq Gco-d d d Gco-qd d q Yo-d uin uC rC uo ˆ uin ˆ iinS ˆ Toi-q uoq C N YS ˆ ioq ˆ Gci-d d d ˆ uoq ˆ Gio-q iin ˆ ˆ ˆ Gcr-dq uod Gco-dq d d Gco-q d q Yo-q ˆ _ Gci-q dq Fig. Linear small-signal model of a single-phase inverter [17]. 1 . VSI-type three-phase PV inverter. and prediction using (5) with dashed line.. (5) ZS = rs + rd rsh rs + rd rsh +scpv rs (rd rsh ) 1 = scpv 1 + scpv rs (rd rsh ) (3) The use of (5) instead of (4) is justified if the interfacing converter input capacitance Cin cpv . which typically applies. A uin uC B Lc n uc Magnitude (dBA) rC Lb C C uL 40 20 0 −20 −40 10 0 CV CC MPP N Fig. 4 and 5 as well as using YS = 1/ZS = 1/rpv . 8. . which confirms the analysis. 8 shows measured three-phase inverter control-to-outputcurrent transfer functions Gco-d compared with predictions obtained using either the measured source impedances or their low-frequency values. PVG impedance behaves as an RC circuit up to typical converter switching frequencies (c. According to Fig.e. 3. prediction using measured source impedance with dotted lines. as presented in Figs. Linear small-signal model of a three-phase inverter in synchronous reference frame [10]. 6. Three-phase inverter control-to-output-current transfer function G c o -d . VSI-type single-phase PV inverter.g. Fig. 6 and 7. 7. The results show high correlation. 1 by rp v which can be approximated by considering rs = 0 and rpv = rd rsh + rs as ZS ≈ rd rsh 1 1 ≈ rpv scpv scpv (4) and further at low frequencies by ZS ≈ rpv .a. The source impedance ZS can be given according to Fig. the control-to-output transfer functions Gco and Gco-d without the parasitic elements for . from [10] and [17].3030 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. iin iC P iP ˆ dd La iLa rLa iLb rLb iLc rLc ioa iob ioc ua ub ˆ dq Fig. utility grid. . Dynamic properties of these inverters can be analyzed by constructing small-signal models that describe the dynamics between the uncontrollable input variables and the controllable output variables. 28. e. (5). as linear small-signal models. i. VOL. Detailed modeling procedures for the single..and three-phase inverters can be found. 5. 4. Measurements with solid lines. The operating-point-dependent dynamic effect of a PVG can be taken into account by considering the source as a parallel connection of a current source iinS and source admittance YS . 100 kHz). Fig. 6.

which will change the location of the Gco and Gco-d zero in the complex plane as presented in (8) and verified by the experimental measurements from three-phase inverter presented in Fig. 11. DC–DC Interfacing Fig. (8) ipv + DC upv _ upv DC u ref pv iinv + uinv _ iac DC uac AC uinv iac AC grid MPPT Fig. (7) Fig. This is due to the fact that at MPP.. 4 and 5). a bandwidth over twice the grid fundamental frequency would be beneficial in single-phase applications in order to prevent the low-frequency dc-link-voltage (i. 9). The dc–dc converter is responsible for the maximumpower-point-tracking (MPPT) function by controlling its own input voltage..e. as discussed in [19] and [20]. can be obtained by linearizing the switchingfrequency-averaged model presented in [23] and solving the transfer functions between the input and output variables in the frequency domain. to the PVG. . Appearance of the RHP zero and the change of sign of the control-to-output-current transfer function means that the output current control cannot be stable both in the CC and CV regions of a PVG. provides perfect power decoupling). This will naturally cause design constraints in the input-voltage control. a cascaded control scheme (input-voltage output-current) is needed to enable the operation at all PVG operating points and to transfer maximum power in a reliable manner. which may be beneficial in case of partial shading conditions [21]. both the dc– dc and the dc–ac converters in PV applications control its own input voltage.e. they must be analyzed as current-fed current-output converters as previously discussed. when loaded by a voltage-type load (i.e. an inverter controlling its input voltage. Therefore. The dynamic resistance rpv is greater in magnitude than the static resistance in the CC region (CCR) and smaller in the CV region (CVR) of a PVG. which can increase the energy yield compared to single-stage single-phase inverters where the dc power fluctuates at twice the grid frequency [22]. uo in Fig. therefore. + ω2 + − + uC1 − rC1 C1 + uC2 − rC2 C2 + − uo Boost-type dc–dc converter with an input capacitor. The additional dc–dc stage enables the use of less seriesconnected PV modules compared to the single-stage inverters (see Figs.. the static input impedance of the PVIC) according to the maximum power transfer theorem [18] and (1).: PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATOR AS AN INPUT SOURCE FOR POWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS 3031 single. The control-to-input-voltage transfer function for the converter in Fig. as can be seen from Fig. 11.NOUSIAINEN et al. 9 without the parasitic elements can be given by Gci-dc = − Uo LC1 s2 + 1 1 rp v C 1 1 LC1 s+ . The RHP zero in the output-current-control loop will actually turn into an RHP pole in the input-voltage-control loop when the operating point is in the CC region of a PVG. as shown in detail in [8]–[10]. 10. Accordingly. The dynamics of the dc–dc converter.and three-phase inverters can be given by Gco = Uin L iin L iL rL iC2 io s− s2 + 1 C Ii n Uin − 1 rp v + iC1 + uL − 1 rp v C s+ D2 LC 1 C Ii n Uin (6) uin Gco-d = Uin L s s− s+ − 1 rp v ω2 rp v C s s2 + 1 rp v C 2 2 3 D d +D q 2 LC . In addition. thus enabling maximum power transfer. inverter input voltage) ripple from reflecting to the input terminals of the dc–dc converter and. 8 CVR: MPP: CCR: rpv < Uin /Iin ⇒ ωz < 0 rpv = Uin /Iin ⇒ ωz = 0 rpv > Uin /Iin ⇒ ωz > 0 LHP Origin RHP. and [17]. The VSI-type inverter has a similar cascaded control structure as in the single-stage conversion scheme. 9. 10. B. there exist no operating-pointdependent phase shift or zeros that would move between the left and right halves of the complex plane causing control system design constraints as discussed earlier. The dc–dc converter can be used as an upstream converter between a PVG and an inverter resulting in a two-stage conversion scheme. Typical two-stage grid interface for a PVG. the dynamic resistance of the PVG rpv coincides with the equivalent static loading resistance (i. Therefore.e. (9) According to (9) and Fig. Analysis of (6) and (7) reveals that a right-half-plane (RHP) zero appears and the sign of the transfer function changes when the operating point moves from the CV to the CC region of a PVG. 9 shows a dc–dc converter based on a conventional boost topology with an additional input capacitor. The only difference between different PVG operating points is the change in the damping of the resonance of Gci-dc .. The input-voltage control should be designed so that the bandwidth exceeds the MPPT-algorithm execution frequency. The dc–dc stage can also regulate its input voltage to practically pure dc (i. as presented in Fig.

The source-affected control-to-outputvoltage transfer function Gco-dc can be given according to [23] by GZ co-dc = − I i n s2 + C2 s3 + 1 C 1 rp v 1 C 1 rp v − Uin Ii n L s+ 1 C1 L − Uin Ii n C 1 L rp v s2 + C 1 D 2 +C 2 C1 C2 L s+ D C 1 C 2 L rp v . IV. The second light unit based on halogen lamps is designed to produced the same intensity for a 190-W PV module. VOL. input-voltage control can be realized in a reliable manner [16]. Control-to-input-voltage transfer function. which will be proven next. . (11) This implies that if the output of the dc–dc converter is to be controller. Two artificial light units were used to illuminate the reference PV modules. where input-voltage control is preferred over the open-loop-based MPPT [23]. on the other hand. The Analyzing (11) and Fig.3032 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. Some researchers claim that the dc–dc converter in the twostage conversion scheme could be used to control the dc-link voltage [24]–[26]. Also. 10 1 10 10 Frequency (Hz) 2 3 10 4 10 1 10 10 Frequency (Hz) 2 3 10 4 Fig. EXAMPLE SOLAR ARRAY SIMULATORS Properties of two different commercial solar array simulators from two different manufacturers were evaluated. In PV applications. the output control (whether output voltage or current) of the interfacing dc–dc boost converter cannot be designed to be stable at all PVG operating points. But a cascaded input-voltage output-voltage control scheme for the dc–dc converter cannot guarantee proper dc-link voltage for the VSI-type inverter. the control-to-output-current and voltage transfer functions share the same zeros and the following analysis is valid for both of the transfer functions. because the Gco-dc changes its sign between different operating regions and a low-frequency RHP zero appears. JUNE 2013 Magnitude (dBV) Magnitude (dBA) 40 20 0 CC CV pred. The open-circuit voltage. thus. 3) therefore. The transfer functions presented in [23] can be used to compute the control-to-output-voltage transfer function using the method presented in [27] as GZ co-dc = ˆo /d i ˆ uo ˆ GH = = co-dc H ˆ ˆo /ˆo Yo-dc i u d (10) where the superscript “H” denotes an H-parameter model (current-to-current converter) and “Z” denotes a Z-parameter model (current-to-voltage converter) [28]. 6. Accordingly. which means that the inverter controls only its output current. Fig. where the input current is the source-side input variable and the input voltage is the source-side output variable.and two-stage conversion schemes. Control-to-output-voltage transfer function. it can be concluded that each converter in the power processing chain have to control its input terminals if maximum power is to be supplied into the utility grid. 12 reveals that the transfer function has a low-frequency zero located on the RHP when the PVG is operating at voltages lower than the MPP. 60 40 20 0 −20 −40 0 10 180 90 0 −90 −180 −270 10 0 −20 0 10 180 90 0 −90 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 Phase (deg) Phase (deg) CC CV pred. The first light unit is a based on fluorescent lamps and is designed to produce radiation intensity of 500 W/m2 for a 30-W PV module. 2) the dc–ac converter has a cascaded input-voltage output-current control structure both in the single. 11. the input-current control is prone to saturation. it needs to control also its input. 28. the dc– dc and dc–ac converters in PV applications have to be analyzed as current-fed current-output converters. few key points can be outlined: 1) the dc–dc converter in the two-stage conversion scheme is responsible for the MPPT. Both of the modules operate at half the nominal power. 12. because two converters cannot control the same voltage. determining the grid current reference will be problematic. According to (10). Based on the previous analysis regarding dc–ac and dc–dc interfacing. This control scheme does not work when the intention is to deliver maximum power from the input source without compromising the stability of the system. Therefore. since the MPP current is close to the short-circuit current that is dependent on the irradiation level with relatively fast dynamics. and 4) the practical tests have to be carried out by using input source emulating properly the behavior of real PVG. NO. is dependent mostly on the temperature with negligibly slow dynamics.

The generator current exceeds the shortcircuit current value (which should be impossible based on the static I–V curve) because of the stored energy in the dynamic capacitance. 13. 30-W Module Emulation The evaluated commercial power electronic substitute (device A) has three different modes of operation: SAS. 1. Later on in the figures. The capacitance of the device A is considerably higher (up to 30 dBμF higher) than the capacitance of the real PVG and it does not show double exponential characteristics. as can be seen from Fig.6 0. Based on Fig. 15 presents the I–V curves of solar array simulator in SAS and table modes. In the fixed mode. as well as current and voltage at the MPP. Measured dynamic capacitances. the simulator is programmed using three reference points: short-circuit current. A. table and fixed modes. and thus also the dynamic resistance as was analyzed in Section II. Because rpv is presented in dB·Ω. Fig. as can be seen from Fig. The overshoot is considerably smaller with the real PVG (peak current 1. The same double exponential characteristics are also visible in Fig. It was stated earlier that the dynamic resistance of device A in the SAS mode is constant in the CV region. Fig.0 A. Constant dynamic resistance implies that the I–V curve is a straight line in the CV region. the device A produces similar double exponential characteristics in respect to rpv when it is used in the table mode.e. This indicates that the dynamic resistance of a real PVG can be emulated with higher precision by using the table mode. as can be noticed from Fig. The operating mode of device A does not affect the emulated dynamic capacitance. the device A produces I–V curve correctly. Measured dynamic resistances. the device A at the two different oper- ating modes will be referred to as “Table” and “SAS. In the SAS mode. It is worth noting that a solar array simulator can produce the dynamic resistance of a PVG correctly only if the simulator produces the I–V curve correctly when loaded with the specific power electronic device under test. 14. 13. it can be seen that the curve has two distinct slopes.NOUSIAINEN et al. the I–V curve is represented by voltage–current pairs with a limitation that the voltage points must be ascending and the current points descending. 16 and 17 present step-like load change from CV to CC region so that the power at initial and final operating points is the same. first solar array simulator. Figs.222 A) than with the device A (peak current . double exponential) model as opposed to the one-diode model of Fig. 15. a maximum voltage is given and the simulator operates as a voltage limited current source having rectangular I–V curve characteristics.2 SAS Table 0 5 10 Voltage (V) 15 20 0 0 5 10 Voltage (V) 15 20 Fig. which presents the measured dynamic capacitances. 14. was evaluated by using the 30-W and 190-W modules as references. device A. However. The second solar array simulator. 14..: PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATOR AS AN INPUT SOURCE FOR POWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS 3033 70 60 1 0.4 0. 15. it is clear that rpv would be best approximated with a two-diode (i.” Based on rpv of the real PVG.8 Resistance (dBΩ) 50 Current (A) PVG SAS Table 40 30 20 10 0 0. 13 and 14. The short-circuit current for the PVG and the device A model was 1. In the table mode. open-circuit voltage. was evaluated by using the 190-W module as a reference. In the table mode. Measured dynamic resistances and capacitances from the commercial PVG and device A are shown in Figs. the dynamic resistance of the device A used in the SAS mode is constant in the CV region. 13. device B. Solar array simulator I–V curve comparison. 30 20 Capacitance (dBμF) 10 0 −10 −20 −30 PVG SAS Table 0 5 10 Voltage (V) 15 20 Fig.

A solar array simulator should have similar passive-circuit-like characteristics. However. 3 and 18 show that the phase of the PVG impedance lies between ±90◦ . 18. JUNE 2013 u 5 V div 0V 60 40 20 0 −20 −40 10 0 Magnitude (dBA) CV CC i 0. Magnitude (dBΩ) 60 40 20 0 10 90 1 Table SAS CC PVG CV 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 45 0 −45 −90 1 10 10 2 10 10 Frequency (Hz) 3 4 10 5 10 6 Fig. 20. 18 presents the measured PVG and device A impedances in CC and CV regions of the I–V curve. the considerably higher capacitance of the solar array simulator has to be taken into account. This difference is visible in Fig. B. 19. 190-W Module Emulation The 190-W module and the devices A and B were interfaced with a boost–buck-type dc–dc converter shown in Fig. Figs. 2-kHz frequency. operating under input-voltage-feedback control. Control-to-output current transfer function comparison. in order to be justified as a substitute for the real PVG.526 A) since the dynamic capacitance of PVG is considerably smaller than that of the device A as discussed earlier. The high-frequency ripple in PVG current (see Fig. 9. 19. 28. Impedance comparison. Fig. Load step change in case of the PVG. Figs. It can be concluded by considering Figs. 0V iin i 0. the device A impedance does not show similar resistive–capacitive characteristics as the real PVG does. 18. Load step change in case of the device A in the table mode.5 A div L1 iCd iC1 Rd rC1 uC1 Cd C1 uL1 iL1 rL1 iC2 rC2 uC2 L2 uL2 iL2 rL2 io uo uin 0A 100 µs uCd C2 Fig.3034 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. 20. Fig. After the c. NO. which presents the measured control-to-output-current transfer function for the converter in Fig. 180 90 0 −90 −180 −270 10 0 Phase (deg) CC CV PVG Table 10 1 10 10 Frequency (Hz) 2 3 10 4 u 5 V div Fig. 16. device A shows PVG-like characteristics but with a higher capacitance up to c. Boost–buck-type dc–dc converter.5 A div 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 0A 100 µs Fig. 16) is due to the resonant inverters driving the fluorescent lamp unit. as in Fig. if the input capacitance of the converter and the dynamic capacitance of the solar array simulator are in the same order of magnitude or smaller. By considering the impedance in the CC region. VOL. 18. 2 kHz.a.a. 6. This effect should also be taken into account when validating time-domain behavior of interfacing converters. 13–16 compared the PVG and the electronic substitute in terms of rpv . 18 and 19 that the low-frequency value of the PVG impedance rpv is the major factor in determining the dynamic properties of the converter connected to a PVG as was discussed in Section III-A. The measurements are performed at the same operating points as the impedances in Fig. 1. A low-bandwidth (75 Hz) integral controller was used yielding a phase margin of Phase (deg) . 17. The impedance in the CV region correlates up to the same frequency range. and time-domain responses. cpv .

21. As can be seen. the behavior of the device B changes dramatically when the operating point moves to the CV region. as was the case also earlier. and thus. Input-voltage-reference ramp with the device A. Impedance comparison. 88◦ in the input-voltage-control loop. The phase of the device B impedance is similar to the CC region. It can be observed that both of the devices reproduce the dynamic resistance accurately (i. In current-fed systems. a phase difference of 180◦ . the ramp was applied with the PVG and device A.: PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATOR AS AN INPUT SOURCE FOR POWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS 3035 Magnitude (dB) 60 40 20 0 −20 10 540 1 CC u 5 V div CV i 1 A div u 2 3 4 5 6 5 V div 10 10 10 10 10 Phase (deg) 360 180 0 −180 1 10 10 PVG A B CV for device B 0A 0V 200 ms i 1 A div 2 10 10 Frequency (Hz) 3 4 10 5 10 6 Fig. A triangular input-voltage-reference ramp sweeping the operating points between the CC and CV regions was applied in the control system of the converter in Fig. Input impedance of the converter and output impedance of the device (Zin /Zo ) [30]. 20. B. 24. Accordingly. 21. The concept of minor-loop gain is typically used to study grid interactions between the inverters and the utility grid [6]. 22 and 23. However. . the interconnected system is unstable. while the phase difference exceeds 180◦ .e. This is due to the fact that both the source and load impedance (the converter input impedance is shown in Fig. Magnitude (dBΩ) Fig. low-frequency impedance). A resonance with 270◦ phase shift occurs approximately at 250 Hz. 18. violation of the stability criterion does not take place. the stability is studied based on inverse minor-loop gain 10 Frequency (Hz) 3 10 4 Fig. 40 CC 20 CV 0 Zin > Zo−B −20 1 10 450 360 270 180 90 0 −90 10 1 u 5 V div u i 1 A div 5 V div 10 2 10 3 10 4 Phase (deg) Zo−B Zin ≥ 180° < 180° 10 2 CV 0A 0V 200 ms i 1 A div CC Fig. 23. 22. The measured output impedances of the PVG and the devices A and B are shown in Fig. 24) phase lies between ±90◦ . Input-voltage-reference ramp with the PVG. the system is stable within the whole operating range and the reference ramp is reproduced nicely. It can be also observed that the phase of the PVG and device A impedances lies between ±90◦ within the whole operating region. but applies also in the PVG/converter interface. A parallel damping circuit comprising series connection of a capacitor Cd and a resistor Rd was connected in parallel with the converter input in order to minimize the resonant behavior of the converter. It can be deduced that the stability criterion will be violated in a PV system if |Zin /Zo | ≥ 1.. which again is higher than the capacitance of the real PVG. It is known that the stability and load interaction issues in a voltage-fed system can be studied by applying Nyquist stability criterion to the impedance ratio of the load and source subsystems known as minor-loop gain (Zo /Zin ) [29]. If the impedance ratio of an interconnected stable source and load subsystems does not satisfy the Nyquist stability criterion. which can lead to impedance-based stability problems when the interfacing converter is connected. In Figs.NOUSIAINEN et al. The capacitance of the device B is higher than the capacitance of device A. as in Fig.

K. design. Energy Rev. vol. indicating stable operation in the CC region. no. Power Electron. [5] M. Sun. Cespedes and J. Key points for the analysis. the properties of a PV generator have been analyzed analytically and with experimental measurements. 55. M. Expo. Sep. but a phase difference of 180◦ does not exist. Nov. This paper also qualified two commercial solar array simulators as an example in terms of the defined dynamic properties and analyzed the differences both in time and frequency domains between the substitutes and real PV generators. The dynamic resistance is greater in magnitude than the static resistance in the current region and lower in magnitude in the voltage region. The appearance of RHP zeros and poles and their effect on the control dynamics of PV converters are important to be taken into account if robust and stable PV power systems are to be designed. CA.. R. 7. JUNE 2013 u 5 V div u i 1 A div 5 V div 0A 0V 200 ms i 1 A div Fig. It was also noticed that in order to reproduce the PV generator characteristics with the highest precision.. 25.” IEEE Ind. 6–17. IEEE Energy Convers. “Global warming: Energy. Nov.and voltage-limited nonlinear current source having both CC. pp. which means that the phase of its output impedance stays within ±90◦ . The measured substitutes were shown to reproduce the dynamic resistance accurately although the dynamic capacitances were considerably higher and did not show similar properties as the PV generator capacitance. Vitelli. M.. 1971–1977. The emulator has to follow the same behavior. Congr. and M. Power Electron. as shown in Figs. pp. 1586–1593. Enslin and P. Electron. Zhao. 28. The dynamic resistance is known to equal the static resistance at the MPP. The dynamic resistance of a PV generator has profound effects on dynamic behavior of the interfacing converter. environmental pollution. Ind. Mar. and the impact of power electronics.. J. 2010. Jan. known as a solar array simulator. 2011. Veerachary. Mag.” in Proc. Sun. 3) The real PV generator shows passive-circuit-like behavior. Based on the investigations presented in this paper. no. H. Input-voltage-reference ramp with the device B. The capacitance of the simulators are typically higher than the capacitance of the PV generator. The current. It can be seen that the system is stable in the CC region but oscillates at the CV region when the same input-voltage-reference ramp was applied. are also operating-point-dependent nonlinear quantities. [4] J. “Renewable energy systems instability involving grid-parallel inverters. Sust. A real PV generator is usually replaced with a power electronic substitute. 2011. 3075–3078. This information is verified in the time domain in Fig.” Renew. Phoenix. thus. This property moves operating-pointdependent zeros and poles in the converter dynamics between the right and left halves of the complex plane according to the operating point of the PV generator. an input-side variable (current or voltage) must be controlled. 14. vol. “Reliability issues in photovoltaic power processing systems. pp. V. “Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems: technical and potential problems: A review. 2) The dynamic capacitance should be also emulated accurately enough though it is not as important as the emulation of the dynamic resistance. no. 2010. 25. The magnitude of the converter input impedance exceeds the source impedance magnitude after 100 Hz in the CV region. so that timeinvariant and controlled testing conditions can be guaranteed in the converter validation process without the need to invest in a large PV power plants. 26. Heskes. the most important properties the solar array simulator shall have in order to properly emulate a real PVG can be summarized as follows: 1) The low-frequency impedance. R. “Impedance-based stability criterion for grid-connected inverters. 112–129. [3] G.and CV-like properties depending on the operating point. [7] M. no. 11. VOL. 2008. NO. or the converter has to operate at open loop. AZ. 6. A. The properties of electronic substitutes should always be tested properly so that the same converter dynamics is reproduced with the substitute and the real PV generator. “Modeling and mitigation of harmonic resonance between wind turbines and the grid. A PV generator is internally a power. The dynamic properties of the generator. Bose. “Harmonic interaction between a large number of distributed power inverters and the distribution network.” in Proc. Electron.” IEEE Trans. i. Teodorescu. . G. Expo. 2009. Fig. 24th Annu. vol.3036 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS.” IEEE Trans. instability is predicted to occur in the CV region since phase difference of 180◦ is found at a higher frequency. Petrone. Feb. the converter must be analyzed in such a way that it is fed by a current source. 19. and 4) the nonideal PV generator source impedance has to be considered because of its profound effect on the interfacing converter dynamics. and testing of PV converters can be summarized as follows: 1) in order to transfer maximum power. Conf. which include the dynamic resistance and capacitance. 24 shows the converter input impedance Zin and the output impedance of the device B Zo-B in the CC and CV regions. 1.e. pp.. CONCLUSION In this paper. 6. 22 and 23. Power Electron.and voltage-source properties of the PV generator can also be justified by considering the dynamic resistance. the dynamic resistance and the I–V curve have to be emulated as accurately as possible. no. 3) in case of input-voltage-controlled converter. Palm Springs. Cespedes and J. pp. 2569–2580. This can affect the behavior of the converters having small input capacitor. Spagnuolo. Jul. vol. Sun. The output impedance of one of the substitutes was such that it made the solar array simulator/converter interface unstable. vol. pp.. 2109–2116. Eltawil and Z.” IEEE Trans.. 2) input-voltage-feedback control is the most feasible method to control a PV converter. [2] M. 1. A frequency range is found where Zin > Zo also in the CC region. [6] J.. 4. the I–V curve of the electronic substitute should be programmed using several current–voltage pairs if possible. IEEE Appl. pp. REFERENCES [1] B. 2004.

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Seppo Valkealahti (M’10) was born in Alavus. as well as practical switching-power-supply design issues.D. he worked at Fiskars Power Systems as a Design Engineer and R&D Manager.) degree in electrical engineering from the Tampere University of Technology. VOL. 6. in 2011.Sc.Sc. 2009) as well as two book chapters. he has been a Professor specializing in switched-mode power converter technologies first at the University of Oulu. Spain. Finland. he has been a Researcher with the Department of Electrical Energy Engineering. Huusari is a Member of the IEEE Power Electronics Society. Zaragoza. He also has one international patent application. Tampere. NO. His research interests include electric-powerproduction. and the IEEE Power Engineering Society.D. Switzerland. and in the Brookhaven National Laboratory in NY. Since 2012. in electrical engineering at the Tampere University of Technology. he joined the Tampere University of Technology. he will be with ABB Corporate Research in Baden-D¨ ttwil. Germany: Wiley-VCH. His current research interests include dynamic modeling. as well as interfacing of renewable energy sources.) degree in electrical engineering from the Tampere University of Technology. Finland. in 1981 and 1992. Juha Jokipii (S’11) received the M. in 1985. His current research interests include analysis and design of distributed maximum-power-point-tracking dc–dc converters. He has authored and co-authored 12 conference publications and five journal publications. the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. Jukka Viinam¨ ki received the B. and Ph.Sc. His research interests include power electronics. From the beginning of 2010. issues related to interfacing of photovoltaic generators.Sc. in 1983 and 1987. Tampere University of Technology. Tampere.Sc. dynamic modeling.) degree a in embedded systems from the Tampere University of Applied Sciences. Tampere University of Technology. the book Dynamic Profile of Switched-Mode Converter—Modeling. Since 1998. a a Jyv¨ skyl¨ . Prof. JUNE 2013 Juha Huusari (S’09) received the M. From 1991 to 1992. Spain. where he is currently working toward the Ph. Since the beginning of 2011. His current research interests include operation and modeling of photovoltaic power generators and maximum-power-point-tracking techniques. (Tech. Teuvo Suntio (M’98–SM’08) received the M. Finland. degrees in physics from the University of Jyv¨ skyl¨ . Prof. degree in the Department of Electrical Energy Engineering. he was a Teacher and Researcher of physics at the University of Jyv¨ skyl¨ . in a a the Riso National Laboratory in Denmark. As of August 2012. Valkealahti is a Member of the IEEE Power and Energy Society. Finland. control design. solar energy.Sc. in 2009. Dr. respectively.and consumption-related technologies. Finland. (Tech) and D. a a From 1982 to 1997. From 1992 to 1994. and the IEEE Circuits and Systems Society as well as a Member of the European Power Electronics and Drives Association. He has also served as a Guest EditorIn-Chief of the special issue on power electronics in photovoltaic applications in the IEEE TRANSACTION ON POWER ELECTRONICS. He received the M. he worked in ABB heading research and product development activities. From 1977 to 1991. He is currently working toward the M. Tampere. Tampere University of Technology. Electronics Laboratory. in 2009. he has served as an Associate Editor for the IEEE TRANSACTION ON POWER ELECTRONICS. three-phase dc/ac power supplies. (Tech. In the beginning of 2004. He is currently working toward the Ph. and interfacing of renewable energy systems. in 2010. he has been a Research Assistant in the Department of Electrical Energy Engineering. Analysis and Control (Weinhein.Sc. Tampere. (Tech. Tampere. he worked at Ascom Eergy Systems Oy as an R&D Manager. and from 1994 to 1998 he worked at Efore Oyj as a Consultant and Project Manager. Finland. degree in the Department of Electrical Energy Engineering. and from August 2004 in the Department of Electrical Energy Engineering.3038 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. From 1997 to 2004. (Tech) degrees in electrical engineering from the Helsinki University of Technology.D. Finland. where he is currently a Professor in the Department of Electrical Energy Engineering. Tampere. degree in industrial engineering from the University of Zaragoza. respectively. Finland. working as a a Scientist with photovoltaic electricity systems. . He holds several international patents and has authored about 180 international scientific journal and conference papers. Finland. 1955. Espoo. 28. and multiscientific problems related to power engineering. Suntio is a Member of the IEEE Power Electronics Society. His research interests include dc/dc converters and dc/ac inverters in photovoltaic applications. he was an entrepreneur in power electronics design consultancy. the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. optimal electromagnetic interference design of switched-mode power converters.Sc. Diego Torres Lobera (S’10) was born in Palma de Mallorca. He received the M. Tampere University of Technology.