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Definition: Permutation: An arrangement is called a Permutation. It is the rearrangement of objects or symbols into distinguishable sequences.

When we set things in order, we say we have made an arrangement. When we change the order, we say we have changed the arrangement. So each of the arrangement that can be made by taking some or all of a number of things is known as Permutation. Combination: A Combination is a selection of some or all of a number of different objects. It is an unordered collection of unique sizes.In a permutation the order of occurence of the objects or the arrangement is important but in combination the order of occurence of the objects is not important.

Formula: Permutation = nPr = n! / (n-r)! Combination = nCr = nPr / r! where, n, r are non negative integers and r<=n. r is the size of each permutation. n is the size of the set from which elements are permuted. ! is the factorial operator.

Example: take the number of permutations and combinations: n=3; r=1.

Step 1: Find the factorial of 7. 6! = 6*5*4*3*2*1 = 720 Step 2: Find the factorial of 6-4. (6-4)! = 2! = 2 Step 3: Divide 720 by 2. Permutation = 720/2 = 360 Step 4: Find the factorial of 4. 4! = 4*3*2*1 = 24 Step 5:Divide 360 by 24. Combination = 360/24 = 15

If represents the number of combinations of n items taken r at a time, what is the value of ?

This principle can be extended to any number of operations FACTORIAL ‘n’

The continuous product of the first ‘n’ natural numbers is called factorial n and is deonoted by n! i.e, n! = 1×2×3x ….. x(n-1)xn.

PERMUTATION
An arrangement that can be formed by taking some or all of a finite set of things (or objects) is called a Permutation. Order of the things is very important in case of permutation. A permutation is said to be a Linear Permutation if the objects are arranged in a line. A linear permutation is simply called as a permutation. A permutation is said to be a Circular Permutation if the objects are arranged in the form of a circle. The number of (linear) permutations that can be formed by taking r things at a time from a set of n distinct things is denoted by .%

NUMBER OF PERMUTATIONS UNDER CERTAIN CONDITIONS

1. Number of permutations of n different things, taken r at a time, when a particular thng is to be always included in each arrangement , is . 2. Number of permutations of n different things, taken r at a time, when a particular thing is never taken in each arrangement is . 3. Number of permutations of n different things, taken all at a time, when m specified things always come together is . 4. Number of permutations of n different things, taken all at a time, when m specified never come together is . 5. The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time when k(< r) particular things always occur is . 6. The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time when k particular things never occur is . 7. The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time when repetition of things is allowed any number of times is 8. The number of permutations of n different things, taken not more than r at a time, when each thing may occur any number of times is 9. The number of permutations of n different things taken not more than r at a time . .

+ PERMUTATIONS OF SIMILAR THINGS+ The number of permutations of n things taken all tat a time when p of them are all alike and the rest are all different is . If p things are alike of one type, q things are alike of other type, r things are alike of another type, then the number of permutations with p+q+r things is .

CIRCULAR PERMUTATIONS

}1. The number of circular permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time is 2. The number of circular permutations of n dissimilar things taken all at a time is . 3. The number of circular permutations of n things taken r at a time in one direction is .

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4. The number of circular permutations of n dissimilar things in clock-wise direction = Number of permutations in anticlock-wise direction =
COMBINATION A selection that can be called a Combination

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formed by taking some or all of a finite set of things( or objects) is

The number of combinations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time is denoted by 1. 2. .

each one of whom.The required number of ways of dividing 3n things into three groups of n each = . 5. q objects of second kind.The number of ways in which mn different items can be divided equally into m groups. 4.Number of ways in which (m+n) items can be divided into two unequal groups containing m and n items is .The number of ways in which (m+n+p) things can be divided into three different groups of m. The number of combinations of n things taken r at a time in which a)s particular things will always occur is b)s particular things will never occur is . can receive 0. c)s particular things always occurs and p particular things never occur is DISTRIBUTION OF THINGS INTO GROUPS 1. The number of ways of choosing r objects from p objects of one kind. . and so on is the coefficient of in the expansion . an p things respectively is 5. 2. . each one of whom receives at least one item is The number of positive integral solutions of the equation . The total number of ways of dividing n identical items among r persons. each containing n objects and the order of the groups is important is .When the order of groups has importance then the required number of ways= DIVISION OF IDENTICAL OBJECTS INTO GROUPS The total number of ways of dividing n identical items among r persons. 4.3. each containing n objects and the order of the groups is not important is 3.1.The number of ways in which mn different items can be divided equally into m groups.2 or more items is }The number of non-negative integral solutions of the equation .n.

%{font-family:verdana}+*TOTAL NUMB ER OF COMBINATIONS*+% %{font-family:verdana}1. SUM OF THE NUMBERS Sum of the numbers formed by taking all the given n digits (excluding 0) is Sum of the numbers formed by taking all the given n digits (including 0) is Sum of all the r-digit numbers formed by taking the given n digits(excluding 0) is % %{font-family:verdana}Sum of all the r-digit numbers formed by taking the given n digits(including 0) is DE-ARRANGEMENT: .% . things are alike of kind. is% .he number of ways of choosing r objects from p objects of one kind. things are alike of second kind…. things are alike of second kind….The total number of combinations of things taken any number at a time when things are alike of one kind. things are alike of kind. such that one object of each kind may be included is the coefficient of is the coefficient of in the expansion . is %{font-family:verdana}2.The total number of combinations of things taken one or more at a time when things are alike of one kind. and so on. q objects of second kind.

The number of polygons with k sides that can be formed by joining them is In a plane if there are n points out of which m points are collinear. In a plane if there are n points of which no three are collinear. The number of triangles that can be formed by joining them is . The number of polygons with k sides that can be formed by joining them is . 3. . . . The number of triangles that can be formed by joining them is . 3. Then the number of parts into which these lines divide the plane is equal to . . then 1. The number of straight lines that can be formed by joining them is 2. then 1. The number of straight lines that can be formed by joining them is 2. The number of ways in which n different letters can be placed in their n addressed envelopes so that al the letters are in the wrong envelopes is IMPORTANT RESULTS TO REMEBER . Number of rectangles of any size in a square of n x n is In a rectangle of p x q (p < q) number of rectangles of any size is In a rectangle of p x q (p < q) number of squares of any size is n straight lines are drawn in the plane such that no two lines are parallel and no three lines three lines are concurrent.The number of ways in which exactly r letters can be placed in wrongly addressed envelopes when n letters are placed in n addressed envelopes is .

Then there are n .4 Counting. But some of the aspects of counting are not simple. we need to use some mathematical skills to find out the answer. with m possible outcomes for the first procedure and n possible outcomes for the second. Permutations and Combinations Basics of Counting Permutations r-permutations Combinations Basics of Counting People may think that counting is easy. In this case. and m < n. If the two sets of possible outcomes are disjoint.m + 1 elements in the list.) There are two basic counting principles: Sum Rule Suppose that an operation can be performed by either of two different procedures. Consider counting the number of elements in a list.0 + 1 = 100 elements. from m to ninclusive. For example. where each element has an index beginning with some integer m and ending with some integer n. especially counting a large number of elements.SECTION 3. if the first index is 0. This method also works for counting a certain number of elements from only part of the list (for example. 12 and 43. the number of elements between index nos. and certainly sometimes it is. and the last indexed element is 99. then the number of possible . then you have 99 .

and choose a pair of shoes. 8 pairs of pants and three pairs of shoes. Consider the following examples: Example A scholarship is available. . Therefore. How many different choices are there for this student if there are 38 qualified students from the Mathematics Department. choosing a pair of pants has 8 possible outcomes. Choosing a shirt has 10 possible outcomes (as he has ten shirts!). 45 qualified students from the Computer Science Department and 27 qualified students from the Engineering Department? Solution: The procedure of choosing a student from the Mathematics Department has 38 possible outcomes. and the student to receive this scholarship must be chosen 1: from the Mathematics. Computer Science. are possible? Solution: We have to consider three steps: choose a shirt. . one pair of shoes and one hat. consisting of one shirt.. Question : How many different outfits... the second step can be performed in n2 ways (ignoring how the first step was performed). or the Engineering Department.. and the procedure of choosing a student from the Engineering Department has 27 possible outcomes. the procedure of choosing a student from the Computer Science Department has 45 possible outcomes. Product Rule Suppose that an operation consists of k steps and: the first step can be performed in n1 ways. and choosing a pair of shoes has 3 possible outcomes. one pair of pants and one pair of shoes. * nk ways.. Then the whole operation can be performed in n1 * n2 * . consisting of one shirt. one pair of pants.. So the number of different outfits is 10 * 8 * 3 = 240... Example A man has 10 shirts. there are (38 + 45 + 27 ) 110 possible choices for the student to receive the scholarship.outcomes for the operation is m + n. and the kth step can be performed in nk ways.. How many different 2: outfits. . are possible if he has bought two hats? Click here for answer. choose a pair of pants. ...

then there are n possible choices for the first element.2) * .1) * (n . there are n * (n .. 2nd step: choose the second element. there are n-2 possible choices remaining. there are n-1 possible choices remaining. cab. bca. 3rd step: choose the third element. there is only one choice left in the set.Permutations DEFINITIONS Permutation Given n different elements in a set. If there are n elements. cba Imagine that we have a set of n elements. Since one element has already been chosen and placed. * 2 * 1 ways to perform the entire operation. b and c has six permutations.. how can we find the number permutations of the set? Try to view creating a permutation as an n-step operation: 1st step: choose the first element. In other words.. abc. the set of elements a.. acb. For example.. r). any ordered arrangement of these elements is called a permutation. Permutations are arrangements of the objects within a set. Since two elements have already been chosen and placed. Hence by the product rule. nth step: choose the nth element. r-permutations .. there are n! permutations of a set of n elements. r-permutation An r-permutation of a set of n elements is an ordered selection of r elements taken from the set of n elements.... bac. . It is denoted by P(n. Since n-1 elements have already been chosen and placed for the preceding steps.

If we are given a set of n elements.1) * (n .Now.. and c. P(n. b. rth step: choose the rth element...2) * ..1) * (n . P(n. 2nd step: choose the second element. r) = n * (n .. * (n . * (n . Since two elements have already been chosen and placed.....r + 1) ways to perform the entire operation. 3rd step: choose the third element.. what is the r-permutation of the set? 1st step: choose the first element. ba. .. Click here for explanation. ac This is called a 2-permutation of the set {a..r + 1).1) * (n . there are n-2 possible choices remaining.r + 1) or equivalently.. there are clearly n . ca. .. there are n-1 possible choices remaining. ab. If there are n elements. and we have to select r elements from the set where r < n. This is the last step. c}. Since one element has already been chosen and placed. b.2) * ... there are n * (n .. Therefore by the product rule..r + 1 elements remaining. consider the following example: Given a set of 3 elements a.. then there are n possible choices for the first element.r + 1 ways left to select an element from the set. * (n .2) * . and since there are n . cb. there are six ways to select two elements from the set and write them in order. bc... r) = Try to figure out how this equation equals n * (n ..

Consider the following example: Let L = {Discrete Structures. nCr. where n and r are nonnegative integers with r < n. Computer Organization. the symbols C(n. {Discrete Structures. File Processing}. File Processing} {Assembly Language. r). Cn. Computer Organization} {Discrete Structures. A. . File Processing} {Discrete Structures. List all 3-combinations of L. Computer Organization. C Programming. A student can take three of the five classes in L in one quarter. File Processing} {Assembly Language. Assembly Language. C Programming. Computer Organization} {Discrete Structures. C Programming. Computer Organization. In some books and calculators. or nCr are used instead of . File Processing} {C Programming. Computer Organization} {Assembly Language. B. File Processing} . Assembly Language. Computer organization. File Processing} {Discrete Structures. C Programming} {Discrete Structures. r-combination is denoted by the symbol . C Programming. Assembly Language." and denotes the number of subsets of size r (r-combinations) that can be chosen from a set of n elements.Combinations DEFINITION rAn r-combination from a set of n elements is a unordered selection of r elements combinations from the set. Find Answers: A. read "nchoose r. C Programming. r. Assembly Language.

B. = P(n. by part A. r)/r! Since P(n. How many four-person teams contain at least one girl? Answers: A. To solve this problem. is the number of 3-combinations of a set with five elements. and then arrange them. There are ways to choose two girls out of the four and choose two boys out of the six. = Consider the following example: Suppose you have a group of 10 children consisting of 4 girls and 6 boys. we have to do two things: First choose two girls. A. P(n. which can be done in Hence. r!. How many four-person teams can be chosen that consist of two girls and two boys? B.There are ten 3-combinations in L. r) = . then choose two boys. = 10. r) = ways. Hence by the product rule. what is the number of r-combinations from that set? Consider obtaining an r-permutation: one can first select r elements. Number of teams that contain two girls and two boys = * ways to . which can be done in r! ways. If we are given a set with n elements.

number of teams of four that do not contain any girls. Definition: Permutation: . The number of teams containing at least one girl = total number of teams of four .= = * * = = 90 B.

4! = 4*3*2*1 = 24 Step 5:Divide 360 by 24. n is the size of the set from which elements are permuted.In a permutation the order of occurence of the objects or the arrangement is important but in combination the order of occurence of the objects is not important. 6! = 6*5*4*3*2*1 = 720 Step 2: Find the factorial of 6-4. . Combination = 360/24 = 15 The above example will help you to find the Permutation and Combination manually. n. r is the size of each permutation. When we change the order. So each of the arrangement that can be made by taking some or all of a number of things is known as Permutation. r=4. we say we have changed the arrangement. Step 1: Find the factorial of 6. (6-4)! = 2! = 2 Step 3: Divide 720 by 2.An arrangement is called a Permutation. we say we have made an arrangement. ! is the factorial operator. It is an un-ordered collection of unique sizes. It is the rearrangement of objects or symbols into distinguishable sequences. Combination: A Combination is a selection of some or all of a number of different objects. Example:Find the number of permutations and combinations: n=6. r are non negative integers and r<=n. Formula: Permutation = nPr = n! / (n-r)! Combination = nCr = nPr / r! where. When we set things in order. Permutation = 720/2 = 360 Step 4: Find the factorial of 4.

CAB.2134. What is factorial ? 5! = 5*4*3*2*1 thus factorial 5 means we will multiply 5 to all the numbers lower to it. Y = 2. 2. india www. it is not importnat who comes first or second or third. Verify it : 1234. BASICS OF PERMUTATION AND COMBINATION by : DR.K.BAC. JAIN AFTERSCHO ☺ OL centre for social entrepreneurship sivakamu veterinary hospital road bikaner 334001 rajasthan. How many numbers can you make out of 4 different digits? Answer : 4! remember.so on • 6. taking one or all or some of them together? Formula for taking one or all or some of them is : 2^n – 1 here we can take 1. What is combination? In combination. thus when some digits are together. How many permutations are possible from 4 digits taking 3 at a time? Total digits = N = 4 digits taken = r = 3 N! / (N-r)! =4! / (4-3)! = 24 answer • 7. You have beads of 5 colours. we have to solve it as N!. use formula of circular permutation = ½ * (n-1)! =1/2 * (5-1)! =12 answer • 8. We cannot take 0 boys. What is permutation? Permutation means number of arrangements (keeping the order into mind).CBA • 4.2. T. it is a combination.1243.tk mobile : 91+9414430763 • 2. Y and Z are for number of repeatitions) = 10!/ (2! * 2!* 2!) • 10.B. 4.1324.afterschoool. How many combinations can be formed from 5 digits taking 3 at a time? Formula of combination : n! / (r! (n-r)!) n = 5 r=2 5!/(2! *3!) =120/12 =10 answer • 9. O.. Thus A.3.ACB.. THANKS.Basics Of Permutation And Combination — Presentation Transcript • 1. are coming twice). So the formula is 2^n – 1 = 2^6 – 1 = 63 answer • 11.2143. . Z = 2 (X. or 6 boys at a time.C will have only one combination ABC or BAC or BCA (whatever you call.C can give you following permutations : ABC.. we can make 24 numbers out of it. Some are similar (L. How many combinations are possible out of 6 boys. X = 2.1342. • 3..4. it is one combination) combination means together. For such the formula is : N! / (X!Y!Z!) N = 10. How many words can you form from C O L L E C T I O N THERE ARE 10 DIGITS. the order it not considered.B. • 5.BAC. thus if we have four digits 1. 3.BCA. C.1432. thus A. how many necklace can you form? For such questions. GIVE YOUR SUGGESTIONS AND JOIN AFTERSCHOOOL NETWORK / START AFTERSCHOOOL NETWORK IN YOUR CITY [email_address] PGPSE – WORLD'S MOST COMPREHENSIVE PROGRAMME IN SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP .1423.5..

. and (3. The number of permutations of n distinct objects is n×(n − 1)×(n − 2)×.2.1). They often arise when different orderings on certain finite sets are considered. (1. Permutations occur. One might define an anagram of a word as a permutation of its letters. in more or less prominent ways..1. The 6 permutations of 3 balls In mathematics. a permutation of a set of objects is an arrangement of those objects into a particular order.×2×1. (2.2).3.3).1.Permutation From Wikipedia. there are six permutations of the set {1.2. The study of permutations in this sense generally belongs to the field of combinatorics. the free encyclopedia For other uses. Informally. (2. namely (1. all related to the act of permuting (rearranging) objects or values. see Permutation (disambiguation). possibly only because one wants to ignore such orderings and needs to know how many configurations are thus identified. For similar reasons permutations arise in the study of sorting algorithms in computer science.2).3. which number is called "n factorial" and written "n!". . (3. For example.2.3}.1).3). in almost every domain of mathematics. the notion of permutation is used with several slightly different meanings.

both counting possibilities to select k distinct elements from a set of n elements. descents and runs 4.1 Notation 3.2.2.3 Counting sequences without repetition • o o 5 Permutations in computing 5. However k-permutations do not correspond to permutations as discussed in this article (unless k = n). Permutations may act on composite objects by rearranging their components.. This is related to the rearrangement of S in which each element s takes the place of the corresponding f(s). or by certain replacements (substitutions) of symbols.2 Algorithms to generate permutations  5.2 In combinatorics 3 Permutations in group theory 3.2 Inversions 4. but for k-combinations it is ignored. the name "permutations and combinations" refers to two related problems.1 Numbering permutations 5.In algebra and particularly in group theory.1 Random generation of permutations  5. The key to its structure is the possibility to compose permutations: performing two given rearrangements in succession defines a third rearrangement.1 In group theory 2. a map S → S for which every element of S occurs exactly once as image value).2 Generation in lexicographic order . the composition. a permutation of a set S is defined as a bijection from S to itself (i. where for k-permutations the order of selection is taken into account. The collection of such permutations form a symmetric group. In elementary combinatorics.2 Product and inverse 4 Permutations in combinatorics 4.1 Ascents.e. Contents [hide] • • o o • o o • o o o 1 History 2 Generalities 2.

in the study of polynomial equations. in Galois theory. then there are n! permutations of S.2. which gives a complete description of what is possible and impossible with respect to solving polynomial equations (in one unknown) by radicals.[1] A first case in which seemingly unrelated mathematical questions were studied with the help of permutations occurred around 1770. observed that properties of the permutations of the roots of an equation are related to the possibilities to solve it. . will be the variations of number with specific figures.3.3.1 Calculator functions 5. [edit]In group theory In group theory and related areas.2 Spreadsheet functions 5. through the work of Évariste Galois. This line of work ultimately resulted. A permutation of a set S is a bijection from S to itself. In modern mathematics there are many similar situations in which understanding a problem requires studying certain permutations related to it. which allows the definition of groups of permutations. even infinite ones.3 Software implementations 5. This allows for permutations to be composed. one considers permutations of arbitrary sets.3 Generation with minimal changes o   o • • • 5. [edit]Generalities The notion of permutation is used in the following contexts. when Joseph Louis Lagrange. 5. If S is a finite set of n elements.4 Applications 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References [edit]History The rule to determine the number of permutations of n objects was known in Hindu culture at least as early as around 1150: the Lilavati by the Indian mathematician Bhaskara II contains a passage that translates to The product of multiplication of the arithmetical series beginning and increasing by unity and continued to the number of places.

.. 2. {1. In this sense a permutation of a finite set S of n elements is equivalent to a bijection from {1. There is also a weaker meaning of the term "permutation" that is sometimes used in elementary combinatorics texts. a term that avoids confusion with the other. . n} to S (in which any i is mapped to the i-th element of the sequence). a second element (unless its length is less than 2). 2. and so on. The number of such k- . and only once. designating those sequences in which no element occurs more than once. These objects are also known as sequences without repetition. 1} are different ways to denote the same set. 3} and {3. The concept ofsequence is distinct from that of a set. 2. but without the requirement to use all elements from a given set. or to a choice of a total ordering on S (for which x < y if x comes before y in the sequence). In contrast. the elements in a set have no order.[edit]In combinatorics Permutations of multisets In combinatorics. In this sense there are also n! permutations of S. more common. in that the elements of a sequence appear in some order: the sequence has a first element (unless it is empty). Indeed this use often involves considering sequences of a fixed length k of elements taken from a given set of size n. a permutation is usually understood to be a sequence containing each element from a finite set once. meanings of "permutation"..

For instance S3 is naturally a permutation group.permutations of n is denoted variously by such symbols as n Pk.. from that set onto itself..e. in which any transposition has cycle type (2. then the number of multiset permutations of M is given by the multinomial coefficient [edit]Permutations in group theory Main article: Symmetric group In group theory.2. this symmetric group only depends on the cardinality of the set.. or bijection. the term permutation of a set means a bijective map. and its value is given by the product[2] which is 0 when k > n. Symmetric groups have been studied most in the case of a finite sets.. In fact by Cayley's theorem any group is isomorphic to some permutation group. but the proof of Cayley's theorem realizes S3 as a subgroup of S6 (namely . Any subgroup of a symmetric group is called a permutation group. If M is a finite multiset. and is of importance outside combinatorics as well. then a multiset permutation is a sequence of elements of M in which each element appears exactly as often as is its multiplicity in M. However.k).k.. The set of all permutations of any given set S forms a group.n} for some natural number n. . permutation groups have more structure than abstract groups. .. the size of M) is n. This is the symmetric group of S. written Sn. different realizations of a group as a permutation group need not be equivalent for this additional structure. nPk. which defines the symmetric group of degree n.1). it is known as the Pochhammer symbol (n)k or as the k-th falling factorial power nk of n. and every finite group to a subgroup of some finite symmetric group. allowing for instance to define the cycle type of an element of a permutation group. or P(n. Pn. in which case one can assume without loss of generality that S={1.. and otherwise is equal to The product is well defined without the assumption that n is a non-negative integer. and their sum (i. so the nature of elements of S is irrelevant for the structure of the group.. If the multiplicities of the elements of M (taken in some order) are . with composition of maps as product and the identity as neutral element. Up to isomorphism.

and such that σ(y) ≠ y.. focuses on the effect of successively applying the permutation..) Cycle notation. there are in general many different cycle notations for the same permutation. σ(4)=3. so the one-line notation for the permutation above is 25431. It expresses the permutation as a product of cycles corresponding to the orbits (with at least two elements) of the permutation. Since for every new cycle the starting point can be chosen in different ways. and xl to x1). one writes the sequence (x σ(x) σ(σ(x)) .3. in which permutation group transpositions get cycle type (2. Distinct orbits of σ are by definition disjoint.2.the permutations of the 6 elements of S3 itself). so the corresponding cycles are . namely the one that takes the same values as σ on this orbit (so it maps xi to xi+1 for i < l. a particular permutation of the set {1. and σ(5)=1. one gives only the second row of this array. (It is typical to use commas to separate these entries only if some have two or more digits. The size l of the orbit is called the length of the cycle. at which point one instead closes the parenthesis.4. the study of permutation groups differs from the study of abstract groups. while mapping all other elements of S to themselves.2). It works as follows: starting from some element x of S with σ(x) ≠ x. σ(2)=5. So in spite of Cayley's theorem. and writes down the corresponding cycle. since distinct orbits are disjoint. for the example above one has for instance Each cycle (x1 x2 . σ(3)=4.5} can be written as: this means that σ satisfies σ(1)=2. this is loosely referred to as "the decomposition into disjoint cycles" of the permutation. the third method of notation. In one-line notation. and so on until all elements of S either belong to a cycle written down or are fixed points of σ. In Cauchy's two-line notation. and the parenthesized expression gives the corresponding cycle of σ. and for each one its image under the permutation below it in the second row. [edit]Notation There are three main notations for permutations of a finite set S. The set of values written down forms the orbit (under σ) of x. For instance. xl) of σ denotes a permutation in its own right. until the image would be x. One then continues choosing an element y of S that is not in the orbit already written down... one lists the elements of S in the first row.2.) of successive images under σ.

this article uses the definition where the rightmost permutation is applied first. It is possible to include (x) in the cycle notation for σ to stress that σ fixes x (and this is even standard in combinatorics. However this gives a different rule for multiplying permutations. Since the composition of two bijections always gives another bijection. but this does not correspond to a factor in the (group theoretic) decomposition of σ. so some other notation like e is usually used instead. Cycles of length two are called transpositions. independently ofx. because of the way function application is written. so is . since each individual cycle can be written in different ways. Some authors prefer the leftmost factor acting first. its cycle notation would be empty. there are no other ways to write σ as a product of cycles (possibly unrelated to the cycles of σ) that have disjoint orbits. and σ is the product of its cycles (taken in any order). as in the example above where (5 1 2) denotes the same cycle as (1 2 5) (but (5 2 1) would denote a different permutation). the product of two permutations is again a permutation. An orbit of size 1 (a fixed point x in S) has no corresponding cycle. but to that end permutations must be written to the right of their argument. [edit]Product and inverse Main article: Symmetric group The product of two permutations is defined as their composition as functions.easily seen to commute. such permutations merely exchange the place of two elements. where σ acting on x is written xσ. for instance as an exponent. in other words σ·π is the function that maps any element x of the set to σ(π(x)). then the product is defined by xσ·π=(xσ)π. as described in cycles and fixed points). This decomposition is essentially unique: apart from the reordering the cycles in the product. whence the name "decomposition" of the permutation. The decomposition into disjoint cycles of the identity permutation is an empty product. since that permutation would fix x as well as every other element of S. then this would spoil the uniqueness (up to order) of the decomposition of a permutation into disjoint cycles. Note that the rightmost permutation is applied to the argument first. in other words it would be the identity. The cycle notation is less unique. Since function composition is associative. If the notion of "cycle" were taken to include the identity permutation. Therefore the concatenation of cycles in the cycle notation can be interpreted as denoting composition of permutations.

although many such expressions for a given permutation may exist. In two-line notation the inverse can be obtained by interchanging the two lines (and sorting the columns if one wishes the first line to be in a given order). All permutations are then classified as even or odd. whenever σ(x)=y one also has σ−1(y)=x. Having an associative product. products of more than two permutations are usually written without adding parentheses to express grouping. according to the parity of the transpositions in any such expression. they are also usually written without a dot or other sign to indicate multiplication. In two-line notation. Every permutation of a finite set can be expressed as the product of transpositions. the identity is Since bijections have inverses. Therefore. so do permutations. and the inverse σ−1 of σ is again a permutation. Explicitly. For instance In cycle notation one can reverse the order of the elements in each cycle to obtain a cycle notation for its inverse. which maps every element of the set to itself. there can never be among them both expressions with an even number and expressions with an odd number of transpositions. a neutral element. is the neutral element for this product. and inverses for all its elements. makes the set of all permutations of S into a group. called the symmetric group of S.the product operation on permutations: (σ·π)·ρ=σ·(π·ρ). Moreover. . The identity permutation.

.. then this definition coincides with the definition in .Composition of permutations corresponds to multiplication of permutation matrices. . n} as an n×n matrix. [3] One can represent a permutation of {1... Note that if S equals { 1.. n }. This can be defined formally as a bijection from the set { 1. which means forming the product π·σ·π−1. but only one for which multiplications of matrices corresponds to multiplication of permutations in the same order: this is the one that associates to σ the matrix M whose entry Mi. The resulting matrix has exactly one entry 1 in each column and in each row.. The Cayley table on the right shows these matrices for permutations of 3 elements. Here the cycle notation of the result can be obtained by taking the cycle notation for σ and applying π to all the entries in it.. . and is called a permutation matrix. [edit]Permutations in combinatorics In combinatorics a permutation of a set S with n elements is a listing of the elements of S in some order (each element occurring exactly once).. 2. and 0 otherwise. 2. However the cycle structure is preserved in the special case of conjugating a permutation σ by another permutationπ. Multiplying permutations written in cycle notation follows no easily described pattern. . 2. There are two natural ways to do so. and the cycles of the product can be entirely different from those of the permutations being composed. n } to S.. Here (file) is a list of these matrices for permutations of 4 elements.j is 1 if i = σ(j).

. That is. a descent is a position i < n with σi > σi+1. descents and runs An ascent of a permutation σ of n is any position i < n where the following value is bigger than the current one. Here are a number of such properties. and can be defined without using a total ordering of S. Hence.. .5. it corresponds to a maximal sequence of successive ascents (the latter may be empty: between two successive descents there is still an ascending run of length 1).[4] An ascending run of a permutation is a nonempty increasing contiguous subsequence of the permutation that cannot be extended at either end. . Here there is a part "1" in the partition for every fixed point of σ. For example.6.. For example. if σ = σ1σ2. 2.σn. Similarly. is the cycle structure of a permutation σ. One combinatorial property that is related to the group theoretic interpretation of permutations. 3. and to the way the permutation relates to it. the number of permutations of n with k ascending runs is the same as the number of permutations with k − 1 descents. If a permutation has k − 1 descents. so every i with either is an ascent or is a descent of σ. and 167. More generally one could use instead of { 1.group theory. then i is an ascent if σi < σi+1. [edit]Ascents. Other combinatorial properties however are directly related to the ordering of S. A permutation that has no fixed point is called a derangement. then it must be the union of k ascending runs.[5] .. the permutation 2453167 has the ascending runs 245. The number of permutations of n with k ascents is the Eulerian number this is also the number of permutations of n with k descents. the permutation 3452167 has ascents (at positions) 1.. n } any set equipped with a total ordering of its elements. By contrast an increasing subsequence of a permutation is not necessarily contiguous: it is an increasing sequence of elements obtained from the permutation by omitting the values at some positions. It is the partition of n describing the lengths of the cycles of σ. while it has an increasing subsequence 2367.2.

σj) itself whose order is reversed. (5.1). Bubble sort and insertion sort can be interpreted as particular instances of this procedure to put a sequence into order. In fact. For example.e.3). by enumerating all sequences of adjacent transpositions that would transform σ into the identity. To bring a permutation with k inversions into order (i..5). Incidentally this procedure proves that any permutation σ can be written as a product of adjacent transpositions. for this one may simply reverse any sequence of such transpositions that transforms σ into the identity. (3. although it might create other descents). so it has at least one descent. is always possible and requires a sequence of k such operations. Sometimes an inversion is defined as the pair of values (σi. one obtains (after reversal) a complete list of all expressions of minimal length writing σ as a product of adjacent transpositions.3). (2. This is so because applying such a transposition reduces the number of inversions by 1. The number of permutations of n with k inversions is expressed by a Mahonian number.j) of positions where the entries of a permutation are in the opposite order: and . also note that as long as this number is not zero. it is the same for σ and forσ−1. by successively applying (rightmultiplication by) adjacent transpositions. the permutation σ = 23154 has three inversions: (1. (4.4).[7] it is the coefficient of Xk in the expansion of the product . the permutation is not the identity. for the pairs of entries (2. this makes no difference for the number of inversions. and this pair (reversed) is also an inversion in the above sense for the inverse permutation σ−1. The number of inversions is an important measure for the degree to which the entries of a permutation are out of order.[6] So a descent is just an inversion at two adjacent positions.1). Moreover any reasonable choice for the adjacent transpositions will work: it suffices to choose at each step a transposition of i and i + 1 where i is a descent of the permutation as modified so far (so that the transposition will remove this particular descent.[edit]Inversions Main article: Inversion (discrete mathematics) An inversion of a permutation σ is a pair (i. transform it into the identity permutation).

there are n − 1 elements of S left to choose from. NICER and REIGN are 5-permutations. This gives in particular the number of n-permutations (which contain all elements of S once. a number that occurs so frequently in mathematics that it is given a compact notation "n!". but the expression for the number does arise in . given the set of letters {C. That notation is rarely used in other contexts than that of counting kpermutations. the number of possibilities decreases by 1 which leads to the number of n × (n − 1) × (n − 2) . a k-permutation of a set S is an ordered sequence of k distinct elements of S. G. the sequence ICE is a 3permutation. and is called "n factorial". E. the number of elements available for selection. because of the repetitions: it uses the elements E and N twice.. The number of k-permutations of a set of n elements is sometimes denoted by P(n. In constructing a k-permutation. × (n − k + 1) possible k-permutations. N. × 2 × 1. and CRINGE is a 6-permutation. Let n be the size of S.which is also known (with q substituted for X) as the q-factorial [n]q! .. giving a total n × (n − 1) possible 2-permutations. and this is then number of 1-permutations. Once it has been chosen. there are n possible choices for the first element of the sequence. ENGINE on the other hand is not a permutation. [edit]Counting sequences without repetition In this section. RINGand RICE are 4-permutations. For each successive element of the sequence.k) or a similar notation (usually accompanied by a notation for the number of k-combinations of a set of nelements in which the "P" is replaced by "C"). it is a permutation of the given set in the ordinary combinatorial sense.. These npermutations are the longest sequences without repetition of elements of S. which is reflected by the fact that the above formula for the number of k-permutations gives zero whenever k > n. R}. since the latter uses all letters.. and are therefore simply permutations of S): n × (n − 1) × (n − 2) × . For example. I. so a second element can be chosen in n − 1 ways.

whereas in those cases the number nk of kpermutations is just 0. as detailed at Pochhammer symbol. for 32-bit words this means n ≤ 12. which allows writing The right hand side is often given as expression for the number of k-permutations. and in computing is particularly attractive when n is small enough that N can be held in a machine word. it is called the k-th falling factorial power of n: though many other names and notations are in use. It should also be noted that the expression is undefined when k > n. The conversion can be done via the intermediate form of a sequence of . is not particularly efficient. where all factors in the denominator are also explicitly present in the numerator. and for 64-bit words this means n ≤ 20. but its main merit is using the compact factorial notation.many other situations. Expressing a product of k factors as a quotient of potentially much larger products. Being a product of k factors starting at n and decreasing by unit steps. provided convenient methods are given to convert between the number and the usual representation of a permutation as a sequence. When k ≤ n the factorial power can be completed by additional factors: nk × (n − k)! = n!. This gives the most compact representation of arbitrary permutations. [edit]Permutations [edit]Numbering in computing permutations One way to represent permutations of n is by an integer N with 0 ≤ N < n!. as a method of computation there is the additional danger of overflow or rounding errors.

where for numbers up to n! the bases for successive digits are n. The second step interprets this sequence as a Lehmer code or (almost equivalently) as an inversion table. The first step then is simply expression of N in thefactorial number system. d2.. as it is always 0.. d1. Rothe diagram for i \ σ i Lehm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 er code 1 × × × × × • d9 = 5 2 × × • d8 = 2 3 × × × × × • d7 = 5 4 • d6 = 0 5 × • d5 = 1 6 × × × • d4 = 3 7 × × • d3 = 2 8 • d2 = 0 .numbers dn. which is just a particular mixed radix representation. 1. but its presence makes the subsequent conversion to a permutation easier to describe). n − 1. .... . dn−1. where di is a non-negative integer less than i (one may omit d1. 2..

but here dn+1−k counts the number of inversions (i. and a cross at (i. d1 into a permutation of an ordered set S.j) where k = σjoccurs as the smaller of the two values appearing in inverted order. and vice versa.9 • d1 = 0 inversi on 3 table 6 1 2 4 0 2 0 0 In the Lehmer code for a permutation σ. Theinversion table for σ is quite similar. and before the dot (i. d2. .σj) marks the inversion (i. the number dn−1 represents the choice made for the second term σ1 among the remaining n − 1 elements of the set. the digit dn+1−i counts the inversions (i. while the inversion table lists the numbers of crosses in successive columns. The Lehmer code lists the numbers of crosses in successive rows. the number dn represents the choice made for the first term σ1. it is just the Lehmer code for the inverse permutation. one can start with a list of the elements of S in increasing order.j). More precisely. and for i increasing from 1 to n set σi to . To effectively convert a Lehmer code dn..[8] Both encodings can be visualized by ann by n Rothe diagram[9] (named after Heinrich August Rothe) in which dots at (i... dn−1. Since those remaining elements are bound to turn up as some later term σj.j) involving i as smaller index (the number of values j for which i < j and σi > σj).σi) in its row. each dn+1−i gives the number of remaining elements strictly less than the term σi. and so forth. by the definition of inversions a cross appears in any square that comes both before the dot (j.σi) mark the entries of the permutation.σj) in its column.

To convert an inversion tabledn. . one can traverse the numbers from d1 to dn while inserting the elements of S from largest to smallest into an initially empty sequence. dn−1.. d2. one gets a different ordering. 9 of the values 1.. this allows computing the distribution of such extrema among all permutations. Converting successive natural numbers to the factorial number system produces those sequences in lexicographic order (as is the case with any mixed radix number system). 9) while the positions of the zeroes in the Lehmer code are the positions of the right-to-left minima (in the example positions the 4. d1 into the corresponding permutation. 2. and at each step place the element from S into the empty slot that is preceded by dother empty slots. A permutation with Lehmer . where one starts by comparing permutations by the place of their entries 1 rather than by the value of their first entries). Alternatively one could process the numbers from the inversion table and the elements of S both in the opposite order. 8. and remove that element from the list. and the parity of that sum gives the signature of the permutation. the element from S inserted into the sequence at the point where it is preceded by d elements already present.. Moreover the positions of the zeroes in the inversion table give the values of left-to-right maxima of the permutation (in the example 6. The sum of the numbers in the factorial number system representation gives the number of inversions of the permutation. starting with a row of n empty slots.the element in the list that is preceded by dn+1−i other ones. and further converting them to permutations preserves the lexicographic ordering. provided the Lehmer code interpretation is used (using inversion tables. 8. 5). at the step using the number d from the inversion table.

and in the latter case if a specific ordering is required.. For this reason it does not seem useful.. at an arbitrary position. one should only generate distinct multiset permutations of the sequence. However the latter step. The methods best adapted to do this depend on whether one wants some randomly chosen permutations.. of the obvious representations of the sequence as an array or a linked list. to employ a special data structure that would allow performing the conversion from Lehmer code to permutation in O(n log n) time. because it requires n operations each of selection from a sequence and deletion from it. although certainly possible. is hard to implement efficiently. . both require (for different reasons) about n2/4 operations to perform the conversion. Another question is whether possible equality among entries in the given sequence is to be taken into account. and convert those into the corresponding permutations. but it turns out that both for random and for systematic generation there are simple alternatives that do considerably better. With n likely to be rather small (especially if generation of all permutations is needed) that is not too much of a problem.code dn. d1 has an ascent n − i if and only if di ≥ di+1. [edit]Algorithms to generate permutations In computing it may be required to generate permutations of a given sequence of values. if so. An obvious way to generate permutations of n is to generate values for the Lehmer code (possibly using the factorial number system representation of integers up to n!). [edit]Random generation of permutations . while straightforward. dn−1. d2. or all permutations.

d2. This is because. Thus the elements remaining for selection form a consecutive range at each point in time. or choose a random element from the set of distinct (multiset) permutations of the sequence. even though they may not occur in the same order as they did in the . even though in case of repeated values there can be many distinct permutations of n that result in the same permuted sequence. the number of such permutations is the same for each possible result.dn satisfying 0 ≤ di < i (since d1 is always zero it may be omitted) and to convert it to a permutation through a bijective correspondence. which becomes unfeasible for large n due to the growth of the number n!. one swaps the element with the final remaining element. Unlike for systematic generation... The basic idea to generate a random permutation is to generate at random one of the n! sequences of integers d1..[10] While at the time computer implementation was not an issue.Main article: Fisher–Yates shuffle For generating random permutations of a given sequence of n values. it makes no difference whether one means apply a randomly selected permutation of n to the sequence. and this gives a generation method first published in 1938 by Ronald A. This can be remedied by using a different bijective correspondence: after using di to select an element among i remaining elements of the sequence (for decreasing values of i). this method suffers from the difficulty sketched above to convert from Lehmer code to permutation efficiently.. there is no reason to assume that n will be small for random generation. For the latter correspondence one could interpret the (reverse) sequence as a Lehmer code. rather than removing the element and compacting the sequence by shifting down further elements one place. Fisher and Frank Yates.

When the selected element happens to be the final remaining element. a[n − 1] can be described as follows in pseudocode: for i from n downto 2 do di ← random element of { 0. the swap operation can be omitted. to guarantee that all permutations can be generated.. One classical .. by an immediate induction. The resulting algorithm for generating a random permutation of a[0]. . i } a[i] ← a[di+1] a[di+1] ← i If di+1 = i.. .. but it can be seen to produce each permutation in exactly one way. . a[1]. [edit]Generation in lexicographic order There are many ways to systematically generate all permutations of a given sequence[citation needed].. This does not occur sufficiently often to warrant testing for the condition. The mapping from sequence of integers to permutations is somewhat complicated. but the second will overwrite it with the correct value i. but the final element must be included among the candidates of the selection.....original sequence. the first assignment will copy an uninitialized value. i − 1 } swap a[di] and a[i − 1] This can be combined with the initialization of the array a[i] = i as follows: for i from 0 to n−1 do di+1 ← random element of { 0.

and has been frequently rediscovered ever since. It changes the given permutation in-place. is based on finding the next permutation in lexicographic ordering. the permutation is the last permutation. Find the largest index l such that a[k] < a[l]. It can handle repeated values. which is both simple and flexible. 1. Even for ordinary permutations it is significantly more efficient than generating values for the Lehmer code in lexicographic order (possibly using the factorial number system) and converting those to permutations. Find the largest index k such that a[k] < a[k + 1]. To use it. one starts by sorting the sequence in (weakly) increasing order (which gives its lexicographically minimal permutation). Since k + 1 is such an .[11] The following algorithm generates the next permutation lexicographically after a given permutation. if it exists. 2. for which case it generates the distinct multiset permutations each once.algorithm. and then repeats advancing to the next permutation as long as one is found. If no such index exists. The method goes back to Narayana Pandita in 14th century India.

After step 1. one knows that all of the elements strictly after position k form a weakly decreasing sequence. 3. and swapping them in step 3 leaves the sequence after position k in weakly decreasing order.index. Step 2 finds the smallest value a[l] to replace a[k] by. l is well defined and satisfies k < l. the Steinhaus–Johnson–Trotter algorithm. Reverse the sequence from a[k + 1] up to and including the final element a[n]. 4. Reversing this sequence in step 4 then produces its lexicographically minimal permutation. [edit]Generation with minimal changes Main article: Steinhaus–Johnson– Trotter algorithm An alternative to the above algorithm. so no permutation of these elements will make it advance in lexicographic order. Swap a[k] with a[l]. generates an ordering on all the permutations of a given sequence with the property that any two consecutive permutations in its output differ by swapping two . to advance one must increase a[k]. and the lexicographic successor of the initial state for the whole sequence.

called PERMUT in many popular spreadsheets. . again in constant time per permutation. by skipping every other output permutation. The same can also easily generate the subset of even permutations. among whom it was known as "plain changes".  Casio and TI calculators: nPr   torial HP calculators: PERM[12] Mathematica: FallingFac [edit]Spreadsheet functions Most spreadsheet software also provides a built-in function for calculating the number of kpermutations of n.[11] [edit]Software implementations [edit]Calculator functions Many scientific calculators and computing software have a built-in function for calculating the number of k-permutations of n. One advantage of this method is that the small amount of change from one permutation to the next allows the method to be implemented in constant time per permutation.adjacent values. This ordering on the permutations was known to 17thcentury English bell ringers.

such as turbo codes.[edit]Applications Permutations are used in the interleaver component of the error detection and correction algorithms. [edit]See also Mathematics portal         Alternating permutation Binomial coefficient Combination Combinatorics Convolution Cyclic order Cyclic permutation Even and odd permutations        Factorial number system Superpattern Josephus permutation List of permutation topics Levi-Civita symbol Permutation group Permutation pattern . for example 3GPP Long Term Evolution mobile telecommunication standard uses these ideas (see 3GPP technical specification 36. One of the methods is based on the permutation polynomials.212 [13]). Such applications raise the question of fast generation of permutation satisfying certain desirable properties.

2004. The roots of combinatorics. 6 (1979) 109−136 2. ^ Combinatorics of Permutations. p. CRC Press.         Permutation polynomial Probability Random permutation Rencontres numbers Sorting network Substitution cipher Symmetric group Twelvefold way Weak order of permutations Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Permutations [edit]Notes 1. ^ Combinatorics of Permutations. ISBN 978-1-58488-2909. ^ Charalambides. ^ N. p. (2002). 3 5. L. 84 4. ISBN 1-58488434-7. ^ Humphreys (1996). Enumerative Combinatorics. M. p. ^ Combinatorics of Permutations. Bona. p. 43 . Historia Math. Bona. Biggs. M. 3. 2004. 42. Ch A. p. ISBN 1-58488434-7. M. 2004. ISBN 1-58488434-7. 4f 6. Bona.

R. Bona. (2005). ^ a b D. This book mentions the Lehmer code (without using that name) as a variant C1. Yates. Statistical tables for biological. F. (1948) [1938]. 9. 10. 19). Tuples and ^ a b Knuth. A. [8] p.1. OCLC 14222135. The Art of Computer Programming. The Art of Computer Programming.A. "Generating All Permutations".. . Addison-Wesley (1973).. ^ H... 2004. p. Rothe. Sammlung combinatorisch-analytischer Abhandlungen 2 (Leipzig. ISBN 1-58488434-7. p. E. ^ Fisher. 12. ^ Combinatorics of Permutations. Cited in. D. Vol 3. London: Oliver & Boyd. E. Knuth. 26–27. 4.7. agricultural and medical research (3rd ed.).. pp. 263−305. M. pp. 11. Sorting and Searching.Cnof inversion tables in exercise 5. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-853930. 1–26. 1800). Fascicle 2. 14.1−7 (p. together with two other variants. 43ff 8.

F. ISBN 1-58488-434-7. 2004.  Donald Knuth. Oxford University Press.com/Hpsub/download s/50gProbabilityRearranging_items. Second Edition.hp. 1998. A course in group theory. 2005.212 ^ 3GPP TS [edit]References  Miklos Bona. Volume 4: Generating All Tuples and Permutations. 1996. Addison-Wesley. The Art of Computer Programming. Chapman Hall-CRC. pp.. 36. Volume 3: Sorting and Searching. 11–72. Addison-Wesley.1: Combinatorial Properties of Permutations. "Combinatorics of Permutations". ISBN 0-201-85393-0.  Humphreys. ^ http://h20331. The Art of Computer Programming. ISBN 0201-89685-0.  Donald Knuth.w ww2.pdf 13. Section 5. first printing. J. Fascicle 2. ISBN 978-0-19-853459-4 .12.

For other uses. the free encyclopedia "Combin" redirects here. one with two oranges.960 such combinations. and the chance of drawing any one hand at random is 1 / 2. orange and pear. The set of all k-combinations of a set S is sometimes denoted by . and one with two pears. If however it was possible to have two of any one kind of fruit there would be 3 more combinations: one with two apples. where (unlike permutations) order does not matter. there are three combinations of two that can be drawn from this set: an apple and a pear. For example given three fruit.1 Example of counting combinations .Combination From Wikipedia.598. The 5 cards of the hand are all distinct. More formally a k-combination of a set S is a subset of k distinct elements of S. For example. Contents [hide] • o 1 Number of k-combinations 1. see Combination (disambiguation). see Grand Combin. and which is zero when . it becomes necessary to use more sophisticated mathematics to find the number of combinations.598. There are 2. or a pear and an orange. a poker hand can be described as a 5-combination (k = 5) of cards from a 52 card deck (n = 52). If the set has n elements the number of k-combinations is equal to the binomial coefficient which can be written using factorials as whenever . In mathematics a combination is a way of selecting several things out of a larger group.960. say an apple. In smaller cases it is possible to count the number of combinations. Combinations can refer to the combination of n things taken k at a time without or with repetitions.[1] In the above example repetitions were not allowed. With large sets. an apple and an orange. and the order of cards in the hand does not matter. For the mountain massif.

2 Enumerating k- combinations 2 Number of combinations with repetition o • • • • • 2. and Polish texts[citation needed]). or even (the latter form is standard in French. The same number however occurs in many other mathematical contexts. . notably it occurs as . where it is denoted by (often read as "n choose k"). Russian.o • 1. or by a variation such as . k).1 Example of counting multicombinations 3 Number of k-combinations for all k 4 Probability: sampling a random combination 5 See also 6 References 7 External links [edit]Number of k-combinations 3-element subsets of a 5-element set Main article: Binomial coefficient The number of k-combinations from a given set S of n elements is often denoted in elementary combinatorics texts by C(n.

e.coefficient in the binomial formula. one can use (in addition to the basic cases already given) the recursion relation which follows from (1 + X)n = (1 + X)n − 1(1 + X). To get all of them for the expansions up to (1 + X)n. Binomial coefficients can be computed explicitly in various ways. . so that the product becomes (1 + X)n. hence its name binomial coefficient. and expand the product over all elements of S: it has 2n distinct terms corresponding to all the subsets of S. which is an (n − k)-combination. it is more practical to use the formula The numerator gives the number of k-permutations of n. and can also be understood in terms of k-combinations by taking the complement of such a combination. Now setting all of the Xsequal to the unlabeled variable X. One can define natural numbers k at once by the relation for all from which it is clear that and for k > n.. while the denominator gives the number of such k-permutations that give the same k-combination when the order is ignored. so that the coefficient of that power in the result equals the number of such k-combinations. each subset giving the product of the corresponding variables Xs. one can first consider a collection of n distinct variables Xs labeled by the elements s of S. When k exceeds n/2. this leads to the construction of Pascal's triangle. i. the above formula contains factors common to the numerator and the denominator. To see that these coefficients count k-combinations from S. and canceling them out gives the relation This expresses a symmetry that is evident from the binomial formula. For determining an individual binomial coefficient. of sequences of k distinct elements of S. the term for each k-combination from S becomes Xk.

and has the merit of being easy to remember: where n! denotes the factorial of n. of kcombinations of sets of growing sizes. . these allow successive computation of respectively all numbers of combinations from the same set (a row in Pascal's triangle). There are many duplicate selections: any combined permutation of the first k elements among each other. The last formula can be understood directly. Each such permutation gives a k-combination by selecting its first k elements. and of combinations with a complement of fixed size n − k.Finally there is a formula which exhibits this symmetry directly. Together with the basic cases . It is obtained from the previous formula by multiplying denominator and numerator by (n − k)!. one can compute the number of five-card hands possible from a standard fifty-two card deck as: . [edit]Example of counting combinations As a concrete example. . this explains the division in the formula. so it is certainly inferior as a method of computation to that formula. by considering the n! permutations of all the elements of S. and of the final (n − k) elements among each other produces the same combination. From the above formulas follow relations between adjacent numbers in Pascal's triangle in all three directions: .

is based on writing which gives When evaluated as 52 ÷ 1 × 51 ÷ 2 × 50 ÷ 3 × 49 ÷ 4 × 48 ÷ 5. after which only multiplication of the remaining factors is required: Another alternative computation. this can be computed using only integer arithmetic.Alternatively one may use the formula in terms of factorials and cancel the factors in the numerator against parts of the factors in the denominator. The reason that all divisions are without remainder is that the intermediate results they produce are themselves binomial coefficients. Using the symmetric formula in terms of factorials without performing simplifications gives a rather extensive calculation: . almost equivalent to the first.

n}..[edit]Enumerating k- combinations One can enumerate all k-combinations of a given set S of n elements in some fixed order. The latter option has the advantage that adding a new largest element to S will not change the initial part of the enumeration. Assuming S is itself ordered. the enumeration can be extended indefinitely with k-combinations of ever larger sets. It is also known as "rank"/"ranking" and "unranking" in computational mathematics.. there are two natural possibilities for ordering its k-combinations: by comparing their smallest elements first (as in the illustrations above) or by comparing their largest elements first. then the kcombination at a given place i in the enumeration can be computed easily from i.[2][3] .. but just add the new k-combinations of the larger set after the previous ones. for instance S = {1. .2. which establishes a bijection from an interval of integers with the set of those k-combinations. If moreover the intervals of the integers are taken to start at 0. Repeating this process. and the bijection so obtained is known as the combinatorial number system.

or multiset of size k from a set S is given by a sequence of knot necessarily distinct elements of S. where order is not taken into account: two sequences of which one can be obtained from the other by permuting the terms . or kmulticombination.[edit]Number of combinations with repetition See also: Multiset coefficient Bijection between 3-element multisets with elements from a 5element set (on the right) and 3-element subsets of a 7-element set (on the left) A k-combination with repetitions.

In other words. [edit]Example of counting multicombinations For example.g. with replacement) but disregarding different orderings (e. namely by (the case where both n and k are zero is special.e.2}). {2. but not by the ). the number of ways to sample k elements from a set of n elements allowing for duplicates (i. If S has n elements..2.define the same multiset.2} = {1. the number of ways to choose can be calculated as The analogy with the kcombination case can be stressed by writing the numerator as a rising power . if you have ten types of donuts (n = 10) on a menu to choose from and you want three donuts (k = 3).1. the number of such k-multicombinations is also given by a binomial coefficient. the correct value 1 (for the empty 0-multicombination) is given by left hand side right hand side .

There is an easy way to understand the above result. Label the elements of S with numbers 0. and 3 for bananas. This is always a number in the range of the labels.. and it is easy to see that every kmulticombination of S is obtained for one choice of a k-combination. Now change this k-combination into a k-multicombination of S by replacing every (chosen) number x in the kcombination by the element of Slabeled by the number of unchosen numbers less than x. and choose a k-combination from the set of numbers { 1. 2 for pears... n + k − 1 } (so that there are n − 1 unchosen numbers). 1... A concrete example may be helpful. 2.. orange. Suppose there are 4 types of fruits (apple. pear. 1 for oranges. So n = 4 and k = 12. n − 1. . . Use label 0 for apples. banana) at a grocery store. and you want to buy 12 pieces of fruit. A selection of 12 fruits can be translated into a selection of 12 distinct .

15. and therefore no pears in the selection. the numbers 4. 6. the numbers 1... 10. . continue choosing as many consecutive numbers as there are oranges selected. then again for pears.numbers in the range 1. there are no chosen numbers preceded by exactly 2 unchosen numbers.. skip one again. 14. and finally choose the remaining numbers (as many as there are bananas selected). then skip a number. 7. 7 oranges. 2 (not preceded by any unchosen numbers) are replaced by apples.15 by selecting as many consecutive numbers starting from 1 as there are apples in the selection. 15 (preceded by three unchosen numbers: 3. 11. The total number of possible selections is . 0 pears and 3 bananas.. 13. again skip a number. 8. To recover the fruits. 10 (preceded by one unchosen number: 3) by oranges. 2.. 5.. 14. and the numbers 13.. the numbers chosen will be 1. and 12) by bananas. 4. 9. For instance for 2 apples. 5.

These combinations are enumerated by the 1 digits of the set of base 2 numbers counting from 0 to where each digit position is an item from the set of n.[edit]Number of kcombinations for all k See also: Binomial coefficient#Sum of coefficients row The number of kcombinations for all k. is the sum of the nth row (counting from 0) of the binomial coefficients. . . [edit]Probability: sampling a random combination There are various algorithms to pick out a random .

One way to select a k-combination efficiently from a population of size n is to iterate across each element of the population. Rejection sampling is extremely slow for large sample sizes.combination from a given set or list. [edit]See also  Combinatorial number system  Combinatorics  Multiset  Binomial coefficient  Permutation  List of permutation topics  Subset  Probability  Pascal's Triangle . and at each step pick that element with a dynamically changing probability of .

INC. Adva Engineering Mathematics.site. John Wiley & Sons.ca/~lucia/co urses/516509/GenCombO bj.pdf 3. org/doc/referen ce/sage/combin at/subset.[edit]References 1. with detailed solutions .uotta wa. 1999 2.html [edit]External links  C code to generate all combinations of n elements chosen as k  Many Common types of permutation and combination math problems. ^ http:// www. ^ http:// www. nced ^ Erwin Kreyszig.sagemath.

 The Unknown Formula For combinations when choices can be repeated and order does NOT matter  [1] Combinations with repetitions (by: Akshatha AG and Smitha B) .