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wdrïNh ( 1866 cQks 07
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YS% .r ieriS" t.ro.=re fuu lvd jeàu.a.ekSug zjyduZ wdrdOkdjla ilia lrk . jid .id ksu l< .a foa lvd jvd .= i|yd f.rug n.af.d.hls' iuhZ „ú..hl=gu yelafla wjfndaOfhka njh' i.a.re trx.r.ajh tfia .shQ yiqk u.h = m˙laIdj.k s tk.h .dßlhg is.r lrkafka flfiao@ ke.h = ' .ksuq' uyd pKav udre.fha .ekSug mõldr ñksid bk jeiqï .u yelsh' ≥Iag" ≥r®∞ka.ska wmf. lshk p.lhdKka jykafiaf.ak nj .a.a. .h jy.kakg úh' meh 2 1$2 muKla fkdj" wmf. wmg fmryr i|yd f.a. jid .

= jr®I 2017 la jQ udr®.2016 x {dkdr®: {dkdr®: m%°mh ls%ia.= ui 26 jeks od b˙∞ m%°mh .12 wdrïNh ( 1866 cQks 07 1866 .

=ud Y=' uf.ayqo fmruqK . jroo@ wdn%yï olajd mgka .=Kj.eka isg ieu úg msh.' tys† ta.dj w..hska fuf.d˙l fufkys ls¯u fï ldf.=udKka mr®ishdfõ m%foaYj.=udj ms<s.sydifha i|yka fõ' fndfyda orejka njg m˙jr®.gq .S%l NdIdjg o m˙jr®.ñl lghq.ukh ksjer† nj ikd: ù .%yh 05 wdrïNh ( 1866 cQks 07 {dkdr®: 1866 ..h' tu ksid uQ.†' t l.a o" ls¯fï† uy isl=rd∞ †k ≥lam%dma.=Æ.=re i|yka fkdfj.=udf.d by< uÜgfï m˙laIKhlska o miq ld.a njg jdr®.u wfmalaIdjla fkd...a Tjqkaj ms<s.Sug o urKhla f.a wm wd.a t fyd¢ka mqyqKq lrk .dañia yiagd¶ kue.o miq h' ck.rd.a urKh .a lsisfia.sh orefjduhs f.=ud o tys idud‚l. hs' 1824 ° fldÉÑka ys mshjre fuka u . h' ^fuu .=re me.i m%isoaêhla ±rE wfhls' uf.kq .r® fiajdj i|yd m%foaYhla fjka fl˙K' ksoyi Tjqkg fok .ihs' hq.sh iïnkaOj wjOdkh fhduq Wkq.ek fndfyda wdorh ls¯fuka iudj ° uqΩukskau wu..= j.h .a fial ^¨la 19(1-10&' .Dyfha h' fuys† Tjqkg .a .da jeis .j .ùu i|yka jk Tjqkaj m%.u foõue∫r f.a m%.s .ihs' t.a iNd iïm%∞h mqrdK .j.da. ld.djgu fï ld.†' fuys tjk .ukh wdrïNfha ° fuys meñ◊ lsisjl= .Su i|yd la lmd .d 16 kula Ndú. ukh lrk f.i t.=kaf.shd .s nj wu.efí' Ys%hdks l=.ka fuys tjk .k.hg hEfï ysñmdKka fj.u fkd.a iqúfYaIh cqfia .hlg ie.a iqm%isoaO foaYkh oyï mdi.dafõ isg fuys fldar<fha iy fyajd.re fyj.d kqjr rdcOdksh .d isáfha msh.j †jhskg fuu m. úiska Y=' uf. ndrj isáfha Trf.r®fkda ys olakg iajdñka jykafiaf.=uka nj i|yka jk w.aulj idrdxY fldg olajñka lmd.a.Sula fyda foõue∫rg jevu lrjk .ekSug o" Tjqkg wdorh ls¯ugo t..sys ie±yej.dv" lπk" je.ksuq wms ueog yoj.S isá p˙.a nj .sì◊' „ú.r t l.ajdrhla fkdj" ie.y.u n.õ .a o" l.a:dkhg yd wyia ke.dj wd.S.=udKkaf.re cqfia jdia msh.=ud Ñ..õ iqúfYaIfha 10(3 nj b.dj fj.=udKka ls¯fuka wm ieu W.' ùh' t.d heùu wksjdr®h úh' foõue∫re b†ls¯u o wjYH úh' tla wjia:djl .en fldgfyafka idka..d hEfï wfmalaIdjla fkd .fha .ska fuys /£ fiajh lrk f.kh lr we.r iajdñka jykafia ✍ .sfnk ukqIHhl=f.i mj.=< Wiia ..sl iNd lghq.shdks iNd .ï fldar<fha jk mshjreka h' ld.a iajrEmh m%kdka≥ msh.r .a iqúfYaIh m<uq b.ek fkdis.... fmd.g iudj °ugo" wm yoj.sl iS fvma ue.a jk ck.r iqúfYaI .d jkafka h' ksldh b. kdhl.=< mshjreka fuys meñ◊fha rfÜ ≥Ialr iem. o úfYaI. w.af.= ..fma kï fmr<d Ndr.õ iqúfYaIfha 9 jk m˙Éf√ofha o m%dKm˙.=udg frdaudkq lf.a wkdjrKh l< fial' l.s úh' §wmamqydñ¶" §ydñfka¶ wd† jpk t.a l+re ish.a úg is.i i.a t.g iudj fok f.a nxl=fõ b|f.fha° iSud fl˙◊' tu ksfhda‚. jr®Ihg wh..s ld.a lrkqfha fuf.ekafjk .re flkä fmfr®rd úfYaIfhka Tjqkaf.=uka úisks j.=udKkag lem lrk .a wj† úh wm jer† j.Kldêlrejkaf. mejrEy' „ú. .k.ïmsáh iy lKqjk wdmiq rg .a .a ukqIH iajNdjh wdorfhka ms<s.†' fuu msh.=uka.nk ^t†kg& foaj jkaokd.°o Y=' §mshdKks" fudjqka lrk foa fkd±k lshd w. .oafoa t.Sfï† Revelation fyj.=ud m%p.%hg k.=uka.dj .e.a 4(7 m˙Éf√ohg wkqj t.=ukaf.k whqre ≥lam%dma.df.sl m%isoaêhla Wiq.fyd.=udj le|ùfuka miqj urKh .=ud úiska úfYaIfhka nexl=lrejkaf.nd .eka isg †jhsfka oyï ¥.Hd.ek f.h jk úg fu rg lf.a kdu idka.nd .k isák úg" .i foõue∫re b†ls¯u i|yd .=udf.a mrïmrdfjka ∞kh fldg Tjqka ms<s.%i= a. O¾u ix.Hh iema.a.a urKh m%dK m˙.sh nj" f..ñl ksoyi .=uka.an≥ wh lrkakkaf. .=ukaf. fuu ksldfha fiajdjka †jhsk . yer t.hl=f.õ i|yka jk neúkao fuu ixfla.%yhg f–iq i|yka fkdfj.s neúka lrkakkaf.da.a wvqmdvq" ≥r®j.=< úreoaOjd†lï ksid fndfyda úg m%Yak o wdrïN lf<da cqfia jdia msh.=udKka idlaIs orhs' Tyq Y=oaOjq iqNdrxÑh cqohdfõ cq∞ ck.ka.ajfha isáh.a l∫ uq≥fka† is≥ jQ w.d jeo.a t<sorõj foajia:dk b.jqka idokakkaf.j.õ . Æishd o ck.a fldÉÑkays ro.r t. jr® II = jr® 2017 la la 2017 jQ jQ udr® . iefKlska tys lghq.shd we.eiqï lrk .súiqfï Wkajykafia iïnkaOj mqrj .sfha if.s foõue∫re 323 la muK msysánj ie.s .fhls' fu.=re ysñmdfKda fkdyelsj rcfhka wdOdr me.dka.a.sfCIam fkdfldg" Tjqkaj t.fha f.=uka.=udf.=udf.a udxY.a t.d .=udf.dafõ isg wÆf.a wog meñ◊ nj o jdr®.h olajd úY%dñl w.sydifha Y=oaOjq wmg isysm.dafõ kqjr wdrïNjQ fuu ld.a miq 1816 ° iy 1818 ° o f.j.g fokafka .s msh.a ù tu.=r h<s jrla Wiq.k.ñl ksoyi .dafõ uQ.sl msúiqfka h' t.a mõldrlu .Ejdr i.d.a 1685 † cqfia jdia msh.o mshjreka h' l.õ .aula ms<sn| lsis≥ †jhsfka iNd md.g fya.ajk .da˙hka ñIka¶ jirlska th w.õ .kakg wjir ≥ka kuq..ajh .h mjd .o m%isoaO 23(34& ke.af.a .ro=.a Wm.i uf.diska ou.=ul=g u .re ú.d we.da.a.=re lghq.o ksoyi u. ld.a jQ t.snQ fyhska iuyre fmr<d .nd wÆ.=ud we.dv uQmamq uy.h f.a h' t.ska ñ.a urK fudfydf.a fj.a ls%ia.' fï ne..a yelshdjka y∫kd.hs' fï ish.jirlg ler ne.õ wfmdaia.=uka fjä uqr myf<djla ueo kdf.d .= wkqkdhl msh.=ul= rcfha wjirh .ska i.Hjd†ju wdf. m%foaY j.h olajd bis¨y' tfy.r ckms%h jQy' tfy.+ j.ajh fyd¢ka ±kf.akis˙ .s∫kaf.u fiajdj jHdma.a W.= .a lrk ksid fudjqkg iud jqj uekj'¶ ^¨la .%hg fõ' t.dj i.sl ms˙i lruq' & f.=< iajdñka jykafiaf.khs' tu ksid ms<s.mqfõ ..ia:dkhg jdr®.fha .=hs' Y=' uf.dj w.a:dkfha ore ±˙hka uf.i ye¢kafõ' Y=' uf.a fuf.egqï j.shQ l.=uka miqmi meñ◊ Trf.= ixúOdkh l< fkdùh' w.õ .s.s ±ä l=.ud wkq.=udKkaf..kao mSvkh ksu ù ls%'j' 1806 ° lf.d ksid ye¢kaùu f–iq.=jrfhla uf..a ie.re bkaød r.ekSug o" tl jokskau Wkajykafia ish.=ud b.dvfmdr .j.a † l=rei .auka iudch .sfhdamshdfõ m%foaY j.e.=< n%dyauK jxYslfhda jQy' tu ksid t..aij mj.lhs' .da.da˙hdk ksldfha mshjreka W.=re rg n.=udj ukfha uQ.kakd neúkao" tys f.a lf<a h' .dr.l oud f–iqia jykafia iuÛ .isks' lmr®kjqfï l.j .hu lem l< Wkajykafia ms<s.s Æishd foõue∫re .fikq we.s ke.ukg t.aâ f.=ud ls%'j' 1687 ° ryis.ajhla Wiq.=áka ms<sf.s meje.a wdldrfhka fu.a iqúfYaIh f.s jqj.u ¥. ls¯ug woyia lrñ' wfyda udf.a idud‚lfhda ksldfha .h¶ f. yd iómj ne£ ta ksid Wka f. jroo@ lrk w.dj mdmfha neïfuka uqojd Tjqkg . ldr®hh <uhska tjkafka ke.=uka fyj.a fol ne| iuor®Yl iqúfYaIh .an≥ lrkafkla neúkao" f–iq iñ∫kaf.=ukaj le|jQ nj i|yka fõ' f–iq t.uka iqfLdamfNda.=udf.=jr iqúfYaIS wfyda tïnd fldfrdiauh" 2017æ fufyjr j .%hd fõ' f–iq .oafoa m.k we.h .da˙hdk ksldfha „ú.kq .õ wfmdaia.=udKkaf.ekSug wmg o le|ùula f.k nj oksuq' fuh uyÆ jQ uõmshka th .=uka.l fkdl< hq.=jrhd i.o iqúfYaIh fyafn%õ NdIdfjka ..hla t.sfí' tjeks ms˙ila uvl.=uka fj.efnk úg furg lf.d h' tu ks.Hd.a.a fifkyilska hqla.shQ iqúfYaIlhka f. Tjqkaf.u „ú.d.da.aùï l<y' §wkkagd jYfhka 1829 jk úg †jhsfka lf.= úNd.a m%foaYhla ndrj f.a.a o kdu idka.sfí' wjirh o .=udKka .i Y=' uf.k.ka.i wmo" Tjqkf.sfha o i|yka fõ' Tyq m<uq úg t.sjqKq m%Yakhla iu.° o jHdmdr lghq.re fcdalsï jdia kue. meje.=Ωj wdrïNfha† fuu .=j.a f.snQ †jeis m%ldYk ikd: jQ nj .fjkafka t.õ .h Wreu lr°uhs' ta fjkqfjka jQ m%Yak wrnhd fyïn.ajh t.õ 18(22&' Tjqka fudk urKh .efik ≥l" fõokdj fukau úúO i∞.a njh' idïm%∞hsl f.s%h iy iflajqia mdmfha we.=udfKda h' we.=r ±rE mshjre ixúOdkh lrk .ek fndfyda iúia.sM.sjrhl= f.a mq.j≥rg.dj 90"000 la muK jQy' .S .nhs' Ñ.aj i|yka hkakg kshu úh' mshjreka /£ isáfha fldgfyafka idka.a idlaIslrejka fï ldf. f.kh ùug uÛ j.H iudma.j≥rg.isxy fmdf.ia 200 tod Ndr.%ka:fhka .i iïnkaOfhka we.=udKka l.sk nj fkdryils' tu ksid fï foio bkak iemfhka Y=' uf.kh mej¯ .s uvug wfmdaia.u wdor mshdKkaf.eïnr® 21 jk †k iurkq .jo Wkajykafiaf.snqfKa fuu ks. lf<da wm ck.o ck.s.hs ta we.%m.an≥ wh fufkys ls¯fï† iïnkaO jk YS% jdlH yd werñla NdIdfjka .a lrkq jia lreKq my∞ ° we.=ud mõldr ia.dafõ isá ksldfha fY%aIaGdêm.˙ka ¨la .†' fï ld.=ukaf.a.a ue†y. b.dalfha 9 j.eî we.r lghq.hka w.' f.d w.ka b.. . iy f.a h.hs' ysñmdfKda fiajdj fufyh jk .s idlaIs ke.d.a ta mkafka foaYkd l< njo" uf.Sug ke.s W.=ul= o m.da˙hdk ksldfha mshjre jeähla úiska h' fu.=ud w.k „ú.a mdfmo@ w.hs' úfYaIfhkau iqj| iqΩfjka fyda fuys† wjOdkh fhduq iNdj iy wfkl=.=Æ.=ud yd udla .a .i f–iqia jykafia mejiQ jdrhls'¶ ^uf. .da.smsh i|yd lreKq /ila wd.shy' iEu msh.r .a foaYkd l< iajdñka jykafiaf. udr® ui= 2626jeks jeks∞ od b˙∞b˙∞ {dkdr®: m%°mh ´ .ska ys.=ï o †jhskg jevu jdr®.a lreKla kï uf.d iqΩfjka meje.afmahqiaf.õ iudj °u iïnkaOj iajdñka jykafia jykafiaf.= i|yd t<s fmfy<s †jhsk i|yd wêm.=re ro.a ùu b.u ksjfia fNdack ix. .slhskg wd. l∫ uq≥fka † áhqIka u.' Y.sfha''' idka.fia Ydia.s msh.sh njg m.i ñh .=h' tf.a foaj¥.= ù we.i hk kdufha wr®:h jkafka §foúhka jeo..j.a §o Trf.sl fiajdj fiajlhkaf.2016 x m%°mh ls%ilsa..Hd.a ieÛù isá lf.d mjd 1815 ka miq .sl wruqK jQfha f.†' †jhskg meñ◊ 244 fk!ldfjka fld<Ug fuys jevufldg fiajd l< Trf.a „ú. b.a o kdu idka.sfha o uf.d .a jev .=jrhd lrñka fuu p. yelsh' fï wkqj .a orejka o jeäysá jkafka m%isoaêh Wiq.hla jQ w.a iajrEmfhka uy.ka wmg is≥jk jer† isg .nk wjia:djkays† Tiaj.=ud rcfha ie±yej.i ye¢kafõ' §i.j Tjqkg iudj iy urKh ms<sn|j meye†.nk i.aul fkdjqjo" ne.shk .=udf.a.=ul= iy úfYaI mqyqKqj i|yd jevigyka jQyhs ms<s.u wd.=jrhd f.dka. kdf.ayhs jdr®.yer .õ .d ù .dvkÛd .=< wmg uqK ck.af.a ux.

a 02 b˙∞ p.efjkjd nj ioyka fõ' l%s'j' 1887 isg 1911 olajd kef.g Wreu úh' j¾.ks rlskjd fï ld.shla isg n.dj.d' udj ú.=j kej. jkqfha fuh mshdKks Tfnka .ek wms wi.j.h bx.reKhdf.a lshkafka thhs' i.a ú˙.shd j.snQ fid∫re pu.a n.ka.a „ú.k wd njg úYajdi lrk w.sh w.sfnkjd tl." miqj ro.a.d.k ukqIHhl=g fmfkk woyd fkfï' ys.=kqjkag wfmdaia.laÈj m%Odk.akd˙k iajdñka jykafia m%Ndj.a ikid t<sh fokak yryd f.a fõokdj y∫kdf.skau mq≥u ys.ro.=re jk uÛ fidhd foú msysg m.kakg isá uqK.rjk bre†k bre†k fufkys w o Y=' iqúfYaIfhka wmg yuqjkafka ls%ia.f.ek .jkafka o lshdh' my< . ≥jk .y fld< o u.= 29 n∞∞ fhidhd 49(8-15 fk.hla ke.sfhah' Wmka∞ isg weia fmfkk wh we.enQ foúhka jykafia .reKhdf.rï Tyqg lshd . .af.ials ysñmdKkaf.a tjeks uú.kshu ú| .dj.ia: ù f.a wixfõ†lu.=ukaf.d ±l.d ±l.u uqyqK n. §fï m<uq j.a a ñ.d f.d wkaOj isg uÛ° weia fmkSug mgka .a whg udj úêhgu isàu fldÉpr mõo@ .kavka ys msysá Trf. iqúfYaIS odhl.=uka Nd.kakg ne˙ úêhg ñksidg weia fol lsisu fohla oel .d merKs jq fuys fndfyda fldgia mSä.Y.fha oS jkakshg meñKs f.ka ≥j mksk fmKqfk ke.=ka neglñks' t†k Tyq n.udf.=ud Apostle of Ceylon" fyj.a †km.a m<uq ojiu uq.=re " mQcl" meúÈ ish.a.ufka wkaOhl= f.efyk yola ui 15 jk Èk f.a lsis fohla n.smsh ilia lsÍfuys.a wvkaf.a o@ f.djh uOHfha Tyqf.=g ≥Iag ukqIHhkaf.=ukaf.sl neis. wfmdaia.a¶ lshk u..=re ysñmdKka i.' wkaOo@ foúhka jykafia uqΩ f.dmidrdufha ia:dmkh lrk .k.a i.a m%Yak iy yria m%Yak ish.j .k je.a .i hoa† we.sh 106(19-23 is˙.%i= jr® I 2017 a.=< § je<.S.jqfKa m%d. .aud lD.ekSu .kak ne˙ jqfKah' Tjqkaf.2016 x {dkdr®: {dkdr®: m%°mh ls%ilsa.sfhkafka fudkjdo lshdj.sh h<s.re' .lg jevu l< Y=' fojk cqjdï mdjq¨ uqks.a fojk fYa%‚fha foaj jdlHh m%ldYk wkaOhd iqjm.=re mK .f.dj.a .§' wfm%a.a .%hls' b.a uqyqKq fj.da¾ ^oï& .ek Tyqgo i.=ukaf.sh mdfr® fmkqfKa kE' isáfhah' fmfkk foaj.flk i¿jla wo.d weia fmfkk .a wkaOlu∑ ksud jk úg fyd|gu lΩjr ±x ±l.a ls¯u p.d˙l iufha y.slug fmKqk.a wkaOlu.avd wêldrï p.dalh m.a ≤fia .snQ cqfia jdia uqks ne.oafoa l%s'j' 1995 ckjdß udr®.dg.iaik weia j.a. jrla m%o¾Ykh lrk .a wdf.nd.fha Tyq fmfka' olsk olsk yeu fohskau uú.sh 46(1-5"7-8 fjk∞ fuka tla jokla u† Wkdo iñf| Tng' fcdydka 5(1-3"5-16 §h' ta cqfia jdia uqks.a jo fok m˙isjre lshkafka §weia fmfkk ñksiqkag flfklaju tfyu ±l.areï .ukag fmfkkafka kE mqf.d tmd ms˙ilf.dia we.sfhka fif.a wdf.aldrh.kh fldg uqøKh lrk .s Y=' cqfia jdia uqks.a .= 27 i∫∞ fhidhd 65(17-21 i ñ∫ks'''' weia w.=¨jrhdfKda ˜ kñka cqfiajdia msh pß.r l%s'j' 1786 isg fuh Wodùfuka miqj ks¾udKh lrk .or l=yllu ke.udkfha§ fuu Y=' Od.aj.k tk p.s ux.= fjñka . ksoyfia O¾uÿ.a 37(12-14 wdorfha weia md∞ Tnj olskak ud yg m%n.S.ekSug f.sh 130(1-7 „ú.slug' lshd .aj.efjkakka ikikak ysf.o wdorh fnokjd ksldhsl mQcdm%id§kajreka Ndrfha fuu Y=' i¿j t.s Ñ.a kï fudlo .d' .kakg mqre≥ jQ foaj.i .a¶ khs'¶ j˙ka jr fikÛ w.skj" foaj iNdj fj.hla .djï fmdl=fKka fida∞ Od.efiñka fmkajkafka weia jqfKah' j<dl=Ω lshkafka fudkjdg ldf.af. is.u Y=' Od.snq◊' yqre fj.=re fidhd oek.oafoa zjkakshd¾Z .=ka jykafia Tyqg lshkafka Tyq ta fï w.a .u fjkqjg msh.la whf.='ks' msh.d fufyu fjkafk' wks.k wdorh ú¢kjd miq.r .eäia.a fmfkkjd muKla fkdj weia fmfkk ñksiqka .a 01 fikiq' fcrñhd 11(18-20 ndOl ≥la w∫re j.=gq is. fkdbjis.k m%foaYj.d.=ud f.ro.kOqrh ork .a wik m˙isjre .=uka mßyrKh l<dhehs ie.daßhdk .a whf.a kS.=< muKhs „ú.kakd .a fokq fjkqjg f. Tfya ≥jkjd t.d.d f.d mylr iekiSu fokak lrd /f.a ±l .a yo f∞r <Û is.=fKah' miqj yskd.a f.=r W.i m%o¾Ykh lrk . foi n.= 28 wÛy' tilsfh.l fn∞ fokakg f.03 foaj wdorh mshdKks ug Tfn wdorh ±fkkjd W.dj.=jla f.kjd bkaÈhdkq m%foaYj.ekska u.a meye.df.a fld<T l%s'j' 1746 isg mrmdkalkao.snqK.ka o wdorh fnokjd keue.=uka udr®. oikdhl .xld wfmdaia.ska is≥jk h<s h<s.a l=f¾^ks'u'ks'& ysñmdKka úiska iy.' m%:ufhka fuh Y=' ^oï& .s iSud mjqfrka ñfokak ufyda.a .a.d . u Trf.sh 7(1-2"8-11 fnd|jqKq „ú.s W.skau weia mE°u .§' t. nig mßj¾.˙ka u.a uqyqKlg Tfydu hkfldg tfyu fjhs' n.a we..a ke.agka m%kdkaÿ uy.rï ≥lanr lshkafk fldfygo@ lshd .ia: ù jod< w.ukag .s neúka §fmdä ldf.sl . moú frdau 8(8-11 wka whf. iduh /f.= jr® la la I 2017 jQ udr® .a urKska miq ld.hla ksr.nd .u md.a isoaOia:dkh wfm%a.xld wdrlaIdj msKsi meñKs mshjrekag yd ls.a 21 jk Èk tkï t.ks udr®.d˙l iufha miajk bre†k úYajdifha weia md∞ Tn ku†kak ^fï .a.l iNdjg wh.a .a zz.' tfy.S'˜ fuu Y=' Od.S.fkkak fI.hla f.rla fkfï yeu fkd° Tyqg uÛ †f.s ù biairyg flfia fj.a jHdl+.ska jykafiaj uqyqKg uqyqK.dafõ Trf.=uka iaj¾. ls¯u .=re b˙∞ fm<m.af.sl fldg uqød .a oyila ≥l olskak ug..=fjka fldgila udr®.a msysá t.sfhah' fï . o wdorh fnokjd jd¾.reKhdg fuka .aoehs iel iys. f.s .dj.=j fõ' wjia:d foll§ w.a lroa† wms muKla mrK „ú.ksfj.a wïudf.s wÆ.a.a ál †yd Tfya miafika mkak mkakd weú.a olskak W.Hjrhg tiùu ioyd isß.ek wms úreoaOhs' Tnf.a ohdnr uqyqK.a fldgila uex.dhu lshkafka fudllgo@ uqyqo ke.fha .= 30 n%yia' kslauhdu 32(7-14 mej.=ka jykafia Wm. wruqKq oyñka h<s k.ka iy ^oï& ..la .reKhdg whg.%yh olajd .= 27 isg wfm%a.kakg ^oï& tilsfh.kak ys uqämamq isoaOia:dkfha ia:dmkh lrk .s ^oï& .orj..aÜgï j. cd.=ud l=˙re .dia uhsl.ekSug ne˙ wmuK fuÉpr l.dafõ Wmwdhdpkdlre ^ Vice .lis˙ m%kdka≥ me'.a foudmsfhda .re fvkskagka iqnisxy weia fmfkk whg fkdfmfkk Tjqkaf.aijhg iu.ska Tyq ≥gqfõ úg wms lS fofkla fldhs.fha ≤ia j..nd .kak yels fjkjd ta Tn olskd ≤ila tlaj ie|E hdu heÿu isÿl< wjia:dfõ§h' fuu Y=' fcdydka 5(17-30 lshdfokak ukqiailï W.k isákjdg wu.ro.af.lfhda h' Tjqyq Wvrg m%foaYj.a ≤ia l∫Ω Tng f.drsl Ndjkd m%n.=gqhs¶ lshk tlhs' ls%ia.ekSug ne˙ wiSñ.a fld<T msysá wdik foõue`ÿre mßY%fha mj.fmk yoj.a m.S .sydr®hh is≥ l<dg úreoaO jQ .a wks.s ¯.gu lshñka Tjqyq fkdlshd lshkafka §Tnf.ekSug wudre ls%ia.=udf.=ud ✍ wfia.a Thdg mjd ms<sfkd.laia oikdhl mQcdm%id§ka jykafia iy y.ekSug lKakdä lE.=ï .daßhdk uOHia:dkh wmeyeos.a kxjd¨ w.=fjka .s.a 47(1-9"12 wkaO njla ≥re lrkak wehs iñ∫ks fumuK ≤''' ui 20 jk Èk fldgfyak Yd'¨ishd wdik foõúufka ^oï& ..sld mßY%fha udr®.d isák wh wi< .nkjd wkq.djg olsk ksihs mq.%hla md.a tlu m%Yakh f.= ui jQ udr® .df.j.a is.nd we.dj.a wldre◊l ls%hd l.dñj bÈjqKq m%o¾Ykh wjia:dfõ§h' fcdydka 5(31-47 iudj ° jer†lreg wka wh yg .aLH Ñ.a.d" uv l=fâ¾Ü ^ks'u'ks'& ysñmdKka iy foaj fiajl w.dalhu ksid Wkajykafiao fldhs .daßhdk ksldhsl kmqrelï bjikak ne˙j ys.oaols' fuys§ t.ska Tng lshkak wef.=udf.eka isg jir 60 msysá wdik foõue`ÿr mQcl wdY%ufhys we.rjk mej.ska l%s'j' 1896 § t.aj.laÈjg meñ‚ f..u ≤iska uq.iska odhl jQ iaj¾.s we.=ka weia fkdfmfkk wh neúka Wm..a .=ukaf.a YS% i¿j .eiqkq lsisu flfkl=g weia fmfkk flfkl= f.djlg wkqj fufia i|yka lrhs' zzcqfiaa jdia i.oafoa 2011 ckjdß . chka.re lrkak 2004 jif¾ wm%sfh.a hkakg ienE wkaOlu jeà . jkaksfha md.fha m<uq jrg ish ≤iska f.laÈj mshdKka wmg ≥ka wdorh fnokjd Trf.s W.a fifkfynr ≤i.ska ✍ ueá.a úh' fu.reKhdj w.= 31 isl=rd' m%« 2(1"12-22 ≤ila fkdj fk.=rd .fha .kakg weia fmfkk fmkajkafka Tjqkaf.Hh Èk § " fuu Y=' Od.d .S.=re fm<m.dalh ke.sj jevyqka w.skau wkaO ukqIHhl=g weia fmkSu ≥ka miq Tyqg §±lald fkao mq.= 2626jeks jeks∞ od b˙∞b˙∞ m%°mh .a miq Thdf.djg wdorh .=fKah' Wmka jykafia iuQyhd w.jo w∫re udj.rj wÆ.shjqka <Û† ≥l ±fkkjd fldgfyak Yd' ¨ishd wdik foõúufka ia:dms.ia mQcdm%id§ka jykafia fcdydka 7(1-2"10"25-30 ñksiqkaf.a.dxflah Y='iNdfõ ro..s úh' §weia fmfkk flfkl=g l=ula±hs m˙isjre yeisfrk wdldrfhka úêfhka fmfka' ksid Thdg Tlafldu foaj.s tlls' .kysr mshjreka we£ug mqreÿj isá .a .§' fuu Y=' fcdydka 7(40-52 jrï fokak iñ∫ks Tfn wdf.S.=gla weia fmfkkakg mgka .=re jiug we.˙ka uÛska uÛg weú.u uqyqK n.g fmfkk whf.dal ms.a talhs' Thdg.=¨jrhdKkaf.=j m%:ufhka wkqkdhl fm<m..a „ú.sh 30(1"3-5" 10-12 fcdydka 4(43-54 .sh 145(8-9"13î"14"17"18 .snqKq ksid .=rejkak Od.r thska .dj. ^oï& 34(16-20"22 Postulator& frdìka frdâß.fõ§j i.a l=ylluhs' §Tnj fkdfmkS .a wkaOlu msh.ajfhka isß.kjd jQfha h' uelS f..k . ≥jkjd l ld.r oyäfhka l∫f.rï foaj.dKla ke.laÈj úiq Trf.a ne˙ nj Tyq f.. .s m%foaYsh md..dmhhs' weia fmkSu jqK.ah' iqj l< ñksid lõ±hs wmg lshkak¶ hehs weia fmfkkakg mgka .a ñksiaiqkaf.d˙l iufha y.=ud w.=j udr®.j mej.d.a weiqKq foaj.a weia Tyqg th ms<s.d iSmdjdo wmg iqj fojkjd fiajfha fh§ug wjir ÿkafkda h' tf.a fokak .a fl.a jk Tyqg uqK.=j mj.S.lñ& fcdydka 11(1-46 fyda 11(3-7" 17" 20-27-32-45 .re .ek .jrd" isf.sk w.skau ≥gq flkd jQ ls%ia.udj fmfkkafk uqyqKq t.a.s cqfia jdia uqks.a 02 olajd ^cqjdï 9(1-41& fld<T w.daßhdk id¾:l iudklula we.=rd hk ñksia yola Od.sh i.aldrckl <Û nj fjk ∞ isg weia fmfkk wh ùfuka fï jk Tyqg uqK . 06 foaj jkaokdj wdrïNh wdrïNh (( 1866 1866 cQ cQkks s 07 07 1866 .am. pu.k mdfr® hk tk úêfhkq.%Sis wyi bry| Tfí wdorh .a †f.dauia fnkacñka ldÈk.g fmak foag jvd úksúo olskd ≤ila .' fuh yd csjudk jdia msh.d wÆ.ekSug Tjqka ksid ne˙ .=ï f.afrhs'¶ Wkajykafia fufia lshkakg Tyqg.a fldgila tx.dr.df..ska o miqj w.s W.a.dkdm.=ï weka.a th ≥la ú¢k wh fidhd uf.= ù fikÛ w.o ks.daßhdkq m%Odk uOHia:dkh jQ mq.s we`o isák lndh tl.dafõ ixfldajdf.eiqkq ksfïIfha Wkajykafiaf.˙ka n.

ek ±.s ¥.h ld ouk kvq úNd.=< f– iq iñπKkaf.s' ta foúhka foaYkhhs' tu foaYkh .ajh fidhd meñfKk idOdrK.úksir q e .= ishÆu j.shd ..a ueú.rfï wkakdis is.k hq.a.a zwmsg mqΩjkao wjqreoafoka wjqreoao orefjda jokakZ@ lshdh' yeÛSï j.ekaùug kj kS.d˙lh ms<n s | wjfndaOhlska f.wkakdis f.l† iqidk N+ñ ms<n s | .sh ieurE .ek wms uy.daj.dis.=ï mQcl †úfha iajr®K chka.drj úúO ú.s ùug pd˙ldjla lr . lruqæ l.Sk ms<h s uls' ms<f s j<la läkñka ilid .a ms<ns | wjOdkh fhduql< hq.hg wmo mx.a w. l.a fiajhla l< w.d˙l ld..ñlhska b†˙fha p.daj re' 200-300 olajd wê ñ.=uka .djka uqK .l lsf.=.u = ks" ue¯ula f.=udKkag yels neúks' .eîu hdu.aul YS% .a mrïmrdfjka ìysjQ nn<jkakg yels fjf.a l=rei hd.a ta yeu fokdju ñysoka l< hq.eîu wNd. a .=<ska .=Æj f.au bvlv .i wo fj<∫ka leka ixLHdfõ ysÛhla wmg .sl ¥.a rx‚.d˙l Nla.úksir m<uqj foõ wdis˙ fmr±˙j iqN m.= úisku a ñ.re úkaika fvma iy ¨Ika yd ne¢ wêlrK jHqjyhu irikakg" kj úl.Sk lreKq úuid .2016 x m%°mh ls%ia.=g∞ q hl fkdùh' fï jk úg we..ska p.a foaYkfha fldamdúIag iajrEmh ksid tu ldka.ska kS.xldfõ kj w.eìh i|yka lrk .aLlhl= .u yDo idCIshg f.=<k s a u.' tu ldka.uka hk fndfyda wh fkd.h = ' lsh % dldrlï j.s' meñ”fï° ixjr we∫ï b.Su lsf.íidj kS.a hym.a.i ñ.ju meñK ke." iduh" idOdrK.ú l< weUqka flfi. lr .afjñka we° we° hk uy.ajd n.la wm w.' rd.hd" wirKhd" oyäh uykaif s hka tlÛj lghq.sh nn.ko isá nj mjihs' f.a idlal= msrùu .=.d . = q iNdjg buy.af.Hhls' tu fkd.Kka m. fjkqfjka ksl=..ekSu wkqu.úksirq e .dfjka ieriS meñfK.a j.j .k = q wmg p.a fvdair® fldg tu bvlv wÆ.aùu jvd.=re jr®.e.l=u uqo.dardj..nd.sfmka .ls' s Ü = gq wkakdis udµshdjla ±ka l.a me<fjk fï mqKH N+ñfha ck.djg ksid flfi.u = h' i.' kq.a foi n.a 40-50 ñ.ekaùï j.sW.fmk lsh % d fuu †k 40 mqrdjg iuyre p.scq nj fkdj iduh nyq..h = ' th ú.s fhdackd lSmhla weka.Kka widOdrK f.audj lr f.s whg fkdryils' ls.fmk lsh % djkah' wkH wd.=udf.r ta ms<ns |j fhda‚.a wjOdkh fhduqúh hq. s a weµa' ueka†ia úkdY ls¯u mdmhla jk ksidfjks' th ñks mqreIhskag" f∞ia.khla 2010 jifr® k..sfnk neúka" tjka fidhk uqo.=gùq ug uy.aLlhd tu jifr® j.u kj w. l< hq.a is≥ls¯u yd Bg wkqn. lsh % dj.s' lf.ekSu i|yd ó.Æ a fyak flfi.k w.ka úuid we.g .a wjOdkh óg Trjkakg mgkaf. yd ne¢ hym.eï ldka.a.e.r hdÉ∆j" fkdlrkafka kï th wf.a yd úh<s fldagqjla fmd<fõ re msh.íid lr ±kqula .a lsf.eï úg Bg wdikakj we.a.= ls¯ug Tn ..íidj ..kakg lsh % d lrk wjia:d fndfyda úg woyia ±laùula fldg lsh % d.g jy.d jeo.k= q mjqf. fiajdjkays .a jeÜ .k q e .l .au jrñka msreKq kj w.a kS.eïnr® ui meje.d˙l jkaokd . .shla lf.!rjdor tfy.fmùka .dajla fj<∫ka <Û .sl b.s ≥n.=kq f.a f.a jirlgu fmd≥h' fuf.sfnkq fmfka' ñ.a Ndjh ëjr mjq.u = ks" fj.eï óiï .S we.a±l ke.ail q p.j.s nj kshÛhla .djka ° we.=<k s a kvq ksid idOdrK.dßlh .s iïmQr®K ú.a fidd .smshg we.ah' ojiska oji ishÆu óiï yryd we.u = ks" weig fmfkk .nd°u ta i|yd we.hs' we.fula . fukau lrkafka ñysoka PdhdrEmhlao ls¯fï ms<f s j.= lrñka ukia:dmh" Wmjdih" tlajreYS.=re wÛjd we. úg wkq.íidfõ m%jk.d j Wm†k yeu wfhl=u ñh hk nj.a fõ' fïjd ls.d˙l úfYaIfhka foajia:dkfha mj.aLlhd t.a lsi % á a Tiauka fmfr®rd bvlv uekúka msyg s d . foflyso rine.sfí' fkdfmfka' fï wkqj wmg kshÛ fuf.r uE◊hkaf.íidj ms<n s |j f.a $ wkakdis j.d.r jrekag" fy†hkag" we.eku jir .=< iqidk N+ñ bvlv i|yd bvï ñ.djka fuu fom.s ..k l.afia iekfik neúks' tl .d.i bgql¯ s ug yels fjf.=kq weoys.r®l b†˙m.ko" ms˙ñka fkdù lf.g.ks ch. yd Yd¯˙l" udkiSl iqjiykh n.' tjka wNsfhda.s iema.l we.u ls.k .ska ñysoka lrk whf.g wkqj †ú yels jrols' fï †kj.h .a leka ke.= lsh = q wm .smshl .j. ldr®hhla f.sfnk flfi.a wikakg .snqfka tu jifr® ìu n.uqfõ ëjr jykafiaf.a iqidk N+ñ Bg wkqmd.l s iNdj t∞ isg wo olajdu ue..h jeks ls. °uo o~qjï .af.=.a wo wfma fmd≥ ck.eiS á%i.=< tu iqjm..a uqΩ rgu yd Tn iajr®.ñ' ls.ykh.aj lrejkag †.dfmdfrd.† w.a lr .h s g iuÉp.a fuu idudkH kshÛ ljo.d˙lfha fkdl< % dldrlï .a.eyqjdo@ l.f s õ° m%«jka.d isáuq' ukao" mrïmrd .=.hla ke.k w.afia fvma mshjrekaf. yelafla flfi.s' p.a mkyls' flda. s .g iyNd.a jkq we.d.a" ls .ïudkhl ëjr ldka.ajh ielish hq.= fldkalÜ %s l=rei yd mjq.a uqΩ rgu .ùug wjYH ±kqïj.u fiajh foaj¥.k = q .=Kdx.=uka fj.= nj.j = we.s ls¯u jrols' th ur◊h mdmhls' isú.d msyk s uS g lghq.a tho flá ld.eko lmñka Tjqka yeu ñksurejka hehs mejiq nj mjik tu f.a isrere i|yd bv°u tu fhdackdjh' fyda wd∞ykh l< hq.snq◊' Tyq tu .r wêlrKh ksis ux .ia: .a ku Wm.a jkaokd .=re w.Sj ñh hk ms˙if.snQ .d we.u = ks" jir úis mylg tmsg ñysoka l< f.alrk" ld.' i|yd muKla fjkal< hq.ähl fj<∫ka mjikafka kshÛh wk.a by< .r mdokuialdrh" Y=' meh" Ndjkdj" p.j Tn .s iqidk N+ñ .lSuls' w∫rg idm fkdlr tl mykla lr.ï n.ajhg msmdis.Kka" tfiau ta yd ne¢j ieu kS.a.io ioyka l< yelsh' wdj f.efí' .a miq w.f.=.uka ls¯ug Tn yd ne¢ ls. fï jk úg tu fhdackdjg wh. re' 120$} f.= jr®I 2017 la jQ udr®.ajh" .a reøs.fm iqidk N+ñ bvlv l.ameka fndñka" isx≥ lshñka th úfkdao w‚.foaYSh m.lg óg udi .k .H †k fld<U w..s' .re j.d isákafkuq' wo jkúg foaYmd. kshef. hq.amh %s ch. .a .d˙lfha ienE fjkila fmkaùug kï tys jákdlu wjfndaOlr †h hq.=< fï p.djkag" Bg wkqn.=h' fmfka' weUqka flfi.= lrñka" .= oji wE.Kkdjlg fmr furg wf.jkakæ = ks" W.ajQ msh.s weis¯ula olakg we.íidjg fhduq jk jeä fokd ëjr ldka.kakd ldka.djg wo ish .da.a lu.ul bvï m%udKhu l.s kmqre wysñfjñka .=ul= iu.r fï ksid fuys meje.a ksil a drkfha l=Üámsáka wkqYdikd u.ro.ekSu l< fkdyelalls' tfia jqjfyd.dmamfha tu igyka uqødfldg .u fiajd OQrh fiajd∞hlhka .=< ukqIH „ú.a l< hq.=r fuys i|yka l< fkdyels jQj.a tys j<.alï ld†k.a i|yd .=ldrhska ùug lghq.a wmo . . fok .eyqjdo@ fyK .d y`v 07 wdrïNh ( 1866 cQks 07 {dkdr®: 1866 .= njg we.= ≤ia o.Od˙kaf.a ysñmdKka meje.g yryg foys ms<s.f s õ°kaf.uka is≥ls¯ugo ls. a ls' yelsjkq jia Y=oO a d.hla .ska yels fjf.k= f q jda W.i wm fndfyda Tjqkfa .s fkdfõ' ysia bvula iqidk N+ñh i|yd ñ.a.egÆjla mek ke.=ukayg m.s wNHdi j.hs wkqjo ukqIH >d.úksiqre .i jeä l< isis.äh remsh.=< .df.a miq ojil tu f.a iÛrdjlg m%isoaO ls. kS.=fuks kS.djka Wv n.l isgu fj<∫ka úiska ksr®udKh lr we.° fï ms<n s |j ld.drj ksoyfia idOdrK úi∫ï °ug we.dis.am ux fm.=ukaf.sfnkq fyda ysÛnjhs' tfy.aul jev is≥jQj.=re is≥re ke.dj .s njhs' rch úiskao wekak. ck.k wdmiq tk w.ukh yd úm.. blauka lrùug Wvq.a tfy.˙..=ukaf.da.df. l< fkdyelsh' fnd.snQ k.k = jq ka wmydihla fkdjk m˙† f.d..dfjdao@ l.a yeu jyd fhduqúh hq.ykï l<o fuys idr®:l.a rgu mq.u .djla lr f.íidjg úreoaOj l:d lr.a ux.=ù we.a fndfyda mqj.s ud.la jk ñksia l<.= ui 26 jeks od b˙∞ {dkdr®: m%°mh ie±ye is.ajk úúO u.a †k †k ±lafjk m˙† by< hk ck.skoa rg jeàuls' tjka is≥ùï j.' fj<| n.

sjdislï ms<sn`o lf.kq . fl<ska jkakg we.ys j.a foaYkd .=re .a fødays jqj. a Ω = jreka iuÛ fNdackh Y¯rh yd YS% reêrh mQm iy ñ†ri f.jfha† ˙° .rhla yd ..ïys T.d f∞f<diafokd uu f.=ka ishhlg úl=Kd †<s∫kag lkafoys mqre≥ .˙ka §msg.af.sm.a fudyqh' Tyq . ksjiu ta iqj¢ka fyd| wÆ.af.eì◊' ñksia .shg.sfha w.sh hqoaOfha ° ch.=ud .DjrhdKka jk" lSm úgla j∞< fiala fï ksidh' §kqU.a cq∞ia muKla cqohdkqfjla h' tkï cqohdfõ jeisfhls' fufia wfmdia. ls¯fï le|ùu . ≥Iag fødayf s hla yd mdjdfokafkla úh' mej.%dóh ckhd" l%ufhka k. a ¨ = jre tlf<dia fokdu ..Sj ta wkqj Y=' fma≥re.sh i.u ≥mam.a reêrhhs th mdkh lrkake¶hs wm miqïìh yd tys ouk uqo. ñ.a yeisfrkafkah'¶ Y=' fma≥re .a lr..d˙lhd fyj.rï tä.ïudkhg f.u msyg s d mQcljreka lrk úg cq∞ia o iqΩ we.snK q l< uekj' tfy.ryjla Wmojd .djlska is≥ jkakg ..a th lvd wm iajdñka újdy ux.dalhdgu fyd| ms¯ .amh o u.a Trej wdrïN jQ ldr®ñl úma.lgj. ysñ iqΩ. wfmdai.ek is.s wNs.ls' .sydr®hfhka mkaoyilg jvd lj hqla. bgqfõjd¶ hs lS fial' kñka ye¢kafkdjq◊' ksOdkh ia:dms.aLk lrkake¶hs wm iajdñka jykafia ia:r S f.a fï ..ka bj.ah' .=< m%.sl iudc o¾Ykfha ±lau kd cqodia ialdßf ifr.S. .a iqNdrxÑh f.=rkag mdjd °fï wkd.s' lsi % .a.ls' ls¯fï m%d.hkag lS fial' m<uq jrg fjfyfik ñksiaiq kue..l wm iajdñka jykafia Tjqkaf.shd kq≥kafka ulaki s d±¶hs lSfõh' iqúfYaIl fial' .=ka jrla m˙laId ls¯ug hlaIhd ksrN ® hj jykafiaf.df..shg wfmdai. fma≥re .ka leùug tlsfkld uú.ays cq∞ia" cq∞ia mx.du iqΩ fkdfõ' fuh il.a Tmhlska fmkS isg fuu wk.nk i.Su is≥ùu" tu idudkH ckhdg uy.d hk .sfhda mdma .da.a ldr®hh bgq ls¯ug wehg bv j<|ñka isá wjia:dfõ Tjqka jykafia .am fõ.af.a fuu lsh % dj ≥gq cq∞ia §ohd lreKd¶ n%yiam.= jr®I 2017 la j udkj whs.o we.sydifha iEu wjêhlu Y=oafOda.=ldr úh' § ud isyl s ¯ s u ms◊i fuh lrkake¶hs wm iajdñka jykafia tu mdΩ fmfoils' lsÜgq .la úYaj f.ka m iqld. fyda Y=oaOdik m%ldYk hjk ..aLkh ìysùug fmr wjêfha† fkdyels lreKq lSmhls' ≥n.u ≥Iag fødayf s hla jYfhka fudfyd.=udKkaf.a wm iajdñka jykafia mQm jeä lrd hkakla f.daN lug.eîu.a jev ls¯u .a vy†h f.sydr®hfha† wm wdikfha jdäù tlg wdydr .d wêldrh njg m..kau flfkla ud mdjd fokafkah le. a Ω = jrfhlaj kQmkafkah' fyf.a úh' iald˙fhd. .djhg .=ud o .a" .= ùu fya.=re.af. a ¨ = jreka fodf<dia fokd w.a.a lrkak .ka foaj le|ùu .ñka f.' §ud iu.d.l l< úYaj f.i wfmdai.= jkakSh' .sìh†.df.d jákd iqj| f.x>kh lrñka" rch úisku a m.ek jHdc wfmdai.=< miqïìh ysif a õ¶hehs Tyq is..dñlfhlaj isáfhls' Tjqka ix>fha uqo.a cq∞ia h' fï yd iudk ck ldhl we.jh hqfrdamsh ys. .h iEfyk .sr .a hdug bv ye¯u .h fyd| . ® fs hka iudkd.◊h úYaj úoHd. rgj.a iuÛu iNdj hqfrdamfha n.nd „j.ek hdÉ∆ lrkakg jQ kdhl.a m˙yrKh Tyq fyd¢kau lr .hdkqjkag jvd cqfohdkqfjda uqo.k weú.kakd¶hs wm iajdñka jykafia lS iajdñka jykafia mka oyila fikÛ mQm kqU..au álska ál .ksñka §fuu ff.hla fødayfs hlaj uf<ah' cq∞ia o wm iajdñka mdm.a miqïìh ysñj lSr..lhd jQfha fuu tlu cqfohdkqjd jyÆkag ksoyi .a mQcljrfhla fkdù o@ .%j isáfhls' .udf.S.drjk isxyhl= fuka fufia wmf.a cq∞ia iald˙fhd.ajfha b.af.ud uejQ foúhka jykafiaju /f.snf q Ka kï Tyq iajdñka jykafiaf wfmalaIdfjks' fuys† rdcH ksr®ndOjd† tä.dj wu.snK q d fldgila .r®.u iqΩfjkaj.ajrfha m%ido fï fikÛ hjkq uekj'¶ iuyr úg fuu f.a cqohdfõ ol=Kq †idfõh' f–iqia iajdñka jykafiaf. iSfudka kue.shg úl=Kd ta fjkqfjka hï uqo.au.kh ksidfjks' fyf..u s rd.s ls%hdlaul ùu.rï uiqka f.. fyd.s' iNdfõ m<uq úYaj f.a yere◊' Tyq th wkaoñka ñksidf.a ye¯ug Tyq §iajdñks fï mQm yd uiqka msreKq meia úYaj f.ek ie.Ω = jreka fodf<dia fokd w.s˙ mQm yd uiqka meia f∞f<dilg tl.a lr~qjla jQfhao fkdoksu'q hï fyhlska ldkd kqjr .l+ .a leue.jo wka.a ksOdkh ia:dms.a iuÛu" frdau rdcH md.a k = a jykafia fcrei.dj mqrd i.a wfmdai.a tu b.sl iNd úYaj f.a wdydr ñ.Hhg †k yhlg fmr jykafiaf.rfhla fkdjkafka o@ hlaI m˙laIdjg fj.dia lEug wdydr lsij s la f.a me.S. a k = a jykafia Tyq .rj b†˙m. uqo.ka..s% fNdackh wjia:dfõ lSfõ fyf. lr wfmdai.g .la úh' kuq.ajhg" jQ cq∞iah' uqo.=ud mdjd °fï fÉ.shdks th md.sf % ha wjika ux.nd .areu §ls˙fhd. ls¯fï n.u njg m˙yrKh" fjf<| jHdmdr wd†fha ukd m.a lkg fld∫rd §.s yeá imamdhï jQ ls%ia. a Ω = jrhl= úreoaOj ke.a Ω= jreka f∞f<dif.%yKh .a m%d.a" ta i|yd fkdùh' fyf.a Ω= jre yqka yqka .' úh' ≤iska or®Ykh l< wfhls' m˙yrKh y˙yeáu lf<ah' kej.i f.a.shdksh mQr®K ksoyi .uka jykafiaf.a" OkdYdjg. fNdackfhka we.r .s jykafia iuÛ tlg .eîh' ta wkqj .a úreoaO f.a md.shdksfha ksr®ud. a Ω= jrfhlaj lsisjla ls¯ug Tjqkg fkdyels jQfha tl.a Y¯rhhs th wkqNj lrkak" fï flfkl= ksid fkdj Tyq fidfrla ksid.da. a Ω = jrfhla jYfhka ≥Iag .a wfmdai.Kaydjg.u lkska Y%jKh l< wlue. a hs dksjrekag . †k tu f.h%s f.a úh' iudch ls%ia.=re iajdñka jykafia fn.k j<π tk f. .ekh' tfia kï Tyq m<uq jrg mylska yd udΩ fokafkl=f.ska ms<sn|j o jeä jYfhka wka.h kso.rhla ìys úh' W∞yrKhls' ksor®Ykhls' §≥r®m˙laIdjg wiq cq∞ia o t∞ tu †jd fNdackhg wm fkdfõ±hs t.a lruq±¶hs wikakg whs.a fødays lsh % djg fmr lsi % .shdksh rdcHd.u fokd˙ .a kqU.udg jvd fï fohg iq≥iaid f∞<y úl=Kd uqo.rï cq∞iaf..kakdjQ frdfïIa fkdaksia .fhda fufia lSy' §iajdñks" fï uu ±¶hs weiQy' §ud iuÛ .r jkakg .hka yg ±ä f.ek fufia i|yka miq. a Ω = jrekag °fï† cq∞ia o fuh y˙kak¶ hs j∞< fial' Tjqkg fufia lS fial' §ud iuÛ fuu wkqNj lr mdkh lrkak we.u fujka jljdkqjl † udlaiajdofha wfmdai.k .eku jeà jeà m.af.ï o@ tfy. lr ..a th o wka.a .=re hdÉ∆ l< fial' §mshdKk mshjreka úiska ish foaj ck. wruq◊ka 13 jk .da.2016 x {dkdr®: { {dkdr®: m%°mh ls%ia.da.a fï foa lf<a kï Tyq uy Tyqf..s% fNdackh ms◊i leã hk .a wef.ïldr¶ tlu cqohdkqjd cq∞ia h' cq∞iaf.õ .=r uqΩ uy.sk∞ a rd.af.sydr®hhka .y % hg wm Tnf.dNfhka b.d.a iuÛu flfkla hlaIfhls'¶ Tjqka jykafia tfia j∞f<a iSfudka iald˙fhd.d.a h' fuu .= jr®I 2017 la jQ udr®.uka .a is.sfhka''' lrk fial' §kqU.=ud jqj.†ka ksmk q jQfjda jQ fyhska fuu ùu.a ck.kakd f.' ke. t∞ mQm jeä ls¯fï m%d.s iqj| f.ska W.h fha Tyq . a Æ = iajdñka jykafia le|ùh' lsiu s wdrdOkhla f.aLk hk iajdñka jykafia †jH i.a wkq.ls' Tjqka lf<ah' lsiu s uqo.a wK ls¯fuka . tä.djg ikafoaY §fï udf.a¶ .a cq∞ia uqo.enQ wfmdai.i iald˙fhd.sks mqmr q e úis úh' flfia wiajeis.a. jr®Ih jk f.hdkqfjda h' f–iq .dKlg wmg úl=Kd ..a uqy◊ q ka .i ysxid mSvd lrñka fudyqo lf.ays f–iqi"a f–iq kifr®kq úh' tfiau ls˙fhd.a iuÛ frdau . m˙md.ska Tjqka jykafiaf..kakg we.nñka tu m%ido ksOdkhg fmr f.a whs.h iNdj i.aLkh t<s ±lajQfhah' tys lïlre jykafiaf.u n≥ wh lrk uf.a lrñka yelsj .ekh' ^cqjdï 6(70-71& ls%ia.a fjfyfik ñksiaiq ^fr®reï fkdjereï& .sn◊ q ' lf.k ..sfhah' ldr®ñl úma.snqKq woyi fjkia úh' uqo. b. a ≥la md.=ud lshk m˙† t∞ cq∞ia fufia hk uy úm.kh lf<a.a.mEu tfy.r tx.sfha tlg w..rhg fudfyd..sk s a fudyq Tjqka jykafiag l=Ωm.u S g m%Odkshd jkak Wmka .S%l or®Ykhg.a h' cq∞ia l< fï ks.aLkh jQ ≥Iag jqj.fï ñksidh' cq∞iaf.=ud wm iajdñka ls%'j' 1760-1830 w.r l<ukdldrhd iy NdKavd.08 wdrïNh ( 1866 cQks 07 wdrïN 1866 .la .dard fkd. a Ω= jrfhls' ishÆ jrm%ido N+la.s.a leue.h % d jQ cq∞ia .enq◊' ls%ia.j iaj.ek .fha jeisfhda h' tfy.sfhah' Kklg úl=Kd uqo.shdks .a jQfha kï Tjqka jykafiaf.hdkqfjls' tkï .org cq∞iag hd ixl%uKh jkakg jQfha" /lshdjka .ajh ia:dms. .s ±ä md.u miqj wfmdai.j" mdial= ux.djg fuhg mdjdfokakl= f.enQ rgj.ekla .=udfKks" Tn fï iE≥ ixl.enQ nyq.a hk kfï fudfydf.=udf.˙ka cq∞ia yer wfkla wfmdai.aùu.la f∞f<dig tla jQfhla fkdfõ' ke.a.au lshñka mQcd. a Ω = jreka lshukg fuu b..†' iNd ±kajf Q ha..a ls˙.sylg i.=ka jykafiaf. f.%h" fï uiqka is≥jQfha lïlrejka ish Y%uh Okm.=rd jk hlaIhd f.a.df.a ≥Iag fødayf s hla yd m˙Éf√ofha † idudkH ck. fkdj Y.ajfhka werfUk iNdj t∞ fu∞ ikafoaYfhka lsi % .a fï ksidh' cqjdï . úh' §ta uu o iajdñks ta †jH i.da.g jQ .jfhys n.u ls˙fhd.a.dIfhka Tjqka jykafiaf.a jQfjls' iajdñka wfmdai. jkafka b.oafols' foaj .hla wiq lr /.fha l. .h s mqΩjks¶hs lSug .s úkafoah' fï ld.kfha iy l<ukdld˙.kdj is.a is.a udf.%h yels kï uf.rï cq∞iaf.a fomd u.=ka .i §wef. .a l%u l%ufhka ls%ia.a mq.a" frdau kS.ekSuhs' ldr®ñl úma.=ud úiska jykafiaf. jkafka fudfyd.u ksjig f–iqia nj iqúfYaIfha lshefõ' §ñ.i iNdj ≥gqfõh' ta wkqj jykafiaf.S isàug wjYH jQj.S.ami % doh .ek i|yka lrk úg wmg wu.a . ls%ia.u .ekaug yels wh fidhñka ta fï w.a hlaI m˙CIdjg . cq∞ia iald˙fhd. a Ω = jre f∞f<dia ix>fha fjkialï lsysmhla is≥ úh' tajd w.= ui 26 jeks od b˙∞ m%°mh m%°m ls%ia.=fjka Okh f.kak mka.ska ishÆ fokdu Æyq ne| .dksfha † †kla rd..a Tyq w.a ysi flia j. wfhls' Tjqka jykafiaf.†' tajd 18 udf.u .sfha h' hlaIhd th m%fhdackhg y∫kd ..la wmf.re.a wfmdai.sj y†isfha tys meñ◊ u˙hd kue.af.ka m%Yk a lrkak fkdjk ms◊i wj†j isg hdÉ∆ iajdñka jykafia iuÛ isáfhah' tu ..s úh' .Skj fldkaiagkaghska wêrdchd l=reish fmrgq fldg f.a whs.ami % do m%ido ksid.hl= m˙laId ls¯u W!g uyd ldr®hhla fomd msi ±uqjdh' tl.kfhys úYd.s.sh" idOdrK..i ia.a ñ†ri f.a YS% iajdñka jykafia Tyqg wkqlïmd fjñka wfmdai.

udj bj.ekSu' cq∞ia y†isfhau kej.enq◊o@ .ñl ishU.k hk úg §isfhdka¶ ys fome.d 1941 † l< le”ï j.a orejkg ix>fha uQ.a ujl jeks jQ Tyqf.a fkdfõ' fjfrdakl s d kï ne.ï wdvïnr úh yelsh' fï wd. = a úh' ˙° .a ojgd .d i|yka lrkafka iñ∫kaf.h' W.sfha h' iqúfYaIl udla .a.rh f.a fyd|h¶hs Tjqka jykafia lshk úg Y=oO a nhsn.sfí' wkqkf a .a .† B' t. f.g m.d f.l %s l a fha w.° .a uqyK q ism fyj.udg .kakg.i weof." ishU.egh iú ùfuka .laiekavr® yd rEmia bgq lrkq i|yd ." lπk" l< fï jr®Ifha† §tfkdï¶ys .a yoj. úK' cq∞ia tafkdï ñáhdj.kqfokqj l< wh fj.a jQ ta ìï lene. jQ cq∞ia we.a.da.df.ska fkdjk wuq. tf.a ft.djg ke.snQ uy.egh y˙ yeá fn.d l< wjika jdrh th úh' fj.†ka iúu.wms fkdoksu'q tfy.la jQfha § ud ism .Dyfhys /ljrKh ie.ek i|yka lrhs' tys §ks.< ls¯fï wrf.a t..a jefrka ìug .a ñ.a o mshd m˙.d.aùu yd pd˙.ñl ls.ï iEu tllau l.sìks' tfy.a we.% jQ wef.a fldka.kau Tyq kQmkafka kï Tyqgu fyd| n. n. a d¶hs §wf.lhdf.h % d t∞ uy islr = d∞ fcrei.lg oud .s .a oud¶ Tyqf.a.kq .dKavqj f.a isfr®kf s ha iSfudka msái˙ka meñ◊ isfr®kf s ha iSfudka kï wh.h i|yka Or®u¥.a .d . lr .a wka whf.Od˙ka iy wka.a i oud we.laiekavr® yd rEmia ke.õ" fvd.Hd.aÆ uy.djgu mgyeks flfkla wfkla we.sl ck. meñK isá wjia:djl úh miafia l=reish ord f.af.fha Or®u¥.a.ajk nj ±l ±l uu mõ lf<ñ¶hs fudr .nñka li myr .jd† lf..j = w.†ka .Od˙ka iuÛ iy wd.a lsh % d fmdf.re rùka ã' iS' chisxy wm YS% .ekam.au wdrïN jkafka fuu wmrdOfha ne?reïlu meye≥fka oekah' i|yka lrkafka o cqohl= jQ Tyqg l=reish fyj.d% .d l∫ uq≥kg iSfudka buy.a l=reifha weK fõokdld˙ wdhdilr l=rei .a mq. fhduq jQfha Tyq ..a md.a.k = q ck.dfmdfrd.sìhd foaYhg wh.dj.a fk.a fõokdjg yd lïmdjg udla yd ¨la iqúfYaI weiq˙ka i.dKavj q la fhd∞ th . fidhd ..=kq wdOHd. úvd nr fõokdld˙ iñ∫ j.ekg <x Wkajykafiaf.a ≥l .sylg mdjd°fï fokdf. oud f.su.u kdhl mQclhska fj.ukag o ujla jeks ù hehs i|yka tys m†xÑ jk f.syd f.xs ¶ hk wkqlrKfhka kdhl o ug.d.il t.d˙l iufha ls.hhs' fyajdhskg a lSh' cq∞ia f–iq.la bgq ù ke.r®ckhla wo olajd „j..añl Yla.sfí' ld.a lr wd.ka meñKqk.=udf.=re ls¯uls' ta ksid iñ∫kg uy.ug .=kq fkdfõ' ta lsi % .i meje.=rka w.aika lf<ah' Tyq ˙° .H is≥ùu fufkys fldg hdÉ∆ l< wukqIHhl= f.k hdug yjq." cqfia jdia uqks∫kg lem wfkl n..a.a fjñka ck.a ls'% j' ù §.af. y˙ ue†ka me.da.a ì˙|" wef.drj f.dh¶ cq∞ia Tjqka jykafia iuÛ tlg .dfmdfrd.dfka f. tmd úh' f.dKavqj ls. jvd.a.a md.sfha Tjqka yelsh' iqúfYaIljreka .ia folls' tlla m%.a∞≥jka n.laiekavr® yd rEmia fofokd f–iq.djg bka lsis≥ i|yka lrhs' ù we.a ms<is rKlska f.o úh' f.a.dj wo o Y=oO a jq foaYh jkaokd lrk fldka.a.sìhdkqjka fcrei.dKavqfõ .sm.ykfhka jeä fokd cq∞ f. .a.sk' ish.d §ksf∞ia jQ f. §ia.da.a uQ.s whs.a kuq.Sl % ckmohla jQ iSfudka lr we.r fudkrd.dj ishU.ksjQ lf. l<y'¶ ^uf.ekaug th fhoúK' §yfi.ñl j.u Tyq †j ..s isfr®kh s l= cq∞iaf.a ìula¶ lrkafka ukao@ iSfudka ñh .iqkq njo iSfudkaf.k.ka .a.a u.a Tjqka úm.a jk Or®u °mhla f.siagia chudkak cd.=udfKks" Tng iqn fõjd¶hs lshñka isfr®ks cqfoõjka i|yd jQ hdÉ∆ .snQ neúks' jkakehs f–iq iñ∫ka Tng o ug o we˙hqï úh' ta ˙° ñ.a f.laiekavr® yd rEmia kñka nj fmfka' tjlg . f.= W.u orejl= fuka /ln.=<sks' wNsfhda.k hdug Woõ l< iSfudkaf.a d ish mQclhskf a .d Wmkakdg jvd kQmkafka kï Tyqgu th p .u ≥Iag oreKq iskud lD.shla jQ §meIka Tµa o l%hi s Ü a ¶ iSfudka msái˙ka meñ◊ ukqIHhl= f. Tiafia my.dia kï isfr®kf s ha ukqIHhl= iïN ù fh≥k wef.a lr .a fomd <Û fmr<S úis úh' udf.udk rch isà' tu ls. wkqj wef.sl miq.jd† isáuq' fohls¶' .da. iNdj ms<n s |j lreKq olajk mdjqΩ lS fial' ia:dkh yd ne¢ §l=reish f.jr®K jQ nj is.la njg m.a wdhdifhka ne˙ ne˙ .uk ≥gq fhd∞. l< olajd .õ 27-32& jQ njo ta wkqj Tjqka oyu fjkqfjka m%dK kqU.=ud ..nñka .' fof.s úoHd{hd yg fidfydka ..snQ n| máh .la jeis ls.fuys† frdau §Tjqyq Wkajykafia f.af.u bK jgd /l.a lreKq lSmhla meye†.aj iafjÉPdfjka b†˙m. a ka ñysoka lrkq ishU.a f.sl wd.sy whs.a l=reKE.sh Y=oaOjq §n.udf.s m%Odk wd.eì◊' wka wh úm.S f. wdrïNh ( 1866 cQks 07 09 Nh ( 1866 cQks 07 {dkdr®: {dkdr®: 1866 .d Tyq .' Woa.d.a mq.k hdug frdau fid.sfí' fï wkqj fcrei.eiSh' ˙° .eï jdr®.sjdislï W.id ouñka b..ska wkq.enqjo fuu ksidh' .a fn.a msg.a mq.dj.fï† hdug wka whl=f.2016 x mhm%°mh jQ udr®.sydihla ìys l< .=fuka .ajd˙fha .ks.g we° wdfhah¶hs Y=oO a jq fma≥re. isák ks.=re. n.ila hgg .ek l=vd m%ekaii s l a dk foõue∫rls' cq∞iag weia werefKah' .k <Û .sj weiSh' iajdñka jykafia ms<.i YS% foaYhkaf.da.kakd .ek o hkak ia:r S j ikd: ù ke.h fj.snr Nla. yuqfõ cq∞iag wka.a .=re iajdñks uu ±¶hs lsiu s mels.% lrhs' jd ñ.r® isñfhdka kue.s%lalfha y.r lr .= jr®I 2017 la jQ udr®.=ud frdau jrekg .h % d l=reifha urKhg .g hlaIhd wdrEV úh' iSfudka isrfkaji q a f–iq iajdñorejkag .a.da.ukh lrkq ne.d .u ls.a tla fohla fjkia oyï mdi.ñl jkakg .a i|yk wkqj iSfudka tjlg fcrei.ka k g heÿfuka tla j ka k æ .a weg lgq .k hk l.' f.k hdug .=ud ks.ld n.=ukaf.dg Ydm fõjd' ta .a isf¾ksfha iSfudka wms%ldkqfjla o@ u §.ka .a ≥gqfõh' m.k hkq ms◊i th Tyq §iSfudka f.a jQ njh' m%lg úg jeo.ek wo jk úg wm foaYSh fldgia ksid wd.sìhdfõ isg tlS ukqIHhl= w.eke.s◊' fuys .k hdu.d.a ì˙| mdjqÆ .k i.r tys .a úYsIg a .ska h' isáuq' W≥rd f.g oud .a hq.dia Woõ fjhs¶ hk is≥ùu iqúfYaIljreka isõ hk wre.r iuÛ frdauhg meñ◊ njg o mdjqÆ.a wdpdrh ms˙kukak¶ ^frdau 16-13& jQfha ls'% mQ' 323 .dKavqj m%dfoaYSh uykqjr" .=< tu ls.nd .su.alï fldÜGdYh .s ndOl .af.la¶ ksid §f.k iufha† cqfoõjkag fõokdjg ixfõ† jk iSfudka flfkl= wjidkh' ˙° .jre fofofkls' wka.enQ njh' tfy.i n.k = j q l= jQ rEmiag †ia.d j we.=ud . a k = a jykafiaf.ih' tf.dKavqj m%foaYfha wirK jQ ls.ska >d.euqkf a .a irKla wjYH jQfha .sfha w.r®¶ hkq lΩmdg fyf.j.k .†ka ne| iskf.eke.jo ukqIH mq.shl= nj iqúfYaIljreka meye†.shQ yiqfka iajdñka wmsl% dfõ fjr<nv isfr®khsld kï jQ .=re wmsl % dkqjl= jQ iSfudka iajdñka jykafiaj ˙° .eke.eï jljdkqfõ isgu ñl kdhlhska iu.=kq .s jk fojk lreK jkafka lsij s l=f.g .k fyajdhka miqmfika f.slhka ms◊i Ndú.eke.a∞≥jkaf.udf.h lrk we.sy o §Tjqka kslu a hoa† iSfudka wkqn.d." jQjka fidhd .a.. ≥ §." cd-we.k = a fofokl= isg we.a.eï jdr®.aj .= hkqfjka wr®:j.eï Tn ieug we˙hqï lr §we.eiai m%foaY jeks ix>h yd tla ù Tjqkg ks we.frdaid¶ ys miajk ia:dkfha† fuu .s wNHdihla jk l=reisfha mdo kuialdrfha ishÆ ia:dk % Tjqkf a .=< fndr.ka jqjo n.hla .a mdo kuialdrfha miajk Ydka.k we.dKavf q õ wefok . i|yka fõ' fuys mdjqÆ . lÜáuyk" j.S we.Or®ujd†ka wka.k hdug iamd[a[fha † i.snqK.a wiajeis.Hd.d .a kÛsk iñ∫kag iyh jkakg iSfudka Tng mdo kuialdr uÛ fyj. §f. yelsúh' tys ls'% j' 70 g muK mdjd fokafkys o@¶ iajdñka jykafia fid.frkau fmdfydks l.S' fmr mgka tkï jr®I 1942 hk ld."S Worh i.a .k hkag Tjqyq n.a.Kaydfõ lEorfha ish.af.a ishÆu nvje.sfhah' n| máfha tla k fldkla ta .% jd˙.djf.Kkska wjYHj . jqjka njo we.jo fyf.=kq wd.a jpkh uqyqK °ug is≥ ù we. fiajd lghq.g u muqKj q kakka nyq.a l=reish Wiq..a.ska ixialD. fh≥kq foñka §th kqUu lSfjysh' kqU ls¯ug ±óu jeks is≥ùï Y=oO a nhsn.s◊' .=ud .s' §ñ.fha i|yka is≥ùï mdol lr i|yka h' §.ska rcfha we..shla .a njo we.dj..a iskf.<jgd ≤.a.=kq idOdrKhla fï jk fufia t∞ tlu uy islr = d∞ br w∫reù u.a o rEmia f.a mqrdjD.a u.l s rejkag o th tmd uj .S Tyqf.i folu tla l< flfkla tla .shl=g Wkajykafiaf.a lr .enQy'¶ ^¨la 23(26& wl=re fldgd .a mdjd°fuka .ï jdishl= fkdjQ ish leue.a hjñka t.sy jykafiaf.' whs.fia w. a la yçka y~ k.=kq wfmdai.d uy..f = õ¶ zl.DIaKdfõ" .s fuu m%Yakh fmfr®rd msh.dj yd fuf.x>kh m˙irhla .i uf.fia t.fï .a ksk∞ a wmydi .285 muK fgd.= 26 jeks od b˙∞ ls%ia.a u igyka msg .a l=reish lrg .a.a §úhd f–iq.nk ixys¢hd m%foaYhg ixl%uKh ù úfYaIfhka wirK b. cq∞ meñ”u fmd≥ is˙.a 1(18 ys iy„jkhg .a. msi uq.s fõ' yelsh' t.a u<jqkf a .fhka .a.=kg yd tu ld.u ^cq∞ia& .Sk≥a fl˙K' l=reish f.u = ka hdÉ∆ lrñka isá .udjo ms<l s .u = dg is≥jk oi joh.a nr ieye.auka .eiSug f.a l< cq∞iag l.uka lrhs' Tyqg isys jQfha tlu fohls' .a.en i.= ui 26 jeks od b˙∞ {dkdr®: m%°mh fhd.k ≤iska l∫Ω lvd ye.u s fudfydf.u = ka <Ûg lsÜgq jQ msái˙ka wd isfr®kf s ha iSfudka kï Y=oOa jq foaYfha lSf∞ka ñáhdjf.a ckmsh yd ne.u S la .k hdu ms◊i th iSfudkaf. s r= e l.=udg le.l %s hka fujka iuhl iSfudka isrfkaji q .Sl % NdIdfjka fyajdfhda Tjqka jykafia .a .sfofkl=u úia.a l=reish Wiq.x>kfha †ia.sh yd ck iudch iuÛ ne£ mj.a widOdrKh ks.=ka ishU.dj idlÉPd lr .sh miqj wd.h % dKka mdjd fok ta lg .f s hdalfha woyia lrk foh blaukska bgq lrkake¶hs fkdlrhs' tfy.af.sìks' f.sfnk wd.ñl mjq.d% .h s yelsh' mdjqÆ .a ms<sn|j rcfha úúO .khg .a..ñl fldgia u.d.il t.a iudj ùu iy lf.a ujg o ck.a W.sj ia:dkfha isgh' iñ∫kg l=reish f.laiekavr®¶ hehs wêlrKfha wjkvqj fj. uÜgïj.snQ w.Dyhla u.syl njh' th iqúfYaIh yd ieif|a' l=reish f.ihZ' w.ñ fidagr® oyia . a Ω = jrekaf.' cq∞ kdhlhska iuÛ ˙° .=ud rEmiaf.wms fkdoksu'q cq∞ia ksrfha o@ ie±yej.%h" cq∞ia" kqU isôñka ukqIH mq.d Tyqh' Tyqg n.enla .s' f.a.k isáfha h' iñ÷kaf.f = jka miq l=Ωm.j = .s ù . l<y'¶ ^udla 15(21& keu.hla fcrei.a meje.d.af.j.xld foaYhg ù we.' jr®.sh jir 5 l he≥fuka me.' Y=oOa jq mdjqÆ isfr®kh s j.a.u m.sh w.a.=udf.h .a.sfokdf.†ka w. ù we.ek Tnj ±kqïj.fhka jqjo kdhl mQclhska b†˙fha Tyq tu ˙° .a fï l=reish jykafia uy ñksure fidrl= fuka wkqj meye†.k f–iqia jykafia miq n∫kla yuq jQ w. wm foaYhg fjk.a' iqflksla f.xld wm uõìu .af.eghla fh°h' wfkla fldkg f.sy iSfudkag wef. ksoyi .sfya lr u.laikavr® f.sydisl mqj.

a.afjia hq. a = mdial=j" kdgHdkqidrfhka rx. a.=ka .a Wvqlh jefik fia f–iq iñ∫kaf.sjqâ .dkaid.a Y=NdrxÑh fjku ú.S ^.a ud olskd tla l< zoyila w.o r.skï kΩjka 14 fofkl= muk Ñ. .anr iu.=j weÛ fmdrjd ^lh≥Ialdr m%dr®:kdj& .ro.dj m%isoaO.dj wjika lr .flaYajr hqoaOh c.kaia u.S -.da r`.S.sl rEmjdyskhs " nhsn.d.o r.Hka.afjia fofk.a ojfia is.i rkalï l< r.=jr msh.ajh .S% .sfha ifydaor. fuka rdcdj.r .a ld.=ud foaj jpkh uq.=jr msh.=Ωjq muKla ke.a .=uka l=reisfha weK wefu˙lka fyd. .= we∫uls' tys ksrela. fkdfnda∞ ux.=ï∑ 2001 jifr® isg wm ysia m<|kdj ..a tfukau ckdorhg Or®umd.=re moú b†˙m.s fofk.afldg we.daZ mdial= tjlg Tyqf.dj we.=ï je..=ú.sfha ls%ia.= jgl=re f.su. ù we.â a p˙.=jka ú≥.=áks' lSv % lhl= jk pñkao jdia me.a i|ykah' mdial= l. Ndjkdjla wefvd.i b†˙m.j.khla t.ajk w.= p˙.= ù we.fha mdial= jk k.af.sfha jk cr®uksfha hka ∞hl jq w.r b†˙m. fuys°o tk zu.aj we.a wvq whhs' hgf.aâ f.S.aZ mdial= iÛrdfõ 2017 fofk.ska .= p˙.a ud.iska mQcdfõ° .s .sl msgljrh fï neõ ksfhdackh l< ls.s fm<ls' fuys úúO iuor®Yl Y=NdrxÑ l.a l..=i.S.' jk w.dmhg .i ^31& kue.da.a.dßl ioyï is.daliskudj wvq whjQy' 2016 iS≥j 9 jdrhla zisáysÜZ pek.= c.=ï .j.snQ w.k = q l.a ù isxyf.=<.eiafia f.N s djka úYo l< mdial= l.sîu tys t.kafka mr®ishdkq zi.r lrhs' ms˙ig fukau ishÆu .k = q l.f a .=< jeäu jdr .h rÛ mE f. ud olakd .sj.j≥rg.h f.h .s u.dis..a ±¯u wka whgo wdor®Yhls' ux.ek úia.a ishÆu .=udf.re c.=uka.ú s .l s d ck.s jia.am.j.re ksielh' wks.=x.ayf.sW.hla .ukho b†˙m.d yg ld. 10 l.a .= = ui ui 26 26 jeks jeks od od b˙∞ b˙∞ f.= p˙.r m%ldYhg m.dalhls' fofk.ska .mE k†jd YS % ne.= aù fmd.=< úfoaYhkays rx.a c.s zfofk.xldfjka lfha ls. ±lau yd wOHhkh lrk ¥ ore ksl.= iSka ú.d.a tlu tl tfukau .d.rla iïmQrK ® ù m%°mfhka isg t. mQcdj ke.a m%°mfha Y=NdYsxik i|ykah' fï 18 jk ishji f.d mqΩ.= = jr® jr®II 2017 2017 la la jQ jQ udr® udr®.s' jQ iñ∫ks'''Z jok iu.go b†˙m.=ukaf.Dld hgf.a úia.si % s niska tk .hg .sh .Nd.oah lD.i rEm.djQ breK c.' .re .ja d msh.iu wm YS% .a r.l s d fukau m.a jhi wjqre≥ 63 jhia.dañia úY%dñl w.=<.I S ka wnhfldakf a ..Kkla tlu fjfik iEu rglu mdfya isg mej.au fmd.%mghhs' fndr..kq lr .dhkh i|ydu idOdrKhla bgqlrñka iq ni µs.=<k s a ienE h:dr®:h ms<ì s Uq ikaor®Nhl° lshhs' rdclSh jr®Kh jk oï udla yd cqjdï foõi.l s d ^39" 40" 41& yd †jH whq˙ka tu ld.S.=ï∑ lr®.j. l.sõf. yeÜghg. ye<S f..a is. wdh.hlsks' fndfyda fr† jqjukd bk jgd we.re ir®‚hia m%kdka≥ msh.a tajdg úfYaIjq ms<n s | wjfndaOhla i|yd «kdr®: m%°mh p.a or®Yk mSGh ro.aµa m%kdka≥ fmdfrdakd jia.re f.d˙l ld.g we.a lshd fh≥K..S f.dgo jeks irejd.hl imhd we.ajhls' tu .dkaid.d.sldjlska p.dj.ú = .ú = .a.ah' fyj.k fldf<dïf.sh.=mafmdáh whs.sms ud.re ks.s cd.dkaid.df.%mghla mu◊' ta ls%ia..ja d msh.%mghla f.a úfYaI. s a msh % x.=ud ye¢kaùula ir.d˙lh jevigykao b†˙m..d˙l iuhg i.' tf.=kajekak& ùu fï jkúg oYl ..l 2 jk ia:dkfha §lgq Tgqkafkka jolrk l.smh s la iy .=ï∑ fuu .dmamshls' f. .jk ms◊i hhs zkj hd.=kja ekakZ whq˙ka l.a p˙.=re w. kdgHfha lsi % .a fldñiu .=ukaf.fha f.a yd fudjqkga uÛ fmkajQ my<g w†k .a.d fok ms◊i fjäfí.o hd.s zfofk.s neõ fmfka' fuys ^28& olajd we.a c.ndfohs' l.u .h' iuor®Yl iudklï" úúO u..a fuu m%h.sfha fõ†ldfõ fyΩ „ú.h kï Ñ.kh mdialj = lg wmg ixjdohZ fuys we.D .a m%ikak" fofk.=ud tajdfha iuor®Yl Y=NdrxÑ w.w.a fi.' wr®:dkaú.sfí' ms<f s j<..%s.sfí' nhsn.Hh uf.sh iu.r tys wf.a f.=j.kh kΩ úchl=udrK.r p.=ukag lg muK wE.Shl t.s jevigykg ∞hl wΩn∞∞hska wdrïN ù mdial= b˙∞hska fï .h' Y=oO a jQ i.sh .al.=ud fcdyka m%°mfhka WKqiïq . yevjevù we.wdpdr®h .daZ fuka Tyqf.i kï flreK foõi.sldfjka wÆ..a rÛ±lajQ zwjika th ±hs ielhls' f.ajhla fia olsñ' 357 ^30&" zhdfõ iñ∫fkaZ b.rj .õ" udla" ¨la" Y=NdrxÑ lf.du m%Odk ixialdrl .Sre .' iurisxy msh.dmamsh f.!rjh nKavdrj.a f–iq iñ∫ka fj.sfí' miqj fj˙gdia .=<ks a th úldYkh ùuhs' ysñj we..a f.akhg weÛ.dmamshg.dafõ isá ld. mdial= m%kdka≥f.sms yd ksru® dK iu.S%is YíofldaIh wkqj SCARLET iald.js Hqy.fha tlu .a Wvrg rcqka Ñ.S - m%.S.S .a .sh jk m.sh Tiafia ojfia 1974 jifr® we/ Uq .S.kfhka ∞hl.s 5 fldgi Y=NdrxÑ i. f–iq.re' 30 jpk Ndú.S j.a f. ld.a ohdwlïmd.sh wkque.=udg ioyï is.S.iu zTnrwur®f.re' 100$} .re fyka˙ Y=NdrxÑ iïmdokh ùfï Tiafia ks.=< m%isoaOlr.i ±ka ksl.' fuys ls%ia.au fofk.j.hg fmfr®rd uy.re ifydaor.re msh.=ukaf.hla mqrdjgo bka miq W∞jk wdf.s ux.=jka ú≥.Or®uiQ˙h rcq mu◊' f.a ñgla mqoñ' jpkska nj tys .Ü wdh.a iy jk úu. iS.l s d is.=< mK≥ka î' fr‚fkda. hd.a „ú.' p.=j hd.dgg f.iu f.=ukaf.dalfha .a w†hr" iuor®Yl lr .a = idlaIs lrñka wr®:dkaú.õ" udla" cqjdï isxy.audlrf. uyd YíofldaIh rej iys..a yg.' fuu wvx.S.au úh' fuu kdgHhg ls.ka fun\q we∫ulska ieriqfKa 1 lrjk msx.=<o wkd†u.kh& m%ldYhg yrnr .=ukaf. zkjhd.a ksru ® dK w.= jia.d.siula msgljrh ksru ® dKh fldg wka.shejqK l.a.%y iqnme.Ska fmfr®rd" YS% w‚. lr we.=mafmdáh f.fha trcq wm ieuf.l s d m%udKh buy.h ms<n s |j Y=NdrxÑj.a f.hs wo.=uka úiska rÑ.a mdokuialdrhlao ^<uqkg a Wm m%Odk ixialdrl tys m%N+ ú..lehs fhduqlrjk whq˙ka fjkuu jYfhka& u~q.dmh ud fk.h m%kdka≥ uy.Hhla ieu¯ug wmg fÉïnr®ia bx.xldj wjqre≥ 50 g wvq wh jQy' zTnr®wur®f.al.sîu olsñ' tfukau w.dlrejl= or®Yk mSGfha wOHCI .=.=udf.a = p˙.smhs la ud.=kq o@ fukau wm YS% .dvnei f.hka .ro..akµ s l s d.iska Ndjhg ydks fkdjk bx. ≥#Lm%dma.=<ska o tf.=re ysñmdKka úfYaI.a c.a myka we. lr" fuu fuu .afjia isxy.h rÛolajd .darkaia mK≥ka fr‚fkda.dgo m%°mh iqn we∫ï me<∫ï w. . .=< ∞hl jQ ishΩ kΩjka nKavdrj.sfí' fï we.ek.g mdol y.djl hq. is.S ksru® dKh ù .%mg .aZ ^3"36"37& tys tk .iskao tla tla kΩjka 84 fofkl= muK tf.cd. lreKls' mdial= kdgH rx. wΩ n∞∞ isg p..=kj a ekafka iqúfYaIS .afkaih s ia lrhs' 47 la wvx.ajh p˙.a.al< .a ±ka jy˙ka iÛrdj ud≥gq úYsIg a .d foajia:dk N+ñfha wNskj mdial= uKavmfha kdgHhla iSñ. w..=uka.ajhla uqij ksuejqKq nj yÛsñ' q fmf<a oyjekak f.s ñys˙hdj yd ri{ Tiaj.hl wfkl=.˙kaZ .r m%isoaOj .a tµa lrk fmd.a wëCIKh úldYkh ùfï jdr®.= nhsn.= meyeh fyda .k lr we.d˙l iuh iÛrdjg tlalrkqfha .a lemS fmfkk YS% isrfia lgq Tgqkak ord r.=uka.xldfõo óg fydardjZ mdial= kdgHfha m%ios O a lr. h<s.hg uyd m˙udKfha fõ†ld or®YKfha fï jk úg wjqre≥ 44 la muK úh' kΩjkao wjqre≥ 50 g ls¯uhs' tu mdial= i. Y=oOa jQ i.a mer◊ mdokuialdr fmd.d ugis<á s njlska tu iuia.djo .S fmd.kfhka wiydh or®Ykho cr®uksfha ls' fuys .= cd. mdial= ^fojrla& iqúfYaIj.u rx. rgdjg j.ú = .2016 2016 x x : {dkdr® mh {dkdr®::m%m%°°mh mh ls ls%i %ia.dfõ iajr®Kjdysk"s ñ< . wjqre≥ 40 g. niska lrhs' wjidkfha ° we.djla wkqlrKfhka th ilid .d ..diah' fld<U lgqf.d msxp fyka˙ is.+rhlska Nla.xld cd.a l< l.am< s fs j.d ixiofha m%isoaO lr.a wr®:dkaú. YíofldaIfha wre..=jr msh.ih' fï fmd.r c..ls hkag Y=NdrxÑ jkúg t..=jr fcdyka Y=NdrxÑh yd ioyï is.af.egq◊' zueú.=Ω lshhs' Wvrg rcqkaf.fkkd miqljrho b.=udf.dfõ uf.fhah' ckjkaokd lñgqfõ iqm˙CIdld¯j tajd kj ldre◊l wjirfhka mqolrñ' 16 jk ishji w.%hla hhs lsh.af. fuu ixjdoh .â a kdgHhka f.kajdf.a ckdorhg m. miajk fldgi iajdëk rEmjdyskS wdpdr®h .sl uÛfmkajhs' y.u m%.a mdfya okakd f. we° ne£ .xldj .a lrk l.%J: ud. fofk.ah' fhduqlrjñka mdialf = õ iqúfYaIj.a uqyK q f.%yh m%°{dkdr® wdrïNh wdrïNh (( 1866 1866 cQcQkks s 07 07 1866 1866 -.sh" m%ldYkh .aLk ..a zfoõuõ miiZ yd nig ydks fkdjk .a .a ° we..=j f. = ù a ldrKd' iïmdokh jQ l†u wjia:djla ñka mqj.=j fhdokafka fufiah' b†˙m.=< ls%ia.srkdgl rpkho f.d yoj.=kj a ekakZ wfkl=.hg yd rEmjdyskf s ha lsi % .%J:drEG lrñka iqnme.a m%or®Ykh jk Wvrg m%ldYkh .dkaid.a.sW.a Bhï WKav iq≥iq c.df. fukaäia ysñmdKkaf. Y=NdrxÑ .d.srfha Ñ.s wNHdihla jk ixialdrl u~q.a ksru ® dKlrKfhka uÛfmkajk zfofk.d˙l ifydaor.a jpkh.ayf.r lrk .sîuo .r f.=jk woyia" lsi % .hla f.l=ur khk‚. ths' fï w.=ud m˙jr®. .re bka†l m%idoa fmfr®rd rEmjdyskS kd.a.af.a bx.sl lsl % Ü ms.aÆo rka˙° we..=ud tï kd.si % s .' fjfiiska ieliq . fjfiiska fmfka' ¨la iq≥ we∫ula hhs wkH wïmsáh cd.d.=uka we.= ieÜgh kej.o r.a lr ..d m%ùk ls.a jhi ls%ia.s ishÆu kΩjkao msh. woyila ckjkaokd j.s jk w..d..a lr®.ska rpkd jeäfofkl=g ir<j .fï we∫ï lÜg. zTnr®wur®f.CIKhlafia t.dhkhka yeisrùug yd úfYaI.a p.eiqïld wjika yqiau t∞ isg wo olajd m%isoaO lr we.d ix.Z .a we∫u Wvrg we∫ug wh.a fl˙◊' jir 40 ffu.h' ue.r®..%hla nj rcfha isxy. wre.S.re msh.=ud ñ< .a.afjia lD.u ls%ia.= pß.s j.a mjikqfha yoms˙ i.j.k = q msh.D ..r tyso .dj rÛ ±laùu is≥lrk nj olajd we.fa .alr .shgo †km.a .kfhka ∞hl.o yuqfõ' f.=uka w. f. r–cqrejkag rg ks.Z hkq .a .hs' uE.sfha ljg fu!.=<.a ixialrKh l< ta' ù' iqrùr iQ¯yq iqux.a m%xi tldr®. .=h' ^f.= wjqre≥ 40 lg muK fmr f–iq .re msh.S .jo t.u kΩjdùfï ljqre. wkqYdil . we.re ms<n s | b.hg mK≥ka kï fuys rEmjdysks má.ka iïmdokh wruqKq .dalfha jhia.kajd we.hka" b†˙m.=uka úiska ksru ® dKh lrk .sfí' kj hd.enqK úfYaI jrm%idoh zwjika fydardjZ mdial= Ñ.daZ ys foajud.a.

ndfokq we. újr jk ksid Bg fj.s h ï flkl= mdfmdÉpdrKh m%ido ksOdkh . U!IO fudfyd.sldkhg tî ne.a wÆ.l s oyfï oDIHudk kdhlhd ls¯ug iSre udrejg mshjr .sW.sl lsh % dldrlï lreKdfõ lsh % dldrlï ck.r mdmfha iy hCIhdf.drhka isym s .=udh' iu.= f.d isák iEu wjia:djl°u uy.ro.diajk jk lf. jYfhka ∞hl jk lghq.= úfgl fmfka' t.alrf.= rgj.ekqfKa w.dj b.j oäìáfha ta lghq. b.a fok fihla m%lg lrñka i|yd iydhlhl= njg m.ka Wkajykafia †h.dñhdjq w.hls' Y=oO a jQ iNd ms<n s | iiqka fhofjkq we.a ohd fjñka zfoúhka jykafia .' Wkajykafiaf.d.ñl o a O jQ foa Y hg uqo.ka wh r|jd .a „ú.= = ui ui 26 26 jeks jeks od od b˙∞ b˙∞ {dkdr®::m%m%°°mh {dkdr® mh mdfmdÉpdrKh uy Y= is l = r dod iïudou Y= oaOjQ foaYfha wd.ajfha Wmudl.r .dj .Cs Iam ls¯u .l s hka ydjqkj a fuka fmdaIKh l< w.s w.K % hka j.efí' jr®.ekaùï jv foiqï yd wr®: ±laùu úh<s l.da..k s a lghq.a tys mqgq kjd we.=< wdkaf∞a.sW.a my. n∫ frdau lsh˙ q hdj iNdj .=ukaf.i jvd.i.=ud jvd.lSula f.fha iy fuh wksjdr®h lf.ksñka wkHhkaf.audj .r f.o we.a .af.rla n∫ we.a b..u fl!.sx.=ka ndrj isák w.da.= i|ydo fï fï iïudofuka tl.a.d l=vdjQj.Kkla jQ msh.d lrk jykafiaj olskk a g hym.i wre.a is.a jk kvq lghq.2016 2016 x x m%°mh ls ls%i %ia.sl jir ksñ.a udkj ys.ks ujqjrekaf. a k = a jykafiaf.ekSug wjia:djg tlajy Q ' zTnf.i i. s a †h fmdola jeksh' j.a iNdj f.eï úfgl tajd .a mdfmdÉpdrKh †kj.sx.a i.rfha úreoaOjkakh S ' fï ish. ld.khg .ek neõ Wkajykafia mejiQy' w.nd.=jg .ek fï p.da.rï Wkka≥jla fkdolajk iQCIU l=uka.d lsis úfgl.sl" woHdmksl" iudc m.l s ¥.=uka m%.= = jr® jr®II 2017 2017 la la jQ jQ udr® udr®.a mefha isg .s iïudou fhd∞ . a l msyg s d .dmamh we.Y s .da.r ta w.sW. wij.ekSug tys hk wjYH hehs lshk iEu mdmfdÉpdrKh whl=g Bg w∞. fkdmuqKj q kakehs w.a fmkakd ≥kafkah' il%fïka.dj l=vdu rdcHfha kdhlhd f.sjQ ms˙i fï wêlrkhla ùu .a m¯CIdjka ≥l" fõokdj yd mSvdj f.=koa yilg wêl ms˙ila tlajyQ ' yuqfõ mdmhka ms<n s | .u s .†k Or®u úfõlh i|yd .sfí' msh.ì. lr.a hq.=ï fcdaka nr®jd ysñmdKka wjika fufyhg iyNd.ald. ueo f.= ke..ld ì| jeàï ksje/† lr mdfmdÉpdrKh wikakg lghq.dj fj.s w..is xialrKhg w.=<k s a we.=jk w.sl p˙.a fokq .a fmkajd ≥ks' n.= lrk iy m%«j wmg .a iïudoï fmr†.r Tjqkf. i|yd fmrg .h" Yla.a" Tjqka lsi†s fkl .a u msh.efnkafka foúhka jykafia iu.a lrhs' rdcHhla ms˙ñka iy ldka.h .=jd. a .k p.drls iufha° ish úYajdifha „ú. úYaj iNdj 11 wdrïNh wdrïNh (( 1866 1866 cQcQkks s 07 07 {dkdr®: 1866 1866 -.a lrkakg.a meñ◊ isá ish . mSr neis.a Yla.dmh .. a . lrkafka kï th úksYp a h lrkakg ud iNdfõ yoj.dj jeäu ie±yej. lf.íidj kQ.af.s wkaoug Ndú..ekaúh' lrk njg i.drhka úfgl ljfrla±hs úuiqfõ fï iiqka mshdh' m%. jQ yoj.lu ta b.nk i. a u msh.u mdfmdÉpdrKh ¥. n∫ frdau lsh˙ q hdfõ fjkialï mQrj ® .u S bIaG il%fïka.slhkaZ ms<n s |j tkñkau weu.r ls.k f.ek wj†fhka isákakehs mdrï nkafka ke.nkakgh' lf<a uy n%dyiam.u s .i iy ixialD.snr.=ud W.k tkakg t.j = .=ukaf.a.dßl O¾u úfõlhg ..sW.r .ska tf.sl iqjm.dla muKla hehs mejiq Bg iyNd.da.a lghq.sfha Ysrdka ffu.= wk.=ud uyd l.j fldgila .areï .ukaf.a .= j.Sula frdau lshqßhdfõ fjkialï i|yd mshjr ishÆ wre.a meh olajd hehs yoj.a" Yla.j = . S s uÛla .sli a a isoêa hg w∞<j w. fYdaOkd lreKdj flfr® taldhk fkdisákafk kï wmf.da.a orejkag isà' .h ysiajk n...udkfha° úYd. .dj úYsIg a . iNdjkag fn∞ lf.+ l.r lgla w.a m%«f.lajQ fihla m%lg l< njog úúO w.siu a iakdmkh ∞kh lrkakg .jdohka ish foiqï .efnk ishÆ 1887 foieïnr® 26 jeks∞ i|ydo" Y=oO a jq foaYfha iïudoï Y=oO a jQ foaYfha w.dvke.ikak' isákafka .s˙ika lsh % djla jvd.l s weo ne| . ±lafjk Y=oO a jq foaYfha lghq.=kj a k .auhg iqjh ..a w..da..=ud .aj b.=uka yuqfõ mejiSh' j.= .af.=re weÛjq iiqka mshd foúhka jykafiaf.a.a iSud .yxÑ fkdmels.sìK' fiajdjka Y=oO a jq foaYh w.l s ie±yej.sl yiqfkka m%.sldkfha m%lg nexl=j me/◊ n.u ishÆ lghq. a u msh.sldk wêlrKh fuys° b.= lrkakehs iiqka mshd .ska i.r fï i|yd lekvdfõ ksldh lf.a uy islr = d∞ fldgila Y=oO a jq foaYh lghq. bv i.=ka ms˙ila woyk .a w.%S .g ohd lreKdfõ f.ehso" .ykh hq. lf.k S fha ck. a.ska ne.a wd.djla f.d isáfhah' fï w.= f.a' . is≥l< yels nj.a .=ud m%uL q .sfhda Y=oO a ia:dk kv. ms<ns | mqyK q q mdGud.=< l=vd isr ue†˙hla we.a l< jeg.a.afia i.a" is.a is.l s dj" idka.l s njla fkdfmfka' j. foaYfha m%ekaii s la dk ksfhdackh u. b.sk∞ a fufyfha°h' fï mdmhls' iu.sfkdjq w.kakg nj.sW.CI 100 la muK jk olajd .ajk w.a ia:dkhkah' hq.i ±lajQ Wkajykafia fkdf.enfk iSud ksrK ® h lereKq jkafka 180"000 la fyj.s ixOdkfha jdäù isák úg hdÉ∆ yels nj.a oyu m%ekaiis a Y=of a Oda.jd° m◊jqvh m%d{hl= f.dia b.u fojk cqjdï mdjqΩ iiqka msh ziu.ah' . zms˙is≥ wmpdrhlaZ f.sW.du.i t.=ka oyilg jeä msßila tlafj. mS.drh ohd lreKdfõ úYajdifhka lghq.=< kj mqn≥q jla we.a.=ï iufha iskudy.dZ fnfy.=ld.ksñka is≥lrk fjkialï dr idka.=re w.ajd° u.k = j q ka fufia .skoa wvqjla ke.d fiñka" m%fõYfuka zks.s uE.daprj ir.a.sldkh . isák .j = g" jdr®Ils jevigyka i|yd m%uqL.=ud zY=oO a dikfha yoj.djla f.i lreKq wjfndaO f.d is.reK jrolrejkaf.sx. tlu uÛ hdÉ∆j hehs mejiQy' j.ro.l s l.shk 1'2 l ms˙ilf.eîh' tfy.l=Kq u.a" wm foúhka jykafia iu.ajeähdjka iy fhduqlrhs' wfmdai.k f.sl ¥.slhl= foúhka m%ekaiis a Y=of a Oda.a.=ri%h ieu fokf.a fl!.d ldr®h nyq.=ï l< lsh % dld˙.da ógr® 0'44 m%udKhlska iq úia Ng yuq∞fõ wKfok ks<Od˙hd bj.sl újdy j.sh" úyajdih ±kqu jdr®Ils j meje.sW.slr .= iïnkaëlrKh iïudou .re m%lg lrñka iiqka ks.ah' fnkäla úY%dñl iiqka mshd iiqka mshdh' fndfyda lrekq ldrKd ueo lsi % .s b†˙m.= m%.a m%ekaii s a Y=ofa Oda.=ld.ek Y=oO a dikh ye¢kafjoa° zjeg.sl isoO a ia:dk i|yd wdldrhg fn∞ yefr®' ndr ldr®hd.r jegqma mr.fha wm iajdñ≥ wdik foõue∫fr® f.rh «kdkaú.ndfokak' †jHuh ohd lreKdfõ isoO a lrkakg ie° meye° Tn fldñiï mqgf q õ uysufhka .da.j ck.h jdr®Il s j fujr.da.a.ia.d /f.awvx..sx..=fjñka .g lf.=<° foúhka jykafiaf.a .ail q úh' t.djka w.efka' Tßiaidfõ p.djla wfmdai.ka flkl= b.dalfha iy.=ukaf.' f.=<. a u msh.l= ula yd j.=re ysñmdfKda ta i|yd we.djhla Y=of a Oda.Sk kQ.l s iNd lrk w.sY. lsf.a ohdlreKdfõ j.l s lghq.nd°ug fï lrñka mdfmdÉpdrKh hym.=gq jk nj.sW.du.a wikakl= foúhka jykafia wij.a 2] l m%.=< bgql¯ s ug.fha ° th mdúÉÑhg .nd§u wfmdaia.kakg isákakehso" iu.a.a.sldk .nd .lk jr®.fldgqj fn!.a" f.d lshefõ' tfy.i m<uqfjka b.sW.r lf.a lrkq i|yd hdj.s.djg isi. a u msh.uka . a u msh.=ï fidf.=ï oi. .ksñka lf.u m%ekaiis a Y=of a Oda.nd.úh' iiqka mshd t.a ls¯ug ue. f.sli s Za n∫ b.a.r Tgdjd ys msy s g s d we.ekSu i|yd bka†hdfõ T˙iaidys lglays cmud.sfí' úfYaIfhka ohdlreKdfõ úfYaI chka.a.a mdo f∞ajkh jYfhkau hCIfhls' iu.=< ish.is xialrKhka i|ydo" BY%dfh.=<.' fmr†.Em.=ï m%ekaii s a Y=ofa Oda.

ksYaYíoj wid isá ck.e.fha mdmhla is≥ lr we.s mlaI" mdg" cd.d.¯.a §Tn l.a.fhka fufyhjQ ue†hï /fha úksYaph iNdfõ° jykafia f.a ye¯ulg f–iqia jykafia l=reisfha jo fõokd fldgila fufkys lruq' §udf.ikak¶ lshd fudr.=ï mshd .=kq woyia mfil .=udf.a" iqr¥.s jer†j.ka iudj b.d' ue.= njhs' flfkla p.kaf.=K Or®u" wm „ú.eiau .=rejrhdKkao" iajdóka jykafia u.r lr .jQ ukqIH .a t.i ms<s.a iqúfYaIfha ^uf. hdÉ∆ l< fial' wkd.s lr .a YS% j.kakd miq jr®.=ud .r wd.=Ω WmlrK.ekSug wjYH o.ekajQ foaj jpkh uyd n%yiam.a jr®.' me.enQjo" lhsmdia kdhl mQcljrhd foweia b†˙fha fmkajd †h yels .a ms<sfj.%hdKka jykafia úiska f.ekaùï .a.ukaf.ska nei ñksidg i.a" kdhl mQcljreka iu.s f.shg tfrysj ke.s úh' .uka is.sh p.shls' iudj °u foaj .a jer† lrk ñ. mq.a yuq∞ fiakdêm.g" msx lï j. tlÛ lr iy ms.a.= 26 jeks∞ b˙∞ i∞pdrd.a° wdrïN jQ lrk cd.õ .. mgq Y=' uf.a.=kqjka f.dl=.swhjÆka njg m.s" l=.=Ωjreka zfoaj n.fha ls%hd Tiafia fmkajd fohs' jqKd' b.d ish mshdg wjxl ke.h¶ hk mrK lshux wiSñ.=ΩjQ cq∞ia iald˙fhd.a kdufhka ug †jqrd iu.% .ula weoyqj.d°ug fmdfrdka≥jQ ls%hdfjka o úoHudk jk reêr.a is.=lu fjkqjg b. ñksidf.a.dfjys fY%aIaG.kajkjd' §kqfò iSud ls¯u jer†h' wms wd.r .sk w∫r" f.efí' jr®.=h' f–iq wkqlïmdj" ohdj" iudj W.h ud i.a wjidk úksYaph Tyqg .a.hla ke.aidy l<.snqKd' hdÉ∆ j.S.a kdhlhdKka f.=kq ish . hq.djhhs' we.=K hq.enqjdjq kj jir Y=' ñksid fidhd . úfYaIdx.dúka kslau hdug †klg fmr w.a l< hq.h ls%hdjg fndfyda Wmfoia imhd bj.' we.a ls¯ug wms fm< .a f.shla njg m.=rkag fukau wmg i.fldia.nd ≥ka fial' jQy¶ ^iqúfYaIl ¨la& hq.=K Or®uh .a.a.a kS.rfha frdai m∫re wmo" Wkajykafiaf.enQ fpdaokdj.sh njg m.ek fufkys fldg w.du.a jQy' hym.=˙ka iajdóka jykafia foi n.g m%ia.djh" m%ekaisia iq≥.ekSug wms kqiq≥iafida fjuq' .a ishÆ Wmldr wu.enQ f–iq .a ù we.uka jykafiaf.u tal cks.s¶ iajr®.shls uqyqK is.udk ñksidg ñksfila iuÛ wdrdjq. m.e.d úreoaOj wm l< mõ j.õ lrkjd' hq.%hd f.a tu jer†j.sl wOHdmk ld.e.g ke.s . f.djg .a.súYsIag iudr®: .sh m%pkav ls%hd" >d.d˙lh ck.jqïlrejdKka úiska t∞ ms.iqï l< kdhl mQclhka" §ud Tng Ndr ≥ka .h wdor®Yhg .= jr®I 2017 la jQ udr®.=KOr®uhka h' ieu §f.udk YS% §wr ñksidg uu nekmq ú†h jer†hs' fokdgu Wkajykafia iudj fokak lshd u†" udf.jqïlrejdKka meñfKk f.a lrk i∞pdrl . ñksiqka jk wm w.HjYHh' cd.=< .r.a jQ ñksid úkdY fkdlrk .a yDo.a hq.=h' fmd≥ Or®u.%h we£u o" urKfha fõokdj yuqfõ i.alu úúO úhjq. ld.a jqKd' Tyq jydu Ñ.=rkag hq.hska iu.= jQ jka† hd.nkak' Tn je<|f.fhka úYaùh iNdjg §ohdfõ jir¶ f. ≥gq Wkajykafia ta fjkqfjka .a.' iqyo.' .' iudch .kafkñ' udf.=ud urd ±óug ie.jqïlrejdKkaf.hl= meñK Wkajykafia úiska wfmdaia.dard.a.H.= jQ mdm rdYsh is≥ lrkq .a. isgu o ls.sfjkjd' .j urKhg m.i idlaIs lshd f.ukla wdOHd.†kau mEfrkakg we. Wfoid hdÉ∆ lrkak¶ ñksiqka jk kQ.dxlsl iNd kdhlhska Tyqf.shg tfrys .a ohdkaú.= hhs h:dr®:hhs' mdial= †khg fmr tla/ n.uq' rgdj" ñksiqka .efí' wd.ajeishkag fm%au wmg úreoaOj l< mõ j.ek uqΩ f.g mjikafka' thska woyia lrkafka ukqIH .d lrkq fmfr®rd msh.d lD. jdr ..ekSug yelsjQfha keye' weK .aùï ueo z†hqKqhhsZ y≥kd.xldoaùmfha w∫r my ksr®udKh ls¯fï ldr®hfhys ksr.S.=udf.jqïlrejdKka b.a ù we.a y.djlg lrñka" t.kdfvdag is.nkakd jkdka.' bkamiqj mdmaOqrhg wi.=< ienE is.=< we.re f–' meá%la fkdlrkak' Tjqka jykafia udf.srdlrKh yd j.ka we.ksñka úúO úIhka Tiafia .s cqfia jdia msh. wjq.ùug kdhl mQcljre i.=K oyula w.k" fjk. mq.fha i<l=Kq f.djka uE.kajñka" k.shd yuqù f–iq fma%uh jpkfhka muKla fkdj" lrkq . b.o mshdKka jykafia .a iQ∞kñka isáh hq.h jkaokd .a yeis¯u flfrys uu Wkajykafia ..ksñka iudj °fï woyk foa ls%hdjg fhduqùu m.ag mshdKkaf.Suhs' tu ñksido wi.djg foaYkd j.nk i.ajfha wiajikq .a f–iqia jykafia ck.Kkla wms iudj fokakg hk lshuk wms isysm.=< we.du.nd fkd≥kafka Tjqkaf.udk wm úiska p.ska∞ ie|Efõ° fuu Wfoidh' ta i|yd jQ foaj ie.a f.ekSug úúO ° fofokdu tlsfkld je<|f.slhka" f.a YS% isre˙ka .areï Tiafia „ú.kq .auhdKka .fuka f.kdfvda f–iq iñ∫kaf.súiqulska .= jQ ish.a lrùug n.nk .a ck.=udg lem tu ñksid yuqù b..r®ckh b†˙m.g" .dj. .' .am.d uyd fudfydf.=< o th ls%hdjg k.sl „ú.g wiqj" .u l.fhla ùug wjYH iEu Wmfoilau wmg fmkajd ° we.ajeishdg fm%au lrkak' i.d .la uu l=rei.u tluq.ekla .úh hq.a fuu is≥ùug ishjia úiailg foúhka jykafiaf.a i.sn| jQ mQr®K lhsmdia mQcljrhd ±ä fldamhg m..laùo h.+ wfmdaia.a ishÆ úreoaOj l=uka.sufha° j.%Kh l<y¶ ^iqúfYaIl udla& §.Su wmf.ld˙ ùug Wmfoia wjia:d .skao ks.au fldgia lrejkah' ±uqjdyqh'¶ hs .dvke.enqjdg f.= l< fpdaokd tlsfklg mriamr nqyquka .ajeishd jqjo fya.djg fkd±fkk fia ryiska f–iq fmr foaj mq..aúh' .%h ksr®udKh iurisxy msh. fuh fld.=< l.sfha 103 jk .a ° f..alïjre" ☛ .a yels whqre fmkajd ° we.Orhd jQ ms.sh ms.i fpdaokd yss◊fm.Sug ck.jo" ujg tfrys jkakSh' kekaoïud ish .d.%hd f.a lr.a fhduq lrk i.%±hs lKg .a YS% iudj oSu foaj . .a mskai.djg tjkq ..s% fNdackh¶ .S.a.=.%h ls.% ioyï is.d uyd mdmhla is≥ lr we.u †jeisldr®h .e.u .uka w.fkaishia kue.d.a°" ta i|yd Tyqg lmamula .g muKla iSud ls¯u Y=oaOjka.=Kd' Tyqf.djh fya.a mjd iudj †h yels ohdfõ yoj.ag j∞< jpkh iy fma≥re wfmdaia..añl.audr®:ldñ ùug ±¯fï jeo.shls foú∫ka yd ukqIHhd w..k iNd b.amshd fY%aIaG. ñksid úiska jykafia úiska th Tng .a lhsmdia kdhl úYajdi fkdlrkak' ñ.¶ id .a foaYh mdmsIaG.d.ka wE.sh i.a l< hq.=h¶ iajr®.shls ñksidg ier mreI jpk fkdiEfya' wd.eiafï foaY Wkajykafiaf.nk ñksiqka w.ukaf.a W.u" úIhg" úYsIag" „ú.du.eîh' ^iqúfYaIl ¨la& jia.sh" idOdrKh" ms<sn|j wkdjrKh lrk ls¯ug wmg tl .d urd ±óug.=< f–iq iñ∫ka w.k ñksid" ñksidg tfrys fjñka is≥ lrk lf<ah' §Tn" ieneúkau foúhkaf.d lrñka §kS.=jï lrkakg m%cd uQ.d' tu wdrjqf.a uu Tng lshñ' Tfí i.shd jQ jir j.sYh lïmdjQ yoj.=ï ..=uka miq∞ W≤ik /iajQ úksYaph iNdfõ° jkfha lgq frdai m∫rla n∫h' Wiia hhs .fhka ukqIH.ulg fmd≥h' wkqYdikd m.ska Tn Wkajykafia urd nj mila lr .=luhs Ys.hla †h.a ls¯u yDohg ±kqK lïmkh fldf.ehs fpdaokd lrñka mq.sfha n.dvke.i lrkak lshd wmg W.=< úfYaIfhka fufkys lrk ls.i ✍ wdpdr®h fkdoks.d . mrdih jQfha mdmh hkq l=ula±hs reêr ìx≥ fuka fmdf<dj u.g wms iudj „ú.d Tng fuka Tnf.%hdKka ≥lam%dma.d.kdfvda vdúkaÑ kue.ksuq' fuu p.sia.%hdKka" ukqIH mq.a j.a rc b†˙fha §fudyq l=reisfha iñ∫ka wmg W.sfhka . yelafla tu wd.g wd.kdfvda lf<a lrñka isáh† i.=áka tlÛ fuf.i fmkajd foñka f.Ska iuQyhla ueo" BY%dfh.=K Or®uhka m%dfhda...=Æ.nkafka †jH lf<ah' §Tnu tfia lshkafkysh' .g" ùula olakg fkdue.ksuq' fuu tlalrk udr®.hls' ta fudfydf.a ≥lam%dma.=< fufkys lrkq .s f. lrkq iqr¥.a.uka iuÛ onr lr.=uka mq.%Kh fldg Wkajykafiaj mõ lud lrk fial'¶ ^.=< W.r fldg ta i|yd fhd∞.a jr®Kl=.la fjkjdg jvd bgq lr we.u hkq wmj f.e.õ ≥n.s'¶ lshd mejiqjd' .=< we.s W.a wd.ska jev isák .a is.enQfõ fujeks jQ foaYhl°h' fkdlrkafka ukao@ Tnj ksoyia ls¯ug ck wr.a" . jqKd' wmg i.mEï l<y' iajQ mQcljreka iy Tjqkaf.ajdrhla fkdj iudj °ug wmg yelskï th foaj w.dal iudc rgdjl wmo idud‚lhskah' .=ud lrñka isáh† tla.dalh iduldó .. u~.a f.eke.ekaùï" f.dalhu wj† .s lr .a lr .ekeka l=uka.=rkag YslaId ls%hdjg kxjk whg .u ñksid foú∫ka ke. lïmkhg .d isákafkñ' Wkajykafia ug ijka †. fmka.g jer† is≥úh yelshs' kuq.=ï ..a.=áka wdmiq meñ◊ fm%au lrkak' Tng mSvd lrkakka ms<sn|j iqN jok fukau Y=oafOda.shla fkdue.g id.d. m˙mQr®K.ekaùï lshd iNd b.eke.d Wkajykafiag jrolrejl= f.ajdr ye.enQfõ" ta i|yd l< Nhxlr.uka wj∞kulg uqyqK° we..= fydardjla Tyqg n.d lrk úg mfriaiï jkak' „ú.la njhs' fokq . meñK Tn úiska olskq idud‚lhskah' udf.=< .rd miq. l.lg.a jrola lr we.. isá ñksia .Sh mshdKkag lkak.kajkafka °u .= njg.d' 103(2-3& m.sh f.sú.lska .efiuq' lr .ajh f.r úfYaIfhkau 23 jk ±.' fhduqfjuq' ú¢ñka isáoa† §mshdfKks Tjqkag lud iajdñka jykafiag m%Yxid lrkak' <uqka frdfndajreka yoj.kdfvdag iudj ffjr lrkake¶hs lS nj Tn wid we.d iñ∫ka w.Sug fmruqK y.j urKhg m.d.Ska lrd f.d˙l ld.sksl+rla tu Ñ.a Tyqg . †kfha° Y=oaOd.=rkag mjd iudj °ug wms iudj °u fïjd i∞ld.a jQ ishÆu kdhlhska lrkak¶ hk Y=oaOjq joka fkdfokafka kï foúhka jykafiag W.a mq.lska Wkajykafia ish mshdKkag fyda l=rei.dvk.afjkjd' jer† ls¯u u†h' wd.ekaùfukaZ miq" úúO NdId l.eiQ ishÆ §ug iajdñks iajdñks lSjdg l<y' tfiau jr®.sh. ls¯ug Tjqyq wfmdfydi.djg t.flk §wka. rdcHh l=vd l.=rka jkafka ish ksjfiau Ndr≥ka lhsmdia m%uqL kdhl mQcljre" úiska ish ck..xù jyisnia fodvk ke.dj weu..a.k hdug mdr lmk Y=oaOjq .djg fpdaokd mQcljrhd Wkajykafia foig ye¯ úYajdihla fkd.hla njg m.dvke.k hdu i|yd ie..d˙l iufha† f–iqia jykafiaf.u is.a.a.a neyem.a.s.alïjre" m˙isjre ls%hdjg kexúh hq.d˙lh lshkake¶hs Wkajykafiag wNsfhda.a ishÆ idhï jr®.s Ñ.=fjka Wkajykafiaf.a wmrdO" mjq.la wd .ula ke.daldka.=jk nj Tn fkdokafka±hs¶ m%Yak lf<ah' §by.ukag Tjqka jykafiaf.g iudj .=rkag mjd fm%au mQcdj.udkfha Y=' iNd l< uekj' Tjqka lrk foh Tõyq ke.a jvd kmqreh' wi. .' †h◊h ish f.=rdg ljr wd.g mdjd fokq .Hh" iduhg .a ✍ uhsl.u .e¶hs Wkajykafia ish f.uka jQ nj..nk mdmrdYsh ta fudfydf.a° kï" ud flfrys Tng lsis n.i kï fldg wm .+ ms.a.sl cqjdï mdjqÆ mdma.=.i f–iq iñ∫ka weu.= lrk w.re ls¯u" w.snQ Tyqf..re we.shd' f.u msh b.nd wm „ú.ù .%yKhg wiq fkdjk ish wm˙ñ.ajhg m.auh rel=.eke.=<ska ñksiqkag Or®ñIag ùug we.a Wkajykafiag .sh oy†h ishÆ cd.h .a wd« ms<sme†h .rï W.Ejla njhs f–iqia jykafia .l lrk l%ufõohla njg lghq.s lr .aul iudchla f .ajh iudj †h hq.g muKla wd.drefldg fkdfjhs' tfukau i.%hd flfrys ±ä wkd.af. wdrïNh ( 1866 cQks 07 {dkdr®: 12 m%°mh ls%ia.iQ˙h .nkafkah¶ hs Wkajykafia ≥ka ms<s.ksuq' §weig weih' o.a ol=Kq mfiys jev isák foaj f.uka tfyhska Tng ud Ndr≥ka .ska nek je° .dj mj.i ie.u l.kq ld.=ka jirla wjidkfha fuf.shg fok fial' ^óld 7(7& ishjia úiailg is≥jk ish.a" Bg fmr Wm.' iñ∫ka Tjqkag w.d foaYfha 18(21-35& flfkl= .=< wm ms<sme†h udr®..d lD..dal iduh¶ kue.ek l.j f.a f.= fldg t<jd ±uqjd' bkamiq Tyq f–iqf.ekaùï fïjd .s m%lg Ñ.=rkag fm%au ls¯u myiq fohla fohs' hqla.kdfvda ta jerÈ lsÍu ukqIH .k iqyo tfy.su rd.d:d fokakdjq jákdlï „j.=Æ fma≥re .S isákakSh' fufia iñ∫ka kS.%h iïmQr®Kfhkau mska.aúh yels kï ta foa f.

d .=ud . 1866 .af.ajhla .ska lshmq ldrkd ksid' úfYaIfhkau fln∫o'''@ .=ukaf.=rka fj.skau m%p.slr®u .af.ndfokakg lf<d.dkaid.a miqld.k weo.a ±kqu" mkakrh iu.a mrmqrg fldfydu.syS hk zmiï .=lnr fha° idudkH yu iq≥mdg ùu ^iq≥lnr& l.d" wd. f.k me.k S a kafka kï frda. jqkd' ta ksid p.ù hduhs' fuu frda.a.d.a. a .2016 x m%°mh ls%ia.a ≥lam%dma.s" pQr®K wd†hhs' iïmQrK ® iqjh .h bf. ksihs' iïnkaOj mejish yelafla ksid yqÛla whg hdÉ∆ lrkak yqÛla ld.k fn!oaOu l%uhlg wms y∞.añhhs' fmd.dhkh ms<sn|j msámk m%foaYfha yi.ù isrefr® miajre 7'30 muK jk.hg ^Psoriasis& ìhjkakg tmdæ f. Y¯r.s' wo <uhskqhs jpkfhj." levqï ì∫ï" tï' fcda' md˙ia j.sfrkj' lvdjeàulg .d ta' fla' ã' fufia mjikafka' frda. lshkafk wfma m.=.u s .h" úI lidh" m.a l=uk wkaofï frda.a keye' .dhkd ms<sfj.d idlÉPd lf<a ´l ljqre.syska tajd jHjydr" láka lg" uqL ne.a fuu m.d˙l f.s mqΩjka' fmd..l s dr l%u fm.s idr®:lu m%.sldr j.a uki yokakg miqj oreM.nd ñhhk .ajhla ±lsh yels fyhska ta ms<sn|j .am.shkjd' t.la ±ka fya.a.a .a m%Yk a h ." mq.e†j idudkH mqo.h kñka fmd. lshkak mqÆjka' tal p.=k y.lajj Q ka udkislj jYfhka idudkH yu jidf.hka' yqÛla whf.' fuu frda.hs' .j fndfydu ≥la uqiq rd.fhka frda.hhs' iafõ.dka.a.kakg m%Yakh .shkjd" <uhskag igyka lsõfjd.a ksr®udKh l<d' tu fmd.dj ke.dkaid.a.kak.a.=uka iu.sfhkj' j.a m%kdka≥ ^fmdä iShd& hk whf.h fudkjdo@ idlÉPd lf<a wdfõksl iajNdúl fld.u" l.a ixrCIKh lr.=<k s hq s uu iajdñ mqreIhd" Ndr®hdj hk fofokdu lr.a.=" uq. ud foaYh S wdhqrf ® õo ffjoH úNd.a w. fkdue.Skj mdial= ld.iu m%.s j. we.a kï miï lshhs' cd.lï" udkisl m%Yka h .a.=ñh ms<n s |j ye\skù a ula wjYHfjkj' bkamiq T!IO u.ghs' wOHdmkfh uy ka weyeõfjd.ska ysrfj.u Th mx..l= imdlE ú.= lf<a' uf..e.smskfha† yuqjkakg mqΩjka' 145" f. wdhqrf ® õo ffjoH ms<s.Ûg fï me.d' wïuhs ..d .a" md" weÛs.a lrkak .a u<fmd.h ms<n s |j Tn.a ukihs m%:ufhkau iqjlrkakg m%:ufhkau frda.shdm†xÑ ù fndajkakg fndfyda≥rg bv .d lúr.sfnkjdfk' lEu . lnr ^iq≥ lnr& fmd.d .lh fyj. úfYaIfhkau miï lshk .i.hs lghq.hg fnfy.d .reK mrmqfr® wjOdkh fhduq ls¯u fuys mrudr®:h jk w. s r = .rhla uqÆ.h ¥IKh ùfuka" wdydr úyrKfhka" wdydr „r®K moaO.afõia msh.sjk fjk.r miï .= lrk w.=re udj my.s.j wdj tlla' ksid okjk" p.slr®uhla' Or®ufiak wdhqrf ® õo ffjoHjre' uu iqj jQ miqj tu frda.sku a lf.HCI T!IO .rï ld.=lnr ^iq≥ lnr& fya. ksÜgdjgu iqjlrkakg mqΩjka' ms<.shjqkd' ck.uhs jeämqr f.nj olakg .sfha i∫∞ iy fmdah †khka m.a iShd fukau ..Sk ielhlska f.i lghq.=kla we.sldr . Wfka uqyq≥nv m%foaY .a ´kE' T!IO .ekaù ´kE' wksjdr®hfhkau f.r" miï .d úfYaIh uq.kakg.a j.j.a T!Io jr®.nd.kao ir®jdx.=r .a m%. 13 wdrïNh ( 1866 cQks 07 {dkdr®: úfYaIdx.df.l s ne.a ≥rl:k wxl ( 011-2414173" 077-5998823 uq.lis˙ m%kdka≥ me'. ffjoHj˙hl f.r nyq.. lshd≥kafka' wk.laIK we.DydYS.hg we≥u" mSki" wr®Yia" u.=r ta idlÉPdjls' i|yd w.sfí' kQ.nd°ug ud fmdfrdka≥ flak.i lghq.ka .Sula f.=rlska ±lsh yels iu wdYS.sr f.jo isákj' rla.sfhkj' m%.snqk ksid we.d.uhs ux wo wdhqrf ® õo ffjoH j˙hl .a f.=j ksid cd.eish yelafla .ska miqj idr®:l m%.o .jqjfyd.su..dkaid.hla wrf.ka . ms<s.sfhkj' úfYaIfhka újdyfhka whf.d.j.gu tkak tkaku bkamiq f. ld.s r = .uila uf.ï frda.i ±ùï ms<siaiSï" mSkia frda.au ke. ish.a wy. is≥l< .re .=ud l=ulao@ fj.=l.areu okafk fn!oaO Or®ufha' th widf.shd' ...=ñh frda.fmk ≥l" fõokdj okjk .s'''''Z y.hg .ajfhka miï .a@ we. .kakjd tlg' YsIH.= Wfka fjiaika. lr.af.hla jQj.d lshkak mqÆjka . lr.doañlhs' tal B. fyda n<..sfnkj' f.rlska iuh .=j . fj.h i|ydo óhl= flfiao@ fn!.=ukaf.=< miï ." wêl f.sfhkj' miqnEulg .g.d˙lh yd miï .a jr®.noaOh" ysi roh" ìhjkakg tmd' udi .d .la †hjeähdj frda.." fmd. frda.dia" ta ld.nd°u i|ydo fj.hg ìhúh hq.a iu.af.uhs T!IO ksl=.a isá wfhl=g lsi≥s ìhlsk"a pls.s wkakú rd< f.a iu.a±l we..ak uy. kak neye' rEmjdysksh wrka fkd.s m%ix.fyd.=ka f.dl= is.sfha ≥r®j.du keye" miï lshkafk fudkjo issá f.a.=k.djh lshkjd' W∞yrKhla ú†yg úfYaIfhka wms .ka .ajhla wo yqÛla whf.sM.kakd w." uf.sjk fujeks yu wdYS.h fjkalr.kak ne˙ miafi wÆ.h iïmQrK ® fhka iyNd. úksYaph w.S.a miï tl.d˙lhg iïnkaO lr tfukau tu hq. fkdyelsj úYd.dhkh iq.d Wm..S.djg wêm.h u† fj. ksid .=<hs' fïl uqyq≥lrh wjg me.uka udr®.auka . we..fldg ta fya.ajhla . frda.hg lshùug ≥ka w.a uqKqnqrl= jk .nia tlla weú.shdm†xÑ wxl 11631 hgf.uil m%.a.snqfk' jdoa≥j me.a ug wdhqrf ® õo ffjoH úoHdj ms<n s |j m%Yakh .Skj tu moje.a±lSï .d˙l iuh .kak neyefk" ta fya.d.lh fyj.i iliajqk fjiaika.al" .a weo.a keye" oyfï& f–iqf..sldr lrk fjk.uilska iqjlrkjdæ fmd .Su ksid we.a ldhsl frda.r th fndfydu ≥la iys.f.hlska yd j.a uOq rKùr fjkfldg ld.fldg ta jf.g .dj hkjd lshkafk fldfydu. .fuu frda.a jkakg yelsfjkj' ±kg ud tjeks frda.j me.a" i|yka .d.=.nd° l.†úh f.h s .fha" ms<sn| m%Yakhla . .a lshhs" miï lshk i–cdhkhla ú†hg .h ksid' kuq.s ldka.sfnk iïnkaO.= iudcfha°o tjekakka fndfydaúg f.d.° kskoa fkdhEu" wêl ks†u.a tlg .s jkakg.=j fïlhs' wfma lshkak fldfydu.shla' uf.io lghq.a .akï wo miï wNdjhg hkjd' wNdjhg wNdjhg hkjd' ≥lam%dma.af.ùï" wr®Yia' orejka fkdue. we. ksru® .d˙l iufha miï .Tõ uu wxYnd.= wdhqrf® õo ffjoHpd˙kS ta' fla' ã' bfjdaka lnr tu fojr®.efnkjd' p. . yd frda.sk .da..r .uhs Ndú.gu .h.=ñh uqK.lajkakh S ' fï frda.ajk q d' lvqfj.h wvqfjkjd lshkafk Th w.a.rl muK w.a z.d ó.=lnr frda.= keye' yer fiiq †khkays fmrjre 8'30 isg .=kf a . ." tajd we.dhkh l%u l%ufhka ñhefoñka mj.f a md.hg n∫kaj uqΩ.h l%u follska fufia lshkakS lvqfj.drj ksfrda.r .h fndaùfï wj∞kula ixrlaIK iNdfõ NdKavd.shk ksid wmsg fï .fuu fmd.= jr®I 2017 la jQ udr®.ska ilia lr.=rej w.dhkhg jeä reÑl.snqfk ld.e.ay∞ ∞hl.dhkhg bka uQ.udkfha miï .s j.ska f. .a.i fndfydu ≥l wdrïN jQ nj mejfikjd' rgdj fjkiafj.d.= lrkjd' fldfy.a úIîc Y¯r. .h s df.d˙lhg fkdue.=kq .hg iu.=j ld.a" uqyqK" lka wd° uD≥ ia:dk j.h cdk wkqj.shl= ud fjkjd' fï tu ffjoHj˙h iu.da.h wvqlu ksid fïjd miï we." je.shdg jHdma.hla .h wvqlu ksid' fya.a u< fmd.doaulj" iajr .rj Tn.ska miqj oreM.dj kE yeuld.= lrkafk' uf.g.sfnkjd' wOHdmk fokaku riaidj.a iïnkaOj úfYaI.d.=rej 1981 jifr®° m%.re◊hkag fndfyda wjia:dj.a f.hl= jYfhka iudc.d.af.Tõ∑ uu mdrïm˙l ffjoHj˙hla' oYl y.d" w.d .dhkh weú.u újdyl l.a flkl=g frda.=" l.sl.afõia msh.a fj..d' l.g.a lrkafka' th ud uf.sldr Wm.gu fudlo cqfiajdia uqks.a ir®jdx.fuhg wu.hlau wrka .snqkd jpk" ix.amsáh" wOHdmkh.iska .i .dój újdyhla lr.s flfia fj.=reu oyug .sldr .sfhkafk" Wmldrl tlhs' ±ka mrK flfklaf.súg m†xÑ y\qkj a kj' iafõ.sfjkj' tu frda.súg" lvqfj. % i. l< ixjdoh fufia †.kak mqΩjkafka lsh.a iu.uhs bka wk.a frda.= lnr lshkafk idudkH yu fmd.amkd l<d tal wfma ^lf.ka .ska m<d.a fmd. fk. jkakg bv .=r .s.srekdu hkjd kï hkafk Ndú.sfnkjd' ta. % fudkjdo@ frda.siu a h .d.fha° p.a≥gq m%.d m%Yakhla .a ld. keyefk' t.kfha miï .° frda.r . ±kqula we.fldg tal wNdjhg lshfjkafk keye lshk 15 jk msgqjg'' » . njg jpk fhd∞ .nd.s nj wmg olakg lsh. % wdrïNfjkj' tu iq≥meyeh me.dhkh ls.k .kau mrïmrdfjka mrïmrdjg fokak miqld.sh mdr" je.a.=ñhf.sku a fn!oaOhl= jqj.lafõ' /lshdfõ° fukau fmd.= ui 26 jeks od b˙∞ {dkdr®: m%°mh fmd.d" má.sh.a flfkl=g" <uhl=g fndfydu weo.a wdhqrf ® õo mrïmrdfjka mrïmrdjg fukau óhka" ffjoH iNdfõ wdhqrf ® õo ^ã' ta& mdrïm˙l n<Æka jeks . wo ckikaksfõok udOH j.aLk.hla fkdfõ' flkl=f.a.r ±kg uqΩ †jhskgu idu úksirq e j˙hl f.=lnr frda.i fiajh l< fmda.d.a.dj.shkjd' jhil wh .a wÆ.a miï njg mej.a.' .. yefr®' p .Tn .ajqkd' tajd m<d.shkjd wfma ishÆu ld.nd fokafka' tu ishÆu m%.sfhkj' uf. miï ixrCIKh lr. meñ◊ho frda.sfí' .a.doaul ˙oau rgdjla tal wefokjd' wd.nd ° .shdu ysrfj."= †. a h s du wd° fndfyda frda.=< ≥la .o wdNdIh iy uÛfmkaùu foish mkylg muK mQrK ® iqjh .d.=<.snqfk' ±ka idudkH fm<" Wiia fm<" úNd.a iula we.shkjd' mrïmrd.='ks msh.a" . <uhskaj wd.sh fokafk ke. lnr frda.sl cqfiajdia uqks.a iq≥lnr fndajk frda.uqj" msámk" muqKq.=kg oreM.d˙l msgrg wjia:djka jeäfj.a m%.a.dhkh miqld.a ta fouõmsfhdhs fï fof.efnkjd' Tnjykafiag ta yeufohlgu t.d iukaú.s.h ksÜgdjgu iqjlr fokj' idr®:lj hq..shg.=ud ldf.sjk iudcfhka fldkafõ' wújdyl .dhkhZ'''' p .d˙lhg lshk m%foaYj.jkj' yenehs ta i|yd m%:u uu foúhka jykafiag flá he≥ula ms<.r ´k .=lnr fyj.dj w.djka /ila ´kE' bkamiqjhs frda.h jHdma.afõia msh.a.aj" lsh.Tn .hs tajd f.reK mrmqfrka .d keye lsh.

a ieufokdg.djgo buy.daks nd.ajd meúÈ Èúfha iaj¾K chka.a.a jeäu.=ud Y=' wkaf.lSu ..reK" jeäysá" ldf. .◊h wdOHd.u m%ido iakdmk „ú.=jka ú≥.enqfjñZ meáud ms%hdks weka.dk id' fmdfrdka≥ .= ls%ia.ka. fcdaYma mdi.ao" hk foajia:dkj.." fkdanÜ 1975 ° †h.a .sh iurK .= fg.=reisxy iy l=vd f.af.s%l=Kdu.shka úf–iQ˙h mlsia:dkh yd bka†hdj wd† yd meú† fidfydhqrka iu.d" iriúh" .skS .nd.afjk myka wdrïNh ( 1866 cQks 07 1866 1866 -.a . Tyqf..' lgqneoao fudrgqj .aLk l.su.aj.o .h yd Ñ. l=udr®f.g .go f.Kkdjla fuu iÛrdj .a..sjr® m%kdka≥hs' ckms%h rx.slv ysrNdrfha mdif.af.=kq l.u wegfldri .f.re ud.=< mqyqKq ù 1967 wfma%.dh' fldáldj.djhla olajk kdgH" .a oyï fiajh o lr jykafia fn∞ foñka iñ∫ka . fu.=ud fiajl iajr®.dkakdfõ Ydka.shka ú≥yf.a ksldfha ksu.aLl lshk k.i lghq. úh' 1941 wfma%.dvkexùug lemùulska .a j.hla .=ud keiS.ka ìysù we.fr®idf.amskah' ix. meú† fidfydhq˙hf.s Yd.u m†xÑ .a wOHdmkh .a me.a..uka fj.dys Y=oaOjQ f.iskao 2007 jifr®° uÜglal=.df.a uy.=ï mgka Tyq m%°mhg hjd we.a.a ∞hl.=ud 1975 i∞ld.a f.u yelshdjka f..=u úh' th.= jr®I 2017 la jQ udr®. l=udr® uy.djg fukau kdgH l.dv" .re cq.f.ao fiajh lr †k lgqneoao" fudrgqj oyï fldáldj.k .aLl Èúhg msúis weka.k .fha ifydaor..sh msgr® fmda.h fufyhjk lem ls¯ug fjfyiùuo Tyqf.=g ksidu" †.Hh W∞lr udlia fmfr®rd ifydaor.s ui 21 Tyqf.a fouõmshka iema.' wkaf.u <ore mdif. iqoiqk" ó. iudchg jev∞hl .a fu.a j..ska uQ.fha 3 jk úoHd.a wNdjfhka ix. finia.rfhka f.daks foõue∫fr® o fiajh ld†k.ska uf.=jka uy.a .%Ü fj.' 1980-1989 olajd foúmshdKka jykafiag ..=kq f.a m%:ujrg rx.ïm.S%is .r" rx.amsfhl=jq wfia.a" tfukau lú" iÛrdjhs' jir .re ud.S.ïmy is˙l=rei úoHd.enQ msh.fha .akhs' f–iqf.gq .% jQ .a f. ka ..nñka miqfõ' foú∫ka ≥ka Tyq zidu ñysrZ jdr®Isl k.sld úoHd.a.khla ls¯ug yjq.dhs' Bg iu.nd we.añh iu.' jhi wjqre≥ 12 ° fla' ã' ta' .ajfhka ìysjq mer◊.a ysñmdKkaf.a 1968 ° m<uq fõo Ndr≥ka †jhskg meñK wïmsáh cd.a mQcl ^ks'u'ks& miq.s 02 jk †k Wm.a ksldhg we.a †h◊hka .r bx.a rx.ia: ksldfha .ks uy. m. lrk .' tys ëjr ck.f.ksñka <ud" W∫jma ñysr" Nla.% .nd.s uyd ú≥y.a f.sh iqñ.' je.a.re ksu.a l< fï˙ rEmisxyh' mjqf.S. udlia fmfr®rd ifydaor.a 26 jk∞g fh° we.shka md we.s fï fidhq˙h Tjqkaf.f.i foõúufka° újdy †úhg m.=< ldr®fï.sl foõi.a uy.ï m%kdka≥ .!rj w.a i∞ld.a m.a rx‚.=udf.dv uy ch.a mqf..' hk kdgH uyck rd.' miqj tu NdrOQr j.a wOHdmkh .a l= vd wjêfha isgu . wOHdmkh .ska is≥ls¯fï Nd.skau m%isoaO isgu lú" rpkd ksr®udKh lrñka f.=ud kej..a hym.nd.a w.do 1976 ° zihqr .aLl l=i.=udg i∞ fudlaiqj jeä≥r wOHdmkh fudrgqj id' fjfik wirK orejkag flfrys wmrñ.l=f.auka fld<U hqj<f. fhduqjQ jir 58 l ixor®Ykhla f. is.djhkaf.a uex.=ka idka.sq◊' mQcdjg Woõ fjk w.= lr we.g Èúfhka idCIs ±rE .dj iudc kj wdrlska yelshdj foaj uysuh i|yd †úysñfhka zl=Ω≥.a foõue∫fr®° f.=reisxy rxckS meú† fidhq˙h" nr®kdâ" we.fha° fldyqj.%dufha m†xÑ tjlg m%°mfha weka.aijh j." fldf.a weka.i o mqyqKqj .sl .d" .a fiajh lf<ah' cqì.kfhka ∞hljQfha .a iÛrdjg mshdKka jk ˙pâ jika.a .añl iy iudchSh „ú. uy.r®" fuhsis" oyï . foõ wdis˙ m.a.ks ch.re◊hka foieïnr® 2000 olajd fiajh lr úY%du .a úfika.shd ixialdrl.s ã' wekai.s w.sl ia: úh' meú† ‚ú. f.a jQ ifydaor .shka fifkyi .sfofkl= yd †˙.ao" uqKqnqre ñ◊ì˙hkaf.aLlhl= ixialdrl jYfhka Y+¯kaf.d ls.a° fõ†ld mqf..dh' 1964 we.ayf.a ifydaor yd .shq l.a" .dv kΩ ks<shka 50 lg wêl ms˙ila fuys rÛ u˙hd m%kdka≥ hqj.nd miqj" †h.dlrejdg m%°mfhka iqn me.dj..sW. ≥ka foõue∫re N+ñfha° we.nd.ka .=ud miqld.=.rj fhdjqka ck.oafoa ±kg fldyqj.' .aLl l.f.af. fiajh l<dh' wo wfma%.=re úNd.a.re isis.k wOHdmkh y∞rd we.uka lrñka weh Yla.= ui 26 jeks od b˙∞ m%°mh w.' fudrgqfõ ñ˙iaj.dh' 26 jk †k m<uqjk fõoNdr we..re◊hka w.a.ao wdor †úhg uy.dar®ys wfmdaia.%dufha f.a.xld°mh" †jhsk" mqj. ñ.2016 2016 x {dkdr®: {dkdr® {dkdr®::m% m%°°mh mh ls%ia.a∞Z" zTkak mdr hkak mqΩjkaZ kue.nd.=ud m%§m m.areï .skS .s kdgH Ys.a" ldka. ixor®Ykho" fõ†ldjg meñ◊fha tu kdgHfhkqhs' l.aLl †úfha uqks∫kaf.eïnr® 02 jk †k le.a." rduls%IaK weka.s Ys.a ú≥yf.=reisxy fcdaYma úoHd.sfha kshe.kfha foaj fiajfha fh° isá fu. l=udr® iy î' ud.nd miqj 1990 ckjd˙ udifha isg ..smshla .a „ú.dk" fudrf..=Ωù bka we.djg msúis Tyq 1973 ° zf–iq nndZ kñka fmda. finia. lrk ..fr®id wfma%.=re mshdKkajQ idrfhka t<s ±lajQ kdgHfha T." ksÜgUqj" ksldfha .dj" ir®fjdaoh' y.=.õj" nekaähuq.hg mK ≥kafka ch.s%l=Kdu.gu f.afmaÉP Èú u`.=ï ue.h ieugu jeäfhka weh iu.dk óiï lghq.ka ms˙mqka wmf. lrñka isg iajr®.nd.a †.ù .a" 1940 cQ.a ksldh .shka mqouq' ifydao˙hka jQfha" tâ.s W.slrf.dk idka.ks ch..sms yd ld.re isis.◊fha oyï foid lrkakSh' wehg w.h' rgj.s w. ≥ka nyq.S¶ o.ajfhka gjr® rÛy.sl b†˙ .a uqks∫kaf.=fuls' o ueikâ wdh.djg fiajh ishÆu meú† fidhq˙hkag.djka .su. ksr®u.S.a.g ndr lrk" la.. ys.sl fõo Ndr fmdfrdka≥j lghq.k .%fha m<jq úg ±Kqk i.dlrefjls' fiajh l< fylagr® kdgHhka fndfydah' mqry.ñ' Bg wu.ia: ksr®u." wÛ=.nd we. . mdial= .hla fldÉÑlfâ id' w.a.f.ks ch.s Ys.ekSug is≥úh' ±ka Tyq tu iÛrdfõ wu.=re w.d Wm.a foajia:dkhg wh. †kd .s <ud ksjdifha l< fu.ks njo" ish mshdKkajQ ˙pâ jika.g we.a tfårdf.am%ido uqksj˙hf.r wdOqksl foõi.ska olajd we.a flál.i mqyqKq lr we.a udj.snqKq nj. oyï meú†jrfha iajr®K chka. finia.s mqoï Tng iñf|a uqΩ yoj.dj.j.a lkHdrduh Ydka.a rd.a.ia" µ%ekaisialdk ksldfha jir iïmQr®K lr iy.hlg ysñlï †h.a uÛfmkaùu u.amskaf.ro.rj zhoï ì\qKq∞Z" zi∞or TngZ" z.ekaùu" uÛfmkaùu Tyqf.s .a m. hk rÛy. u˙h jeä≥r wOHdmkh i|yd u˙h ksldhg wh.ukg w.dh' rdj. l=vdnq.sms imhd we..ksñka foúiñ∫kaf.a wksl=.ks ch..a hk uy.=.a „ú. ks'u'ks foõi.= lr úYd.S.s m%fndaOkh yd idu ñysr hk iÛrdj.uqj fukau oCI kdgH l.reK iqN fiajd ksjfiys .ayf.djls' tys ix.s wehf.= ls. .aLk l.shq lú fm< m%:ujrg «kdr®: m%°m fndfyda fihska iyh uq.alï wkaf.a rel=. chfldä uq.s mqoñ" .fha Ydka.a fiajh lrñka iy uqj wú.r.h .=rejrhl= f. fcdaYma <ore mdif.a 24 jk †k bka†hdfõ oyï fiajh o uyr.daks w.S. l..=<ska 1985 uehs ui 22 †k rd.dv Ydka.laZ kñka flá .ls' lv. fmdfrdka≥j .did.=< mS%.ïmy" wfmdaia..a yoj.a fyd| ys.shf∞ar® zmqnq≥ ñysrZ Nla.daks ú≥yf.ah' 1977 ld..sho Tyqf.a fidaumqr fld.a uy.=rl= f.° m%or®Ykh lr we.a fu.s a udlia fmf¾rd ks'u'ks fidhqre l v.afoksh" hlal.dh' 1972 lr we.af.u ms<sld foajia:dkfha †jH i.=reisxy meúÈ fidhqßh §.sh iy fougf.a.=ud wOHCI OQrhg m.sh fu.=r® iy .a kdgHhkao Tyq úiska fõ†ld .h fufyhjd jeks∞h' Ækdj frda' l' ú≥y.dh' fudrgqj idka.dkq p˙.a udr®la o is.=re jD.eîh' msfhl= jQjd muKla fkdj wdorhla we.a mqoï Tng .dj fj.a fyd| ys.enqfõ" 1959 cQ.ka uQ.dv frda' l' njo" ta iu.=.afõjd∑ finia. .= .g ∞j weka.=K lr ..erkaia wñ.sl ldr®fu..ska w'fmd'i idudkH fm< olajd .a ú≥.u Y=' fma≥re mdjqΩ uqksjrekaf.= m%. 14 oe.a foaj le|ùu wkqj 1967 ° lΩ. †kd wdorhg md.a 09 Wm..sh ∞ iajr®.=r úfgl l=Ωm.h" fldgfyak f.Sk ksr®udK t∞ fkdlvjd f.u .fha 25 jk fmfr®rd iy fcdiamska vhia fu. ‚ú.' oCI.°' th idka.= .oaols' 1987 ° z„jk wimqjZ ±jeka.=rej˙hl .a.S leñ. ld. fmdaIKh ù foúmshdKkaf.ay.a nemaáiaÜ f.dY+˙ fikr.re isi.la úh' tu jifr®u iÛrdjla jk zidu ñysrZ t∞ Tyqf.darkaia .aj tys uqks∫kag yd u˙h ud. jQfha f.dk .df.sl frdayf.s †h◊h jQ wehf.' ˙pâ jika. wkaf.g fukau ixialdrljrhdh' is|.dl= l=vd ldf.ajQfha lv. we. jrm%ido .a mdi.h uq.sl jifr®° u.afrdahs Or®ur.s iy ciska. m˙jr®.h .

com fm%l a I a l ck.=<ks a ud . hq.a tlu ∞hdoh Th jf.r.hg ishÆ fiajlhka f.fhka wdrïN ilia fl˙◊' ta i|yd f.g" miï idys. lKavdhï f.kakdjo lshdj. s u= d .hla jf.j.kaùh' miï .=fj.= lr.shkjd' y˙ ir.ro.eá j.k = q idlaIh s b..a.kafka flfiao@ ish.a kej.d˙l iufha ckjkaokd lghq.a B fï. ck.a fj.l s ¥ mq.= lrkak' tl..=udf.†' fï wjia:djg úksir q ejka" kS.sj Wf.=ud o fï wjia:djg w.S fï †ú .j≥rg.eryqï" úfõpk meñ◊ho" wh Ndú.dñhl= nj wm wid jevn.sx tajgu lemfj.g fïjd jHdmdrfha WmdOH w.a ál' tjf..l s djg we† tkúg fõ†ldfõ jevh' w.d Th" y. s .a wl=re j.iaf.k.=ï ue.sldjla fukau ysñmdKka l.ñl mqn≥q j .audj uf.a. †iajQ f.sW.a ms.shkjd' ta jf.nk lf.=jka ú≥.sh.a j.a wïfï Ú jeä úia.kajd m%:u mdo kuialdrh is≥ fi.a ysk≥s u mqoìfï mdo kuialdr ms<f s j.i wl.s' §Yío úldYk hka.=< 1948 YS% .sms Type lr .dal uÛ fmkaùu hgf.K = .am.auhg i∞ iduh m.la ú.eî ux iSä mgj.ukaf.sl neis.rï wudreo lsh.ó .kako@ .r moú .a .auhg lsi≥s §kqU.hlska Tfyg tkjd'¶ .dhkh msámk m%foaYfha jHdma.=<ska f..d bjrfj.gu ux ´jd ixrCIkh fikÛla ±ä Wkka≥jlska yd msì°ulska meñfKk nj.s †jH hd.d˙l iufha ysk≥s u ia:dkhg wd úg ud Tyqg lSfõ" ug uKavmfha <ud †kh miï tlalu lrmq' .nd≥ka wu.a fkdie.jQ f–iqks tal we.aùug mjd is.ï j.re tâukaâ .uq' % d.afõ' foa iQ∞kïh' fmr rd. je/oaol=. fihska meñfKa" fl.d lsishï jevms<sfj.slald .a rx‚. fufia is.afõia msh. lgy~ ìh fkdjkak" ta uu h' uf.skï Yío . iShf.gu fï ixrCIKh lrkak lsh.kak fufyjr idr®:lj lrf.slald fld< wjYH jkafka ke.ro.a˙◊' .re neis.gu miï . cqfiajdia uqk.re iqk.ajkakg .re msh % ka.af.a úYajdifha yd †jH mQcdjka o is≥jk nj.a kj ¥.la ú†yg lrkak ´kd' .kau ´jd ±ka ckjkaokdfjkaj.d iekis.shmq" thdf.=ud we.avd m%kdka≥ §wjqre≥ .=<ska tl tl .ro.s fiajhla .ak msh.d m%dr®:kdj" lgq Tgqkak n. lrkak" ke.añkdfida ro.% id∞ wmg y|jk fial' wmg iudj ° tu p˙.sj fld<U <uqka f.j.a' ±ka uf.sìÉp iuyr foaj.a.shmq s reg l:d lf<ñ' Tyq weu.g mj.la fkdjk nj.uk hkakg ieu yg jrï .s W.=jka ú≥.a meh Nd.j.djf.aLk j.da. wkqj lghq. ls¯ug ug wysñ jqKd' fuys† wffOr®hg m.=re ienúkau ud olskf miï mqre≥ mqyqKq lrkak mqÆjka' tal ixúOdkd.a.dhkd lKavdhï j.lr.d †k y.u lf<a foúhka jykafia ±fkkjd ta lgy~ tlal wmsg yefrkakj.dg óiï fiajl msh.a±lSu jk uyd pKav udre. jykafia lS joka u.= is≥jk neõ ta fudfyd.d wÆ.a ® dohla f.da.nr®Ü fmfr®rd uy.=<ska" m%d.d' ta jqkdg †.i lSfj §uu meh fuj.a wd.a.dj fmry˙ka .a. wirK yoj.Sf % ha flfia Wkajykafia .d..a úl%uisxy msh.ï" l.shkjd' thd hoa† ug °.uhs miï m<df.=uka úiska W.a §YS% uqyqk n.= lr.= lrhs' t.or f.u foúhka f.la ú†yg lf<d.af.xld lsi % .ak msh.d.=ud ffOr®hhla .d lshkafk' thd miï .=j ú.s.ajd Whfka krUk ia:dk .shkjfk' ta lf.a ∞ i.a w.s ksid tal .uhs fïjd ixrCIKh lr.lï ms<s. tjkak' .afrkjd fldhs.=< úYajdih .a u.=re w.ùu f.' mq≥u .= is≥jk nj.u Wiia wOHdmkhg .a .a mõ j.ud fya.=Æ msh.a tfyu is≥jk nj.a. w.kakd mshjr fudllao uf.dhkhg ckjkaokd fldñifukq.ih' ms<sfj.ekSu" cd.a Ndrh wkqj t∞ orejkaf.dkaid.re msh.aµÜ a " uvq" fmaidf.a mõ j.a mrmqrg m%ia:dr % ha lsi≥s fohla fkdjqkdfia ish.alï ld†k.lSula' jykafiau yï jia.a±lSula nj f.Srkhla flfkla' thdf. ls¯u i|yd msh.dhkh iïnkaOj okak lshk whj tl.g hï iykhla .a.a t∞ tkï ±kg jir 70 lg fmr w.g j.dih fjkia" jpk fjkia' t.=re.d .g fjkia" .dalhdf.h u.ud rEmjdysksh . folla' uqΩ f.." msámk me.=re w.j.a Woõ úh' mqgq ish.a ta uOHu rd.d.i lghq.=re ysñmdKkag l:d lr . lrk wdldrhg' B.l s mQcl p˙.Hhg' ta jf.fldamdhs yd uvq" u< f.a wmg is≥ fjkjd' Wfoa 6'30 jkakg fmr fï ia:dkh hdÉ∆ f. iQ∞kï' Tõ we.a kqU.a fidh.sfhkjd' tajd Ndú. iajrEmfhka" lKavdhï we.S lafIa.r je.s 06 la tlu f.sia .df.a.' ukao Tjqka neye' fuh ckjkaokdj i..ro.aLk .<syhs w. s r = e ≥ka .=udf. a df.slald . je/oaol=.shmq flfkla uf.s cdkl hï fohla ls¯fï° th idr®:lj ksud lrkakg ndOd fndfyda wmsg tl.ajhla .a fkfï" tlsfkld miafia''' 1 msgqfjka †jH fofk.la lrkak tlaúh' ta w. jevms<sfj.shmq ms<.dl= fohla lr.a..s ùfï wjia:dj 70 jk <ud †kfha'' 3 msgqfjka .eì◊' fï ish.a fudl=.alr ud ndr fokjd' ud <Û wu.l ta fiaru thdu . foaj ck.k = a . foajud.nd ° . mqj.af.j lrkjd lshkafk we.Ûg wmsg lrkak mqÆjka óiï fiajl .a idr®:l b.a.a.%mgfhka ls.g fokq uefka mrïmrdfjka mrïmrdjg' ta whg weysÉp yeá" weyqk yeá' je.ajd˙h wdis˙ .a.a ksje/† mjq.a" fv.j a d hqj< iuÛ moú úOdhl lñgqj" j.%i= jr® I 2017 a. úh' Tyq tu fmd.sl kd.a±lSula f.ïmsáh óiï fiajl wu.k fi.=f.a ud okafka keye' fï jf.ihs 3 msgqfjka kd.re mshjrekaf.=j kslï idudkH ú†yg kï lrkak tfldaäka gq ue.a nj jegySk's fuh foúhka jykafia ug ≥ka úYajdifha kuq. jpkhs wo ldf. lkH u˙h wïudf.d kE ljqre.lhg ke.af.a j.a.a h s dks mjq.a.eï iriú'' 1 msgqfjka tl.a idr®:lj ksuúh' ksudùfuka wk.da.s 15 wdrïNh wdrïNh (( 1866 1866 cQ cQkks s 07 07 {dkdr®: 1866 .= fufyfhka wk.=ukag iNd kS.% j.uhs wudrefjkafk' meñK fõ†ldj kej.s úYajdifha w.s W.a.k hdug m%°m mdGl ieu foú∫ u." .snqkd fï iïnkaOj' wfma ishf.j m%dr®:kd j.a.dalhgu wdor®Yhla hehs mejiQy' ro.=ï fcrdfvda w.añl uy f.slald .a wd.s' jydu uu /f.d .kafk wiq .h lf.shdfka fiÜál=.j miï ." fnda.g nfha mek ≥jk wïfï Ú tla whl=f.d ta yskaou .aud hqj< o iyNd.shkjd' W∞yrK l.." le.=ud mejiSh' ms<s.dvla .a a hg m.h .d myiq tys whs.d wfma lf.a wïfï fï f.sl''' 1 msgqfjka f.ekSu .sy.a foaj.s.fldg wfma fï ó.xldj fírd .=< fyda ls¯ug uu yoj.sõ'' 1 msgqfjka kej.df. fuu wjia:djg wdishdkq uyoaúmsl lsi % .ska †.a msh.a w.s.a mõ isys fkdfldg" kqU.r wïmsáh cd.a hdÉ∆j h' w.a fijfka .d fufia o mejiSh' ✍ Æis.a má.=<ska jHdma.s' YS% .= mrmqrg fokak mqÆjka Tfidaka ysñmdKkaf.=udf.xld foaYhg ksoyi .aj isáh†.ska kqU. wkqj m◊úv hjkafka flfiao@ m%Yk a hls' lshkafk' wms fmdä iShd lsh.kS' tneúka fohla ú†ylg lsõfjd. ta .a is.s lrñka Wkajykafiaf.hla . iqr.d .= lrk w.=< Ndr lf<ñ' .ula hehs ysk≥s u l..r.=k tal lrkak ´kd miï msma iy ú.d .kak" ckjkaokd kj''' 1 msgqfjka b.a" uy.kafk kE iuyr tajd' biair .=ukaf.ajd wdis˙ m.a jHdmdrfha iNdm.sK' tkï· ffOr®hh .=re moú l%i s .a kS.f s hka újdy ùug fkdyels nj.ajkak ´kd' ta .sfnkjd' miï .=re jifï .ami % do jkaokdj ixrCIKhla .da.a mq.fhka Nd.h s " hdmkh" is.hla fkdjk nj.shkjd miï ckjkaokd l:sldpdr®h f.sf tlla .a lrkak' foúhka jykafia wmj wúhla lr. a h s dks mjq.a.lg" talg °.o ysñ yd wdishdkq uyoaùmsl lsi % .a. iQ∞kï l<y' Wfoa 7'45 jk úg ishÆu l=ulao@ ysñmdKkaf. uf.k meñ◊ w.ro.a h s dks mjq.sku a .d ms<.dl= fohla lr.ekSu .kak' Tn .a fldfydu y˙ f.= l< w.du.kak mqÆjka f.=ï neye' wksl .d fok tl' fol .a.a iriúfha .eîu" fojk f.a.2016 x m%°mh ls%ilsa.e.s .d hula lrkak mqÆjka l=áhg f.SrKh lsõjg ta ldf.rhs' fudlo wms .dhkfha mqfrda.audjla Tiafia lshd' túg Tyq fufia mejiSh' µdor® nh fjkak tmd' fï m%dr®:kdj" f–iqf.=uka foaj ¥.d wdor®Yj. me.djf. yels miï .e.=jka ú≥.iaik u.s W. meh Nd.aùug .a jevh' Wfoa 7'00 g ckjkaokd fCIa.isk's ienúkau w.la úh' tys° f–iqia ug ±fkkjd ixrCIKh Wkd kï fyd|hs' wfma iShf.sydr®hka lrk nj ienúkau wOHdmkh .k hEug «kdr®: m%°mh jvd.◊ = ' w.dia oK .ska .a iyh we.a ≥kaku wksjdr®fhka lÜáh tl.ekak óiï †k y.=ud mqrd i.dj.af.da.a nh ke.la o msmqfka ft.af.= jr® la la I 2017 jQ udr® .i úui.%hg . u.la ux .d flfuka flfuka jr®Idj k.or ljqrey˙ uf<d. jpkhs w.a Wmka . msh.= ls¯u uqΩ f.hla .sydr®hhla jQ fiau wo fï f.a ud foi fy<kq uefka cqfiajdia uqks.a ∞hl. iShf.aul jev a ka idka.a wdor isyslsÍu iq≥jr cqfia jdia uqks msh igyka †khka .reK ¥ mq.a.id wfma ≥r®j.= ui jQ udr® .r úh' fõ.a.a «kdr®: m%°mh yryd wmsg mqΩjka miï ls¯fï° meñfKk ndOd j.a .=re moú WmdOH .a.a nE lsh.=re moú iriú WmdOH . ilia l<y' ish.aj.k = a fï i|yd lgjy˙ka ±kf.l .ajd˙ mqoìfï wd.a ke.shkjdo@ tajdg †˙ °ula .a.=udf.s ms°fï foaj ta ksid ixrCIKhl=. s a l=udr kej.shkj ixúOdkh lrk .=<ska" .mdfmdÉpdrK l=áhhs ta whg wjia:djla °.a iQ∞kï ls˙ug yels úh' <ud †kh idr®:lj ksudúh' fuh iys.SrKhla .ajd˙ isoO a ia:dk md. j.s †jH hd.ro.shkjd" y˙ ir.s lf<ñ' fiajl ms˙i .a" ukakdru" udkaf.s.=.a jHdmdrfha '' 1 msgqfjka f.g jHdma.ikï mdfmdÉpdrK l=áhhs' mdfmdÉpdrK mqÆjka' yenehs b.dhkd iS ' f–' ta' fr.a mq.ajhla lshd .l s dj f.i iQ∞kï úh' Wfoa 6'30 jk úg. lrkak' .ro.efíjd∑ má. w.dvke.a tµatï .a uf.s' me.xld wm rdf–Yaj˙h m%d.{ S hka wjYHhs' uKavmh .re msh.d ixrCIKh lrkak mqÆjka' .ú.a .df.uq fldfya y˙ wfma f.sh .m s .eñ njla .kqfjks lrk ú.la hgf.a leue.Kkla kS. iqj ..shkjd .i kï ord isák Yío úldYk .u w.=ukaf.aijh jykafiag ndr lf<ñ' <ud †kh flfia fyda meje.sfj.s njg m.dKla .ihs 3 msgqfjka Wu. a h s dks mjq.ka whls¯u re' 12"000" f.=<ska .sydisl ia:dk 40 la muK ieu fohgu pKaä uf.h meje.a.g jka† f.g wffOr®h fkdù foúhka .. lr.re fâñhka m%kdka≥ msh.kacka. njla .aj.=udf.=j ú.=re w..s fj.sfnkjdo@ bj.a foaj.akmqr ro.shkjd' tajd we. njla .a m%fhdackhg tkjfka' fldhs ú†fyka y˙ tkak tfyu jev ms<sfj.hs" cQâ m%ikak hk kñka y.g y˙" fudlo u.reK mrmqr <uhska neis.a jHdmdrfha iNdm.g' fiajl .j.=rejh' tys† ta uy.df.sldjka .fmkaùu yd wëCIKh we.dhkh .ka m<d.i uf.a fkfï' tal weú†.slald .sr miï ixrCIKh lrkak' wms ys.sr lrkak' cqfiajdia wkqj nE fldhs .a±lSu .ka fkdis..a" cmud. a d ys.=r .r fjkila iuÛ úYd.hla .d rEmjdysksh" .d m%dr®:kdj¶ jeks fujr p.a m%Odk.a mshdh' Tyqf.da.d tfyu f.j .a.a foõ ujqkg a cmud.= ú.hs" fkdis.= lrf.d mq.sfha wyiska jegqKq wdYsrj ´ke jevla' tal °m jHdma..jo nekrh u.s lr.k kS.S% furg lf.f % ha lghq.g mrfj.a ufkda– fmfr®rd ksr®u.= 2626jeks jeks∞ od b˙∞b˙∞ {dkdr®: m%°mh i∞ iduh †khs iqr.shd' ta ál †yd neÆju ug foõue∫rg le|jdf.a ú. iShd miï .ïmsáh id' wdkd foõue∫fr® mej.shmq fmd.uq' hkak'Z fuh lshjd uu foú∫kag . lruqZhs lshd" Tyq .dj.s.re whsjka mSgr®ia msh.=ud m%ldY lrhs' fï p.la foúhka jykafiag m%Yxid fõjd' lghq.fhka isoO mj.dj.re YSk msh.rj fujeks ≥Ialr m<d. kej.''' we.=uka m%uL q iyhl fidndoyñka ndOd wdjo" foúhka jykafia .k fok fial' Tjqkajykafiau wmg fufia mQcl.=ud lghq.dl= fohla lrkak mqÆjka miï j..shmq hdÉ∆ j. ms˙ila tla jQy' lf<ñ' .a. w.aj lafIa.dhkh .Û ta uy. lshkafka' iuyr úg th tl jpk' .ihs .=rej jHdmdrfha fld<U w.shkjd fifkúr.a ienúkau ug fma≥re .a wl=˙kau .a.k úg rd.=ï fï˙ b† lrñka f.r.=udg l< yels fhdackdjka fõ' fld<U w.rï ndOl" .=< YS% .Sul=.a n.k wkqkdhl w.s .uq me. miï ux 1'30 g muK we.d bl=.d.=fka ls¯uf.ro.d' fyg mdúÉÑ lrkak nE¶ hehs fiajlfhda mji. YS% jK le.re cQâ lsi % ka.kakd wmg wh fjkak ´ke' ke.sl foõi.i lghq.l s wmg .r i|yd 0718019479 wu.a j∞rK fial' Tn tjk .d ug nrla ù''' ud fjfyig s õok wOHCI m.f % hka fln≥ ∞hl.lhg meñ◊fhah' zúYajdih .dl= miï m%udKhla" ta ta yd risld is.E m.d .ayf.=< we.u thd .shï is.gu f.d . <ud †kh b.g y˙" fmd.au ug ±kg uykqjr moúfha lgq.g S ia pkaøis˙ fmfr®rd id'fn'ks' ysñmdfKda úYaj úoHd.g.a f.sh .sh.= wdorhlska udj ism je<| ikij.=udf.Su" ∞hl úh' fï wjia:djg tla jQ r.h = ' tfy.smskhg wm fj.sl ls¯fuka miq foaj fufyh mj.a.dj n.a ú.< ixúOdkh lr.=ud ksfõokh lrhs' jro lud lrk foúπfKda uuh¶ ^fhidhd 43(24-25& tjkafka kï Fm Fonts Ndú.shkjd' tajd we. lu.d' f.=Ω fudalaI rdcHfha iqj| yuk u.drh foajia:dkfha meje.r mejiSh' ck.=.d Tmamq úh' fujr <ud †kfha ta úYajdifha w.a yeu úg foúhka jykafiaj úYajdi <uhska ishÆ fokd tkak ish.a wyiska jegqKq c.djg m< lrk ls.re rúkaø Nd.d¶ kej.=re moú ckikakf = q wdOHd.ajfhka chka.s wïfï Ú kjd.<syhs w. lshk miï fkfï y.hka fuka .shkjdo@ tajd fï fudfydf.= j.a lshd .d isoO a ia:dkh la.m s .a" lf.u jQ lmqj.djg fï Ñ. lrkak a ia:dkh wjg isá ishÆu mS˙ia msh.dl= jevms.d jir 12 la uf.shd fkao hkak ioyg f–iq wïud †kSh' w.=re ´kd' jr®nqï lsh.a.k ysá fohla iuyr úg wmsg fokak hqoO a fhka .uehs 09 isg uehs 14 jk ∞ olajd †k 06 la msms.= lr 2008 † msh.a l<yqh' tfy.eka .ek m%°mh l< úuiqulg lrkak fï ia:dkh wialr oud Yío úldYk muKla fokak ú†yg .sms Pradeepaya@yahoo.h" Y=oO a jq meh" †jH i.afjk chka.ajdpd˙ .rï ta jpk j.

af.s W.a nj.kakg ví' fcdaYma wekagks „ ú.dj.alef.af.a w.re fkdfh.djlf..uka ls¯fuka miq †jH mQcd fufyh meje.a" uvq isoaOia:dk m˙md.i .Hh fujr.a 2 bre†k fm'j' 7'30 g †h.l .ñ.= jr®I 2017 la jQ udr®.dßlh wre.n i.dßl mdokuialdrh wfm%a.ajfhka ux.hka 75 la muK iyNd.a .ejq.a tfårdfKdah' ug ysÛhla fkdjkafka h'¶ ^.r uykqjr l Ω.xldfõ m<jk bme/◊u isxy.am.re m%°ma l=udr msh.anrhs i wfhaIa foaYdka ñ∫ka ≤iska „ú.u óiï fiajl .a ú≥y..uqj" fnda.d m.j.a" lfvd.a fujr meje.=re w.alef.= 27 jk∞ jk w.a 2 od jkaokd .darh" fõ.re or®Yk chudkak" id' f.d .=rlaf.dßlhg f.u uvq ux.nd °ug f.a ls¯ug mgka .ajk wkaou fï i|yd mdol lr .sm.=ukaf.= ui 26 jeks od b˙∞ m%°mh muqKq.sh isysm.am.dauia cd.d˙l mdokuialdrh wfm%a. Wf. lrk wkaou my∞ fokakg miq.shdkqia ms.i .S..ukla f.aùu udr®.s.fha jfhdajDoaO ld.dalh . ùfï† msgqjg is.a p.re flkä fmfr®rd mshjrekaf.du m%idokSh f..da.†' QD/127/NEWS/2017 m%°mh {dkdr®: ls%ia.a" muqKq.dk cd.l s YsIH q .a iyNd. re' 30'00 mqj.a wOHlaI .ukaf.s jQy' w.=ï fcdaima úhdks m%kdka≥ ysñmdKka m%uqL jkaokdlrejka msgqjg úiska fuh ixúOdkh lrkq .Hka.%h .r Èid jd¾Is l msgqjg meje.reK lf.ajk .ï m%kdka≥ cd .h fjkqfjka „ú.dafõ p.ska f.s.dar® yd fpkakdhs n. ck.r" iñ÷ka oEiska jeäysá Èkhla Ôú.s' §iñπfKda udf.i m uqKq.uka jhia .re m%ekaisia chfldä" Wiajegflhshdj óiï fiajl .s msgqjg .=re w.h n..da Y=' †jH mQcd hd.a ≥lam%dma.h foi n..shdm†xÑ lrk .a „ú.ajQ w.r †id jdr®Isl p.kalkaksh" mQkaä" uhsiQr®" nex. ud t<sh .af.f. mqj. lem lrk .sl l.n..msgq 32 .syjvk uOHia:dkfha mej.f.aúK' l=reKE.=ud iuÛ †idfõ mshjreka ro.a óifï ish.a m%Odk. iSudj b.aâ weka.kS' p.=ud fuh fufyhùh' l¿.aùfuka f–iq..ajQ 141 jk jdr®Isl ux.uka .= jr®I 2017 {dkdr® la jQ :udr® .alï ldr®hd.sh∞ ysÛ=rlaf.dv óifï jeäysáhka i|yd jeäysá yuqjla mj.anÜ ta' m.i . ro.r mdif.sh 23(1-6& .la f.a ys`.dk yd lgdk †idjkays i„jl i„úldjka f– iq.=ï yer.u óiu uvq ud.re f.s W.r †idkdhl .afõ fnkacñka ls˙fyÜá ie|E iuh m%idokSh f.a ≥lam%dma.2016 x {dkdr®: m%°mh ls%ia.u ¥ orejka f..d˙l jkaokd .ro.a wkd.darkaia rdukdhl msh.'ls'% YsIH jHdmdrfha wOHCI .H †jH hd.ajd˙ mqoìu olajd .alef.sh isyslrk wΩ n∞∞ †fkka mgka . 1866 .s úYd.= ui 26 jeksod b˙∞ 151 fjΩu 41 l.=< lsh jHdmdrfha orejka fufyhùu i|yd wjYH mqyK q j % d lrkakg .†' foudmshka f.sl cqfia jdia uqks f.ñka . .ks . wdrïNh ( 1866 cQks 07 YS% .am.kakg yd f.dÆ mdr uxikaêfhka wdrïN ù u.=re moú .s mqyKq q l|jqrg ó.ukla ã' wekai.h meje.ek fkdis.kS' YS% .e◊k' lfvd.a iïm.a fu†k lfvd.†kla mqrd cd-we.< 141 jeks jrg.f.dv .afõ' lΩ. lrk wkaou lshkakg fmfr®rd ysñmdKkaf.xldfjka msg.d mqoìfï meje.fhka p.dvg id' fcdaima ú≥y.=ukaf.re tñ.drj „j.ajfhka meje.daj" uex.

.djg jeäfha urKh urd wka.s wd.= ui jeks∞ od b˙∞b˙∞ m%°mh {dkdr®: m%°mh uf.hhs' fï ..s' wm ±ka msúi isákafka ñksia ine¢hdj h<s f.e.dhs' fuu jeäysá yuqj lshd Tn ±k isáfha kï" Tn tkak'¶ tfia kï wm o fï p.lams%h i|yd Tjqka Yla.a. isá ck.d y˙k Y=N∞hs wOHd.a:dkfhka W.sfha† is≥fõ' .Hhg iu.au kqjK Ndú.nk fjkqfjka jQ Wkajykafiaf.a „jkh u Tn fõ muqKq.d˙lhg ''' 17 msgqfjka iïnkaO lrf.a jà mdÆlrfha †k y. tkakg mgka .r fidhkafka ukao@ wekagks is.ay'¶ ^cqjdï 28(30& ckjkaokd" WmfoaYk fiajd" mdfmdÉpdrK lghq.<syl Y=oaOjq wkaOldrfha yd mdmfha jy.hhs' §iajdñka jykafia fj.kslu u.h ch ux fj.hla jkafka ta ksiduh' fujka w.=j.=< msysgd lghq.a fial' tfia kï wm woykafka ñh.s fj.hhs' uy isl=rd∞ †kh ienEjgu Tng ug l=ulao@ th wjuÛ=.sh' tfukau Wkajykafia ta tmuKla fkdj Or®u¥.a mdmfha isg iuhg msúfiñka †k y.sld fjka is˙j.=fõ cqohl= tu iu˙.eîfï fok nj f–iqia jykafia mjik fuu ±kqïj.eke.sh foõ mdmfha w∫r ≥r. fkdj is.s m<jd f–iq iñ∫kaf.ukaf.r ux.<syl ksrdydrYS. mejfrk Or®u¥.a¨ .sldjla njg m. is≥úh' Tng „jk c.a úYajdih bka b.' f–iq ffp.d y∫kd .dKka lsis∞ wms. iñ∫ka fuf.s weiqr" ..a j. ksr.súiqfï f–iq f–iqjh' fuh mdial= bre†k wms iñ∫ka . Wmfoia u.h l< fial' „jk c.a w.h' ls%hdjg kexjQjdh' §ia.s' f.i i|ykaj we.%i= jr® a..=uka 4 fofkla o iyNd.du.sjk fjkiaùï ksid we.a hdÉ∆j iy Ndjkdj" ñ..nk njg lsis≥ ielhla f.daj m%isoaO cdfldí <s| <Û† yuqjQ y∫kajd ≥ka wdldrhg msh.nd kqjrg f.fr® ieu ndOl ≥r.= ls¯fuka .%YS.sfhd.d o wdnDD f–'ks' Tyqf.a:dkh je<|f. jQy' ux.a:dk jQ mr∞ ñksia .ajeishd .kau mq≥u iy.a Y%djlhka b†˙fha ls%ia.su.SrK lrjkakg ke.a uysudkaú.am%ido jkaokd †khla" f.k .%yKh whs.ka b.ro.hl= fyda f.dalh ó<Û jkaokd .=ka fndfyda fofkla o iyNd.s%hla Or®u ixis¢kq ms◊i wehg „jk c.ekaúh yel' wm fjkqfjka †ú ≥ka iñ∫ks''''''''' ld.ek ..dkq ia.sl ldr®hh fu†k lfvd. brdf.a.2016 x m%°mh ls%ilsa..ùula wm iajdñka jykafia ñksidg yd ia.ska ±k isáfha kE' kuq.ia udlia iu˙. .=kq wm ieuf.d lf<a wm o Wkajykafiaj hEuo is≥fõ' †k 11 la jQ fuu jkaokd .=oyfï wfhdauh moku iuh ls.audfKks lshd wjfndaO lr.d mkakrh .da.=< f–iq iñ∫kaf.=kq ck.islj iaurKh lrñka ta ish.i weh ms<s.u úYajdih †hqKq id' fcdaYma lkHdrdufha jeäysá WmfoaYk fiajdfõ 4(10 m˙Éf√ofha f.i Tijd .= ne.=ud kshef.a m%.f.=ka jkq leu.ajQ w. brdf.a.k th ie|E iuh ''' 17 msgqfjka kE' ukao lsishï mqoa.h weröug fmr w. ye¯ ffjoH wixl fmfr®rd uy.s úfYaIs..k t∞ mej.yxÑ lsisjla udhsï fkdfldgh' y∫kajd fouq' f.a fokakehs Tng lshk ljfrla o ld.re◊hka" ¥ orejka" foudmshka i|yd úfYaI c.SIshka m%†kdka≥ ks'u'ks' msh.a:dkhhs' mdial=j fï †ú l.a" ug j.a:dk jQ ls.a.=ia úh tkak j.d˙l iuhhs' mqrd †k †kh Wkajykafiaf.a msmdih ioygu jhia..= iñ∫kaf.dj kj wdf.a lsis≥ mels.areï f.s%ka wef.sh W∞ lr l=rei n˙ka lmd.h ì|la fokakehs ljqreka fyda Tnf.=< hdÉ∆j" Ndjkdj iqmqj.a fld˙ka.dj fmdfrdka≥ foaYhg tf.ekSug W.r jQfha f–iq fkdj urKfhka W.a:dk jQ fial'¶ ^Y=' ¨la 24(5& miq ls.hg orelu †kd ° ksoyfia úuqla.a wdldrh we.r .súiqug wkqj BY%dfh.a fõjd" Tn ta foa ls¯ug ue<s jkafka jpkh ksjer†j f.i is≥jk uyΩ ùu iy „ú.dñj †jH i.a lrkq .s jQ úg th ú| ord .= 2626jeks .a.ih' bkamiqj uy. wdrïNh ( 1866 cQks 07 wdrïNh ( 1866 cQks 07 {dkdr®: {dkdr®: 18 1866 .la Y=oaOjq cqjdï iqúfYaIfha fial' ta.kq we.slrf.a ms<sfj.dh' ^cqjdï 4(29& fjuq' m%ido iakdmkh uysufhka wm meye†.dafõ ishÆ .reK .su.aidy l<dh' .ka b.ukaf.s ie±yej. mrdihlg h' „ú.s l< uÛ .S ld.yxÑ ì| oud lsis≥ muKla wehf.=re ksla.u fidhd.lSfuka fkdaksia msh. meje..sl fufyh f.ekg iq≥iq fu. hï Wkajykafiaj fï wdldrhg wm.a wmyiq jk nj Tn ±k ksji .ñka ls%hd ixfla.re j‚r is.H †k uvq uõf.d w. W.djka bgqlr foaj ck.=< fkdñf.s. mSgr®ia wd.eì◊' ±hs uq.='ks' msh.d isáhfyd. hq.dv k..alef.d f.= ke.s%h fuka p.a újr lrkafkao p.d tkakdjQ m%idockl °u mdial=j f.a jpk yuqfõ weh l%ufhka .aùu" y.dfmdfrd.aú◊' úfYaI bámyka fmryr keye' iuyr úg Tn ñka fmr lsis≥ h' Bg.HjYH jk c..s%h .uk ìufka† wfma idudkH f.ùfï ojihs' ..a ms<srej b†˙msg c.afcdaudk W.s mqoa.kak' ud l< ish.h hq.d ljrl= weú.a.sjrekg .a''' 17 msgqfjka Wkajykafiaf.k „ú.aúkao.. f–iqia iajdñka jykafia c.= fjuq' iu˙. jrm%ido .h hkq Y=oaOd.alef.=r nef|uq' iyNd. †kh l=ug u<.re tv. msysá W.a:dkh is≥lrk †khla lr.ld hu /< b†˙fhka isà ck. wjidkfha iuÛ fn∞ .s.sju bgq l< fmrod j<|jd isiqkg ? fndcqk .a hkjo cqohf.a †khla" wjuÛ=.a.uk fjfrdaksld fy.alef.d˙l wukdmhlska miqjk mqoa.k ksrka.a yefrkakg ls. Tng ug uyd wNsfhda.h fokq we.s%hlg tfukau weh ls%ia.a.a ie.i wdydr mdk .a miqj †jeisjrhl= f.re ..=ukau jkaokdlrejka f.=K mdjd ≥ks ieksk msf.a fuu p.ñl j.kak /f.ekeka.a:dkfha ch.enqfõ lE.k hk mdms „ú.u ''' 17 msgqfjka muqKq.=r álla fuf.ekSug mdif. urKh yd f.d˙l wd† uõmshkaf.a ˙°ï" n.dj ji˙ka jir p.=< l< is.hl= fyda ish. uy frdayf.dia tkak udj.=kq wmg flfrk ienE is≥lrk †khla o@ ieneúkau fï wdrdOkh p.=< iúu.sudj /. is≥jk isák ksid' yelsh' f–iqia jykafia †h we°ug widudkH uyΩùï fuys† ú.dalfha iuh .k fï .ek l.ajd me'. jQ †jH hd.r®.h b. iy Bg wkql+.d wvqu whls¯ulska is≥fõ' .dkq ia.<sylsks' kj .hg ±yeñhdfõ wj.dalfha .uklg .alef.i wre.sh isysls¯ug l=rei .ihs' bkamiqj .nk fuu msh.' Wkajykafia jrï fokak iñ`÷ks u.h fokq .darfha ishÆ kjd.a mS˙ia meú† fidhq˙hhs' jeäysáhkag olajkjd' §foúhka jykafiaf.=ukaf. f–iqf.a ≥laú£u" urKh iurkq úkd wjuÛ=.aiql folla ksrdydrj isáho †h msmdihla fjuq' th wm jev lrk ia:dkfha" jhia .d îug jykafia uq. u. foi ye¯ Yla.kyer l<dh' tfiau Y=oaOjq mdjqÆ .dh' weh f–iqia fkdyels ±hs fik.d foaj wdf.h .ekSug W.eku is.eke. ld. úfYaIdx.ek °ukdj.. mqj..dalh .s%hg „jk c.r wj† ùulg iksgqyka lrkakgh' mdial= bre†k ukafm. ug lS ✍ ms%hka.uka lrk ls%hdj .sh iñπKka foiQ foa kEiqk l◊k ìh fkd.Sulska f–iqia jykafiaf.=<g mqrjd .eka myiqlï o f.a ls..<syla .a iudc .a fmryr whqrlska y∫kd ke.a óiï fiajl .h iy .=< f–iqia iajdñka jykafiaf.acdkaú. l< yels nj fuys† jeo.=kaf.u m%isoaO „ú.a.rï w. W.u cd.ksuq' jrï fokak wm ieug n.aolskafkuq'§„judk .= jr® I 2017 I 2017 la udr® la jQ jQ udr® .a.jqïlrejdKka jykafia fjkqfjka idlaIslrefjda lfvd.dkq ia..' túg Tyq iuh . msisk ieà jir y.' fï m%idockl jeäysáhkag lshd ≥kafka wúiaidfõ.Sr®K ls¯uls' fuu Odr®ñl m◊jqvh kï ✍ fnkS chudkak ghsgia imrud≥ .h mila l<y' ¥.a.ajd rlsñka hdÉ∆fõ miqúh' fï miqìu Wkajykafia fuys ke..h m%idokSh wkaoug .'¶ °ukd wm yoj.khkag jvd b.auh uyd fjkilg .d bgq ls¯ug j.a ls¯u lrkq .d fï lS ukia:dmkhlg uÛ mdoñka ieu∞ iñ∫ks'''''' foajOdr®ñl m◊jqvhlg wj.a ukqIHfhla isáhs' t. fkdj is.shg iy uex.dafõ h' Wkajykafia iud˙fha ljfrla ±hs ..= fojk i.s ljfrl= flfrys jqjo .d˙l ysÛ=rlaf.a.dv óiï fiajl .ula wΩ n∞∞hska we/fUk fï Y=oaOjq iurkjdo@ ls.shQ ixfoaYfha je<f|k frda.eÆï lld Wka ysñ ±l o◊ka jeà mqrdK .af.drj Tn b.a ms<sfj.e.eïulg ke.a iu.re .s jQy' .=ud ls%ia.hla .uka lf<ah' fõjd iuyr úg Tn.dkq ia. msh k.a .=< wm wi.=uka î ug c.n.=ia hkq 50 fofkla o msh.a.eke.s ù .sldjla ù weh fj.anfõ .ñl" iud„h wm ifydaorhdg pd˙ld wdh.a wj. ùfuka Yd˙˙lj we.a n.s%h f–iqia jykafia .k iu˙.s%h yd l.ika.eiau fkdms˙fy.u óiï mQcl mq.=<ska ta W.ekSu wka wh mej.d isákafka kï ls¯u hk isõ idOl .dkq ia.a.=< uqyqK ≥ka b.a l=rei m.%y fl˙◊' fln∫ jhia .nd ≥ka o tjka jQ ld.g f.a" hk tk .=ud iy lfvd.d muKla fkdj jevigyka lSmhla o meje.h .a.h jykafia u<jqka w.djg mdial=fõ ≥lam%dma.=ud foiqï meje.a lr.hl= †kla wka wh iuÛ fn∞ .d˙l iuhhs' Wkajykafia th meye†.a fokq .daia. l∫ ke.jk f.s w.uk wf.s ia.uk wka yeu tl.k fï m%idockl ld.uka jykafiaf.= lvùï iy .j.k fï joka wm o Wkajykafiag ijka fouq' j∞f<a iu˙.ka îug l<h t.a W.k foõ iñ∫ka fj.a lrkq .=< wE .ska weu.uka b†˙fha isák .ekaj.a núka „ú.ajfhka lfvd.a.a..a lrf.s °ukdhs' weh b.g lSjdh' Tjqyq kqj˙ka kslau f–iqia jykafia fj.re ghsgia fµdkafiald" ms.

s%fha ms<sld kdYl T!IO m%.j idr®:lj is≥úh' jykafia ∞kh ls¯ug meú† fidhq˙hla l=reishg .sfha& fu.H l.a j.rux ie.rd wy.su.=ud wkqhqla.aul fjñka isáhy' l=Uqre isá jrm%id§h Ôú.sldrfha† je.am%ido jykafia ∞kh l<dh' tla.rms& tkak. msysá m%foaYfha m˙† ia:dk..da.sl úYajdih u.sfnk nj ±k.. mej.sfnkafk msh.d msh.a .a.sl frday.da. t.a mshdfKksZZ msh.=rd je.a lkq yhla u.=fjhs' kyrje.Hd.jqid jeis iuh ils%h ù ih uila È.skau fjkiaúh' Wvq kqjr" há lkafoa yß.rï j.h.dka.sho uykqjr rdcOdks n.a zz±ka rc.=Ω lrkq fkdue.kaydj iqkal< iqÿj.a ✍ fvksia m%kdka≥ .djlska jpk is≥re lrhs' wjika jkakg u.rï ldre◊l jQjdh' tmuKla lroa† ±Kqkq fõokdj'''@ Wkajykafia ú¢ yd reêr mÜáld .lska fkdfõ' fldhshï fyda fudfyd.sl .aIsjka.' wixf.lSï bgqlsÍug hqyqiq¿ jQfha msh.äh „ú.= j úi.ska ú.da.kakd úg ud msúi lr fkdf. m%Odk fidhq˙h frday.sys fidhqre fidhq˙hka ls.aj isÜfhka ks.=ud yuqùug tk .d fiñks' tla mshjrl† tl .a fõokdjg ìh fjñ' ta ukaoh.nkafka b.s ls.k rdcH md.da.=.dkfha ke. fmfkk udkfha áf.a.alulao ug ke.ula msh.nd we.=udg .d oyï ¥.a we|la u.r l< l< hq.kd fok . úh' ta u.Ügh u.=Ω kE ys.a w.dIfhka jEWv Woõ lrkj kïZZ w.a /ljrKh ug .sTh" ys|.g ksis wh th neÆ úg tl t.ska ms<sld i.dj fj.aj we.a f–iq iñ∫kag .h WÉpdrKh lrk úg l=reish fõokdj .af.ao l=Uqre uekúka wjrg hñka mej.a .. j.sfrkakg we|la m%.a kdkdm%ldr ñksiqkao meñKshy' Tjqka zzuu ú.. je.=gqmygq mq¿jka' tal .sl uvq ..l=f.= .a uy.= fnda.a lgqj ksis reêr mÜáld m%udKh iS>%fhka my< nei" m˙..ks tfâfrl=g lrkak flàu" .lskaj.a.r ne.dfmdfrd.= jykafiaf.af.aaf..k..sldr ud.ska l=vd tl wms mq¿jka . jeyqï" meKs j<¿" zzTnjykafia ug tkak lsh.sys.snQ f.a n.a iajdñka jykafia flfrys ud .j¾K jk f¾Ldj w.s youq nd.añh uy.ekg msh.a" lsßTrefj" Tjqka miqjqfha fkdukdmfhks' tfy. È.a lr .e.' úáka úg ffjrhsZZ úpdÍug wu. ke÷ka zztfyu fkfuhs" foú iñ|dKka i.=ud jgd tlafrdlafjñka ish neúka fndÿ oyu ms<sn| w.d≥re ùfuka j<ld ud tjeks ìh.=< .a .ksuq'ZZ oyu th rc.a j.r †k oyhla frday.s mqgqjl „ú.=fuks'ZZ kdgl wdÈh fmkajd uqo. fukau m.af.ajh l÷lrfha ngysr me..sj msh.o ksid Y¯rh †fkka †k lDI fjhs' flia jeà .ekakla njg m.ah' w.h i.sldr .Ügq u.ska úlsKSug wiajkq ±lSug cqfia jdia msh.enqk foaj.xldfj ksoyfia .a msh. m<df.uka lrñka ud iqjm.a yd isrefr® is≥lrkafka kï fmdfrd.sldr ..a. fiajh ie.shs Tnjykafia uf.sñ' wfmalaId jrla uyr." jEf..u wfmalaId frdayf.aÆfjñ' mQr®j m˙laIK i|yd fy†hla lekshq.=udf. ráka meñKs rileú.a ix.O¾uiQßh rc.=< jQ fkdjqk.fïu ls%hd.a.s tfâßl fï w.dhï fk<k ld.k msáfha jevl fhfooa† mjd .a lrñ' ≥r neyer fkd.nd .= f.a is. fjkak olsk úu. b†ó ys˙ jeà we.khdug yjia jrefõ ueáfgka .a fukaäia urK ñáhdjf.ska" iajdñka †.ld meñK myka jk.dj miqj l< ls%hd lf<a iajdñka msh.a fldgila .a.=j uf.ka f–iqj u.a †jH i.m%foaYfha isá tajd mj.a fkdths' fyïì˙iaidjla wereKqfldg nrm.ka ud Wfoid h†k ud.=ud tlal Wkajykafia ud.ska l.a wkq.hg le|jd iqjÿla úg wremafmd.a.d jeks foa ta lv .aidy lrñ' isáfha yegtla jk úhghs' tf.l fkdlf..a lrkd iñπKka ud .djh iy wj∞kula .= úh' rcfha frday.s.=kqjkaf.nd ° h<s ud m%lD..lfha fkdueflk igykls' ms<sld ffi.nd .a yo ika.=ud wka. hq.a úuiSug ldre◊l jQy' b.ndfok fydafudak n. m%foaYh fï jk úg ksjiakhla .=ñh wh.=ka lD.enqKs' Woafhda. fkdyelsj ld¾hh bgq lsÍu muKhs rc.rï .sys fidhq˙fhda f.a.Sfhka .ska i.a mQclhska .=ud úiska fh§u i|yd rdcH iyho fkduoj .slhska uy..da.alu ≥rl:kh u.snQ .h meñKs ieoEjkays ysre wjg hk o¾Ykfha fmkakk yqÕ fofkla Tn.am%ido fy†hls' f–iq iñ∫kaf.sldr ud.a mshjrla i|yd kjl . zzuu leu.h f.=fuksZZ wjg m%foaYj.l fkdlf<ñ' tu ffi..l l.afmaÉP †ú .d msôñka Èj hk fo. = jr® jr® I 2017 I 2017 la la jQ udr® jQ udr® . fcdaka o isáfha uy.=h' ue†hï tfy. bkaÈhdjg hdfï wNs.ajh jpkfhka úia.' kuq≥ mgka cmud.a pu.ska wiajkq f.ajQjd .=re mshdKka o wu.a Wmhk úYauhg m.snQ NslaIQyq úydr kskao.ajfhys fõofNaolshska isáfhao t.a.djka mx.%yh ±lajQ f.nk i.=áka †ú uf.a.ska Èkd m%ldY flfrys uykqjr NslaIqka fukau ke.a ≤.da.j.dj iajdñka jykafiaf.ehqï" th wid fcdaka woyd..ka.ka msysgqjkak ´fk .=rla f.=re rc. l=vd ueá wdYajdofhka Èßfhka l. cqfia jdia ihk l=áfha iS ueÿre ljq¿j újr lr fohla fkfuhs' ksis l.a fkdyf<ñ' ud ixfõ† ñksil= neúks' tneúka j..a h' fkdfhla m<d.a iqj≥la .=ud ta wi.Hd.a uÛ fmkaùu u.<sia wgla mqrd .sì◊' ..jkakg jEhï lf<ñ' urKhg ìh he≥fuka yd Ok m˙.fhka fm¿K uyje<s fjkqfjka úu.l neye' fcdaka f. lrkakg whg fkdyels ±äj ..xÕdYs%.nd wdpdr lf<ah' lsÍfuka miq fcdaka msh.sl ck.iSug Wkajykafiag wjia:dj ie.Hlr®uhg wjeis uqo.am%ido fiaúldjkaf.r by< tf.ek fcdaka nhfjkak tmd' zzTnjykafiag .dfõ .a f.nd .hla ñ.ls' wyi .j.ek r|jñ' ud okakd y∫kk yeuf. od.l isrerg we.=ud ieug fmfKk fia isgqjd .a uq¿ Èjhsfkau úúO cd.= lsÍu msKsi lf.a u≥refjda lka bjqrgu ú.snQ ksid läkñka bj..d fldg †jH i.df. uu lsõj foa" ta úêhg zzfï .dv" jEWv fukau hq.sfhah' th zziudfjkak" udf.j.slhskao ish WodiSk.sldr fkdyelsh' lEu wreÑh fukau ms<sl=.ek .' iyho we.eìh yelso@ f.sfnk .a..=< ysf.ajh ±k.%i= a.d.sfhah' fï ish.a frday.=rkaf.s m%uqL †jH i.DIaáfhka mskd WoEik wjÈjk rc. †jH i.=udf.skaor meyefhka hq.sr isáh† „j. w.s úh' Wmiïmodj msßyS .da..ka flfrkak .=j w.ajk flá ld.dvqjdj óiï fiajl /fha ks†u.s follg ffjoH jykafiaf.ka †jH i. isÿlrk ..r l=Kavidf.k rileú. ñ.a fj.a ie˙ierefjñ t l †. isrefr® ir< w.k mqfrdays.a fyd|gu mgjd.aj isák wiSre .=ud mqreÿj hkak''' .a urKh.a.. kdYl OQ.j. u.rla' wehs iqjdñ tfyu wdrlaIdj hgf.a.dIh úh' fiajhg odhl fjkak .kS' m%.k kv.sr ksokakg W.ï /lSu i|yd fukau lf..a fõokdjka ta .dfmdfrd.s fldlaflka uq∞ Worfha ms<sld f.s mqoñ' uy ≥kafka flfiao@ ug ffOr®hh . wvx.sys.a YS% Y¯rh.aLkhl /£ isákakg is≥fjhs' fm!oa.j.a ysre zzug Tnjykafiaj wka.=reu iqj≥la úuik fyhsks' /l.a jQ nysrj bkaÈhdjg hkak n.a tlafldg k<f.§' uykqjr iy .u wd.djlaa yia.rdfha fy. lf<a fjk.ähla ygf.a zzfcdaka" ±ka wmsg .a.s fmdf<dj .a† uyr.fhka Y.ka jQfhñ' ud m.k tkak tmd muKla fkdj uykqjr ÿ¾NslaIlh iyuq.g meh y.ajhka is.j md.d Wvj.a úYajdihhs' ueo jQ mgq fld˙fvdafõ .nd . fõokdld˙ foag ud .gu msg..u nkaOkhla ñila nf.=udf.=ldr ùug h' fï ish¨ .d kegqï wkqidrfhka fjkafkZZ ✍ w‚. ui= 2626jeks jeks∞ od b˙∞b˙∞ m%°mh r c jdi.snqKs' tmd' lf.s fjf<kafoda msg meñKs fcdaka oE..ekSug wu.§' tfy.h fkdfõo@ ud .a l< ksid ol=K.j.ajh mfil msßia fkdue.= m%foaYjdiska we.= foa lshdú' l.alu Worfha fõokdj ±kqkq fudfydf.r kegqï" ..sfnk nj fkd.a /h jHdêhlg f.l ie.a.s.=ud wfma me.a ießirkakd jQjdfiau" lkao Wvrg NslaIQkaf.= Tjqka úiskau .o lΩ meyehla .=.u foõue∫rg wkqhqla.Su Tjqka tlu l=refia ix>hg .=udf.s nj fmfj.. hkak neye' Wäka fyd| uQK wukaodkkaohg m.a.a rc." kdrxf.sllu yDohdx..=re jika. m˙Éf√oh m˙laIK j.a h' th j..a l=vd foõ ue÷rhs' jqk neg¿jka fidhd .Hlr®uh fh≥kq †kg mQr®j rd.k hkak f.kshs' tf.r f∞a.k m˙iaiñka jev lf<ñ' .j.reK iu .auerek .a.a" reêrh.a olskakg .a ygf.=ud lf.a.a ksldfha lkHdrduhg úh' miqj th ia:dk. jQ l=Kavidf.eka isg ys.ñ' me≥r isfuka.h r|jd we.af.la wms /f.a.ka w.a.Hlr®uhlg uqyqK isysm. miqmi Y.=ul=f.†ka ±fkk úg T!IO †hr ±ä n.a.yjqre úh' Wig fmd† lr .sKs' ñysÿï nyq.rï uykqjr m.a.r iqj≥la úuiñka ksjigu fõokd yd ii|k úg uf.h jk úg úydr i.a..jk úg uykqjr iy ta wjg .eì◊' ys.=jd.=udf.=ud uy. ie±yej.d lr.a ls¯u n∫ l=vd uvq ix>h" f.=udf.O¾uiQßh rc.fÕka y~o" ngk.a lf.sì◊' fuka b.syd¾h isÿl< ksid .rdfj m%d.a fidïkig ldrKd wrUhd lsisÿ lmá mqf¾. foig wmQ¾j iqkaor.=ud" l=vd uvq lkHdrdufha fidhq˙hka" wvx.ekQ wv nUhl muK l=reishla wmsg l< hq.a.a lf.j.l= Y.kh" úúO fNda.a Y. yd fomd ldre◊l ffjoHjrhd t. .=ud msh.ajhg o ñ≥fkñ' b.sldr l%ufha† nvjef.af.k wdfõh' fï ish. 55 cqfia jdia msh.am ±kqula j.dj 19 wdrïNh ( 1866 cQks 07 wdrïNh ( 1866 cQks 07 {dkdr®x: 1866 .a isrer mqrd fuu m%.a.kafoais n.alrefjdao meñKshy' isÜfhah' t.snqfKa ±ä ìhls' óiï ix>j.syd¾uh isß wdÈ lDIsld¾ñl lghq. fyda Ok Woafhda.ajhla we.a n.a kskao kï wy<lgj.fhka jdä ù m%.s msg.dmihd rc.s .=uksZZ my.a .a j.n.a fï .sldr i|yd ug fkd. .l ms<sld kdYl T!IO m%. n.jo u< neyer ls¯u i|yd Y¯rfhka tùug .d. jkwrfKa ksß.a mKsjqvh bIag lrkakZZ m%udKj.ajdf.a jHdhduh yqjudrejg §ug .s isß .s' ieKfl.a fm/.efnkafka je<| .fhks' wNs.a uf.daIhg o ldrKd úh' fï fkdrg oyu ms<sn| we.a j¾I 1696 § uy.lg hkakg .ay' ta iuÕ bÈßmsg isg ta úYauhckl o¾Ykh foúhka jykafia udj wdrlaId lrhs' uf.a .af. msh.a iskd foajia:dkhla bÈlr .a yd wdYsr®jdoh .dvqjdj yd l=vd uvq ta.=rg uqyqK.la WK isrefrka f.aldrckl ta wjg mÈxÉj isá ys.efnhs' jdÜgq folla fjkalrk w.= foam. . NdKav lsõfjZZ yryd mq.ßka lsh.sldjkaf.a Èkd.am%ido jykafia i|yd †k y.' fuu m%.fõ†j ukaoh.enqfka ud iqj≥la úuiQ ud .aj .ys fkajdislj isáfhñ' tu ld..kh jQfhñ' f. bkak f.=< isá ksid fkdlrñ' isrerg ±fkk ±ä wmyiq.ekSfï wj∞kñka fkdj ks.la úysÿk uOH tjkak lsh.g jQQ nEjqfï cqfia jdia msh.iqkd muKla fkdj .aúh' ^.2016 {dkdr® : m%°mh {dkdr®: m%°mh ls%ilsa.g ud le|ùh' fydafudak m%.j .k .ka iuqf.a meye§ug m. .a lshkak'ZZ ksudlrñka jeis jeiaiùfï úYaul+re kqjr m%foaYj. lshkak' yenehs wdfh ms<sn| rc.khg lv ±uQy' fõ.da.ka f.am%ido fiajl mqgqfõ t.hla r|jd .ekQ foajia:dkh zzta .r iYS%l úh' f.g ms<sld kdYl T!IO ^lsfudaf.a fujka n.snqKs' zzfcdaka bkaÈhdjg hkak ´fkZZ fõofNaÈlhskag kï iqn wdrxÑhla úh' foúhka jykafia ug mjrd we.ska is≥re frday.ekqkZ.nd .a fkdfõo@ wm%d◊l.sfhka hqla.=gq uqyqKska msß ckS ckhd .ska ie.l nd. m%foaYhkays ixpdrfha fmkajd ldis Wmhd .djld.úkak" .drhlska iukaú. kj l.. lf<a frdayf.j fudkjo fj<÷ka meñKSug mgka .a" tkak.ekSu" tkak.ay' ih uilg fmr bfvdarfhka iy id..=udf.sjqk neg¿fjda fydhdf.Hlr®uh is≥l< yuqjQ olaI ffjoHjrhl= w.a l=vd orejkao ksid uykqjr b¨la mshiailska iy my.=ok mqnq≥fõ u.=udf.af.kdf.ekSu .=ud ksidh hkakhs flfrk rc.dafõ m%d.shqKq weK j. nE..j isáh† l=vd uvq lkHdrdufha ih fmd<la is≥re l<.e.ñ.

alrk fouõmshka fudfyd.a fuu ksr®udK fol ishÆu újrK wjOdkhg .djhlg m.ajh jQ Bials.shfvdar® fíid wd† úpdrlhskao lr .af.a .a.°ula f.h /lSu hk ls%hdjkays fohls' fuh fldf.syla mqrdjg fudfyd.= lD.s nj.u yrh jk jeäysáhka" foudmshka jYfhka wmf. isrù we.la ≥rg lrkjdo hk j..ehs lshfõ' iaàjka' t.nkd jákdu .r wks.a ksr®udKhla fkdfjkiaj h<s ksr®udKh jk ksidh' (Hebrew Exegesis úiska Or®ñIaghd ms˙laid Tyqf.amh °h' Bg iurEmS fmr†.Djrhd . ffOr®hh u.a tys fmr†.uq' brdf. iqLdka.r uydpdr®h ˙pâ jka† f.fha Nla.d .sh miqlf.a m%:u kdgHh jk zmr®idhsZ (Persai) fyj..Sh rislhska w. Tyq úiska l< mQr®j jk úg.Dr.f.mEula l<d úh yels jqjo fYdaldka.sh y.lg kej.sfha m%.a wdYdjka uq≥ka muqKqjd .a nj m%ldY l< Tyq 1891 ° újrK iys.lg kej.l=b˙∞ i|yka jelshlsks' ta jelsfha i|yka jkafka fkdajd .a jQ rg.aµ%â fjd.a foú∫ka iu`. brdf.%Sl is≥jQ ft. Y.a w.ekSfuka je<fla' rcqg ú¢kakg is≥jk ≥laL jkafka fcdaí fmd.af.am.idf.g" ≥ïmdkhg" u.sfhdala kqjr zNdr.=< mej.snQ w.ukh lrkafka fcdaí lD.' fuh l%s'mQ' 6 jk ishjfia° uq.s .g jvd wmg wiSre lreKla kuq.uq' Okhg" jeäysáhkaf.s<skh lsis≥ f.a lrkafkuq' fudfyd. tilsfh.a jkjdo" hk mekh wm iu. nj...= fjuq' f.ek .%ka:hla . fjkila w.lg fyda meyeoï lrk uõjre wm w.sheù .da.drno tf∞aóh lúhl=f.af. McCabe .ka fkdfõ' {dkh rcq fkd±kqj..ajfhka m˙yrKh lr we.sÅ.ekSuhs' f.a u.eîh' or®YKhgZ . kSr®K miqìu wkqj fcdaí úYaj . kdgH iïNjfha° hï wdldr jljdkqj wkqj fcdaí l.a" ixialD.ah' î iy .r fldmuKo@ .a kdgH S.reK .shú.a lr .a u.h wkqj fcdaí zhQZ U yevh ork iqLdka.du mer◊ fldgia jk fmrjok yd miqjok l%s'mQ' isoaOdka.= njhs' fjuq' †km..ksuq' ta . rx.au .ls. fujka l%u j.reK ms˙ia tajdhska uqojd l=reim.af.sfí' (Job in the Ancient World .a ls¯u .Hh ms<sn| jr®‚kshdfõ uydpdr®hjrhl=jQ fcdaí fukau i.ho we.k fkdj" is.=< fukau" iudch .pp 8-13) fï w.Dr. myla hgf.nd °u .a m.i .i †k i.rjQ uyd wysñ jQjkag jdiia:dk .hg fmd.ska bj.dj wdrïNfha° fcdaí i.sl weíneys ùï j.a lrk ls%ia.a ñys∫l=.dj hg.sydifhaa yuqjk m%:u kdgH msgm.lg.shq fmdf.ka fjkia úh hq.aul l< yels kï mdial=j .af. idlaIshla we.kZ fjkila w. Bg fmr l.s ùu" mdokuialdr cx.ka zfcdaíZ i.a „ú.jQ iqr®h jxYslfhls' fcdaí fmd.ska ñ°ug fyd|u neúks' kuq.r th Bials.a m. ^l%s'mQ' 2 úiQ fudmafiiaáhdfõ .sh hq.a m%Odk. S. kdgHfha l.i y˙iapkaøg neìf.=< Tjqka .a „ú.a „ú.u .a wjYH.h .=<ska .a fidfydka . . j. kdgHfha ikaor®N rgdjkag.=rej 16 jk ishjfia b.reK f.ld¯ wOHdmkhla .J.d.h yd yska≥ mqrdK .s újrK bka lsysmhls' fuu of job by R.%slajrekaf.r ùuZ hkq wm bkakd .hla fia i.i yqjd olaj.go fuu woyi wkql+.a mdmS ls%hd l. 24.a fmr .af.u orejka w.a „ú. kegfjk jia.%Sl fYdaldka.ia o i.daNlula fkdue. brKu fjkia ^l%s'mq' 496-406& iy hq˙msäia ^l%s'mQ' 480-456& fuys° úfYaI Stage) kñka .a .f.s fyfn%õ fkdyelsfõ' .a ≥la n.a ±yeñhdj ms˙laiñka Tyqg i.i ieu˙h hq.a „ú.aul (Job Anchor bible meryyn pope.Ekaâ rhslka Bg m%.snq iajlSh l%shdfjka ksr®udKh lr. idfmalaI l.la ù we.=uQu tilsfh.s ú¢kakg yels jkafka túghs' .a fmr (Functions) wmQr®j.ukhhs' ksid Bg jka† f.=j bmer◊ kHdhsl mqia:lh jk we˙iafgdag. njg ore mrmqrla njg m.sks jQjkag wdydr °" kjd. W.=.ays fcdaí lD.d˙l jkaokd .s mjq kj.a t<sorõ fõ' l.=luls' wmg hï hï foaj.a iEu jirla mdidu ls%ia.dka.a ls.dCI◊l mjikafka Wkajykafia iu.sjqjd úh yelsh' wjOdkh fhduq lrñka yd tys tk fiiq ldjHd.a" fjkia jkjdo hkak wm fida†is lr m.hg fuu lreK ms<sn|j úuiSug Wkka≥ jQ úpdrlfhls' we. ffY.af.i wm fldmuK foaj.H.dó fY%AIaG .=ka ks.. zfmdfhálaiaZ .=ï jQ il%fïka.aól wdydrh njg ls%hd" tlajreYS.=<ska wkHhka .a lr.alu y∫kk we. mõldrhka nj iEu idrOr®u j.a jrg Ndr.da.r mΩ≥ jQ ine¢hdj kej. fõ' tneúka iuld.a we.=u fjuq' úfYaIfhka .=< u.e.aj oyia .%dyS W.a iy ∞ksfh.r ùuZ wmf.u w.L.a'l=la úiska lrk m%ldYh fuys wjidk y˙iapkaø rcq f.g m..yjqre lrk m%n.nkakg oYl rplhska úiska wkqlrKh lr we. rpkd ù we.lu fufkys lrñka hï ls¯u" jeäysáhka i. /`.u ≥rl:khla w. n.af.a fy<sorõ lrf..af. fuh orejd w.dau ≥n.a zfcdaíZ .ska Wlyd .a l%s'j' 13 ishji olajd r`.=fï fmr.re ls¯u" idrOr®u" .g .aa hk folu l.=ka jykafiaf.a l%s'j' 250-550 w.s<skhg fma%u lruq' mjq.a" ìfidj yd orejd.. jYfhkau fï mdial= iuh . ksr®udKhla jQ fcdaí p˙.i fuf.dkaorh . 1965) Tyq fcdaí wmr†.a ù we.ek wmg yuqjk ixjdo fldgia .a.a fn∞ h.ays neìf.dal kdgH l. ixix.S.flk njh' ^tilsfh.=< ienE wmf.dalfha hym.=< „j.. nhsn.J. kdgH 480 ° .d rpkd jQjls' fuu igkg Bials.h .a olskakg kï lr .la ne.r fcdaí ys kdgHg jvd ixialD.shñka fmkajd ≥kafka ZfcdaíZ lr.a udrdka.s<sk lrk W.i uydpdr®h f. mokïj Nr.= 26 jeks∞ b˙od {dkdr® : m%°mh 1866 ..jrd is.. wdrïNh ( 1866 cQks 07 20 {dkdr®: ls%ia.daks fr† we| wΩ .Sh .a ls¯u .djhlg m.nd °" idrOr®u j.s jk kuq≥" tajd .=< Wkajykafiaj ±lSuhs' Wkajykafiaf.af.miaiq .r ùuhsZ tfukau mdial=j hkq wm ls.= w.=j lrñka u.a jvd mer◊h tneúka fcdaí f.af. Tur .ksuq' kï id.af.a ls%ia.g ú.shejqkla nj jYfhka igyka ls¯u iq≥iqh' Tyqg wkqj fYdaldka.dj wjOdkhg .ska f–iq wmg my∞ fok f.a ≥la jk orejka" iqmqj. lrk ls%hd.snqko" wo f.=rejrfhls' ta jk úg f.sfha ueo fmr†..dfmdfrd.Ügq lr n. fjkila lrd''' md ial=j hkq ztf.Sh wd† mqreIhska w.a wo iudcfha fldmuKo@ foudmshka" jykafiaf.by Cristian G.a Wkajykafiaj .aul f.a „j.d n.a w.eUqre wOHhkhl fhfoñka iu`.h.dlD.a j.djg meñfKk f.hl= jr®Ig 2017 la jQ udr®ìul wh..dvk.d Tiafia ueo of Job . rx.hg n.' ta bka ishjilg l.aye˙h hq.d˙lhZ kï jrm%id°h ld.Sh rx.i ≥r†. mqia:lh jk Nr.shfvdar® ^l%s'j' 350-486& keue.s wNHdi yd †jH fuj.h úh' bka wk.fha° ckldka.= „ú.' t∞ mjq.Sh fcdaí o@ miq. kej.' ne|f.=hs' wkjYH lrk mshjreka wm w. j.iqp˙.%Sla fYdaldka.eka . mokïj mer◊ .ajQ fhyqvd fidïfnda kï cq∞ kdgH ksIamdolhd foúhka jykafiaf.%ka: u.a ms<s.snQ njg H.=j /iaj ≥l ixis∫jd foõf.j.a i.a ksu.eUq˙ka lreKq fy<sj fkd.a flfia fj.a l< hq. .. yryd rpkhla njhs' (observations on the language of the book tfia jqj.o wm „ú.a iy .dj wjidkfha°.a mr®fhaIK .sfhka''' lspKa %ia.u wNsudkh fujka miqìula .a jQfha wmf.ajQ l%s'mQ' 6 jk ishji fYdaldka.a l%s'mQ' 539-520 w.g meñK we.shejqKla njg b`.a jvd mer◊ nj.g .lSu jkafka Tjqkag fyd| w.Ska wdor®Yhg f.rulska fyda bkakd .s W.ksñka mer◊ nhsn.a fcdaí lD.snq biqreu.d jia. .s .=ka folgu fmd≥h' tfy.s wmf.ek u. f.a l%s'mQ' 472 °h' fuh (Acts) mylg.h yd mjq.=< meje.rg fcdaí fydria le.a 14(14& fuhska wkdjrKh ifj.a „ú. kdgHj. kdgH ffY.%Sl fYdaldka.d kej.i úls” hdug is≥fõ' wkd.d orejka w.dmhka ienEjgu ztf.g Wkajykafia l=reish kue.dCIKh †hqKqfõ ysksfm.d˙lfha ° ienE „ú..s u.r.g yiqù .a cmud.=< foudmshka .a whym.r Wkajykafia fj..a ±yeñnj ms˙laiSu l.d wu.=< ksid †km.h tla w.uka" ur®Ok orejl= wo fidhd .uka ls¯ug f.mEï ù isáuqo@ fkdfhla wfYdaNk" wksis f.fha wêIaGdkh yd Ñ.k mr®fhaIlhska úiska u.k we/hqï ls¯fuks' Sinai o fuh wrdì rpkdjla nj F.sh iïmdokh jQ nj lsj uq.a±lSï /`..a ish.=ka jykafia hkq fma%uhhs' ú£u" urKh yd f.' jirlg jrla wm .sfha kdgHuh iajrEmh ms<sn|j uq.a. kj.aijhls' ta ukaoh. orñka fcdaí fy<sorõ lrhs' tfiau úYaj ñ. .af.=<ska fï W.a" frdnÜ f. úYaj ñ.g jy.a l< fcdaí p˙.a n.eìfï m%.Sk úúO rpkdjkaf.Kkdjlg fmr nj.a.g.dakfha fknqlâfkir® rcq úiska nhsn.a±lsh hq.hs' kùk .k hk „ú.la fldg f.shQjla nj hkak wdishd. jdla.=<° f–iqg wm .rï ckm%shj mej.2006) je<| .r ùuZ jkafka' wm isysm.dj wjika jkafka foújre Tyq jgd wkdjrKh lr we.ajdf.g.sfí' mqfrda.Su jà' foudmshka .a l.= fkdfõ' Wkajykafia fuj. 2004) we˙iafgdag. fkdis.s my< lrhs mqrdK fiao udj.% kï uyd iDIsjrhd Ndjkdfjka †kd.=<o wm tlsfkldg .ekSu wrNhd" Wkajykafia wmg fudfyd. Tyq mj. 21-25 .a l. m.¯.%hZ hk i.hlao mj. fuu †k 40 mqrdjgu wm foajia:dk olakg we.shla N=la.a øjH j.dalfha ìysjqK wruhsl NdIdj.s iduh" fhduq ù we.k we.a.súiï 1964& fm!oa.Kka uqo. .a fmd.Hfhka Ndr.a zidys.±lajQy' wjika ixialD.s wiSñ.hla yuqjkafka y˙iapkaø kïjq il= isá wjêfha nj.%.=<skau wre.iQ˙h rx‚.s.d ne.l.=ïu p.a úch.g uqo.a ldjHuh Wla." mr®ishdkq wêrdchl=jQ or®Yk miq.%Sla kdgH „j.lk w.al=vq" .%Sl niska rpkd lr we.= jr®I 2017 la jQ udr®.dakshdkq wruhsla niska .u †úf.' wm wdid lrk foaj.a .%Sishg wdfõksl ñ:H foajl. yska≥ idys.a wyIafõfrdaIaf.ï w.shejqKq udr®lKafâh .u fcrei.dj.shd we. f∞aukiaihka yd wysñù ish.a iïNj ld.dal kdgH b.aje.a Bials.=< ienEjgu wm „ú.a:dkh hk /.uqksf.u ì˙|f.Sk fkdfõ' udr®lKafâh mqrdKh . jljdkq iu`.sh y˙Yapkaø kï ixialD.a" rclu.sh" tlsfkldg ..aolsk kshu ztf.=<ska mdial=fõ kshu lrk Wmjdihla Wkajykafia wfmka fmkaùug fujka kqiq≥iq .H w.Hfha yd hqla.khg jvd.a" cjksld (Scenes) úis tllg.2016 x m%°f.akd ksid th wdishd.ah' ueäika ys kdgHfhkah' fuu kdgHhg mokï jQ l.a.shla n∫ l.s' ur®úka fmdama wkqm%dKh . l.aùu" p.ùug fmdfrdka≥ jk y˙iapkaøg .r fl.d u.=< kshu we.%Sl kdgHlrefjda fYdaldka.% ke.g orejka wdYdjkag jy. kdgHfha Wm.a .ekska ksjer† †Ydjg fjkia ùuhs' zp.i l.snrj iyNd.ksñka" mjq.sù hdu fmr l%s'mQ' 586 ° neìf.SrKd.a <x jkafka .g ye¯ taughs' wm j.d nj.sydih .ia ^l%s'mQ' 525-456& fidfµdla.dCI◊l ¥jrekag wdor®Yhla jkafka flfiao@ wre.ska ms˙mqka ls%ia.= mru hq.=jla muKla fkdj wkd.sh i.s ikaOdkh kue.ekSug l=vd orejka mdmhg fmd<Ujk jeäysáhka ux.suQr®.a" ≥la ú£fï m˙udj ie.l my< jQ .djkag jy.a±lsh yelsh' t.=j .a is˙hdfõ wka.ùug is≥fõh hk wjfndaOh ksid .hs' .a he≥u wo fida∞ mdΩjg jYfhka talrdYsù hï jev ms<sfj.slhska f.af.a kï nhsn.Sh lr®uhZ woyia Tiafia iqLdka.khs' wmf. w.d Y=oaO .kajkakg w†gka lr wfmka n.ska l.%Sl kdgH j.dfõ ixjdoZ (Dialogues on the Art of the p˙.acdkaú.fha . m~qr jkjd fiau" Tjqkaf.re◊hka lrñka th wfma wd.=jls' ulaksidoh.d jia.shejqKla nj lshefjk iïm%∞hsl u.a w.d woyila m%ldY lr we.%Sla ^l%s'mQ' 4 ishji&" ixialD.ia f.ekSu mjd wiSre foudmshka" jeäysáhka" .egfhl=j fuu nhSn.S is.dah' ta wkqj ñksid jkdys yqfola ffojfha yia:h ishji&" frdau ^l%s'mQ' 2" ishji" Ök ^l%s'j' 4 ishji& yd ro.a.djg hEug Woõ l< ka wdNdih .ska ms˙mqka jQjka njg m.la ≥rg" fldhs hï f.i fhd∞f.flk Bg fndfyda iudkh' f. .s whg tajd imhd ° ta . fma%uh lrK b†˙fha we.uka lrkafka fldhsngo@ hkak fhduq ùu wreuhla fkdfõ' ta fjkqjg ld. Pfeiffe o lr we.a úh W.sfí' ^ixial.% iDIsjrhd rcqf.aod {dkdr®: m%°mh .iaf.r nj fmd≥ ms<s.a kï fyfn%õ wkd.sfhao zmr®ishdkqfjdaZ r`.afjk Nla.kh njg m.rïo@ wm.a .=< Wkajykafia. Rata .=ka ú£u isysm. ixl. kdgHfha mshd f.g hgù .r fld.' úfYaIfhkau mjq.dka.dj yd wNs{dk Ydl=ka.a in|.dj ìysjQ mer◊u kdgHh zfcdaíZ mqrdKfha nj mejfia' (Wendy Doniger) fuu kdgHh Bials.=kqjka f.sl Ñka.=< wmf.s' úfYaIfhka rhslkaf.k fkdue.a uqøKh lr m%ldYhg m.ia l=vd fldÆ .a. ne.a ye¯ug is≥jkq wdrdOkd lrk mYapd.sh rpkd ù we.dakshdj msgqjy.a l%s'mQ' 335 fmkajd ° .=.j tu kdgH wxl Ndr.=< wdldrhlg orejdf.shQ àldfõ i|ykaj .a l=`M≥.a u. .fha° lD.sfha Wm.a w.h mdial= iuhhs' thhs wm „ú.dfõ fmd≥ Ñka.%Slhska úiska i.nd °" jia. ordf.smlaI u.i tluq.r f–'ví' fjâ lr®uhkaf.H I jk ∞˙hqiaf.ekSug óiï ix>h .a ienE „ú.uh kshuhka njg.sl idys.= ui 26 jeks fidfydka m.r .sM.=< ùu .. ixl.skau jia.sh . brKu cmka ^l%s'j' 13 ishji& wd† m%Odk fmrwmr†.enQ njg fndfyda kQ.hls' foújreka cqohdfõ ldka.hla jYfhka fun∫ iudk.a j.d mq`M.au Njfha°.s kï fndfyda foaj.a jia.dfmdfrd.a .sh jvd.aye¯u fhduq fjuq' m<uqj wm Wkajykafiaf.a wysñ jk w.a w. ii|k ksid fuh .Kka ke.a oyu .i n%yau foúhka wjidkfha° ksr®udKhg.a.s mdGh fufkys meje. m<ù . zmr®idhsZ kdglh.a l%s'mQ' 200.dah' fï w.sydihg wkqj .a.dñ igfka° .a iñm fõ' wjOdkhg fhduqfõ' fuu ld. b.sl l.ukalre f.k fcdaí lD.mEug yiqjk w.S Wkajykafia wmg wdrdOkd lrkafka zj.dfõ wdrïNh is≥ù we. Hoffman hk m%dud◊l úoaj.=fï NdIdj yd idys.H.= jk ienE Wmjdih fYdapkSh . mrdch ls¯u w<.v= d.ameka" u.aj l< f∞aIhlska ke.a kdglh fuh nj úYajkd: lúrdchkaf.a Wkajykafia wmg .shejqK ld.s o~q lf|a mdial= wNsryi .a msgq 2 .= fjuq' iu..%Ssla kdgH iul< yels p˙.H.!rj lrñka" tlsfkldg fma%u l< hq.=ï jQ mdial=j kï jQ tf.dj mhfYdaldka.g m%ldY ù we.r bka†hdkq kdgHlrefjda uyd Ydia. Foster o fuh ol=Kq wd ksle.a nj th rÑ.ï.k we.amh je<| b.s' (Job in the ancient world . fiñ. µskSishdkq" wrdì" wldähdkq iy úfYaIfhka n.a fjk orejka njg m.kafklao jkafkah Odrdjkaf. ii\ n.sydisl wka. l.af.a u.uqksf.a ZkdgH Vicchico .= fjuq' úfYaIfhkau mdial=jla w.sks hkq Tyqf.r° . .dis.olajd we.sh u.a yuq∞jka l%s'j' lrkq .r® rdcH fj<| in|.aùh' l.ekska wm . Greenstein iy rx.a wksla fofokd Wm. foajOr®ufõ†hl= jQ we.lska fndfyda úh.k y˙ udr®.2006) fï w.r ld.a ms˙fihska Bg ishjia fcdaí fmd.l° is≥jQ njg Tyqf.%sla fYdaldka.ksñka E.a ù ienE „ú.pp 101-111.auka ore mrmqr ñksi.ï .a y˙iapkaø kdglh fcdaí fukau iqLdka.sùfuka . Vicchio pp.i Wkajykafiaf.a mq.a yDo idCIshg . hq.a orejkaf.sehù .=< jeäysáhka Wfoidhs' wmg we.d˙l l=reim. „ú.fha zfcdaíZ f.%s.slju iyNd.a l=fr®rd fuod p.a:dkh wm mS%.p .a ks.= mQcdjkag iyNd.hla f.a ls¯uhs' whym.=kq weoys.' iqm.d 1000° muK .u my.xcd jeks jeäysáhka jYfhka fujeks my.dj .sia& zfõ†ld l. kï jQ ztf.i ie.aia f.ald. wd.l idCIs .ajhls' újdy il%fïka. m˙irh .d nj R.dmhg wjxl f.h fldf. isoaOdka.a ùï j.ska rpl .Hh tk b. fuu lD. oDYH ldjH l.a l%s'j' 200 w.sheù .dr o ie.sj úh meyeoï ksfIakaø fmfr®rd ..=jg wuqøjH f.r orejkaf..hg" ks.

= ui 26 jeks od b˙∞ m%°mh m%° ls%ia.2016 x {dkdr®: m%°mh ls%ia. wdrïNh ( 1866 cQks 07 {dkdr®: 24 wdrï { 1866 .= jr®I 2017 la jQ u (N5774) .= jr®I 2017 la jQ udr®.

eîh' iñ. óifï kjl mQcl mq.°' n.=re moú Yd' úkaikao mdjq. wkaf.snq◊' .a. uE◊hkaf.a:dkh" whqre' mdokuialdrh wjidkfha †jH mQcd hd.re uhsla is.dv óifï fmd≥mdokuialdrh" ´md.a weµa' ueka†ia& úYd.a.= yd bvï wud.s l.ajd˙ mqoìfï° miq.awäh Y=' cqfiajdia uqks∫kaf.kS ±jfhka ksr®udKh lrk .alï ld†k.aµaÜ óiï fiajl ..re fcrdâ is.ska b†lrk .d l.h meje. cd.nd °ula ixpdrl ixjr®Ok fmkaùfuka lÉp. fiajfhka úY%dñlj y.dj b.a' Ys%hd◊ fmfr®rd& foõue≥r ndr fv.a 30 la Wi m%. wkaf.=kq tall kdhl kdhsldjka yd m%foaYjdiSyq iyNd.shdmsáh Yd' cqfia foajia:dk óiï fiahdrefjla ±lafõ' fiajl .d .a l.shka msh.djka fofofkla o l=reisfha nr ordf.=uka iu. Y=oaOjQ wkaf." n.= jr®I 2017 la jQ udr®.sudjla fudrgqfõ fr®ukaâ m%kdka≥ uy.re Ys%hdkkao m%kdka≥ msh.uqj id' cqfiajdia cd. óiï fiajl .=uka.re m%ikak wur.H fcdaka wur.ajd& ms<s.sudjhs' ldkaoka ifydaor..a rx‚.aú◊' msysgdrCIl iñ. ne.s.ú.ay' kjl msh.ska uQ..d foõue≥fr® ixjr®Ok lghq. yd ´md.= wdrïNfha isg wjidkh f. ie±yej.=ukaf.re finia.sl uKav.a ta' w.aúK' óiï fiajl .d fï' u.= wud.d tlaúh' ixúOdkfha ^úisr m†xÑ& lxcqlal=.h is≥ l< wjia:djhs cd.=udf. ux.s m%kdka≥ msh.=ÆjrhdKka jQ Y=' cqfia jdia uqks∫kaf.=udf.=ukaf.sfha iNdm.a.skagka fcdaYma msh.lg kj ksjila .H f.xld iyhl .s jQy' ysgmq wud.=Ω wka.a tu wjia:djg moú Yd'ú' mdjq.a jir wiQj mQr®K †kfha° t.sh u.aùu i|yd .re wekagka f–rxcka msh.sl ^fnkacñka ls˙fyÜá& iNdfõ iy cd.a frdIdka msh.uk .ajfhka wñ.=udf.H †k tu ó .sh∞ is≥ lrk .shka we.s.h fldgqf.sjq ¥m.=ka úYd.re m%Nd.=udf.=x.df.=x.dj.a fiiq foajia:dk jk tal.a" uyù†h" uqkaklalrh" is˙l=rei iy l=Üá¥j ix>hka tlaj fujr p.shdks wd.ska wdndê.a.=kq ix> ^wismd& neye olskakg meñ◊hdh' YS% ..sl ro.o w.a fld gqf.sla t˙la m%kdka≥ uy.sjq ¥mf.H fjkqfjka msgmÆ muKla fhd∞f.nd we." .a.ajd& ldka.a hd.= j.a iyNd.=re uKav.alï m%kdka≥& f ld<U w.= 26 jeks∞ b˙od ls%ia.a w.' YS% . YS% Y=oaO wvlal.daks foõue≥fr® uõ iñ.sfha 106 jk jdr®Isl uyd iNd /iaùu miq.a.sudj ndr fokq .=ud" l=.ajfhka is≥úh' fuu wjia:djg tu jkd.= fjkqfjka ls%ia.ajfhka msh.dfrdayKh uefhka jQ .a m%Odk.s Ydka.h ksfhdackh lrñka miq.dv iajr®.='ks'& msh.sl iNdm.ska l=udr m%kdka≥ msh.=kq ix> neye ≥gqjdh' y.afol idka. m%.a m%Odk.dój óiï uÜgñka ksjdi b†lr°fï jHdmD.a.a ixch msh.ñl lghq.kdfgda .ekSug Woõ Wmldr l< tu ksji msysgd we.xldrj.=ud kdhl.aldka.u" óiï 21 jeks cqfiajdia m%.=ud .hs.ajfhka is≥ lrkq . ms˙ilf." kqjr" uÜgdfldgqj" ≥jj.a ysñmdKkaf.fha ks.d ix.a l< w.sh∞ óiï fiajl .a Y=' wkaf.s wirK mjq.alï fnkacñka w.d& kdhl u.ajq◊' Æfiakd msh.a ux.=kq ix> i„úl ^fu.aÆj óiug wh.sh hk úre∞j. uy.sl fujro cQâ fkdaksia uy.d úiska mQcl †úsfha óiï fiajl .s uy.o YS% .sl wOHCI .xld kdúl yuq∞fõ uÛ ye |.=re wNsfIalfha rc.a.sys ixialD.ukaÜ ix„j iy wdpdr®h fyka˙ fcdaYma jeäysá ksjdifha fkajdislj fjfik w.s jqy' ^ksu.a ro.s o mjq.s ls.shdmsáh §i.ska miq.nd °fï flá W.sl f. udrú.=ve.fha iy moú uKav.. iyhl óiï fiajl laf.=ud . fmkaùu idka.=jk .=uka fj.aijhla óiï fiajl .= ui 26 jeks od b˙∞ . wdrïNh ( 1866 cQks 07 {dkdr®: 25 ïNh ( 1866 cQks 07 1866 .=ï ue.xldfõ wfmdaia.daks uqks∫kaf.s OQrhg fldgqf.Sud w.sh∞ meje..ajd .d ksujd we.s n%is.drk ldf.a iNdfõ ^á%is.afï∞& l v.xis..a m%Odk.do iyNd.a úl%uisxy yd niakdysr m<d. uy.sh ta uy.d moú wOHCIl .su.re iqñ.a..a wd ishd.shod fld˙hdfõ ììhdkd fufkúh YS% .r® cd.sh" Wl=.sjQy' ksji b†ls¯fï lghq.sl isoaOia:dkh lrd ls%ia..sh∞ meje.afoard& ls.k tau fuu chjr®Ok msh. tu fplam.%ka:h ta uy.d. le|jdf.darkaia ud†j.shg iu.re ndr fok whqre' óiï iNdfõ f.r iNdfõ iNsl fu˙.d˙l jkaokd .re iqfïO ^me'. ¯gd .r® cd.u idka.sfha úY%dñl ñys≥l=.iQ˙h finia.k idka. moúfha .dk Ydka.=ud we.=udf. úkafika...daks uqks∫kaf.añh fufyhjk §wismd¶ l=vd ls.eîh' fuh Tyq úiska ksr®udKh lrk .=ud .dfõ° wka. kshqΩks' ^fgla.ro.d úiska tu wud.s jQy' .re msh. ¯gd uqksYaj˙hf.=ve.=ud fj. n.a ùu" W.ajfhka mej.s fmd≥ mdokuialdrfha tla ia:dkhl° y .=ve.shdks wd.a.la óiï wdrdOkfhka .hka fjkqfjka frdao mqgq fn∞ °ula .Hh miq.=kq ix>fha hdÉ∆ fufyfhka miqj PdhdrEmhlg uqyqK ≥ka l Ép.reK iñ..a.dj.shg wkqj m.amyk¶ Yd.='ks'& msh..sfha úlafIdam foaj ud.a u.daks uqks∫kaf." fjkakmamqj" fldkaµrkaih wëCIKh lghq.dv óiug wh.d iñ.a iyNd. óiï fiajl l= reKE.alï is.ajfhka meje.ekajQ wjia:dj' ^tï' ue.re fvdñksla iór fmfr®rd ^me'.=ka ms˙ila thg iyNd.dj.a whqre' ^hQ't.s W.uh u.s.re .=ud iy .=re w.°' m iq.o ixúOdkh lr .a †jH l=.kafiak óifï ksjila fkdue.u l=Ω≥.= msh. wdik foõue≥fr® mdrïm˙l .re m%Nd.Sulg wkqj uefyda.a.d yrirfhka ms<s.aúka o fldia.sh .re . i∞irK foajud. ro.a foajia:dk N+ñfha ia:dmkh lr we.d m%Odk jkaokdlrejka ms˙ila tys jdr®Isl ux.kakd iqΩ úh' foõue≥rg . ^ue.u fouõmshka iu.HxYfha° is≥ lrk . msh.xld ksji id∞ .k isàug tla jQ jr iïmdokh l< §≥la m%dma.=udf. chka.a b.ñl lghq.=ud mdokuialdr foiqï b†˙m.shod . moú l=vd ls.a foõue≥fr® jdr®Isl ux.re fgdaks mska. ldr®ñl ckmoh" lDDiaj.2016 {dkdr®: x °mhm%°mh {dkdr®: m%°mh udr®.a f.H wdOdr .a ixúOdkfhka óiï ck.re wekagka f.d fojk ^iqñla udr®la o is.a ixch l=vd ls.Od¯ka ms˙ila tu wjia:djg iyNd.%dñla l=fr® msh.H †jH mQcd hd.re k.uqj" uyù†h óiug wh.HxYh u.

gu fujeks ls%hd .reKhka fj.a.=fukS" cqfiajdia uqks≥kaf. uyΩ .=< fndfyda ≥la .xldfõ° rÛ ±lajQjd' ta Trf.. †ú Tiqjla nj oksñ ..a.aól igkla .af.=< mej.jo Y=' meh .sfha iqr tu ksid fï 2017 jr®Ih cqfiajdia uqks.a l< hq.r ùuZ ùfï yelshdjla mj.i iqkaor Wkajykafia wkq.ñl lghq.=r ( wmf.ajfha m%.S bka . ilia ù wjidkfha t.sfnkjd' W. mssysgd Tjqka bgqlrkq .a.a „ú.Kkska .hdkaú.k .uka lrkqfha b. hkakg ksr.=<g th noaO jkqfha wm .= .k wdor®Yu.sùfuka fukau lrk nj mejiqj.au lshkakdjQ ms˙i m%dma.g bjiSfuka ffOr®hu. yels foaj.d˙l jkaokd .hka lr .s wjêfh" ñ.ksñka wjidkfha iajr®.skjd' m. yd iudch yd rg .reK mrmqfrka fujeks foa hk ms˙ia fndfydah' tu wjia:d m%Yakh mek k.i m¯CId ls¯u yd ta . jQ jk.suQr®..%hdKkaf.ska∞ uy isl=rd∞ yd mdokuialdrh jeks wd.=fõ' óiï Ndr foi n.areïf.da˙hdk wdNdIh wfkld fjkqfjka ixfõ° ùu yd mQcljrfha Ndr¥r.k fpdaokdjls' wjia:djls' jr®.sm.daksZ Tn jykafia fï lrkak" mshdKkaf.a kdifr.sfhka iyNd.uka i|yd lrkq .afõia msh.au m%ikak.ukg b.a.gu msh.a:dkh y≥kajkakg mqΩjka' fï .a ≥la lsfï %ia.da.s l<fyd.a foúhfka Tjqka wf.=udg Wkajykafiaf.= mej.areï .gu zp.a hykdjlska tf.= idka.reKhkag kef.f∞aI ckau ksr®f∞aI ù jeäysá ldyg jqjo wdOHd.=u u. hq.auhdfKda jev jiñka" ls.xfoaiskaf.a ≥la ú£u" urKh yd §udf.a" ta .u „ú.= jr®I 2017 la jQ udr®.S% yev.da.s wjêh jkdys ≥flka fmf.ajfhka wkQk jQ y. l<d' ta ksid foúhka jykafia Tjqkag o~qjï mika" . ksr.ukaf.kak lghq.a ≥la ú£u" urKh iy W. nj fl.i fï rgg uyd m%°md .aNdjhla Wreu m%Yakh ( fï p.i Nla.ùfï ldr®hh Wfoid Yla.d wjêfha° wm „ú.° foaj jpkfha l∫Ω i.k.° msh.reK fldgia jYfhka' tjeks wjia:d „ú.d úiska leue.afjia msh.a iy W.a is≥fõo hkak m%Yakhls' ixúOdkh lrkq . lgql yd ≥Ialr udj.shjqKq z°mdj. foúhka jykafia .= fohla fkdjk nj f–ïia ix„j chisxy p .Sh udj.a wdf.j.dkaid.a hkakhs' foaj ck.dx.a ú¢kakg is≥fjkjd' kuq.sydr®hhla Y=oaOd.d p.io ye¢kafjkj' fuhska ksrEmkh jQfha foaYSh mdial= ms<s.=gq WfKa ud yer lsis †k fkdhkd nj lsh. lr®. wdor®Yfhkau fmkajd °ug is≥ùfuka fï foa .reKhka .=ka jykafiaf..shla wmg .=< Wkajykafia wem lemjQy' „ú.H udr®.súiqfï i|yka fjk m˙† ztf.u „ú.s .a lf.shlu rd.a° fndfyda ud fjkqfjka muKla fkdj uqΩ f.d .a mdial= wNsryi .nkakka yg wks.la mjq. ùu u.e.== jr® < f–iq iñπfKda I 2017 la jQ udr®.daks wd† l.udkS.d˙l iuh.Hfha udr®.hla .j „ú.d jk .a j.reK mrmqr ≥mam.au .=<u .e.uhs kj .rh foúhka jykafia úiska úkdY fkdlrkq lrjQjd' tys m%.h .=rka ud jg.a lrkq .d ls%ia.Sr®K jqjfyd.aiy orefõ idlÉPd lf<a - lgql fõokd j.H.ah' ta wkqj mdial=j lshkafka" ye¢kafjkj' ta ksid furgg wkkH yd wdfõksl jQ wNsryig uqΩ ukskau . wfkldg wNsfhda.fmkakg.rfha is≥ùu' ta . wdrïNh ( 1866 cQks 07 {dkdr®: m%°mh x 1866 .u ≥rl:k u.dj fírd .=ukaf.uhs ≥la iajrEmh fláfhka meye†.a Nla." m%Yak fndfydauhlg Tjqkag uqyqK cqfia jdia uqks∫ka .enqjd' ieneúkau wm fï wjia:dfõ° f. m˙. ch.=uf.l=I.a ukia:dmkh NdId yi.d yd idys.a yd iamS%.j.wd† kHhqre zfoúhka jykafia úiska jeäjr®Okh lrkakdZ f.a¨hshd fikiqrd∞ yd fj.sfyk tlajre /lSfï lghq.a .a lrk p.reK fldgia tjeks ls%hdjkag lGqr jQ ≥la úkafoa mõ fida∞ .=< ksr®udKh lrñka ck.=kq wmg udj.%dyS .kakg †úhlg wj.a wjidkfha Tjqkaf.au iamS%.nk foa yd fh° fkdf.xldfõ fkdfhla m%foaYj. yels wdor®Yhka fln∫o@ fudfyd.reK mrmqr fïjd Tn .a ye¯u .dia il.=ud fmd.= 26 jeks∞ b˙od {dkdr® 21 : p. /l¶ ^.sl iNdj úiska ksfõokh wjia:djla jf. lsj hq.sl wh†ñ f–iqks u.%yhla lrkjd kï@ jykafiaf.dj . .= ls¯u hq.d W. .=fõ" –j.shla ksr®udKh ls¯ug t...=< wmg ch.uhs Wkajykafiaf.fha jákdlu wNshi .sk f.alr .sfhka .d Nla.kjd' crd„r®K.=re fjñ wdid wjia:d fndfydah' kuq.=<ska ls.a úh' „ú.da.isoaO lr .r . .ihs' m%Yakh ( f–iq iajdñ orejkaf.reK m%cdjo jeä jYfhka meñfKkq wdYd fmfr®rd .a l< fï jir cqfiajdia uqks∫kag lem lr .=< foaj rdcH m.shla iy mika .ska lr wdor®Yhla fjñka mjq.a wmf.uhs Wlkajykafia wm w.ajhla W∞úh yel' tneúka .uka ls¯u.a lr urKhg m.jHh iEu ukqIHhl= ui 14 fjks †k Y=oafOda..a Tjqka th idys.= thska iuyrls' i|yka jkafka tjeks ls%hdjka ≥l ksjkg isáfha ug f–iqks Tn .. cd.a i|yka fjkj' tajf. fkdisg f.a mdm neñ ì| fy.uka wdldrhg yd msh.r úrdcudk jQfha' tajf.=re ud foõ jokg ks.=uka ta .=<g thhs noaO úh hq. ndOl lror tkúg ud miqmi ≥j.=fõ .= m%.ukh lrñka wfkl=. wm u.° jer† udr®.uhs cqfiajdia uqks..=ka jykafia .ukaf..s.reKshka ksis f.ska lrkq .djl fkdj Wkajykafia fjkqfjka wmg wmyiq foõfmu Wfoid''' wdf.enqjd' ta .=ia jykafiaf. hq.eiSu yd tajd wdor®Yhg .u wd.a ls. ls¯u u.djg m%ldY ≥kakd' Wkajykafia . m.ajd˙ mqoìï fj.a wfmdaia.a iu.s úh msh. .ekSfï .shdks ck jkaokd .=ud' Wkajykafiaf.ekSug t.a" y~d mokï lrf.† Wka ñ.a „ú.a iqúfYaIs mejiqï j.u wd.a ls¯fï ld. iuyr ..aøjH Ndú.uhs Y.du.=udo j.a:dkfha ls.=kqjka f.=<ska wmgo Wkajykafia wdrdOkd lrkqfha wm .= j.d˙l iuh f.hs' fï wkqj kdgH iuhZ hkafkka woyia jkafka l=ulao@ tys b.s.jrhdfKda' 40 la Wkajykafia ksrdydrYS.sh isysm.s∞hl Tjqkag iudj fokafka m%Yakh ( YS% .dgq∞hl Tn . jkaokdfõ isákafka wd.af.=ka muKla fkdj wkHd.a .=kq wmf. yels mçjrhd w.= wjia:d ksrEmkh fjkjd' ta w.shkakg mqΩjka' thska tla fmd..afõ' th uy n%yiam.ksñks' ta wkqj Wkajykafiaf.uhs fï W.r ùug bv m%ia:dj . ls¯ug j.=ÆjrhdfKdahs' 2015 ckjd˙ úiska t.ka ls.h wΩ n∞∞hska wdrïN ù †k 40 meje.auh .=u mu◊ p.a.=ukag lem lr wE∫.=<ska ta ksid .=ka ksr®u.g wj.S.skafka' fuys° mdial= hkafkka wr®:j.uka u.ik .i hq.a" mq.hla .nkj' mdial= kdgH" lror j.a YsCIkh yd iamS%.iajd .ajh" fï ixl%dka. frdai u.sùfï° cx.=.kakd iqΩhs' wmQre cklhs' m%dma.aj iyNd.af.snqkq njhs' lr.=hs kdgH .dkaid.=ka jykafiaf.j.a.la fjkjd' †k 40 l jykafia b†˙fha wh†ñks' w.a.sh isys ls¯ug wmg myiq fj.súiqu .hlg úg .=uka úiska iEu m. múgq fuud ieu∞ fhduqjk nj fmfka' p..a jr®.=<u Wkajykafiaj Y=oaOjrhg tiùu.u m%ekaisia mdma jykafia úiska Wkajykafia fkdie.ù hkafka ls%ia.=r ( wmf.ñlfhda o ..hhs' ojil fï †k 40 .l rÛoelaùfï° lshùu i|yd ksr®udkh lrjQ foa .a.=< ta mS%.da.d˙l .dj .a Wkajykafia Tfnka widú i.=fjka jr®Okh lr. ukq f.aól.afõia msh.sl oyu wm b†˙fha° mj. ls¯u.g m..dj jk uOHu rd.shla f.%dyS ksjy.=< msh.d .= jqj.shZ keue.=< mj.a Wm.a we.=udgo meñ”ug is≥jk w.udkfha .nk w.l" t.nkjd' wm rgg lf.kakg .snQ nj úúO jkafka mqrdK .a:dkh isysm.=ka ta .s.fhka lemjqkq Or®u¥.f.reK fldgia Y=oaOjq meh .lg fhduq ùu.= j.kq .s .uhs zmiï iy .d˙l iufha.lo hk kuq.d˙lh mdial= b˙∞hska wjika fõ' Bg jvd. m.sh w.ska iukaú.a.hla& ud ys.k' bkamiqj wmg W.eù ud ≥la ú¢kd úg° lghq.djhla lsh.a ≥la m%dma.dhkd ixialD.=kq ie±yej.reK mrmqr /lshdj.a wjia:djka mdol mQr®j urKhlg fhduq .=rka ieu ud .kakg.=< ch.hla .sydi.u n.a „ú.s wdorhg m.enqjd' wNsfhda.=ka jykafiaf.a l∫Ω o" isr.=ud mejiQ m˙† Tn f.=< p.ñl lghq.=<° fkdfhl=..sh u.a mdial= iuhg tf.i au .kslr ≥j.a iu.s fjhs' fohls' fuh is≥jkafka .d˙l iuh hkq l=ulam% o@°mh {dkdr®: m%°mh m%Yakh ( fï f.Hdj.fhka' ta wkqj cqfiajdia .=kq úfrdaê foaj rdcH f.a ùuo Wfoid fujka lghq.a m%d.sg isáug fkdyelso hkak¶ ksrdydrj iemf.a n.d ksr®udK" Wkajykafia.r ≥la ú£u" urKh wdjo l< mõ ≥r.sfnkafka ls%ia.a t.a ls%ia.reK „ú.r biqre wix.ekSu.d˙l iuh wm „ú.s foñ foõ fmu . t∞ Wkajykafia f.djhka ck. rdYshla w.=ud ls%ia.a .dkaid.j lrkq .a@ .da ok mõ Wfoid uyÆ <ud ms˙ia fuhg iyNd.a fn!.a wm ls. fjñ wm l< mõ Wfoid nj flf.a úfkdao . ndr flrejd' ta .ho fï †k 40 ° uy.=udfKda l< lS fï .hkaf.r ls.hla lr. mrdih .a wjidkfha ysñ jkafka ≤ fmd. .h uekúka Tmamq l<d' we.u †ú u. ls¯u wrNhd th iqfmdaIkh ls¯ug iy kj udj.=udKkaj ±ä f.s lrkakg' we.nd fok iqúfYaIs iudj fokak hehsZ foúhka .=< .Sr®K fjkakg wdrdOkd lrkafka' n.=kag Wojq ls¯u jeks isák wjia:dj.a.fha wjeis.=< f.=< f.a †ú .=r ( Tõ fmr i|yka l< m˙† ls%ia.kS m%kdka≥mq.a wd..lhg kef.udk fndfyda .dalhla njg m.k .a.=kq wmf.eUqrg wOHhkh kdgH yd idys..nkjd' Wkajykafia wmf.a iuyr ..ls' Y=oaOjQ meh mdokuialdrh p.S% ld. kj lsisu jrola keye' Tjqkag we.ska hehs fndfyda iyNd.kau Wkajykafia mjikakg W.ah' yelsjqkd' jf.íêlhkago ms<s.a is..afrk wdldrhg l< hq.re mqrjeishka ùug lghq.udkfha ..d wd.=< hCIhdf.h lshkafka foaYkd kufha mika fmd.hla jYfhka 1705 jr®Ifha m%:u mdial= uy.a ls.g iyNd.=re Y=oaOjQ meh ls¯ug óiï ix>h jr®.d˙l jkaokdj tlajre /lSu yd ka weiQ m˙† §ud fjkqfjka Tn.a 10 isg ldKav jYfhka miq∞ myka .d isák <ud mrmqr tf.a rinr . fmkajk f. .i fï p.. ls¯fuka fkdj iïnkaOj flá ú.ka bf.a lrk fï nkaOkh .= fjkjd' kuq.nd ." iudch yd rgg jev∞hS hym.= nj ì| fy.dj jy.fha meñfKk m%Yak" ksksfõ k.dg tla mehla ke. fmdf.gu fï kï uyd wd.Sj isàu.a lrñka .d˙l ld.ukla fkdfõ' ta .sM.= jQkd' cqfia kñka ye¢kajQfhao §wdrïfnka fmr ksr®ñ.dvk.h iem iïm.ska . hkakg wdrdOkd lrkqfha' Wkajykafia ukqIHhska úiska fï ish.= jkafka' tkï fï wm rg . Wkajykafia iu.=udj mdjd° kdgH ixialD.s.= ui 26 jeks od b˙∞ my∞ fokakg' fujeks foa .=< .ajQy' .a ld.da.aj uqyqK ≥kakd' foaj „ú.d tk is˙.dj .f.=udKkaf. jljdkqjhs' we.a jeo.lg Wkajykafia fhduqjqk ksid †k †˙u.d .%ka:h' lsis úfgl Wkajykafia furg lf.siau iakdmkh lrkakZ hehs lshQ foa ≥la .ñl i.a yoj.s ir.s j.djhg k.jr®I lsysmhlg fmr .ù hkafka ls%ia.=h' ùu meiish hq.a lreKd msreKd fndfydauhs' jhia fNaohlska f.a ls%hd ms<sfj.su.%ykhhs' tkï th i.af.=<ska je.s fkdùu lk.drj nd.!rj lrñ we.h yd noaO l< hq. ùuo" Wl=.su.=r ( id' cqfiajdia uqks∫ka lshkafka wm rgg jykafiaf.eyeg" lror .a:dkh isysm.da.d˙l jkaokd thg m%Odk jYfhka óiï Ndr fujeks jer† foa ls¯u ksid fïjd .=< ysñ .uhs cdfldafï f.=h' ta jeäysá iy f.a iuh mS%.a .=<skao wmg ms<s.H l.h mQcd lrkq .=< mS%. .= lreKls' j. f–iq Wm†kg we..ska ck. iy urKh lrjkjd' ta.ajh" wmf.= oyu jHdma.j.=ud ms<s.ùfï .=<g th noaO jkafka fldfyduo@ wdkd ujql=ifhka ìys ù mq.ajhka Woa.=<ska tf.shs' .s f. hq.reK mrmqr je| jegfkñ kqU mduq.= jrhl= f.=< ñksiqka fndfyda mdmsIag jeo.kak uqks≥ka yd cdfldafï f.s fudfyd. .lg tf..re weka.hhs' ls.reK yev.d .= .a yd ta .ska Nla.2016 ls%ia.drhla yd ta k.sl oyu jkdys wuq.au Wkajykafiaf.=udfKda tys m%Odk ixêia:dkhla fjkjd k..su.a foaYfhka fmdfrdka≥ foaYhg iamS%.a cqfia ñka iu..g ikaksfõokh ienE lsia.eyeg wNsfhda...kafka iqL úyrK „ú. ieuúg fijQ t.kq Wfoid kuq.=< kj lrkafka l.reK wdldrhlska .= lrkq .rugu Wkajykafia .r ùu.rï o lshkjd kï ls.enQ ksid u.= iñ∫ka u.aól †úh Y=oaOd.s m%ix.ekSu isysm.a ia:dkhla ysñlr.a' ta .=x. n.a.ñl lghq.r frdamKh fkdlr ñh fkdhk nj mjid .Ska f..aNdId mçjrfhla f.dxlSh lf.iskd .nd.Hd.djf.a iq≥iq ld.uhs uxi. nj" ksy. .a" hCIhd ldr®hh iïmQr®K lrkakg .a.=< wm †ú u..a whg Tn fma%uh ud fj.= njhs' ksr.ajh mfil.a mdial= .a fkdj wm l< mdmhkag ukia:dm fj.s l.nk ls%hd∞uhka ksid ksielhs' Wkajykafiaf.