You are on page 1of 22



Co-elucidated by




A ³Computer Network´ is an interconnection of a group of computers. Networks may be Classified by what is called the network layer at which they operate according to basic reference models considered as standards in the industry such as the four-layer Internet Protocol Suite model.

On the basis of SCALE .

 A network covering a small geographic area. like a home. office.  Current LANs are most likely to be based on Ethernet technology. or building. .

metropolitan extensions to Ethernet .g. Wireless networks.Between LANs and WANs Traditional point-to-point and switched networks in WANs inadequate for growing needs of organizations Requirement for high capacity private and public networks at low costs over a large area e.

one city to another and one country to another country) and that often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers. such as telephone companies.e. A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area (i. .

Extranet An EXTRANET is a network or internetwork that is limited in scope to a single organization or entity but which also has limited connections to the networks The internet . that is under the control of a single administrative entity.Intranet An INTRANET is a set of interconnected networks. using the Internet Protocol and uses Ipbase tools such as web browsers.

and SRI (Stanford Research Institute)  WWW was developed in Spring 1989. 1969 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). University of Santa Barbara. 1993 .  Began in four locations: UCLA. Evolved from ARPANET. the University of Utah.  Explosive growth came with first graphically oriented browser.S. Mosaic.U. at CERN (the European Laboratory for Particle Physics) by Tim Berners-Lee. Department of Defense.

BUS TOPLOGY Each node is daisy-chained (connected one right after the other) along the same backbone. .1. Information sent from a node travels along the backbone until it reaches its destination node.

but the end of the network in a ring topology comes back around to the first node. . Similar to a bus network. Each node takes a turn sending and receiving information through the use of a token. rings have nodes daisy chained. creating a complete circuit.

each node is connected to a central device called a hub. In a star network. . The hub takes a signal that comes from any node and passes it along to all the other nodes in the network.

satellite (omnidirectional security issues) .CONDUCTIVE: twisted pairs and coaxial cables ELECTROMAGNETIC: microwave LIGHT: lasers and optical fibers (need clear line of sight) WIRELESS inner/ outer space .

Remote Login ASCII Text. Sound (syntax layer) Establish/manage connection End-to-end control & error checking (ensure complete data transfer): TCP Routing and Logical Addressing: IP Two party communication: Ethernet How to transmit signal.THE OSI REFERENCE MODEL File Transfer. Email. coding Hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier .


HTTP Telnet SNMP ‡ This protocol. Stands for the Hypertext Transfer protocol ‡ A remote terminal emulation protocol that enables clients to log on to remote hosts on the network. Stands for the Simple Network Management Protocol. facilitates retrieval and transfer of hypertext (mixed media) documents. ‡ Used to remotely manage network devices. . the core of the World Wide Web.

Security Requirements Confidentiality Integrity Availability Authenticity .

Passive Attacks Eavesdropping on transmissions Release of message contents Difficult to detect Can be prevented Active Attacks Masquerade Replay Modification of messages Denial of service Easy to detect Hard to prevent .

Ingredients a) Plain text b) Encryption algorithm c) Secret key d) Ciphertext e) Decryption algorithm .

q p and q both prime. n} Encryption Plaintext: M<n Cipher text: C = Me (mod n) Decryption Cipher text: C Plaintext: M = Cd (mod n) . 1 < e < J(n) Calculate d de mod J(n) = 1 Public key KU = {e. n} Private key KR = {d. p { q Calculate n = p ´ q Calculate J(n) = (p ± 1)(q ± 1) Select integer gcd (J(n). e) = 1.THE RSA ALGORITHM               Key Generation Select p.

Fault Security Elements of Network Management Accounting Performance .

and social networking. and communications protocol designed to merge e-mail. Google Wave is It is a web-based service. computing platform. technical or business problem that requires a great number of computer processing cycles or the need to process large amounts of data. instant messaging.1. usually to a scientific. wikis.THE GOOGLE WAVES  Grid computing is the combination of computer resources from multiple administrative domains applied to a common task. .THE INTERNET GRID  2.  . www. www.  Communication Networks by Alberto Leon Garcia & Indra Widjaja.ask. Forouzan.about. Networks By Andrew Tenenbaum.  Digital Communication And Networking by Behrouz A.compnetworking.