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Chrysostom, John, bishop of Constantinople

Chrysostom, John (Ἰ ω ννης Ἰ ΧρυσἸ στομος ). The surname "golden-

mouthed," given to the great preacher of Antioch, and bp. of Constantinople, on account of the magnificent brilliancy of his eloquence (cf. PETRUS CHRYSOLOGUS), has entirely superseded his personal name John, which alone is found in contemporary or closely subsequent writers. When the epithet was first applied is unknown. There is no trace of it in his lifetime, but it was in common use before the end of the 5th cent. Chrysostom was born at Antioch probably A.D. 347. He was of good family; his father Secundus filling the post of "magister militum" (στρατηλἸ της), one of the eight men of distinguished rank—illustres viros (Veget. de Re Militari, ii. 9)—who commanded the imperial armies. His mother, Anthusa, was also a lady of good family (Pallad. p. 40; Socr. vi. 3) Anthusa, while John was an infant, was left a widow at the age of twenty, refused all offers of marriage, and devoted herself to the education of her boy and the care of his property (de Sacerdot. lib. i. c. 55). Her unremitting devotion to her maternal duties excited admiration even from the heathen (Ep. ad Vid. Jun. i. c. 2, p. 340). St. Chrysostom's life may be conveniently divided into five ( epochs:a) His life as a layman at Antioch till his baptism and admission as a reader, A.D.  347–370; (b) his ascetic and monastic life, A.D. ( 370–381;c) his career as deacon, presbyter, and preacher at Antioch, A.D. ( 381–398;d) his episcopate at Constantinople, A.D. ( 398–404;e) exile, A.D. 404–407. (a) Life as a Layman at Antioch.—The intellectual power manifested at a very early age marked him out as fitted for one of the learned professions. The bar was chosen, and at about 18 years of age he began to attend the lectures of the celebrated sophist Libanius, the intimate friend and correspondent of the emperor Julian, and tutor of Basil the Great, who had come to end his days in his native city of Antioch. The genius and ability of the pupil excited the greatest admiration in his master, who, being asked on

his deathbed, c. A.D. 395, which of his pupils he thought worthiest to succeed him, replied, "John, if the Christians had not stolen him from us" (Soz. H. E. lib. viii. c. 2). When Chrysostom commenced practice as an advocate, his gift of eloquence speedily displayed itself. His speeches were listened to with delight, and were highly praised by Libanius, no mean judge of rhetoric. A brilliant career was opening before the young man, leading to all that men most covet, wealth, fame, high place. But a change, gradual but mighty, came over his spirit, and like another young student of the neighbouring province of Cilicia, "the things that were gain to him he counted loss for Christ." Like Timothy at the knees of Eunice, "from a child" Chrysostom had learnt from his devout mother the things that were "able to make him wise unto salvation," and his soul revolted at the contrast between the purity of the gospel standard and the baseness of the aims and viciousness of the practices prevalent in the profession he had chosen. To accept a fee for making the worse appear the better cause seemed to his generous and guileless soul to be bribed to lie—to take Satan's wages—to sin against his own soul. His disinclination to the life of a lawyer was much increased by the influence of the example of his intimate friend Basil, the companion of his studies and the sharer of all his thoughts and plans. The two friends had agreed to follow the same profession; but when Basil decided on adopting a monastic life, and to follow, in Chrysostom's words, "the true philosophy," Chrysostom was unable at once to resolve to renounce the world, to the attractions of which his ardent nature was by no means insensible, and of which he was in some danger of becoming a slave. He was "a never-failing attendant at the law courts, and passionately enamoured of the theatre" (de Sacerdot. lib. i. c. 14, p. 363). His friend Basil's adoption of an ascetic life at first caused an interruption of their intercourse. But life was intolerable separated from his second self. He renewed his intimacy with Basil. The pleasures and pursuits of the world became distasteful to him, and he soon resolved to abandon it altogether, quitting mother and home, and finding some sacred retreat where he and his friend could devote themselves to strict

ascetism (ib. c. 4). This decisive change—Chrysostom's conversion we should now call it—was greatly promoted by the acquaintance he formed at this period with the mild and holy Meletius, the orthodox and legitimate bp. of Antioch, who had recently returned to his see after one of his many banishments for the faith. Meletius quickly observed the intellectual promise of the young lawyer, and, enamoured of the beauty of his disposition, sought frequent opportunities of intercourse, and in a prophetic spirit declared the greatness of his future career (Pallad. p. 40). Up to this time Chrysostom, though the child of Christian parents, had remained unbaptized, a not unfrequent practice at this epoch. The time for public profession of his faith was now come, and after a probation of three years, Meletius baptized him, and ordained him reader. This was in A.D. 369 or 370, when Chrysostom was about 23 years old (Pallad. p. 41). (b) Ascetic and Monastic Life.—Baptism restored the balance which Chrysostom tells us had been so seriously disturbed by Basil's
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religious attainments (de Sacerdot. lib. i. c. 3, p. 363). He became in the truest sense "a new man" (Pallad. p. 184). His desire to flee from the world, with his beloved Basil, was established, and only frustrated by the passionate entreaties of his weeping mother that her only child, for whom she had given up all, would not desert her. The whole scene is narrated by Chrysostom in a passage of exquisite simplicity and tenderness (de Sacerdot. lib. i. c. 5, pp. 363–365). His affectionate nature could not resist a mother's tears. In spite of Basil's continued urgency, he yielded so far as to remain at home. But if out of filial regard he abstained from deserting his home for a monastery, he would make a monastery of his home. He practised the most rigid asceticism, ate little and seldom, and that of the plainest, slept on the bare ground, and rose frequently for prayer. He rarely left the house, and, to avoid his old habit of slander, kept almost unbroken silence. It is not surprising that his former associates called him morose and unsociable (ib. lib. vi. c. 12, p. 431). Upon some of these associates, however, his influence began to tell. Two of his fellow pupils under Libanius, MAXIMUS, afterwards bp. of Seleucia, and

8). Among those suitable for the episcopate. in Col. Several sees were now vacant in Syria. We now come to a passage in Chrysostom's life which we must condemn as utterly at variance with truth and honour. Socr. Chrysostom proceeded to plan and execute a deliberate fraud to entrap his friend Basil into consecration to the episcopate. "which was not a deceit. i. . adopted the ascetic life under the superintendence of DIODORUS and Carterius. A body of prelates met at Antioch for this purpose. Ep. and of his own unfitness. which breathes in every line of his treatise de Sacerdotio. Theodore's love for a girl named Hermione led him to leave the ascetic brotherhood and return to secular life. 3). though they were not yet even deacons. "There is a good deceit such as many have been deceived by. Yet we must bear in mind that the moral standpoint of the Fathers was on this point different from our own. ii. His fervid remonstrances succeeded. Chrysostom and Basil were pointed out. earnestly calling him to penitence and amendment. He regarded it as a sin to be repented of and forsaken if Theodore would not forfeit salvation. who presided over a monastery in or near Antioch. vi. From Diodorus Chrysostom learnt the clear common-sense mode of interpreting Holy Scripture (repudiating the allegorizing principle).THEODORUS. Chrysostom's heart was deeply stirred at this. The inability of his friend Theodore to part definitely with the world. of which he and Theodore became such distinguished representatives. Chrysostom's awful sense of the weight and responsibility of the priestly office. was the occasion of the composition of Chrysostom's earliest extant treatises. E. ii. Chrysostom himself says. which every healthy conscience now repudiates. Theodore gave up his engagement. which it was desirable to fill without delay. It was generally held that the culpability of an act of deception depended upon its purpose.. He addressed two letters to him full of impassioned eloquence. and finally abandoned the world (ad Theodorum Lapsum. bp. and stifle natural instincts. which one ought not even to call a deceit at all. H. On this principle. of Mopsuestia." instancing that of Jacob. vi. and that if this was good the deception was laudable. but an economy" (Homil.

When the time of consecration arrived. 365). and. As there is no reference in any of his writings to any opposition from his mother. p. Basil. it is probable that her death had left him free. Meletius died during the session of the council. and Basil was carried before the bishops.made him tremble at the idea of ordination. (c) A Preacher and Presbyter at Antioch. he left the society of his kind. practised still more rigid self-discipline (Pallad. dwelling in a mountain cavern. 386 (ib. i. weakness of digestion. 374 Chrysostom carried into effect his resolution of devoting himself to an ascetic life. and reluctantly forced to accept ordination. [BASILIUS. therefore. and left his home for a monastic community on one of the mountain ranges S. shortly before the latter left to preside over the oecumenical council of Constantinople (Pallad. and he was fully resolved that the church should not lose the services of his friend.). At the end of two years his health so completely gave way that he was forced to return to his home in Antioch. and irritability of temperament. he considered to be well qualified. and his influence had made itself widely felt at Antioch. 41). he secretly resolved to avoid the dreaded honour by concealment. p.] About A. and upbraided Chrysostom. While. When too late Basil discovered the unfaithfulness to their compact. c. on the contrary. and his successor Flavian raised Chrysostom to the presbyterate early in A. p.—Chrysostom did not return to Antioch to be idle. He was ordained deacon by Meletius A. to which his constant physical sufferings and many of his chief difficulties and calamities are not remotely traceable. 3. During his five years' diaconate he had gained great popularity by his aptness to teach. 381.D.D. Chrysostom was nowhere to be found. his complaints were received with laughter and loud expressions of thankfulness at the success of his plot (de Sacerdot. To these austerities may be attributed that debilitated frame. lib. . and it was represented to Basil that he had been already consecrated. 42). he pretended acquiescence in his friend's proposition that they should decide alike in the matter. of Antioch.D. After four years spent in unremitting austerities.

The passions of the mob were stimulated by those who had nothing to lose and might gain from public disorder. Homil. which must be but a very small portion of those preached. p. A. cum Presbyt. besides Lent and saints' days. Whenever he preached the church was densely thronged. This was highly offensive to Chrysostom. iv. Dei Natura. 387. delivered in March and April. After his ordination he preached his first sermon before the bishop. for he preached regularly twice a week. fuit Ordinatus.While deacon he composed the de Virginitate. iii. Feb. 26. broken only by the wailings of the women. The influence of Flavian might have calmed the tumult. 480). as we learn from his homilies on Genesis. § 6. and a vast crowd was gathered by the fame of his eloquence (Sermo. The rabble. xi. embracing Chrysostom's life as a presbyter at Antioch. on Saturday and Sunday. the Ep. addressed to the young widow of Therasius (c. p. and evincing most strikingly his power over the minds and passions of men. 381). The most remarkable series of homilies. are the Homilies on the Statues.). swelling in numbers and fury as it rushed through the city. was soon succeeded by mutinous cries. c. Arian. containing his grandest oratorical flights. 7. and all the symptoms of a popular outbreak. The succeeding ten years. de Incomprehen. 34. Flavian appointed him frequently to preach in the cathedral. were chiefly devoted to the cultivation of the gift of pulpit eloquence on which his celebrity mainly rests. The ominous silence with which the proclamation of the edict was received. who often rebuked their unseemly behaviour (adv. proceeded to acts of open . while the fate of Antioch was hanging in awful suspense on the will of the justly offended emperor Theodosius.D. and. tom. sometimes five days in succession (Tillemont. It was during this period that "the great clerk and godly preacher. the hearers testifying their delight in loud and noisy applause. 471. and the orations de Martyre Babyla. The demand for a large subsidy to pay a liberal donative to the army had exasperated the citizens. but he was from home. ad Viduam Juniorem. p." as our First Homily terms 160him. Homil. delivered the greater part of the discourses extant. deque Populi Multitudine). its sequel de non Iterando Conjugio. de se ac de Episcopo.

Day by day. Just before Easter Flavian returned with the glad tidings that their crime was pardoned. . The mutiny quelled. and torn to shreds. de Anna. to lay at the emperor's feet the confession of his people and to supplicate for pardon. to which the emperor was subject. The homily delivered by Chrysostom on Easter day (the 21st of the series) describes the interview of Flavian with Theodosius. were torn from their pedestals and ignominiously dragged through the streets. had instantly started for the imperial city. Panic fear. One happy result of this crisis was the conversion of a large number of the still heathen population to Christianity (Homil. lasting for three weeks. were pelted with stones and filth. The outbursts of unrestrained passion. 812). iv. The insult to his beloved empress would be certain to be keenly resented and terribly avenged. were well known. Chrysostom devoted his noblest gifts as a sacred orator to awaken repentance among the dissolute crowds hanging on his impassioned words. Further outrages were only stopped by the appearance of a band of archers dispatched by the prefect. which decorated the walls of the court. the praetorium was attacked and the mob with difficulty repulsed. the Augusti themselves were loaded with curses. the excellent Flaccilla. c. who granted a complete amnesty and urged Flavian's instant return to relieve the Antiochenes from their terrible suspense. The public baths were ransacked. succeeded the popular madness. and its immediate effect on the impressionable mind of the emperor. as is usual. the governor saving himself by flight through a back door. I. 1. This was the scene of their crowning act of insurrection. the prelate's moving appeal for clemency. Their only hope lay in the intercession of Flavian. The portraits of the emperors. p. calm reflection set before them the probable consequences of this recent fury. vol. It was only too probable that an edict would be issued for the destruction of Antioch or for the massacre of its inhabitants. which three years later struck horror into the Christian world. regardless of his age and the serious illness of his sister. foreshadowing that of Thessalonica. and the statues of Theodosius and his deceased wife. who. and finally the hall of judgment was stormed. during this terrible suspense.violence.

Public expectation was excited as to his successor. pp. In Sept.These events occurred in the spring of A. assembled to listen to the inaugural sermon of one of whose eloquence they . are considered by Tillemont to have been certainly delivered at Constantinople (Till. The difficulty lay with Chrysostom himself and the people of Antioch. Rom.. (d) Episcopate of Constantinople. xi. There he was apprehended by the officers of the government. John. a presbyter of Alexandria. ii. 397. Chrysostom's name was received with delight by the electing prelates." in accordance with secret instructions from Eutropius. and on the other Epp.D. Tit. died. The vacant see was one of the most dignified and influential in the church. for Theophilus had left no stone unturned to secure the nomination of Isidore. Mém. but virtually with the prime minister Eutropius. eccl.. 26. Passing by numerous candidates. Paul. Chrysostom felt it more dignified to submit. 92–97. Acts. Asterius. his inquiries met with obstinate silence. and reached his imperial see a closely guarded prisoner.D. of St. He was consecrated Feb.—Chrysostom's residence at Antioch ended in A. i. Resistance being useless. Con. 398.. and Pss. John of Antioch. the "comes orientis. 387. by Theophilus. The nomination rested with the emperor Arcadius... and hurried over the 800 miles under military escort from stage to stage. whose eloquence had impressed him during a recent visit to Antioch on state business. To this period may be assigned his commentaries on Gen. Those on Tim. For ten years longer Chrysostom continued as a preacher and teacher at Antioch. and at once unanimously accepted. tom. St. he determined to elevate one who had no thought of being a candidate at all. patriarch of Alexandria. Matt. The double danger of a decided "nolo episcopari" on Chrysostom's part and of a public commotion among the Antiochenes was overcome by stratagem. Gal.. His remonstrances were unheeded. the bp. 370–376). induced Chrysostom to accompany him to a martyr's chapel outside the city walls. and Eph. of Constantinople. The duty was very unwelcome. The ceremony was witnessed by a vast multitude. and St. the amiable and indolent Nectarius.

attempted to bring them back to simplicity of life and to activity in their calling. viii. Constantinople soon learnt the difference between the new bishop and his predecessor. E. Homil. vi. viii. viii. accustomed to the splendour of former bishops. p. p. He deposed some on charges of homicide and adultery. E. Soz. He was also too much swayed by his archdeacon. and disposed of the costly 161plate and rich equipment for the benefit of the poor and the hospitals (Pallad. to master these mutinous priests unless you . H. moroseness. whose moral tone was far from elevated. E. vi. a proud. 3. and pride (Socr. except when duty compelled (ib. 212). bishop. This "sermo enthronisticus" is lost (Socr. p. He studiously avoided the court and association with the great. Soz. 101. Soz. 2. 21. E. H. coupled with irritability of temper and no small obstinacy (Socr. "You will never be able. viii. he ate the simplest fare in his solitary chamber (ib. Chrysostom at once disfurnished the episcopal residence. which was frequently the source of the grossest immoralities. Instead of banqueting with the laity. Serapion. H. 42). with uncompromising zeal. he revived the old custom of nocturnal services with responsive chanting. 4. H. Chrysostom's simplicity appeared unworthy of his lofty station. 3). 47. 102). in Acta. as well as for the benefit of those unable to attend the church in the day. vi. pp. To the populace. pp. 103. pp. 8. 120–123). 46. To obviate the attractions of the Arians who at night and at early dawn gathered large crowds by their antiphonal hymns under porticoes and in the open air. Pallad. 2. 26. H. H. 9). Nor was the contrast more acceptable to most of his clergy. His disciplinary measures were rendered more unpopular by his lack of a conciliatory manner. Chrysostom. and even ordinary conversation.had heard so much. E. who is reported to have exclaimed at an assembly of the clergy. and repelled others from the Eucharist. and he was openly charged with parsimony. Soz. 3. H. to the indignation of those clergy to whom ease was dearer than the spiritual improvement of their flocks (Pallad. violent man. E. Such behaviour could hardly fail to be misrepresented. E. He set his face resolutely against the perilous custom of receiving "spiritual sisters" (συνεἸ σακται ). c. 47).

the relics of some anonymous martyrs were translated by night with great ceremony to the martyry of St. 474–480). who flocked to his sermons. pp. Dicta Postquam Reliquiae. 4. and drank in greedily his vehement denunciations of the follies and vices of the clergy and aristocracy (Socr. 9).drive them before you with a single rod" (Pallad. walked by the side of the bishop. After the departure of Arcadius Chrysostom delivered a second enthusiastic homily in praise of his piety and humility (Homil. 468–473). Towards the latter part of 398. vi. Dicta Praesente Imperatore. Socr. the eunuch Eutropius. Some were Catholics. ib. It was full of extravagant laudations of Euxodia and of ecstatic expressions of joy. about nine miles from the city. and to make her feeble partner bow to her more powerful will. the Frankish general's daughter. he stood high in favour with the people. But while his relations with his clergy were becoming increasingly embittered. E. He had portions of the Bible translated into their vernacular. not long after Chrysostom had taken possession of his see. It was dawn before the church was reached and Chrysostom began his sermon. 4. pp. but the majority were Arians. So lengthened was the procession and so brilliant the torches. 5). Eudoxia. H. in the rear of the chest enclosing the sacred bones. xii. reverenced the holy martyrs. The next day the emperor with his court visited the shrine. Soz. between whom was afterwards so uncompromising an hostility. and . For a time the bishop and the empress. on the seashore of Drypia. Thomas. vol. vi. laying aside his diadem. viii. vied with one another in expressions of mutual admiration and esteem. who was beginning to supplant the author of her elevation. He was no less popular with Arcadius and his empress. At the same period the largeness of Chrysostom's heart and the sincerity of his Christian love were manifested by his care for the spiritual state of the numerous Goths at Constantinople. 19. which the empress had instituted in a fit of religious excitement. that Chrysostom compares it to a river of fire. The empress herself in royal diadem and purple. which afterwards formed a ground of accusation against him (Homil. and. etc. attended by nobles and ladies of distinction. 18.

Having learnt that the Marcionite heresy was infecting the diocese of Cyrus. vol. who afterwards addressed them in their own tongue (Homil. that. but denounced his vices from the pulpit with unsparing fidelity. which was carried out at the cost of some Christian ladies of Constantinople. He thus evidenced. v. desiring him to expel it. 14. Paul. Soz. H. E. of Ancyra. EUTROPIUS fell from power in 399. E. He had hoped for a subservient bishop. and even during his exile he superintended and directed them by letter (Ep. E. like St. pp. with regard to the selection of able men from his diocese for this work (ib. He ordained native readers. bp. 8. 512– 526). and corresponded with Leontius. and offering to help him in putting in force the imperial edicts for that purpose. 31). 399. Hom. vol. A. 18. E. The unhappy man. v. H. pp. E. Paul. 454–460. 460–482). he at once dispatched missionaries to them. 123. but not only did Chrysostom refuse to countenance his nefarious designs. 31). and dispatched missionaries to the Gothic tribes who still remained on the banks of the Danube. H. xi. viii. and presbyters. 30. v. H.D.read by a Gothic presbyter to his countrymen in the church of St. 126). 7. These efforts for the propagation of the faith were very dear to Chrysostom's heart. 29). in Eutrop. he bore in his heart "the care of all the churches" (H. Zosimus. who also supplied funds for missionary exertions in that country (ib. Ep. 54. deacons. v. he wrote to the then bishop. 162 . H. Having learnt that the nomad Scythian tribes on the banks of the Danube were desirous of being instructed in the faith. Philost. in the words of Theodoret. took refuge for a while in the church. 5. 53. Chrys. for the destruction of the temples in Phoenicia. v. pp. but was ultimately beheaded at Chalcedon (Socr. vi. 6. and consecrated a bishop from among themselves named Unilas (Theod. 207). ib. He endeavoured to crush false doctrine wherever it was making head. xii. de Capto Eutrop. E. hurled in a moment from the pinnacle of his greatness. In his zeal for the suppression of pagan idolatry he obtained an imperial edict. Chrysostom himself frequently preached to them by an interpreter. iii.

At this epoch the power and popularity of Chrysostom was at its culminating point. Saturninus. etc. Hom. Aurelianus the consul. Chrysostom himself afforded the opportunity in his excess of zeal for the purity of the church by overstepping his episcopal jurisdiction. as a last resort. E. E. demanded the surrender of three leading ministers. and count John the empress's chief favourite. Their lives were in extreme danger. H. Chrysostom was now the only obstacle to her obtaining undisputed supremacy over her imbecile husband. Chrysostom resorted to Gainas's camp. her former attachment was changed into the most implacable enmity. a general massacre ensued. cum Saturn. 6. 18–22). declared Gainas a public enemy. 4. To relieve the emperor of embarrassment. The author of his overthrow was the empress Eudoxia. The sequel belongs to general history. they surrendered themselves. v. and through him over the Eastern world. iii. pleaded the cause of the hostages. the haughty Goth who had had a large share in the downfall of Eutropius.. Properly speaking. Theod. v. vi. H. pp. E. and Gainas was forced to flee for safety (Zosim. Her shortlived religious zeal had burnt itself out. and too uncompromising to connive at wrong-doing even in the highest places. the inhabitants of the city rose against the Goths. of Constantinople had no . and when she found Chrysostom too clear-sighted to be imposed upon by an outward show of piety.Early in A. 33. We have now to trace its swift and complete decline.D. Gainas had urged his claim for one of the churches of Constantinople for Arian worship. Means must be found to get rid of this obstacle also. not then so strictly defined as in modern dioceses. 32. and endeavoured to persuade the Goth to lessen his extravagant demands to be made consul and commander-in-chief. viii. H. Chrys. which would have placed the emperor at his mercy. but Chrysostom's eloquence and spiritual authority overpowered him. Jealousy of Chrysostom's influence over Arcadius contributed to her growing aversion. and that not even her rank as empress could save her and her associates from public censure. vol. 482–487). and he desisted for a time at least in pressing his demand (Soz. Socr. et Aurel. the bp. The emperor. 400 Gainas.

Antoninus of Ephesus.D. was not a metropolitan see. H. and although Nectarius had set the precedent followed by Chrysostom of exercising jurisdiction in the Thracian and Asiatic dioceses. The claims of Heraclea becoming antiquated. For Constantinople. proceeded to Ephesus. gradually assumed metropolitan rights over Byzantium. though it was the depth of winter (Jan. 401). pp. At a conference of bishops held at Constantinople in the spring of A. but subject ecclesiastically to the metropolitan of Heraclea (otherwise Perinthus). 10. Eusebius of Valentinopolis accused his brother bishop. 381. 400. vi. He had entrusted his episcopal authority to Severian. A delegacy was dispatched to Asia to investigate these charges. and the accused bishop died before any decision could be arrived at (ib. E. melting down the church plate for his own benefit. its bishop was declared second to the bp. viii. pp. 134–135. as the first of the Eastern churches. Prompt at the call of duty. and by the third canon of the oecumenical council held within its walls. as a city whose imperial dignity was of modern creation. Many dishonest and vexatious delays occurred.D. Soz. deposing six bishops convicted of simony. and correcting with unsparing hand the venality and licentiousness of the clergy (ib. A. H. Chrysostom. 130–133). The Ephesian clergy and the bishops of the circuit appealed to Chrysostom to make peace. and other grave offences (Pallad. the prelates of Alexandria. Socr. The cabal against Chrysostom was headed . who was exarch of the province of Thrace. 6). and he in very feeble health. On his arrival he exercised metropolitical authority. the claim did not receive legal authority until the council of Chalcedon (can. But this precedence was simply honorary. of selling ordination to bishoprics. E. But subjection to any other see was soon felt to be inconsistent with the dignity of an imperial city. 126). of Rome.jurisdiction beyond the limits of his own city and diocese. who basely abused his trust to undermine Chrysostom's influence at court. of Gabala. p. The results of Chrysostom's absence of three months from Constantinople were disastrous. 28). bp. His excessive severity did not reconcile the reluctant ecclesiastics to the questionable authority upon which he acted. after him coming the metropolitans of Alexandria and Antioch.

Soz. and among whom the wealthy and licentious widows Marsa. and Eugraphia. "who used for the ruin of their souls the property their husbands had gained by extortion" (Pallad.by the empress and her favourite ladies. "Gather together to me those base priests that eat at Jezebel's table. Some half-heard words of Severian. Chrysostom was still the idol of the common 163people. The news spread that Severian had insulted their bishop. 10. This allusion was only too clear. and Severian's life would have been in danger had he not speedily fled to Chalcedon. ANTIOCHUS. of whose extravagance of attire and attempts to enhance their personal charms. that I may say to them. the bishop had spoken with contemptuous ridicule. Castricia. pp. had kept his master informed of Severian's base proceedings. were conspicuous. Chrysostom's archdeacon. which Chrysostom's vehement and unguarded language in the pulpit exasperated. [ACACIUS.] Serapion. he chose his text from the history of Elijah. But until the plot was ripe it was necessary to keep up the semblance of friendship. and had continually urged his speedy return. H. His return was the signal for the outbreak of open hostilities. This cabal received an important accession by the arrival of two bishops from Palestine. uttered in annoyance at Serapion's discourtesy. and exclaimed. 66). H. viii. and even of deference. The haughty Eudoxia could not brook the insult. 35. as Elijah of old. without further inquiry. 74). E. sentenced him to excommunication and banishment from Constantinople. Chrysostom . The charge was rashly credited by Chrysostom. who. All the authority of the emperor and the passionate entreaties of the empress. 'How long halt ye between two opinions?'" (ib. towards one who could still make ecclesiastical authority felt. vi. 49). and the doom of Chrysostom was sealed. and put the Bosphorus between himself and the enraged mob. Soon after his return. Antiochus of Ptolemais and the grey-haired Acacius of Beroea (Pallad. 10). were distorted by the archdeacon into a blasphemous denial of Christ's Divinity (Socr. were needed to extort forgiveness for Severian. who even placed her infant son on Chrysostom's knees in the church of the Apostles as an irresistible plea for yielding to her petition. E. He had called the empress Jezebel.

who replied with an indignant remonstrance against protecting heretics and interfering in the affairs of another diocese. 12. vi. 9. H." was intolerable from the brilliancy of his virtues. Soz. Socr. H.] To pave the way for the execution of this plot Theophilus induced Epiphanius. 142). 7. "like a lamp burning before sore eyes. devised a scheme for turning the tables upon Chrysostom. pp. E. by which the tenets of Origen which the Nitrian monks were charged with holding were condemned. and written in their behalf to Theophilus. A pretext for his interference was afforded by the hospitality shewn by Chrysostom and his friends to some Egyptian monks. vol. but really because they were privy to his own avarice and other vices (Isid. pp. de Recipiendo Severiano. The allusion to Jezebel was not forgiven by Eudoxia. to visit Constantinople. Theophilus was summoned to appear before a council for the investigation of the whole case of these Nitrian monks. u. The clergy were eager to rid themselves of one who. with the decrees of a council recently held in Cyprus. 10–14. 14). A personal appeal to Eudoxia secured them this. of Salamis. and Soz.). Epiphanius . 51–62. checked for the time. known from their remarkable stature as "the Tall Brethren" [AMMONIUS]. the venerable bp. nominally because of their Origenistic views. [DIOSCORUS. while their calumniators were called upon to substantiate their charges or suffer punishment. The secret intrigues. Theophilus. E. p. Chrysostom had received them kindly. however. H. The monks claimed the right of prosecuting their defamers (Pallad. Pelusiot.interceded for him with the populace (Hom. in the words of Palladius. viii. for Chrysostom's signature (Socr. and transforming the council into one before which Chrysostom himself might be arraigned (Pallad. soon broke out afresh. of Alexandria.s. vi. E. Such a leader was found in Theophilus. 13). and the semblance of peace was restored (Socr. E. viii. All they wanted was a powerful leader. and Severian was equally implacable. Soz. Ep i. bp. who had been unwillingly compelled to consecrate Chrysostom. 492–494). H. whom Theophilus had treated with great injustice and cruelty. iii. 64).

Soz. He received a vociferous welcome from the crews of the Egyptian corn-ships. 16. ad Innocent. He assumed as patriarch of Alexandria the supremacy over all Eastern bishops. 14. probably unaware of the plans of the secret cabal. He refused all communications with Chrysostom. viii. dying on his voyage or soon after his return (Socr.petulantly declined the honours and hospitality prepared for him until Chrysostom had formally condemned Origen and expelled "the Tall Brethren. The relations between the two prelates were further embittered by the ordination of a deacon by Epiphanius in violation of the canons of the church (Socr. and had condemned them on hearsay. An interview with the accused monks. 11). Chrys. He refused to take any further share in the designs of Theophilus. and claimed . by flattery. not of a defendant about to take his trial. H. E. and splendid gifts. rejected all his offers of hospitality. E. 12–14. H. Arcadius. 15). viii. No better success attended Epiphanius's attempt to obtain a condemnation of Origen from the bishops then at Constantinople. laden with costly presents. assuming the position of an ecclesiastical superior. at which Epiphanius was obliged to acknowledge that he had not read a page of their writings. Theophilus had no such scruples. and set sail for Cyprus. Pallad. but the bishops and clergy of the city kept aloof. which Chrysostom justified by his unwillingness to usurp a jurisdiction not legitimately his (Socr. remonstrated with Chrysostom for his delay in proceeding to Theophilus's trial. accompanied by a bodyguard of rough sailors from his own city of Alexandria. E. H. The three weeks between his arrival and the commencement of the synod were devoted to ingratiating himself with influential personages and the disaffected clergy. 1). openly declared that he had come to depose Chrysostom for grave offences. H. Ep. vi. Soz." Chrysostom replied that he left both to the coming council. seems to have opened his eyes to the real character of Theophilus and the nature of the transaction in which he had become an agent. E. vi. 66. and. E. 65. sumptuous banquets. and would not prejudge the matter. Shortly after Epiphanius's departure Theophilus arrived at Constantinople. H. 15. vi.

on the other side of the Bosphorus. of whom all but seven were Egyptians. and had violated the rule as to fasting communion." where was a large church with contiguous buildings for the clergy and monks. 59. Four times was Chrysostom summoned to appear before the self- . as metropolitan. The Asiatic bishops were mainly such as Chrysostom had made his enemies during his recent visitation. to ritual 164irregularities—"he robed and unrobed himself on his episcopal throne.). 74).the right of summoning Chrysostom as a suffragan before his tribunal.). Cod. comparing her to Jezebel (Pallad. They had reference to the administration of his church and the alleged malversation of its funds.D. and witnesses" (Phot. ad Cyr. and he was charged with invading the jurisdiction of other prelates (Phot. the members of which were at the same time "judges. Ep. 66). The place chosen was a suburb of Chalcedon. To this packed council. 125. to his having ordained unworthy persons. The presidential chair was occupied by the bp. p. and on this his enemies chiefly relied. whom he had deposed. p. and heretical deductions were drawn from some incautious and enthusiastic expressions in his sermons. A. This was construed into exciting the people to rebellion. Theophilus's suffragans. formed the council. Chrys. A second list of charges under 18 heads was presented by Isaac the monk. accusers. p. 59. The most flagrant charge was that of uttering treasonable words against the empress. None was more hostile than Gerontius of Nicomedia. of Heraclea. The sessions lasted 14 days. to his private habits—"he had private interviews with women"—"he dined gluttonously by himself as a cyclops would eat". In these the accusation of violence and inhospitality was renewed. Chrysostom was summoned to answer to a list of charges containing 29 articles drawn up by the archdeacon John. to his violent and tyrannical behaviour towards his clergy. others grossly exaggerated. in the middle of July. known as "the Oak. Many of these were contemptibly frivolous. Apprehensive of the well-known popularity of Chrysostom with the lower orders. Thirty-six bishops. ad init. and ate a lozenge after celebration" (Pallad. Cod. 403. 66). some entirely false (Pallad. he dared not venture to hold a synod in Constantinople.

But irregular as the synod was. and quietly surrendered himself to the imperial officers. By a unanimous vote it condemned Chrysostom as contumacious and deposed him from his bishopric. by whom he was conducted after dark to the harbour and put on board a vessel which conveyed him to Hieron at the mouth of the Euxine. as the evening wore on. Soz. H. lest he should be forcibly carried off. were forcibly dislodged. Severianus. His reply was dignified and unwavering. were removed from the number of the judges. E. Furious at the loss of their revered teacher. H. forty in number. to appear before it. the sentence on their beloved bishop became generally known. E. not without bloodshed. vi. The imperial rescript confirming the sentence of deposition. viii. and Antiochus. He refused to present himself before a packed synod of his enemies. who had crowded to the churches to pour forth their lamentations. if his avowed enemies. Chrysostom summoned a counter-synod of bishops attached to his cause. they thronged the approaches to the imperial palace. To this it yielded prompt obedience. simply condemned the bishop to banishment for life. to which he was summoned by his own clergy. when. At its twelfth sitting a message from the court urged the packed synod to come to a speedy decision. Theophilus.appointed tribunal. A crowd collected round Chrysostom's residence. The people. As this proposal met with no response. his enemies secretly hoping for a capital sentence (Socr. A word from him would have raised an insurrection. The indignation of the people knew no bounds. he expressed his readiness. The victory of his enemies seemed complete. during the noontide meal. 17). Acacius. 15. . however. Theophilus entered the city in triumphal state and wreaked vengeance on the bishop's partisans. and kept watch for 3 days and nights at its doors and those of the great church. whose letter of remonstrance to Theophilus was treated with contempt. and he appealed to a lawfully constituted general council. he slipped out unperceived by a side door. in the interests of peace. On the third day. But the sermons he addressed to the vast multitudes in the cathedral advocated patience and resignation to the Divine Will. The charge of uttering treasonable words was left to the civil power.

v. Messengers were dispatched to discover the exiled prelate. H. 19. p. viii. Soz. The people suspected another plot. E. 34. Chrysostom at first halted outside the city. viii. ad Innocent. Pallad. vi. while a more formidable danger was to be apprehended if the general council. v. hoping for a turn in the tide. of Constantinople. E. c. v. E.). Chrys. Soz. Theophilus. Fearing a serious outbreak. 16. 34). Theod. As a loyal subject he obeyed. His flight was speedily followed by the assembling of a council of about 60 bishops. which Chrysostom prevailed on the emperor to convoke. and loudly denounced the emperor and empress. Hist. Ep. On the plea that his diocese could no longer put up with his absence. H. The Bosphorus blazed with torches and resounded with songs of triumph (Theod. and sailed by night for Alexandria (Socr. H. E. which annulled the proceedings at the council of the Oak. 18. bearing letters couched in terms of the most abject humiliation. and some of the leaders of the cabal. H. lingered on in Constantinople. But they were now the unpopular party. met and proceeded to inquire into his conduct. and declared Chrysostom still legitimate bp. E. E. vi. H. and entreated him to avert the wrath of Heaven by revoking Chrysostom's sentence. H. 17. Late as it was. claiming to be acquitted by a general council before resuming his see. a whole fleet of barques put forth to meet him. felt with peculiar violence in the bedroom of Eudoxia. Constantinople was almost in revolt (Socr. 23. Arcadius sent a secretary to desire Chrysostom to enter the walls without delay. The following night the city was convulsed by an earthquake. The empress fell at Arcadius's feet. His triumph was now as complete as that of his enemies a few days before. Theophilus abruptly left the city. The person of Theophilus was no longer safe in Constantinople. The news of Chrysostom's recall caused universal rejoicing. Zosim. carried into the church. and forced to deliver an extemporaneous address.clamouring for his restoration and demanding that his cause should be heard before a general council. placed on his episcopal seat. and could hardly shew themselves in the streets without being attacked and ill-treated. 15). This judicial sentence removed all . On passing the gates he was borne aloft by the crowd.

For months past Chrysostom had been wearying the emperor with demands for a general council. The noise of this unseemly merriment penetrated the church and disturbed the sacred services. Acacius. 68. "Herodias." he was reported to Eudoxia to have exclaimed. One or other must yield (Socr. Theophilus. E. p. viii. and he mounted the 165 ambo and thundered forth a homily. 20. and he resumed his episcopal duties (Soz. Chrysostom's holy indignation took fire. and the result could not be doubtful. in front of the church of St. vi. hastened from their dioceses." All her former fury revived. embracing in its fierce invective all who had any share in these profane amusements. once more Herodias demands the head of John on a charger. 18. E. Sophia. H. Its dedication in Sept. and awakened a still more irreconcilable feud. The first result of the failure of the machinations of Chrysostom's enemies was an apparently complete reconciliation between him and the empress. 24). too wary to appear again on the scene of his defeat. "is once more maddening. i9).Chrysostom's scruples. circumstances arose which proved the unreality of the friendship. who seemed entirely to have forgotten her former resentment. Let such a council be called. above all. Antiochus. and she demanded of the emperor signal redress. and let this fresh outburst of treasonable language be laid before it. But. bearing aloft her silver statue for the adoration of the people. directed the machinations of the plotters. H. v. and were soon in close conference with their former confederates among the fashionable dames and worldly and frivolous clergy of the city. He put a new and powerful tool in their hands. within two months. After repeated deliberations they decided their policy. the arrogant woman whose ambition was the cause of them. A column of porphyry was erected in the lesser forum. with other members of the old cabal. Herodias is once more dancing. Sacerdotal and imperial authority stood confronted. in the 12th canon of the council of more than doubtful orthodoxy held at . Theophan. 403 was accompanied by boisterous and licentious revelry. care being taken to select its members discreetly. Eudoxia aspired to semi-divine honours. E. Severian. H. viii. Soz. The enemies of Chrysostom were not slow in reappearing. Zosim.

on the ground of the doubtful legality of Chrysostom's position (Socr. An adroit demand was made in Chrysostom's favour by Elpidius. The synod continued its protracted session. Meanwhile Easter was fast approaching. The emperor was amused. but were compelled to promise a compliance. 80). quietly. "He had received the church from God. p. after deposition. Acacius and Antiochus. 81). It would be intolerable if the emperor were a second time shut out from his cathedral on a chief festival of the church. in the cathedral. A. An imperial officer was sent to desire the bishop to leave the church immediately. and he would not desert it.D. if not. Chrysostom's violation of the Antiochene canon had deposed him: he was no longer bp. which their astuteness had little difficulty in evading. The synod determined to submit the decision to the emperor. pronouncing the ipso facto deprivation of any bishop who. maintained his usual calm confidence. Chrysostom must be at once removed: if possible. Chrysostom respectfully but firmly refused. 81). that the chief promulgators of the canon of Antioch. u. appealed to the secular arm for restoration. The two bishops caught in the trap became livid with rage (ἐπἐ τἸ πελιδνἸτερον μεταβαλἸ ντες τἸ ν πορφἸ ν . according to custom. Pallad. 341.s. by force. the aged bp. We have no record of any formal decision or sentence. himself a confessor for the faith. p.Antioch. The emperor might expel him forcibly if he pleased. of Constantinople. should subscribe a declaration that they were of the same faith as its original authors. He continued to preach to his people. Arcadius was persuaded to order his removal (ib.). This was justly regarded as ominous of Chrysostom's condemnation. The council met towards the end of 403." When the time arrived for the great baptismal function on . who were mainly Arians.. Assured by Antiochus and his companions that Chrysostom had been actually condemned and had ceased to be a bishop. of Laodicea. p. supported by 42 bishops. His violence would be his excuse before God for leaving his post. Soz. Chrysostom. and at once agreed to the proposal. None indeed was necessary. On the succeeding Christmas Day the emperor refused to communicate. and his sermons were characterized by more than common vigour and unction (Pallad.

which. The soldiers. being no longer a bishop. and chased along the dark streets by the brutal soldiery. and reconduct him to his domestic prison. Other soldiers forced open the holy doors. shrieking into the streets. licentious soldiers. The emperor. were forcibly ejected. and that they would take his deposition on their own heads" (ib. The clergy. some to the baptisteries. The baptisteries appropriated to the females were invaded by the rude. some up the nave to the sacred bema and altar. rude barbarians from Thrace. The candidates were again approaching the laver of regeneration. The catechumens were driven from the font at the point of the sword. and reproached them for their advice. despite the orders of the emperor. sword in hand. They replied that "Chrysostom. became sacred baptisteries. p. executed their commission with indiscriminating ferocity. 81). half-dressed. Suddenly the din of arms broke the solemn stillness. and rushed. overjoyed at having the responsibility of the bishop's condemnation removed from himself. Sophia. p. some of whom. had dared to gaze on and even to handle the Eucharistic elements. to keep the vigil of the Resurrection. "the waters of regeneration were stained with blood" (ib. and the sanctuary was profaned by the presence of pagans. burst in. The ministering priest received a wound on the head. and. With holy courage the dispersed catechumens were reassembled by their clergy in the baths of Constantine. hastily blessed by the priests. at once ordered some guards to drag Chrysostom from the cathedral as usurping functions no longer his. he calmly left his residence. and proceeded to the cathedral. was acting illegally in administering the sacraments. 82). The imperial guards. when no fewer than 3. The sacrament of baptism was being administered to the long files of catechumens. forbidden to use force. as an eye-witness records. clad in their sacred robes. who drove the women. dared not interfere. when they were once more forcibly dispersed by the emissaries of Antiochus.000 catechumens were expected.Easter Eve. A vast crowd was assembled in the church of St. The perplexed emperor summoned Acacius and Antiochus. it was whispered with horror. a blow on the arm caused the deacon to drop . A body of soldiers. Many were wounded.

The women were plundered of their robes and ornaments. The fugitives were maltreated and beaten. caught the roof. which was again guarded by successive detachments of his adherents. which are said to have broken out first in the episcopal throne. The partisans of Chrysostom—the Joannites. Socr. vi. Zosim. A. with two bishops who refused to desert him. Arcadius was persuaded to sign the edict of banishment. 24). as they began to be called—were thrown into prison on the slightest suspicion. the clergy of their vestments. For two months the timid Arcadius could not be prevailed upon to sign the decree for Chrysostom's banishment. H. To guard against a popular outbreak. pp. 18. viii. H. however unjustly entertained. resolved that the church of their beloved . and the extemporized altar of its holy vessels. and many dragged off to prison. Pallad. 404. E. prepared with calm submission to yield it prompt obedience. 82–88).—At last. pp. Ep. He had scarcely left the city when the church he had just quitted took fire. viii. 22. (e) Exile. Chrysostom. Pallad. after a final prayer in the cathedral with some of his faithful bishops. H. who conveyed him. pp. 21). and Chrysostom continued to reside in his palace. v. the flames. For the greater part of Easter week Constantinople was like a city that had been stormed. E.D. pp. Private dwellings were invaded to discover clandestine assemblies. Soz. 89–90. Similar scenes were enacted wherever the scattered congregations endeavoured to reunite. His life was twice attempted by assassins (Soz. he passed out unobserved at a small postern and surrendered himself to the guard. E. on June 5. The suspicion. ap. and the conflagration spread to the senate house and adjacent public buildings (ib. 91–92. he directed that his horse should be saddled and taken to the great west entrance. that this fire was due to Chrysostom's adherents. ad Innocent. and after a tender farewell of his beloved Olympias and her attendant deaconesses. The horrors of that night remained indelibly imprinted on 166the minds of those who witnessed them. and were spoken of long afterwards with shuddering.the cruet of sacred chrism. 17–20. and scourged and tortured to compel them to implicate others (Chrys. to a vessel which instantly started under cover of night for the Asiatic shore (Pallad.

9). by the 40 friendly bishops. 24. To the charge of incendiarism was added that of contumacious resistance to the emperor's will. All other help failing. not only in Constantinople but in Asia Minor and Syria—endeavours which only deepened their attachment to him. 10). E. pronounced the synod that had condemned Chrysostom irregular. Others barely escaped with their lives. p. Theophilus and his adherents sent counterrepresentations (ib. v. E. Innocent persons of every age and sex were put to the torture. 26). The most persevering endeavours were made to stamp out the adherents of the banished prelate. Some did not reach their place of banishment alive. The tender heart of Chrysostom was wrung upon hearing of the sufferings inflicted on his friends. maimed and mutilated (Soz. E. p. and wrote authoritative letters to the chief parties. to Chrysostom himself sympathy and encouragement (ib. the persecuted party appealed to the Western church as represented by its chief bishops. urging the convocation of a general synod. in the vain hope that they would inculpate leading members of their party. viii. in refusing to hold communion with Arsacius and Atticus. and he persuaded Honorius to write a letter to his brother Arcadius. 34). and confirmed their resolution never to yield (Theod. Letters were sent addressed to Innocent. of Rome. fine. H. Innocent. led to a relentless persecution of the Joannites under the semblance of a judicial investigation. and imprisonment. Venerius of Milan. without hesitation. to the Constantinopolitan clergy fatherly sympathy. viii. H. Soz. by Chrysostom himself. H. and by the clergy of Constantinople (Pallad. [ARSACIUS and ATTICUS] This was made a crime punishable with degradation from official rank. The clergy faithful to Chrysostom were deposed. and banished with every circumstance of brutality. 22–24). and annulled his deposition because pronounced in the absence of the accused. The presbyter Tigrius and the young reader Eutropius expired under their torturer's hands. This letter was conveyed to Constantinople . who in succession had been thrust into Chrysostom's see. pp. especially upon his dearly loved Olympias. To Theophilus he addressed sharp reproof. and Chromatius of Aquileia.teacher should never be possessed by his enemies. 23. bp.

The letters they bore were wrested from them. he would offend them. suffering from a fresh attack of . His clergy were Joannites almost to a man: if he treated Chrysostom badly. viii. if well. He was received with enthusiastic affection by all ranks in the city. p. 77). the thumb of one of the bishops being broken in the struggle. Refreshing breezes from lake Ascanius invigorated his worn constitution. Driven out by their fury. on the borders of Cilicia and Lesser Armenia. while sending complimentary messages. Chrysostom's place of exile. Chrysostom first learnt at Nicaea the place of his future abode. selected by Eudoxia's hatred. and sent home with every mark of contumely (Pallad. Anatolius and Theodorus. and helped him to face the long and sultry journey. This was not so easy. pp. and used all means to dispatch him from Caesarea as quickly as possible. More dead than alive. for a severe access of his habitual ague-fever had compelled Chrysostom to seek medical aid (Ep. So. They were insulted. His disappointment was severe. he reached Caesarea. who threatened to bum it over his head unless he instantly quitted it. and his conductors were instructed to push on with the utmost speed. without regard to his strength or comfort. was Cucusus. The bishops were not allowed admission to his presence. But Arcadius was not a free agent. he carefully avoided an interview. 12). but remonstrance was vain. was greatly troubled at a halt being fixed at Caesarea. Chrysostom. Whatever kind consideration could do to mitigate his sufferings was done by the officers in charge. The bp. 28). On July 5 Chrysostom left Nicaea to traverse the scorching plains of Galatia and Cappadocia under a midsummer sun. 30–33. maltreated. E. It had a most inclement climate and was exposed to perpetual inroads from Isaurian marauders. It was the season when the heat was most oppressive. His lodging 167was attacked by a body of fanatical monks. who gladly executed for him all the duties of personal servants. probably the tools of Pharetrius. Soz. a lonely mountain village in the Tauric range. he would incur the more terrible wrath of the empress. H. Pharetrius.by a deputation of Western bishops. an unworthy successor of the great Basil and a concealed enemy of Chrysostom (Pallad.

But the threats of Pharetrius prevailed on Seleucia to turn Chrysostom out of doors in the middle of the night. extended his pastoral care to the missions of Persia and Scythia. "the three years spent at Cucusus were the most glorious of his life. shews how close a connexion he kept up with the clergy and laity of his former diocese. on the pretext that the barbarians were at hand. His reception was of a nature to compensate for the fatigues of the way and to mitigate the trials of exile (Ep. § 1). of Constantinople did he exert a wider and more powerful influence. and the extirpation of heresy in the isle of Cyprus. From that solitude Chrysostom. His chief cause of suffering was the variable climate and the length and severity of the winter. The dangers of that terrible night. and in social intercourse with congenial friends. H. found refuge in the country house of a wealthy lady near." His voluminous correspondence. viii. E. Chrysostom joined the fugitives. urged the destruction of the temples of Phoenicia. He found agreeable occupation in writing and receiving letters. 14). 27). He reached Cucusus towards the end of August. In the winter of 405 the intelligence that the Isaurian brigands were intending a coup de main on Cucusus drove nearly the whole of the inhabitants from the town. and how unremitting was his oversight of the interests of his church (Soz. and that he must seek safety by flight. his mule having fallen under the weight of his litter. are graphically described in his letters to Olympias (Epp. His advice was sought from all quarters. 12. named Seleucia. which all belongs to this period. exhorted the separate congregations of his faithful adherents to persevere in their allegiance. The feeble old man with a few .fever. whose active mind was invigorated by misfortunes. Never even as bp. and negotiated by his ambassadors with the Roman pontiff and the emperor Honorius. The East was almost governed from a mountain village of Armenia. maintained a strict and frequent correspondence with the most distant provinces. when the fugitives' torches were extinguished for fear of the Isaurians and. In the words of Gibbon. he was taken up for dead and had to be dragged or rather carried along the precipitous mountain tracks. 14. No important ecclesiastical measure was undertaken without consulting him.

and deprived of the comfort of his friends' letters. and the manner in which his feeble health. His wonderful preservation from dangers hitherto.faithful companions. 69. After Arabissus this desolate little town seemed a paradise. the long and toilsome journey had not previously quenched the feeble spark of .E. and therefore the most certain to rid them quickly of his hated existence. and all but took the town (Ep. 127. shores of the Euxine. as proved to be the case. 1. 96). 4. and Chrysostom was able to descend to Cucusus early in 406. often passing the night in forests or ravines. This was chosen as the most ungenial and inhospitable spot in the whole empire. "more a prison than a home. 142). 131). the roads being blocked with snow and beset by the Isaurians who ravaged the whole district with fire and sword (Epp. some 60 miles from Cucusus. harassed by the fear of famine and pestilence." he spent a winter of intense suffering. pursued by the terror of the Isaurians. The unhappy Eudoxia had preceded the victim of her hatred to the grave. including the presbyter Evethius and the aged deaconess Sabiniana. 4). became invigorated. p. and he now confidently anticipated his return from banishment and his resumption of the care of his diocese (Epp. 2. even if. instead of sinking under the accumulated trials of his banishment. and that from his mountain banishment he exercised a daily growing influence. but left other equally relentless enemies behind. wandered from place to place. His greatest joy was in being nearer his friends and receiving their letters more regularly (Epp. With the return of spring the Isaurians retired. in the castle of which place. but Chrysostom was now somewhat acclimatized and endured them without a recurrence of illness (Epp. unable to procure his usual medicines. and then to the small town of Pityus at the roots of Caucasus on the bleak N. 15. who made a nocturnal attack. 127. Once he narrowly escaped falling into the hands of the marauders. they obtained a rescript from Arcadius transferring him first to Arabissus (Pallad. awoke sanguine anticipations. 135). A third winter brought its usual hardships. 61. until they reached the mountain fort of Arabissus. But this was not to be. 126. 70. Stung with disappointment that the rigours of Cucusus had failed to kill him. 128).

Chrysostom's body was taken from its grave near Comana and translated with great pomp to his own episcopal city. pp. in the 60th year of his age and 10th of his episcopate. The journey was to be made on foot. 438). a hint being privately given that they might expect promotion if he died on the road (ib." and having sealed it with an "Amen. 168partook of the blessed Eucharist. In the morning Chrysostom begged for a brief respite in vain. Thirty-one years afterwards (Jan. the least communication with passers-by punished with brutal blows. Towns where he might enjoy any approach to comfort and have the refreshment of a warm bath were to be avoided. clothed in white baptismal robes. 27. p. with instructions to push forward with the most merciless haste. when Theodosius II.life. But his pitiless guard hurried him through the town without a moment's halt. by the sun. and deposited hard . was bp. of Constantinople. regardless of weather or the health of their prisoner. On reaching Comana it was evident that Chrysostom was entirely worn out." uttered his accustomed doxology. and. p. prayed a last prayer "for present needs. Basiliscus. he distributed his own clothes to the bystanders. was emperor. 3 years and a quarter of which he had spent in exile. 98). but he had gone scarcely four miles when a violent attack of fever compelled them to return to the chapel. All letters were forbidden. 407. were to be at squalid villages or in the unsheltered country. Here they halted for the night." yielded up his soul to his Saviour. the three months' journey between Cucusus and Comana must have been one long slow martyrdom to the fever-stricken old man. and. to adopt Palladius's forcible image. In spite of some approach to consideration on the part of one of his guards. The necessary halts. Chrysostom was supported to the altar. and Proclus. 14. "Glory be to God for all things. His body was almost calcined. Sept. as few and brief as possible. Five or six miles outside stood a chapel over the tomb of the martyred bishop. He was buried in the martyry by the side of Basiliscus (ib. formerly a disciple of Chrysostom. resembled a ripe apple ready to fall from the tree (ib. 99). 99–101). This murderous purpose was plainly evidenced by the selection of two specially ferocious and brutal praetorian guards to convey him there.

But however austere and reserved to the worldly and . equipage. E. E. Evagr. and so emaciated by early austerities and habitual self-denial that he compares himself to a spider (Ἰ ραχν δης Ἰ . and an impatience at their inability to accept his high standard. the place of sepulture of the imperial family and of the bishops of Constantinople. Enamoured of the cloister. his cheeks pallid and withered. a want of consideration for the weaknesses of others. who. His stature was diminutive (σωμἸτιον). He was easily offended and too ready to credit evil of those whom he disliked. v. as described by contemporary writers. his personal wants few and easily satisfied. manly independence." his eyes deeply set. Not mixing with the world himself. iv. his limbs long. vii. 45. he was too dependent on the reports of his friends. The excessive austerities of his youth had ruined his digestive powers and he was unable to eat food except in the smallest quantities and of the plainest kind. Outward display in dress. Intolerant of evil in himself. furrowed with wrinkles. he had little tolerance for it in other men. the life of the bishop of the capital of the Eastern world. the young emperor and his sister Pulcheria assisting at the ceremony. He was accused of being arrogant and passionate. sometimes abused his confidence to their own purposes. his chin pointed and covered with a short beard. The personal appearance of Chrysostom. E. Theod. His feebleness of stomach produced an irritability of temper. Ep. and dauntless courage were united with an inflexibility of purpose. expanded widely at the summit. H. which rendered him harsh and unconciliatory. H. 36. 4). compelled by his position to associate with persons of the highest rank and magnificence of life. His habits were of the simplest. his head was bald "like that of Elisha. 31). though dignified. was intolerable. as in the case of Serapion. which sometimes led to violent outbursts of anger. or furniture was most distasteful to him. but keen and piercing. and asking the pardon of Heaven for the grievous wrong inflicted by their parents on the sainted bishop (Socr. was not imposing.by the altar in the church of the Holy Apostles. H. His very lofty forehead. His strength of will. It is not surprising that he was thought morose and ungenial and was unpopular with the upper classes.

justly ranked among his ablest. The three books de Providentiâ. and perhaps few ever exercised a more powerful influence over the hearts and affections of the holiest and most exalted natures. to inspire affection and kindle resentment. written to console his friend Stagirius. Its . he was ever loving and genial to his chosen associates. if he was so beloved. His character is well summed up by Dr. Before ordination to the priesthood he composed two letters on the superior happiness of a single life (ad Viduam Juniorem) and his treatise on celibacy (de Virginitate).D. Homilies. Comparatio Regis et Monachi. (d) general IV. V. Letters . Treatises II. his fixed grasp of his aim. written while Chrysostom was still resident at Antioch before A. cheerful. chiefly III.e. and placed by Socrates (H. His three books in defence of the monastic life (adversus Oppugnatores Vitae Monasticae) were called forth by the decree of Valens enforcing military service and civil functions on monks.D. were probably composed after his return to Antioch. Treatises." Chrysostom's extant works are more voluminous than those of any other Father.E.luxurious. . in the form of Homilies. 372. (see supra). the subject of an hysterical seizure then identified with demoniacal possession. his noble earnestness. ii. 382." his unrivalled charm "lying in his singleness of purpose. but his friends loved him with a love 'stronger' than 'death. .—The earliest works we have from his pen are his letters ad Theodorum Lapsum. i. I. gentle soul. he was indeed a man to make both friends and enemies. His short treatise. 373. Expositions of Scripture. c. (b) occasional. (c) panegyrical. Liturgy. Newman—"a bright. They may be roughly divided into—I. In their company his natural playfulness and amiability was shewn. To his early monastic life we may assign the two books de Compunctione. addressed respectively to Demetrius and Stelechius. A. filling 13 folios in the Benedictine ed. (a) doctrinal. and most eloquent writings. belongs to the same period. are among his earliest. subsequently to 381. 3) in the first days of his diaconate.' and his enemies hated him with a hatred more burning than 'hell. His six books de Sacerdotio. vi.' and it was well to be so hated. i. most instructive. but partly continuous Commentaries.

398. holding that though its writers "spoke as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. The treatises denouncing the custom for the clergy to have "spiritual sisters" residing under the same roof with them (contra eos qui subintroductas habent." they retained their personal individuality. He seeks to discover not what the passage before him may be made to mean. not what recondite lessons or truths may be forced from it by mystical or allegorical interpretations. find instead a vehement denunciation of some reigning vice or fashionable folly. Expositions of Scripture. incorrectly assigned by Socrates (ib. 45). of Constantinople. and avoiding the erroneous plan of treating texts as isolated gnomes.) to his diaconate. Palladius tells us (p. Cod. were written. do not give any continuous or systematic exegesis of the text. but what it was intended to convey. he is far from ignoring the human element in it. and to the general teaching of Scripture. looking for the meaning of a difficult passage. not superseded by divine inspiration. and Ad eos qui scandalizati sunt ob adversitates.—It is as an expositor of Scripture that Chrysostom is most deservedly celebrated. He regards the Scriptures as a connected whole. but what it was intended to mean. . but what may be legitimately elicited from it.maturity of thought and sobriety of tone prevent our fixing this work at a much earlier period. His primary object was a practical one—the conversion and edification of his hearers—and he frequently disappoints those who. no sentence of which must be neglected. introduced by his tutor Diodorus. His method of dealing with the divine Word is characterized by the sound grammatical and historical principles and the healthy common sense. While regarding Scripture in the strictest sense as the word of God. Regulares foeminae viris cohabitare non. Phot. 169not what may be introduced into it. debent). that their natural powers were quickened and illuminated. which mark the exegetical school of Antioch. His expository works. c. To his exile belong the Nemo laeditur nisi a seipso. being chiefly homiletic. he seeks always to view a passage in relation to its context. II. or an earnest exhortation to cultivate some Christian grace or virtue (cf. 174). after he became bp.

collected at an early period with great critical acumen. xliii. i. i. also preached at Antioch. The secret of their inferiority is that they were written at Constantinople in the midst of the troubles arising from Gainas and the Goths. xli.T. (inclusive). The only extant commentary on any part of Jeremiah is one "on free will. The only other homilies on the historical books of O. cviii. delivered at Antioch. de Mutatione Nominum. 174). being chiefly against the Anomoeans. delivered earlier in the same year. as also were the 24 . from the beginning to the end. when he had no time for studied composition.–xii. Chrysostom's general views on prophecy are given in two sermons de Prophetiarum Obscuritate. St. 11 is extant. and three on David and Saul.T. The 55 homilies on Acts are among his feeblest works. and the line of interpretation jejune. does not belong to the series. He delivered homilies on the whole book of Psalms. and 8 shorter and slighter. iii. and ii. The fourth of these belongs to a different series. Thomas Aquinas is reported to have said that he would rather possess these homilies than be the master of all Paris. vi. Among those extant are the 67 Homilies on Genesis. 23.D.-cl. which belongs to a different series. preached at Antioch. 7. On Isaiah a continuous commentary was composed by Chrysostom. x. There are none on Mark or Luke.–xlix.. The style is inelegant. of which we have only those on Ps. are five on the narrative of Hannah in I. There is a homily on the opening verses of Ps." Jer. the language unrefined. There is a series of six homilies on the opening verses of c. commence with 90 on Matthew. His commentaries on N. 387. (Phot. sermons on topics from Gen. justly ranked by Montfaucon "inter nobilissimas. Samuel. These are more doctrinal than hortatory or practical." The Synopsis Sacrae Scripturae is an imperfect work. xiv.-viii... assigned by Tillemont to A.. ending with Nahum. but we have 88 on St. As early as Photius the gaps indicated already existed. in Oziam seu de Seraphinis.We are told by Suidas and Cassiodorus that Chrysostom wrote commentaries on the whole of Holy Scripture. To these we may add a homily on Is.. but more florid and rhetorical. The ninth of these sermons. John's Gospel. Cod. but only the part on cc.

we have 44 homilies. Cor. (c) Panegyrical. the 10 on II... Thess." Soon after he wrote the 8 against the Jews and Judaizing Christians (contra Judaeos). which were certainly delivered at Antioch. and 30 on II.. a presbyter. in the first year of his presbyterate. To these we may add homilies delivered on the great Church festivals. from notes by Constantine. is continuous. the 11 on I." The earliest is probably that commemorating . (a) Doctrinal..D. "They are. at Antioch. the 33 on Rom. "among the finest of his productions. and pub. III. Tim. the 15 on Phil. On I. preached at Antioch.—Not a few of his grandest flights of Christian oratory were called forth by the events of the stirring times in which he lived." writes Stephens.. to his ministry at Antioch. on the insurrection of Gainas.. and the 5 on II. (b) Occasional. The commentary on Gal. and the 6 on Tit.. A. From some marks of negligence the three on Philemon have been thought to be extemporaneous addresses taken down by others.. Homilies. on the troubles connected with Severian. Another class includes orations delivered at Constantinople on the fall of Eutropius. 387. and the noble and pathetic series connected with his own deposition and exile. The most remarkable is the series of 21 "on the Statues" (ad Populum Antiochenum de Statuis). which hardly reach Chrysostom's highest standard of excellence. for the circumstances of which see supra. are among his most elaborate discourses. Montfaucon correctly assigns the 18 homilies on I.—The chief of these are the 12 delivered against the Anomoean form of Arianism.—These deserve careful attention as illustrating "the passionate devotion to the memory of departed saints which was rapidly passing into actual adoration. not in the homiletical form. and a somewhat hasty work. of which the former series "have ever been considered by devout men as among the most perfect specimens of his mind and teaching" (Keble). the 12 on Col. after Chrysostom's death.. On the other hand. Cor.homilies on Eph. Tim. Thess. The 34 on Hebrews were delivered at Constantinople. Nowhere does he shew more argumentative power or greater skill in developing his author's meaning.

. St. of Christ. The others are mostly devoted to the eulogy of the bishops and martyrs of the church of Antioch. dramatic in manner" (Milman. Ignatius. now addressing reproof. Letters. while he is an unrivalled master in that rapid and forcible application of incidental occurrences which gives such life and reality to eloquence. He is at times. and heaped extravagant laudations on the empress Eudoxia and on Arcadius during his ardent but short-lived friendship with them at the outset of his episcopate. His doctrines flow naturally from his subject or from the passage of Scripture under discussion. Eustathius. written to every variety of friend—men of rank. written on his road to Cucusus. e.his venerated spiritual father Meletius. Chrysostom delivered a homily on the day of the commemoration of the emperor Theodosius. presbyters. expository and practical. his style free and fluent.g. bishops. and that deservedly. deacons and deaconesses. his dogmatic is essentially moulded up with his moral teaching. and numerous ones on single texts or separate parables. who shared his hopes and fears and all his inmost feelings. Domnina and her two daughters. Clear. Babylas. or consolation to the members . his illustrations are copious and happy. monks and missionaries.—Among these we include those belonging to the Christian life generally. during his residence there. the 9 de Poenitentia. warning. St. encouragement. de Perfecta Caritate.D. The most important are 17 addressed to the deaconess Olympias. in the highest sense. . IV. (d) General. A. . and his more recent acquaintances at Caesarea and other halting-places on his journey—and including every variety of subject. St. his old friends at Antioch and Constantinople. He was in truth "the model of a preacher for a great capital. iii. ecclesiastics of every grade. rather than profound. Hist.—The whole of Chrysostom's extant letters belong to his banishment. Pelagia. de Consolatione Mortis. ladies. The whole number is 242. or chapels erected over their remains. 9). 2 Catecheses ad Illuminandos. or in the fortress of Arabissus. Chrysostom's fame chiefly rests. On his homilies. St. St. and were delivered at the martyria. 386. 170those de Continentia. and others.

now vigorously helping forward the missionary work in Phoenicia. at Paris. i. and by great sweetness and persuasive power (Phot. There are very many editions of the liturgy. The best and most complete edition of Chrysostom. is the Benedictine. of course. as of most of the Christian Fathers. no two of which. they are characterized by his usual brilliancy and clearness. It would be. Lit. in 13 . It was pub. The liturgy known in comparatively late times by the name of Chrysostom has been from time immemorial that of the church of Constantinople.of his flock at Constantinople. all that is implied is that it was in use in the church to which that Father belonged. now urging the prosecution of the appeal made in his behalf to Innocent and the Western bishops. In style. and expressing his hope that through the prayers of his friends he would be speedily given to them again. according to Cave (Hist. present the same text. or their clergy. and that it may have owed some corrections and improvements to him. and at Paris in 1834–1839. When a liturgy is called by the name of any Father. and the whole poured forth with the undoubting confidence of a friend writing to friends of whom he is sure. and hardly any that do not offer great discrepancies. The letters are simply inestimable in aiding us to understand and appreciate this great saint. We have in this correspondence an index to his inner life such as we possess of few great men. as Photius remarks. than in the text. now thanking his correspondents for their letters or their gifts. in 1718. and soliciting funds for pious and beneficent works. and other literary apparatus. now complaining of their silence. in 13 vols. V. 305). a fundamental error to attribute the composition of a liturgy de novo to Chrysostom or any of the old Catholic Fathers. Cod. It has been reprinted at Venice in 1734 and 1755. which is faulty. Liturgical.—It is impossible to decide how much in the liturgies passing under the name of St. Chrysostom is really of his age. The most practically useful edition is in the Patrologia of the Abbé Migne. The value of this magnificent edition lies more in the historical and critical prefaces. 86). prepared by the celebrated Bernard de Montfaucon. who devoted to it more than twenty years of incessant toil and of journeys to consult MSS. fol.

though with the licence of an artist. On the Priesthood. c.] .V. Amadée Thierry's biographical articles in the Revue des Deux Mondes describe Chrysostom's fall and exile most graphically. The brilliant sketch of Gibbon (Decl. are the Dialogue of his contemporary Palladius. [E. 1150). Moxon. Chrys. A. by T. and the diligent and dull Montfaucon. viii. and the letters of Isidorus of Pelusium (ii. Eccl. Neander's Life of St. The biography by George of Alexandria is utterly worthless. tom. of Hellenopolis. Sozomen (lib.. W. Of more modern works. It is mainly a reprint of the Benedictine ed. The chief early authorities for the life of Chrysostom. Chrysostom is a work of much value. xxxii.) must not be omitted." and the Ecclesiastical Histories of Socrates (lib. bp. 1863). R. but enriched by a judicious use of the best modern commentators. deserves Gibbon's censure as "a partial and passionate vindication. ἸωἸννης). Stephens (Lond.). 1872).). it will suffice to name "the moderate Erasmus" (tom. S. 8vo. Translations of several of his works are contained in the Post-Nicene Fathers. W. the "patient and accurate" Tillemont (Mém. besides his own works. (Paris. to which the foregoing article is largely indebted. Chrysostom's Picture of his Age and Picture of the Religion of his Age. v. edited by Schaff and Wace. and Theodoret (lib. 42). which.). and extracts from his writing in St.K. Ep.C. the Lexicon of Suidas (sub voc. vi. publishes cheaply St. more for the account of Chrysostom's opinions and words than for the actual life. The most satisfactory biography is by Rev. Ep. iii. and Fall.vols. being more an historical romance than a memoir. ix.P.). however valuable for its facts.