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HARMONICS,
O R

THE PHILOSOPHY
OF MUSICAL SOUNDS.
B

Y
D. D, F. R.
S,

ROBERT SMITH,
And

Mafter of Trinity College

In the Univerfity of Cambridge.

O

Deais Phcebi
- 6


laborum

JDidce lenimen.

THE SECOND EDITION,
Much
improved and augmented.
'

—- —

- -

LONDON:
Printed for

Sold by B.
J.

^. and J.Merrill Bookfellers in Cambridge; D o D, J. H I s T o N and B. h i t e, NouRSE, and M. Cooper in London J. Fletcher, and D. Prince in Oxford,

W

W

MDCCLIX.

.

veram phyficam moribus n o n ahejfe a Principis perfona : ^ce quidem qmnia apud Gracos non laude foluni^ fed honore
Scimtis muficen^ mathefin^ atque adeo
nojtris

et gloria digna ducehantiir

Epaminondas, Imperator ilk infignis^ ne dicam fummus vir unus omnis Gr^ci^, philofophimn et muficam Nam do5ius eji d Dionyfw, qui fuit egregie didicit. eximia in muficis gloria. At philofophia praceptorem hahuit Lyjin Pythagoreum, neqiie prius euni d fe dimifj,
qiiam doiirinis tanto anteceffit
pcjfet,
alios,

ut facile intelligi

pari modo fuperatiirum omnes in ceteris artibus. Corn. Nep. vit. Epam. fub initio.

T O

HIS

ROYAL HIGHNESS

WILLIAM
DUKE OF CUMBERLAND^
This Philofophical Treatife,

For a lafting Teftimony of Gratltudcj

Is

humbly

offered

and dedicated.

By

His

ROYAL HIGHNESS'S

moft devoted and
mofl

dutiful fervant

Robert Smith

1G62315

THE PREFACE
TO THE FIRST EDITION.

TH E
of

want of an elementary treatife of harmonics, fuch as might
demonftrations, has obliged

properly have been quoted in fupport

my

me

to begin the following
firft

work from the
no

principles of the fcience.

The
fed,

antient theorifts conlidered

other confonances than fuch as are per-

and yet all their mufical fcales compofed of thefe confonances, have in pradlice been found difagreeable. The reafon is, they neceflarily contain fbme imperfedl concords, whofe imperfedlions
are too grofs for the ear to bear with.

of the moderns has been chiefly employed in the bufinefs of temskill

The

pering the antient

Icalcs,

that

is,

in di-

ftributing thcfe groffcr imperfedions in

fome of the concords, among
reft or the greater part

all

the

of them.

By

a 3

which

VI

THE PREFACE.

which nteans, though the number of impeffed concords be greatly increafedj yet if their feveral imperfedlions be

but as much diminifhed, the ear will be lefs offended than before. Becaufe it is the tranfition from a better harmony
to a worfe,

which
is

chiefly gives the of-

fence

;

as

evident to any one that
tuned.

attends to a piece of mulic performed

upon an inftrument badly

It

follows then that the inftrument

would

be better in tune, if all the confonances were made as equally harmonious as poiTible, though none of them were
perfect.

be the true defign in tuning an inftrument, or tempering a fcale of founds, a theorift ought to beif this

And

gin with the fimpleft cafe; and inquire
in the

.

whether it be poflible for two imperfed confonances to be made equally harmonious; and if {oy what muft be the proportion of their temperaments or imperfedions ; and alfo whether different confonances require different proportions, Thefe and
firft

place,

the

THE PREFACE.
we may

vU

the like queftjons being rightly fettled,

then determine in what pro-

portion thofe grofler imperfedions in

the antient fcales ought to be diftributed,
fo
as

to

make

all

the concords
ei-

equally harmonious in their kind,
ther exadlly or as near as poffible.

But as none of the writers that I have feen, have attempted to give us the leaf!: notion of the nature and confiitution of imperfed confonances, nor of any one property or proportion of

upon the ear, except a iingle conjedure whofe contrary is true (^), it was not poffible for them to detertheir effeds

mine, from the principles of fcience,

what

diflribution of thofe groffer

imof

perfedions in the antient fyftems,

would

produce the moft harmonious
mulical founds.

fcale

one of the moft difficult and important problems in harmonics, in order to a fcientific folution of it I found it neceffary to premife a Theory of Imperfed Confonances (^), wherein
this
is

As

a
(a) Prop. XIII. coroll. 8.

4
{h)
Se<51;.

i
vi.

and probably any other that belongs to harmonics. rather than trouble it: him with a a fhort one would be imperfect or obfcure.viii THE PREFACE. Our late ProfeflTor of Mathematics was an inftance of the latter cafe. For by the folution of that propolition and a new way of tuning an for : whether an ear viii'\ . mufic be neceflary to underftand harmonics. Having been asked more than once. and a perfect one. too long for a preface. it may not be amifs to give this anfwer That a mulical ear is not neceflary to underftand the philofophy of mufical founds . have demonftrated as many properties of their Periods. to underftand that of colours. As to the reft I chufe to refer it felf the reader to the book further account of or the In- dex. and the xx^^ propolition of this treatife affords an inftance of the former. Beats and Harmony as I judged fufficient for fblving that problem. no more than the eye. This theory with its preliminaries and confcquences takes up a large part of the prefent I treatife.

But though an ear thofe that fical for mufic is not neceflary to underftand this treatife. at till . far beyond what the fined ear unafTifted by theory can poffibly attain to: and the fame perfon. Turnery one of try our organifts Cambridge. 2. I obferved that the winter feafon had prevented me from tuning an organ by the fecond table of beats. art. may alfo learn the reafon of the pradlice. a perfon of no ear at all for mufic may foon learn to tune an or- any propofed tempefcale . xx. by flattening tlie major iii'^'. gan according rament of the to if he pleafes.THE PREFACE. fchol. 6. in order to what efFed the fyftem of Equal Harmony might have upon the ear. xi. But upon telling Mr. yet are acquainted with mureceive founds will more readily appre- hend many parts of it. defcribed in prop. and to any defired degree of exadnefs. and more pleafure from them. how he might approach near enough to that fyftem. In the firft fcholium to prop. ix VI 11^^.

by corre<^ing the fea-charts. as their common : difference from true concords increafed from one fifth to was then one fourth of the tone. Nor will it be improper to mention a like experiment made by the accurate hand of Mr. efpecially in the flat keys. went equally flow. Harrifon^ well known to the curious in mechanics by his admirable inventions in watch. as well as the reckonings of a fhip. the beats of the v^^ and vi^^ major with the fame bafe. that for want of more founds in every o£lave the falfe concords were more intolerable than ever and no wonder. but he added. he never heard fo fine harmony before.work and clock-work for keeping time exwhich if actly both at fea and land : duly encouraged and purfued will undoubtedly prove of excellent ufe in navigation. with refped to longitude. by his great dexterity and skill in tuning he prefently put tion my rule in execu- upon a ftop of his organ . to as great ex- .X till THE PREFACE. and affirmed to me.

i\ afftiffnefs. is tern- . It follows from Mr. fumption. and found the harmony of the confonances fo extremely fine. XI need be But in regard to the experiment I was going to mention. to that of the viii% as the diameter of a circle. he told me he took a thin ruler equal in length to the fmalleft firing of his Bale Viol. by reafon of their greater he perfectly acquiefced in that manner of placing the frets. he adjufted the frets up- on the neck of the viol.THE PREFACE. by taking the interval of the major iii*^. HarrIfo. exadlnefs. to its circumference. in all probability. and di- vided the ruler as a monochord. Then by the divifions on the ruler applied to that firing. at the nut. that after a very fmall and gradual leno-thening of the other ftrino-s. upon the principle of making all the concords flat within the extent of every three odlaves as equally harmonious as poffible. that his iii'^ major is temper- ed by a full fifth of a comma. My iii^ determined by theory. as defired.

Harrifo?zs experiment. That theory is therefore fupported on one hand by Mr. 3 and i in fiftieth parts within one odave of a comma. which cafe the differences between his and my temperaments of the major iii^. And confi- dering that any afligned differences in the temperaments of a fyftem. . and on the other by the common pradice of muficians. We may gather from the conftruc- tion of the Bafe Viol. iii*' who make the major either perfect or ge- nerally fharper than perfect. when no flat more concords in are taken into the cal- culation than what are contained with- one odlave. if not folely to the harmony of the confonances contained . I think a nearer agreement of that experiment with .xii THE PREFACE. that Mr. Harrifoit attended chiefly. vf^ and v% and their ieveral dependents. tempered ma by one ninth of a comor almoft one eighth. will have the leaft effe6l in altering the harmony of the whole when at the beft. are refpedively no greater than 4.

for fo it muft be called. he took the hint. Harrifon told me the major vi'^' were very bad. xid with the theory could not be realbnably Upon viii''' asking him why he took the iii*^ interval of the major to that of the as the diameter to the circumfe- rence of a circle. as in Mr. he anfwered. fo the circumference of a circle is a little bigger than three of its diameters. is a httle bigger than fix fuch tones. from obferving that as the odave. as having no connexion with any known property of founds. Huygens\ fyftem refultin^ from the odave divided into 31 equal intervals. Mr. no doubt.THE PREFACE. expelled. monochord was divided upon the principle of making the major the III'* When perfed. and much worfe . or three perfed major iii'''. Whoever was the author of that hypothefis. or but very little fharper. confifting of five mean tones and two limmas. that a gentleman lately deceafed had told him it would bring out a very good divifiow of a monochord.

and being vi'^' foHcitous to is. know the reafon why the v"^' and tempered. that major. there is reafon to exped:. almoft all forts of fubftances are perpetually fubjedb to very minute vibrating motions. and all our fenfes and faculties feem chiefly to depend upon fuch motions excited in the proper organs. worfe than the In which he judged rightly. that the theory of vibrations here given will not prove ufelels in promoting the philofophy of other things befides mufical founds. Rob. With a view fervation. Trinity College. Cambridge. Dec. . either by outward objeds or the power of the Will. to fome other as inquiries I will conclude with the following ob- That. Smith. when equally fhould differ fo in their harmony. 1748. v**''. of that effed.xlv THE PREFACE. after various attempts I fatisfied my curiofity. as 1 further fatisiied my felf by trying the experiment upon an organ. 31.

\d) Prop. XX. and prop. i. XVIII.THE PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. and fchol. 2. ix. art. i. Prop. 2. . xi and corol- Prop. fchol.« {b) (<:) . (/) Prop. ((?) Se6l. fchol. fchol. IX. More methods are added for finding the pitch of an organ {d) and for tuning ity either by efiimation and judgment of the ear {e\ or more exaElly and readily by ifochronous beats of different concords [f\ as well as by complete {a) laries.onics [c). ix. JN fecond edition of thefe harmonics^ bejides many /mailer imthis of the peheats aiid harmony of imperriods^ feB confonances are more explicitly deprove?nents^ the properties monflrated [a) and confirmed by very T'he idtimate raeafy experiments [b). XI. of the periods and heatSy which are generally more ufeful a?2d elegant than tios the exaEi ratios ^ ficiently are proved to be fuf- accurate for mofl purpofes in harm. Lemma to prop. &<. XI.

&^c^ which yet are fo often wanted that far the greater part of the befl compofitions cannot be perfor7ned with- out them^ except by fubflitutiitg for them E\ B\ F. C. . art. expedient-^ G. C. / have therefore invented a bet-^ ter by caufing the feveral keys of thofe fubfiitutes^ E^. G^ C^ F% Wc^ refpe&ively^ which by differing from them by near a fifth part of the i072e^ make very bad har?no?iy j and as the old expedient for introducing fome of thofe founds by infer ti?2g more keys in every oUave^ is quite laid afide by rea fon of the difficulty ifi playing upon them .xvi THE PREFACE. F. 4. G. &c. 7. enquiry is made whether fonance {g ). F or E% C ^rB% G (.§) P^op. G% C% F% &Cy to firike either Eb(?r D^ B^^r A*.^^' fchol. colncidejit pulfes be necef- faryy or only accidental a perfeSi con- And founds lajlly^ as the harpjtchord has neither firings nor keys for a?ty of thefe D^ A% E% B% F*^ A\ D\ G^. B^. An to complete tables of heats.

18. .. In a word^ the very worfl keys i?i the by cha?7ging common defeUive fcale^ a few founds are prefemly too^ fnade as complete as the befl in thatfeaky a?ul more harmonious becaufe the chano'e- a {h) SciTt. art. VIII. Two different conflruElion of thofeflops are here defer ibed ( h ). one of which is applicable at a mall expenfe to aity harp- f fichord ready made^ a7td the other to a new harpfchord^ a?id upon putti?ig them both in pra&ice^ they have perfcElly an-- fwered my expeBation. that found in each couple^ which he forefees is either always or oftenefi ufed in play ity the piece before him. ig. G or or xvii F*^ C^ &€.THE PREFACE. Several properties a?td advantages of this changeable fcale are defer ibed in the eighth SeBion. or A> y C* or DS F^ G\ For fines both the founds in any one of thofe couples arefeldom or nevsr tifed in any one piece of mufic^ the jnufcian by movijtg a to few flops before he begins can immediately introduce.

Thefe improvements of the harpfichord^ it is hoped^ may encourage others to ap- ply the like methods is to the fcale of the organ^ which and equally capable of to greater advaiitages. Cambridge.xvHi T H E P R E F A C E. 1758. them Rob. another ad- cha?7geahle fcale admits of the very hejl temper a7ne72t^ and^ which 'ua7itage^ is will therefore Jland loitger in tune than the co?nmon fcale which cannot ad?nit that temperame?2t. . Smith. Trinity Colle2. 21. Oaob.e.

I . Methods of tuning an organ and inftrurnents. of confonances 9 Sect. IX. V. VI. 123 Sect. 56 Sect. Of and harmony of imperfeci confonances. Of perfeB confonances and the order of 1 their fmplicity. Of the antient fyjiems of perfedi confo- nances. _ other 187 . 23 Sect. Pag. II.4 A T A B LE (Sect. The fcale of mufical founds is idly explained and made changeable upon the and harpfichord^ in order to play all the at ft ftoarp founds that are ufed in ajiy f piece of mufic^ upon no other keys than i6q thofe in cominon ufe. Sect. Sect. i Philofcphical principles of harmonics. III. 35 the periods^ beats^ Sect. of the S ECTIO N S. Of a fy em offounds wherein as many ft concords as pqjftble^ at a medium of one with another^ fiall be equally and the moft harmonious. Of the names and notation and their intervals. Of the temperaments vals ofimperfeB interand their fynchronoiis variations. IV. VII. VIII. Sect.

CoteSy 2<i by Dr. de metbodo Differentiarum Nevv: toniana. the vibrating motion 230 and diffe- An Appendix containing illuflrations rent demonflrations of feme parts of the theory of imperfeB confonances. 4^". 225 of a ?nufical Sect. Complete Syjiem of Optics in four Books. a mechanical and a philofophical treatife. Smith : Cambridge 1738. a mathematical. 244 AD VE R TIS E ME NT. 4«o. .f XX] temperaments ufed in performed upon perfect tn^ Sect. n^rnpe de Limitibus errorum in mixta mathefi. Robertus Smith : Cantabrigias Hydroftatical and Pneumatical Leolurcs publiflied by Mr. XL Of chord. per Rdgcrum Coteet auxit fium : Edidit 1722. by Dr. Gravium. Smith: Cambridge 1 747. a popular. viz. Edition. five analyfis et fyntheils rationum et angulorum Menfuras promotse accedunt alia opufcula. de conflruclione ^de defcenfu cloide et Tabularum per dilTerentias. A ^per Harmonia 'Menfararum. de motu Pendulorum in cyde motu Frojeftilium. 2 Vol.X. Of occafional concerts well Jirume?its.

il problema poi trito delle duecorde tefe all unifono. I. che al fuonodell' A una . provided the blafls be often repeated and keep time exadly with the vibrations of the pendulum j and alfo by the like art in raifing a large bell 5 and probably he was the firil that rightly explained that phasnomenon {a). in the perfon of another. caufed by the vibrations of which communicate the like vibrations to the air. SECTION Harmonics. like again to our organs of hearing. and thefe the this. For inilance. I . Philofophical Principles of O OUND >3) is elaftic bodies. Pliilofophers are agreed in becaufe found- ing bodies communicate tremors to diftant bodies. If {a) For he fays. Galileo explains this phsenomenon by obferving. propagated from the firing that was flruck. the vibrating motion of a whofe and quantity of matter difpofe their vibrations to keep time with the pulfes of air. mulical firing puts others in motion. tenfion 2.HARMONICS. that a heavy pendulum may be put in motion by the leafl breath of the mouth.

is HARMONICS. it has happened accordingly. pag. fit.' 2 2. Dialogo i* attenente alia (Zi) As the ideas of acute and high. and has fnice prevailed univerfally. tTTiTroXris" wpo'iijAvis. Probably this latter connexion took its rife from the formation of the voice in finging. as Dr. grave and loWj have in nature no neceflary connexion. -. acumen vero. its vibrations will be accelerated and experience fhews that its found is altered from what is called a graver to an acuter j and on the contrary. gravitas feratur. and to be Acuter. as having lefs of the fame matter to be moved by the fame una I'altera fi cora irrefoluto muova et attualmente come anco non ben .cf\(^. And the like alteration of the pitch of the found wiU follow. . Gregory has obferved in the preface to his edition of EudicTs vv^orks. If the vibrations be ifochronous the found and is faid to continue at the fame Pitch . firft to a thicker or a heavier ftring. KarooGsv ava^sco/jtsvs lj. rlfuona. Sharper or Higher than any other found whofe vibrations are flov/er j and Graver. 208. mi refta an- chiare le forme delle confonanze et altre particolarita. fi t» "nrvsuEt qui- dem fum ex infcriore parte (gutturis) fpiritus furfi per fummam partem prorumpat. n' o|uT7)r. that the more antient of the Greek Writers looked upon grave founds as high. F/vs'^a. if its tenfion be increafed or its length be diminifhed.K &\ yf /Jib J'' /3a^UTnf. Flatter or Lower [b) than any other whofe vibrations are quicker. For while a mufical Jflring vibrates. and acute ones as lovf^ and that this connexion was afterwards changed to the contrary by the lefs antient Greeks. which Ar'ijlidei ^intilianus thus defcribes. Mecanica^ towards the end. 8. Seal. called Mufical. when the fame tenfion is given by a weight. p. as Alcibofnius tranflates it in his notes. and after that to a fmaller or a lighter length.

Artsfame HARMONICS. »] ^xcdiii-A T£ y. their founds will all have one and the fame pitch. or other founding bodies vibrate all together in equal times. may differ in loud- Unifons : and are therefore called and on the contrary.ai jutsXaJc^otv). (c) Con- The Greek muficians rightly defcribe the difference between the manner of finging and talking.lz y. the other difcrete and ufed in fmging. which Harmonics (d).c{}akn- A 2 Harmonics . is die principal fub- 4. however they nefs or other qualities. And thefe changes 3 in the force of tenlion. pitch of the found are found to be conftantly greater or leller. the voice never refts at any certain pitch. 2. 3 . ferent in length. They conthe one fidered two motions in the voice. p. thicknefs. the vibrations of unifons are ifochronous.a. but waves up and down by infenfible degrees. '. the vibrations of the air are continually accelerated and retarded by turns and by very : fmall degrees. I need not obferve. frequently refting or flaying at certain places. and in the difcrete motion it does the contrary . In the continued motion. according as the length. that in the former cafe. and in the latter by large ones. thicknefs or denfity of the firing altered (c). ^ /jtev cuvs^n? ts y. is more or lefs Therefore if feveral firings. and leaping from one to another by fenfible intervals Euclid^ Introdudlio Harmonica. {d) Ptolemy hys^ Ap/uiovtHyi /jtsv Wi c\viXiJ. tenfion. however difdenfity and tenfion. xivyicrsir d^uo Continued and ufed in talking. This obfervation reduces the theory of all forts of mufical founds to that of the lx)unds of a fingle firing .1 XoyicP'k c/^jag-jjX)]. I mean with refped: to their gravity jedi of and acutenefs.

that the harmony of two more founds. according as it is perfect or imperfed: when heard at any one diftance. or nearly. does not alter fenlibly while the hearer varies his diftance from it 5 it follows that the larger and leffer vibrations of the particles of air. Sed. It follows alio. L Confequently the wider and narrower viof any other body founding mulically. (c) of See'Newton's Princip. And this difference of force. at different diftances from the founding body. Lib. Othenvife. are and confequently that the little all ifochronous : Ipaces defcribed by the vibrating particles are every where proportional to the celerity and force of their motions. will alfb or be perfed or imperfed: at any other diflance which Harmonics is a power apprehending the difFerences founds. it the iirft vibrations be not too large : in which cafe the breadth till found is a little acuter at the beginning than af- terwards. In like manner. 5. at fmaller and greater diftances from the founding body. caufes a difference in the loudnefs of the found. the pitch of the found could not continue the fame . 6. HARMONICS. . with refpe^l to gravity and acutenefs. but not in its pitch. are all ifochronous very brations of a muiical ftring. while the vibrations decreafe in they ceafe. as by the judgment of the ear we perceive it does. as in a pendulum (f). 47. 11.: 4 4. fince the pitch of the found of a ftring or bell or other vibrating body. Prop.

and requires a little of the finer fort of geometry. fingle vibrations are in the 3 to 5. denfity and tenfion. of no fmall ufe in Harmonics. and the found of the half be compared with the found of the whole. for granted at may proceed without interruption JVallis's as he likes beft. of the firing with the found of the whole.. preface to Porphyry's vol. taking it . or.) mathematicians have demoninilance. 5 to 6. that the times of their fingle vibrations {f). which cannot well be applied in icw words. Math.|. Art. 7. which the reader may See Dr. In (f) As a clear and exaft demonflration of this curious or two more. 4 to 5. 8 to 9. Oper. I have Theorem depends upon one therefore referved prefent. of 2 to 3 to 4. {g) it to the laft Se6lion of this Treatife confult. 4. whofe lingle vibrations (always mean- ing the times) are in the ratio of i to 2 3 and by comparing the founds of 4. I. we may acquire the idea of the interval of two if a firing Hence founds. we may two ratio acquire the ideas of the intervals of founds. terminated by a graver and an A acuter found. 9 to 10. comment on Euclid fays. are proportional to their lengths 8. . and differ in length only. ftrated. \. A 3 . (which for the future I fliall always fuppofe.. t^. tain kind {g). 5 which being a known fad in a ring of bells for is mentioned here as a confirmation of thefe principles of Harmonics. &c. If two mulical firings have the fame thicknefs. Mufical Interval is a quantity of a cer9. &c. iii. whofe 3. 7- HARMONICS. 'an Ptolmfs Harmonics. of a mufical inflrument be ftopt in the middle. ±.

I. the intervals between the founds of all the reft are contained. that are acuter than the graver of the two tenfions (tones or founds) that terminate the interval. ^ovJt's' tB-lo)- \in ixiav rcljDi o (pGofyOi". of the lengths of the founding ftrings For it is obfei-vable in the experiments laft mentioned (?) and is univerfally allowed by mulicians. In a ring of bells. <rjj and acutenefs.u^ulspoov fxlv Tn? (ia^uli^? roiv o^^scrcov TO ea. [h) Article 7. Harmonica Arijloxenm defines a mufical found thus. . that it is TCTT^'c'^t/iijcor (p0cr7coy. /ayj ta'J cairr]v rdaiv l. 8.aX (iixpuryfliy what is contained by two founds Introdu(Slio different in gravity p. that when the lengths of thofe ftrings have an Interval o|ut)t1{ is to ttrspts^o/asvov utto o'xio ^Gofycov avco/jtofoov y. /Sagurfgoov cPe tyI^ h^UTi- a place capable of founds. unam tenfionem and an interval thus. and graver than the acuter of ^them. quod duobus fonis. And he adds. for of the tain firft and fecond j . non eandem tenfionem habentibus. 15.€ ^ (J^id<^niJ. terminate a cer- interval thofe of the greater interval thofe of the firft and third a and fourth a greater ftdll j &c. I. the founds counting either firft from the biggeft or the leaft. pag.^6vla)v. So that the interval increafes by degrees. Aiarwjua c/^s Iti to utto o\o (pOofycov (opiaixivov. inten'allum vero eft. or. terminatur. example. Sed. either as the graver of the two founds defcends. or as the acuter afcends j and within the interval of the founds of the biggeft and leaft bells. bells. intervals 10. Ratios of the times of the fingle vibrations of the terminating founds. fonus eft vocis cafus in .a Tcto-scov.6 HARMONICS. (/} Art. Mufical are Meafures of the cceteris paribus. {Jo).

tional to the logarithms Therefore mulical intervals are proporof the ratios of the fingle A 4 vibra- . is alfo triple the interval of the founds of and B. that if tv^^o founds be raifed higher. it follows. that the faid ratio and interval are and reduced to nothing when the have the ratio of equality whofe magni-» nothing. Now let the times of the fingle vibrations C. ratio and confequently the and on the contrary. that the interval of the founds of and C. 1 1 . Then (ince the interval of the founds of and B is equal to that of B and C. and the like is evident of any other equimultiples of the propofed ratios and intervals. I. the interval if increafed the acuter found be de- prefTed lower. is HARMONICS. is double the interval of the founds of and J5. C So that the interval of the founds of and C. ArMi. &c. i . as 2 to 3 . ratio. A A A A A A A A tude. or of C and D.. is to that of and Z). and that the interval of the founds of and Z). or of B and C . diminiflied. tude is Plate Fig. 7 have the fame the Interval of their founds the acuter of the firings the fame. firings of the lengths of thofe is be increafed. whatever be their pitch. whofe ratio is duplicate of y^ to 5 or of B to C. whatever be their number and magni^ of the ftrings A^ B. D. or of JB and or of C and D. Sec. be continual proportionals in any ratio. whofe ratio is triplicate of to 5. by adding equal intervals together and equal ratios together.

Book 2. Prop. {k) (/) See Mr. Such is the time between the fucceffive pulfes of air upon the ear. catena paribus y of the lengths of the vibrating firings. they is (/). by taking only the middle inftant of each pulfe. For brevity fake the vv^ord vibration is often ufed for the time of a complete vibration. which pafles between the departure of the vibrating body from any affigned place and its return to the fame. a pulfe being made while the air is comprelTed and con12.8 HARMONICS. L vibrations of the terminating founds. denfed in its progrefs. i. Becaufe logarithms are numeral meafures of ratios . And though the pulfes of founds of a different pitch have dif- may yet be abftracflly con- fidered as if they were inftantaneous . 43. of the fame mag^ nitudes are proportional to one another {k). pag. it being then relaxed and rarified to a greater degree than the quiefcent air ferent durations. Sed. but not in its regrefs . i» SECTION . Cotes's Harmonia Menfurarum. or. See Newton's Principia. and all ibrts of meafures. Caf.

Z).Aft. 4. &c. the received Names of thefe intervals are fhewn in the following Table. Vi2. I. Fourth. 1. with the epithet of major or minor. B. I. 2. GO. And fuppofing thofe firings to be ranged like ordinates to a right line Cc. DE. 4. as a Se- cond. as in fig. E. not to be the differences of their lengths. according as the name or number belongs . "PJlate L Fig. ^. their vibrations will exhibit the fyftem of 8 founds which muficians denote by the letters C. -§-. to a greater or fmaller total interval the difference of which refults chiefly from the different magnitudes of the major and minor fecond. AB. G. Fig. and are taken from the numbers of the firings or founds in each interval inclufively . EO. and their X diflances CD. mufical firing CO A and its parts DO. Of the Names and Notation and their I. BO. c. ^. 1. HARMONICS. Third. EF. of con- intervals. AO. cOy be in prc^ortion to one another as the numbers i. F. C . BC. but to be of any magnitudes proportional to the intervals of their founds. called the Tone and Hemitone. 3. SECTION finances II. GA. FG. Fifth. FO.

Sea.II. C:c :: 2 : i . Interval's Names. .B .c . . . Perfea Ratios. Elements.A..M . Marks.'lO HARMONICS. C .D .E F .. .

HARMONICS.iii. and make the of the feveral firings at d. are alio taken firings in from the number of the them inclufively. x or viii 4. And when the times (m) For the ratio of 9 to 8 diminifhed by the ratio of 10 to 9. And more terval die names of intervals larger than one or o6taves. one of them compounded once or oftener with the ratio 2 to i i is called a Perfect ratio when reduced to its leafl terms. and is the difference of the major and minor tones (m).4. E. becaufe the intermediate firing at the end of the od:ave is counted twic^. Thus the in- C^ is called a Ninth. The fame is to be underflood in all compounded notations.11. except 80 to 81. length will alfo conlift of major and minor tones and hemitones. and are thus denoted. XII or viii -{ v. equal to half the lengths of thofe at Z). &c. C^* a Tenth. F. . n verally equal to the od:ave Cc. 4. Cf an Eleventh. &c. foregoing Table. Cg a Twelfth. is the ratio of 9x9 to 8x10. A Comma is the interval of two founds whofe fingle vibrations have the ratio cf 8 1 to 80. 5. Any one of the ratios in the firfl column of the. or any or to 2. ranged in the fame order as in the lower od:ave Cc. J] &c. with the epithet of major or minor as before . e.Art. or of 81 to 80. all the intervals within this higher odave C(f. the units in the compound marks being conflantly one more than thofe in the fmiple ones. &c. ix I i'*' or viii 5 or VIII -{ 4}^ 4.

As the addition and fubtracflion of loga- rithms aniwers to the multiplication and divifion of their correfponding Tabular numbers. placed. and meafured moll conveniently by the probears to a portion 7.12 HARMONICS. In the following examples. comma. that to the compolition and refolution of the ratios of thofe numbers to an unit j ib the addition and fubtradlion of mufical intervals aniwers to the compolition and refolution of the ratios of the fingle vibrations of the terminating founds.IL times of the fingle vibrations of any two founds have a perfedl terval too fect or terval 6. Any perfect interval fmall increment or decrement of a is called relped:ively the Sharp or Flat Temperament of the is it imperfedt confonance. upright and inverted. ratio. relpecis. or. is Sed. As . ceteris paribus. the compolition and refolution of perfe6t ratios is intimated by the multiplication of their terms. its in- called Perfed: and is called Imper- Tempered when a little that perfect ratio and in- is increafed or decreafed. : tively. the confonance and . of the lengths of the vibrating firings and on the contrary. in the form of fractions.

As i 2 HARMONICS. 15 1 ^3x S_ = i X 1| = 9 56 15 ID 16 9 { So VIII 5 — VII 4- 2'' zz 7^^ 4.II izvi + 3^=: 4 2-2 V 6^^ -f III zz + 4th zz 3 T + 8 2 t + 2 4 H X (. Asizz_3 X i 4 5 So VI— 4*^+111 { 5 5-3^5 " — 4 zz 2 6 . 8.?).t Asi = »xi| 6 9 3 ID { So As 3 3'^z:t4-h 10 5 4 So 4^*^-3'^= t x^z:4 . 10 ^d 4- III zz T 4.th 4th 4.3^ [I 4- As ^ = ^ X ii 3 5 I X — iz: 4 16 ^th 10 t So 4^^zziii 4.2^ — 5 _ X 9 8 Q 21.Art.3^ V =Z 4 Z _ 356 7 5 '»<! IIT -1.

IVallis's divifion of the monochord. feverally the fame as the leaft numbers of the vibra- {0) The old method of refolving concords Into their elements may be feen in Dr. confonances and the Order of their fimplicity.14 HARMONICS. 698. p. &c. SECTION Of perfeSi TTJlate Jf^ the ear (/>). as in 02. will rightly repreient the two feries of equal times. vol. III. N°. 3 So that the leaft intervals in a muHcal fcale are founded upon the har- mony of the concords (o). 03. Sed. 04. 4. I. if the magnitude of the equal parts in one line. by Lowthorp. or fecStion of the mufical Canon. in. as 02 and 03. or Abridg. . : the whole lines being fuppofed equal. if the numbers of be aliquot parts in each. lafl: . When a fingle found is heard. Philofoph. as in the column of the former Table compared with Fig. cords. 238. Confequently when two founds are heard. I. as the antients called it. the fucceflive may of equal times between air that beat on the be reprefented by a feries of equal feries pulfes of parts contained in a right line. be to the magnitude of thofe in the other. in the ratio of the fingle vibrations of the founds or. Fig. as 2 and 3. two of thofe lines. Tranfacl. firft edit. I.

the points that divide the feparate lines. . terminated at both ends by coincident pulfes. reprefenting a third feries or Cycle of times. ij fame time made in the {q). though the abfolute times lar be different. 10. Art. reprefented 2. flicceeding one another in a given cycle of Times. and repeated. one confonance may be confidered as more or lefs fimple than another. 2. This being premifed. that their cycles have the fame form the times in both having the fame order.. will conftitute a different cycle. and excite a different fenfation. But if that ratio be the fame. 5. Art. by the line 02 or 03 And the founds being heard together. is fufficiently the phyfical caufe that excites the : fenfation of a given confonance Efpecially when confidered as diftindt from any other confonance. 12. of each found. Such a mixture of pulfes. 4. as 02 and 03. upon the ear. as in Fig. Sea. following. that the of the founds is the fame (r). combined to coin- cide throughout. whofe lingle vibrations having a diflierent ratio from that of the former. and the fame proportions interval j and in this other alfo. i. in which the pulfes of both founds interchangeably fucceed one another in beating 3. if we conceive the two equal and parallel lines that rightly reprefent them. the confonances are fimi- and may be looked upon as the fame in this refpecffc. vibrations HARMONICS. ac- {q) (r) See Art. vv^ill fubdivide the lines into fmaller portions.

i to 3. 6. When the numbers of times in dif- ferent cycles are difterent. according as the cycle of times belonging to is it. . i to 2. &c. 4. ratios i to i. 01 and 03. 'by the order of the numbers of equal times in the cycles. confifts partly in the number of times contained in the cycle. thefe confo- nances are funpler in the fame order. lefs Sed. 7. and the times in each cycle bear other. or of 2. and die times in each cycle are equal to one another. 4.i6 HARMONICS. may One Confonance is Simpler than another in the leaji terms. &c. 6. more or fimple than the cycle belonging principle all confo- to the other. as different proportions to when we one ancombine the founds 01 and 06. &c. 1 to 4. III. And upon this nances 5. 01 and 05. 6cc. 3. 5. For the fimplicity of a confonance or cycle of times. or of the magnitudes of the numbers i. 5. as the fum of prejjing the ratio of the Jingle vibrations. 01 and 04. as when we com- bine the founds 01 and 01. In the other cafe. ex- the fame Order. of the fums of the terms of the I to 5. Fig. be ranged in due Order of fuch fimplicity. by the help of the following Rule. the cycles of this fort may be ranged in the order of their fimplicity above defined. where the numbers of times in different cycles are the fame. 2. is fmaller in the other confonance \ than the like fum and lejfer when feveral fuch funis are the fame. and partly in the different proportions they bear to one another. as the terms of their ratios are fmaller. 01 and 02. that is. 4. 3.

03 and 04. and in the third cycle compofed of 03 and 04.Art. 3 of the lefler terms of the pler than the third city ratios. which alters not die order. are the feveral funis posite ratios in the alters firft. are ranged in the order of their lelTer terms 1. but only fcries makes the fimplefl: begin with i. HARMONICS. as of o. between the pulfes of the acuter found 05. 02 and 05. as i 6. anfwering to the confonance. 17 06. 2.2. is fubdivided by one pulfe of the i j fubdivided by any pulfe of the graver o graver 02 ter . two of the 4 equal times in the acufound 04. are fubdivided by 2 pulfes of the graver 03. i. that the iiril: cycle is fimpler than the fecond. or. and that the order of fimpliof this fort of cycles. Now by the firfl: part of the rule above. 6. or of the : : : B fra(5lions . which not the order of their magnitudes. the ratios whofo terms have the fame fum. that cycle is iimpler than another. by i . 2. in which the equal times between the pulfes of die acuter found. 3 4. is but in die fecond cycle compofed of 02 and 05. the integers in the fecond column of the following of tlie terms of the opdiminiflied table. and the fecond Iim-. Accordingly in the firft of thefe cycles compo-i fed of 01 and 06. By the fecond part of the rule. By which it appears. 2 5. are lefs interrupted and fubdivided by the pulfes of the graver.6. of thofe terms leverally diminifhed by i. anfwers to the order of the magnitudes i. one of the 5 equal times. not one of the 6 equal times between the pulfes of the acuter found 06. 3.

I I : of the Order of the fimplkity of confo7^ances of two founds. III. A Ratios of the vibrations. I : 2 I 3 . table Secft.i8 HARMONICS.

8. where none of the equal times between the pulfes of the acuter found. 5. B (s) 2 diate Sea. . where ratios occur which being reducible to fimpler terms. 7- HARMONICS. writing down all the ratios in due order. except that a term or two is here and there omitted. as i to 8. 19 fradlons 4i T> T5 whofe common denominator 3 is the number of the ratios whofe terms have the fame fum Thefe fractions either by them- felvesorthe mixt numbers 6. 4 to 5. 2 to 7. have been confidered before. 3. 1 rejed die two middlemoft for the reafons juft mentioned. confonances whatever. are fuch only whofe terms are i. 2.Art. may therefore denote the order of the Modes of fimpHcity of fuch confonances as have the fame Degree of limplicity denoted by 6 or 7 i And thus die or- — . II. which may dius be continued with certainty and order as far as which we pleafe. 3 to 6. whofe terms make a given fum. with their powers and products (j). is denoted by the order of the magnitudes of the integers and mixt numbers in the fecond column all der of the fimplicity of of the table. 7. For example. or elfe are not Perfect Ratios. art. 7. is fubdivided by any interme. Pure and Interrupted pure. and place the reft in the firft column of the table . Hence we may diftinguifli confonances into two forts. This feries increafes from unity in feveral arithmetical progreffions. 5. 64) 64) made by annexing them to the number 6.

rightly ordered. by deprefimg all the modes of interrupted confonancy. as above defcribed. though not below 74. 74 81 below 9 and 10. provided . 64. and fo j > . 9. larger. why not even to a place next below 6 ? though not below 64. to a place next below the degree 5. duration. For fhould we deprefs the mode 44. In the fecond cohimn of the table. But if that were allowable. pulfes. weaknefs or other ac- whereas the pulfes of graver founds are generally flronger. 7^ below 8. below all the degrees of pure confonancy. would render them heterogeneal. next below 7. when . the leaft fimple or loweft mode of each is degree of inter- rupted confonancy. by parity of reafon we ought to deprefs 44 64 64. every where placed above the next inferior degree of pure confonancy. and affedt the ear diiferenriy. . and like wife 44. Hitherto The table is tlierefore we have only confidered the numis ber and proportions of the times in the cycle by which a confonance reprefented. ftrength. as 4-I- above 5. > forth to infinity : which. though not below 84 and alfo' 44. HL diate pulfe of the graver and interrupted. . But ftill diis alters not the rational idea of the confonance.20 HARMONICS. 64. Sed. and of longer duration dian thofe of acuter founds. and incapable of any order or comparifon with one another. any of thofe equal times are interrupted by one or mere pulfes of the graver found. as being a more complex mode of a lefs fimple degree. 64. without re- gard to the quality of the cidents as to magni- tude. 64. obtufer.

in order to an impartial judgment of the fimple perception of the fmoothnefs and fweetnefs of each concord. i . HARMONICS. and the lefs fimple with a rougher and lefs plcafant one. Art. 21 provided as we take the middle inftant of each pulfe nor does the ear perceive any alteration in the kind of mixture. fhewing the mufical intervals anfwering to the relj3e6tive confonances. 10. as much as poffible. interval we upon foftening or fwelling either found. yet as musicians diflinguifli confonances by thoie names for VIII. but tuned perfed:.. as far as the ear can judge with certainty. of all the concords not exceeding the 3"*. 10. to diveft himfelf of all habitual prepofleffions in favour of this or that concord. And if die experimenter be fkilful in melody and compofition. may readily do it by the help of the third column of the table. Thofe that are willing to try the experiment. veral confonances. this feries But the anafor example. It is well known in general. or in the did in Art. or hiccellion of concords. it. he muft endeavour. but B 3 their . in logy will be plainer perceived by intermitting fe- and trying vi. And this analogy feems to hold true accordino^ to the order in the table. and a fair comparifon of fuch perceptions only. that fimpler confonances aifetft the ear with a fmoother and pleafanter fenfation. iii. v. acquired from the rules and practice of his art . 1 1 Though nature has appointed no certain limit between concords and difcords. 4*^ odave. 6^^. then they fliould not be tempered as ufual. while the other retains the fame flrength.

were the degrees of fimpliof confonances to be eftimated by die frequency of tlie coincidences of their pulfes. that is.. is live coincidences of the pulfes of reprefenting the leafl integers in that ratio r V= V R'u. calland vi'^% and their comand compounds with viii*''% V V : : : R -. i. whofe tion of the bafe. viii 4. 2 viii*''*. own ufes. &c. the cycle j V=S V : a: jv. tlie cycles of confonances that have a common found or vibration V. of V and . as r to s-. or to the lefler terms of the ratios in the firft column of the table of the order of the fimplicity of confonances. Difcords. are proportional to the Numera3 Hence the length of the cycle of V is to that tors of the fractions -J V= 'u. -J V = x. If the times of the fingle vibrations of any two founds be : r.IIL may do v'*"' ing unilbns.v. would be equally fimple the fame viii -f v*^'. I Sea. viii^'^^ 2 VIII -f iii*^'. For the fame 1 leaft integers.111*'% VIII 4. ex- preffing the times of the fingle vibrations of the other founds. 3. &c. It their HARMONICS. and if the like for mine . 1 2. Confequently fedi the unifons. as is commonly fuppocity 14. whofe feveral cycles are but z 2 vibra- may . : : S 5 and v. the length of the cycle of times between the fuccefand 'u. and all other confonances. cycles are but i vibraj and be faid of the v''^'. if V : and v in the are the leaft of any that can be equal.. iii"^'. as in Fig. or the fhortnefs of their cycles. plements to the viii'^ Concords. and i.T'. Becaufe thefe multiples of reafon.

every perfed major 11 1'^ will be increafed by a comma. a fyftem of founds thence refulting could have no perfed: thirds 3 nor any perfed confonance whofe vibrations are in any it. 6 to 5. 6cc it 5. 4. Art. 3 were admit- ted to the compolition of perfeift ratios. The minor Gv^ being thus excluded. 2. as being the difference of the tones {f) . I. too general a character of the fimplicity or fmoothnefs of a confonance. multiple of it. and therefore an imperfed one. antieju Syjiems of perfe& 1. 2. and eveiy hemitone and perfed minor 3*^ will be as much diminiflied j becaufe the 4*^^ B 4 (/) and Se6l. 1 6 to poffible for any powers and 5 being im- primes i. . SECTION Of the cofifonances. and major tones being put in their places. 1" I F no other primes but i. 23 alfo vibrations of the bafe and the fame of all confbnances having the fame number for the leifer term of their perfed: ratios 3 which flievvs that the frequency of coincidences is. II. Fig. 2. or any multiple of for either of its terms. 3 to produds of the given compofe any other prime or tones Z)£. HARMONICS.Art. I o to 9. IV. 1 : to 4. . ratio having the number as 5. 3. of itfelf.

HARMONICS. cG and (?C. Aio E. Sed. and you will find tliem extremely difagreeable (x). IV. CtoG. 6. 2. 6 j where the confonances whofe vibrations are exprefled by fuch high terms as the powers of 8 and 9. with their complements to the viii''' and compounds with viii'^^. muft needs be difagreeable to the ear. fromFtoC. III. E B. try the confonances that would be perfect if the number 5 were admitted. But (u) (x) Se6l. Fig. 5. 3. are perwhether 5 be admitted or not. as depending on the primes i. and the od:ave F/'will then be divided into 5 major tones and 2 limmas . The if the ear. Afcending by a perfedl v'^ and descending by a perfedl 4*** alternately. as CF and F<:. and 4*^$ being tuned by the judgment of any one doubts whether their fingle vibrations be v*Jis . D to A. 10. Thefe diminiihed hemitones being called Limmas. the od. 3. Then having tuned perfect ocftaves to every one of thofe notes.ave is now divided into 5 major tones and 2 limmas j as reprefented to the eye in Plate II. any one will foon find if he pleafes to tiy the follov^ing experiment. as thirds major and minor.^4 fend v^^% fect. 4. Art. only. according to the foregoing ana- logy between the agreeable fmoothnefs of a confonance and die iimplicity of the numbers exand that preiiing the ratio of its vibrations (u) : in reality they are fo. upon an or* gan or harpfichord tune the following founds. Fig. GtoD. becaule the differences of thofe fucceflive v*^' and 4*''^ are mato jor tones. &c.

let the Mufician compare the found of 4. 3 PROPOSITION lejl I. in Whatever be the order of thofe elements any one od:ave. 25 5. it muft be the fame in every . Art. one to the end that every found it. 5- HARMONICS. that the contiguous couples fhall make as many perfed thirds as poffible. and confequently viii + v^''^ which concords are the fecond beft (_y). are 3 now compofe the major tones. Art. But if 5 be admitted among the mufical primes.of it with that of the whole. in. . and of confequence to have the fame ratios of their fmgle vibrations. 5. of a mufical firing.. 6. belonging to the minor tone and the hemitone. founds whofe elements Afyjletn of intervals are t07ies 7najor orfmaU and mi- nor and hemitoftes^ wilhtecejfarily con- tainfome imperfeEi concords. fect odlave to as may have a perbeing the beft concord. {y) See the table of the order of concords in Sed. both major be as 3 to 2 and 3 to 4. and alfo |. are alio admitted. 2 minor and 2 hemi- tones. the elements muft be ranged in fuch order. and he will acknowledge thefe concords and thofe which he tuned upon the inftrument to be the fame. as in Fig. And in order to have as many perfect v'^' as poffible. and the elements that ocflave. the ratios 10 to 9 and 16 to 15.

II. combined with the firft in the next T odave. making thirds imby a comma. 05606 And T n: log. as in the following table. H and H. 0.). {a) Putting H ~ log. that T t and H. Sea.26 HARMONICS. And that order being we fhall have the greateft number of perfedl concords of all forts. jor and minor thefe being the intervals v'*"'.z: 0. -. which compofe an odtave. it is /. and / muft be Hence either T and H. or T the outermoft elements in the odtave. 00491 And the Comma zz log. zz oO o. 02803 Then 2H zz 2 x log. except H and H. — o =: o. T and / are the (2. Becaufe the complements to the o6tave. of perfect thirds and v'^% will alfo be perfect. obfervable of the feven elements T. 00540 00049 Difference . which compofe the perfed. _ zi o. jor tone compofe an imperfect tone. will compofe the intei-val H 4" T of a perfed (z) Sc£l. 5 and 7. T. only couples which the reft. Art. For if the firft element in every odave in the and die feventh be H. H. . bigger than the maby almoft a comma [a).051 15 Whence 2H — T zz — 81 - o. H. the feventh fyftem be in any o(5lave. rightly determined. /. and fo will compounds with any number of viii'^^ their Now T. IV. ^. which and H. make and perfed: perfed: thirds t all T and T.

minor 3*^. T*ahle of the Eleme77ts. &c 7 . perfedl HARMONICS. 27 and tlius the contiguous octaves will be joined in perfedt concord.Art. 6.

the contiguous couples of the remaining three. that the fecond and third elements do here alfo compofe the interval ^-f of an imperfed intervals H minor third. Caf. as before. Ihews. 2. And two of the feven elements in the odave being thus joined at each end of it. if the Now fecond element be this joined to makes the perfed: major third T -\-t. that the elements in the fecond and third places. cannot compofe the of perfed thirds in any order different from this. or ^+T+H. as in the third of the table. any order reverfe different its Sed. H4-T-i-/. that the fecond and third elements do again compofe an imperfe(fb and between j minor third H -\-t. third. both which being transferred into the interval between thofe extreme couples. compofe either the imperfed minor third /-{-H. be the fecond element. Here alfo the lixth fmce no other joined to the feventh can perfed the firft element mufi: be T. If . or the imperfed: major third t-^t. the three remaining elements mufl have this order t-\-T-\-t^ to make If perfe6t thirds of their contiguous couples H being thus transferred into the interval thofe extreme couples. and the laft being alfo T-fH. they fhew. the firft couple does now comrank pofe the perfed minor third T+H. fhew. H-f-T^-H^ which being transferred into the interval between the extreme couples.28 HARMONICS. couples of the remaining three cannot compofe perfed: thirds in from this. as T-\-t. IV. make a /.

we are from the trouble of confidering the reil (I?). as appears by T the preliminary obfervation. 7. t. or its H reverfe. H. and being thus transferred into the middle interval. T. that the elements in the fecond and third places do again compofe an imperfect minor third. orelfe an imperfect tone H-f-H. . t-\-T-\-'H. for the reafon above . Now any one of thofe imperfed: /-f H. which proves the propofition. as well as their compounds with viii*''^ are alfb equally imperfed. Of thole firil fix arrangements of the elethe table are equally ments. and the laft terval T-f couple being T-f-/ as before. T. the three remaining elements mufl have this order. then the firft couple compofe the inof a perfed minor 3''. greater than /-f by almofl two commas. freed Qj. Cor&il. II i*^. H 29 be the fecond element. compofes an imperfect major third. H. together with the contiguous perfeift major fifth compofes a equally imperfed:. H-1-/.Art. And the complements to the VI II''' of thefe imperfed: concords. tliey iliew. T. gives 210 permutations cf thefe feven things. For having fhewn the neceffary defeds in thofe fix arrangements of the feven elements. D. which being joined to the major tone on either fide of it.. and fb t-]-f does the imperfedt major third fedl with the per- minor third next to it. De Afoivris general corollary to the xvi problem of his Dodlrine of Chances. minor thirds. t. as in the next If lower ranks.. the and fifth in good (h) Mr. 7- HARMONICS. H-|-T-i-/.

and they all perfedi and four minor thirds. IV. compofed of any number of ocintervals in different and the correfponding as appears odtaves will be denoted by the fame arch and let- by conceiving the bafe of the third Figure coiled round into the circumference of a circle. that the reader may not be at a lofs for a fuitablc notation of the lengths of the correfponding homogeneal firings . OF. (r) In this notation then we have only three major ii\^\ CE. FG. or Fig. 3 . OC^ from the center fet ofF-i. inftead of ters : AQ T+H. 3. equal to the line Cc or cc &c. whether fmaller or greater than the circumference. fo a regular curve drawn thro' the ends of the diverging ftrings in Fig. T. I. is an Equiangular Spiral whofe Pole is the center of the circle. V and VI. -f. let the radius OChe i and in OD. GA.. OA. and a greater number of perfedt v^^ PI. Fig. Thefe are the fame lengths as thofe of the Monochord in Fig. . E G. GB. Cota'^ Harmonia Menfurarum. E F. OE. and better than any one of the reft. proportional to H. H. ^. OG. 10. 2. placed center j they and t. AB. Prop. CD^ DE. the firft of which being compofed of /4-H. as producing as many perfed: thirds. /. {c ) In this notation of intervals by circular arches. if die circumference of a cir- be divided into feven arches. DF. 7. Sed. ^L. and eafe. i. 7. Art. II. and Mr. good. is a Logiftic Line whofe Afymtote is the line Cc. here confidered as a continued ipiral. T. In order to enumerate them with certainty cle. BD. T.30 HARMONICS. ~ of the radius. will reprefent all the intervals in a fyftem taves. BC. FA. ^. OB. See Sedl. in the relpedtive angles at the their fums. and as a regular curve drawn thro' the ends of the parallel ftrings in Fig.

H. Thefe imperfedions being caufed by the contiin the cycle of the elements. G. EGB. as producing one major third. E. he will find what effed: thefe imperfect fifths and fourths and their compounds with VIII**''. 8. T : but though it agrees beft with the prifmatic colours. (^) Sea. (Optics Book i. Part 2. ^. and while the hemitones are fepecannot be avoided rated j there being but 3 major tones in the cycle . is 31 fix fifths. £>. Now if any one pleafes to try the following experiment. N°. Art. the con- H fequences will be worfe.Art. t. and FAC. The reil will appear by enumerating the thirds and fifths in the 8'\ 9^^ ^o'^ II'^ and 12**^ Fi- gures. HARMONICS. DFA. Prop. two minor thirds and two fifths feverally imperfedl: by a comma. In (d) Sir Ifaac Newton happily difcovered. . 13. t. when the intervals of their founds are T. and if they be joined. d. which order is remarkably regular . 2. H. all perfedl but DFAy which being compofed of the defedive minor third iii'^ FA. will have upon the ear . is too fmall by a guity of t DF and the perfedt major comma. F. 4. it is not the propereft for a fyftem of concords. are proportional to the feven difterences of the lengths of the eight mufical ftrings. too fmall by a comma -. produced by the refraffion of his rays through a prifm. T. that of the thirds and fixths having been tried before (e). ACE. CEG. 1 2. GBD. 3) that the breadths of the feven primary colours in the fun's image. See Fig. made in the according to the other five arrange- ments Table of Elements (^). as in Fig. IV. By C. 8. T-f H.

And by tuning an eighth below a we have the imperfect fourth Jld too large by a comma.1 1 1. 10. 3 . 2. that confbnances whofe vibrations are in ratios whofe terms involve 7. 9. and Table pf the order of the fimplicity vf confonances. 5 are admitted into mufical ratios j one reaIbn is. to diftribute that comma. as including the imperfect minor third df. Se^IV. 11. And this interval Ce may be increafed or decreafed a little before it be divided into 4 equal v'^'. and when rightly undoubtedly the finefi improvement in harmonics. cceteris paribus would be lefs fimple and harmonious (y tjian (/) Sed. wanting in the fifth da^ equally among all the four V'''. Gd^ da^ ae^ contained in the xvii*^ Ce. The difagreeable efFed: of this fifth da and fourth dA in every odave. Gd. long ago. tune fed: v'^'CG. &c. III. when the ufual flat and fharp founds are added to complete the fcale. has obliged pradlical muficians. and 2 VI 1 1 the intermediate fifth ad will be too little by a comma. . Ce^ then downwards the v*'' ea. In any cafe fuch diIn Fig. CG. 13. 3.) 32 HARMONICS. upwards from C the two perand the perfed xvii^^ or 4. ftribution is therefore called the Participation or Temperament of adjufted is the fyftem. If it be afked why no more primes than 1. and of their compounds with viii^''% and alfo of the third ^and and fixth fd' in every odtave and of their compounds with viii^^% and of many more fuchimperfed concords.

The firft. is anfwering to the 4'^=T4-/'-hH. Another reafon this . anfwering to the 4*'*=T + Fig. The Greek two 4*'^'. or ^--=:|. fo llich intervals as 13. [g) Dr. 12. T4-L. and adprimes to the compolition of mu- ratios. II. after dividing an o(5lave into jor tone in the mitting fical many with the diazeudlic or mamiddle between them. ill.x curred in this Secflion. 11.Art. Sec. pag. 11. 6. w^ould make other fchifms with both thofe kinds of intervals. in Fig. 3.x|. Oper. or l:=|. from the numrefult from 7. as perfedl fifths and 3. placed in various by which they diilinguifhed their Kinds of Tetrachords (g). other intervals refulting from the number make thirds the Schifm of a comma with the perfect and other intervals refulting ber 5.x ^x^^. muficians. 166. Two of them have ocorders. is Ptolemy s Genus Diatonum ditofiiawiy and refults from that divifion of a Monochord which bears the name of Euclid'^ Sedion of the Canon } the fecond Kind. fubdivided the 4^^ into three inter- vals of various magnitudes. of mufi^ thofe antient fyflems have juflly been laid as being unfit for the execution afide. Ptokfnfs Diatonum intenfiim. ratios involve the lefler is 33 primes than thofe whofe only. yol. in *4^. Math. HARMONICS. C cal . Since the invention all of a temperament. JVallis has given a table of them in his Appendix to Pto/emfs Harmonics.

^id mirufn. ubi magnam efle latitudiuem fanitatis oftendere volens. would be a very weak inference. capite quinto . clude from thence that the antients had no mufic in parts. confonantias. ZBrXar©' UcWaKic y' »v ri^fj-oS^ j^cxaVav apj'^a. quibus nunc utimur. videaris. quoniam fenfu duce folum. neque Ptolemaus^ neque alius ex antiquis muficis mentionem feciffe reperitur. Quod fi aliter modulatio convenienter exerceri poterat. cv to? /3/ctj fi Eucrafiam m fath mnplam unicam atque infc^abikm certe latitudi- Jatittidine7n extendiint univcrfi\ qiiando et in lyris confonantiam ipfam qua ejje fumma exaSiiJfimaqiie fit^ probahile fit^ et quce in ufus hoyninurn venit. Becaufe it is much eafier for practical muficians to follow the judgment of the ear.avov cKlet'vscrt 'srh. nem ram Sape tiamque^ \_qi{a?n'] percornmode temperajfe lyexaSIius alter fuperveniens tnuficiis temperavit : fiqiddeni nobis ad omnia vita miincra feJifus ubiqiie judex e/l. quibus . than to learn and put in praSice the theories of philofophers (/j) : And alfo not be amifs to add the opinion of the faSed unum hoc omnes fcire volo. Ex quibus Galeni verbis liquido conftat. ca^no-is iixh 0^ y.r(Q^ axavlfr. de hac confonantiarum imperfedlione. »5 /^^toi y etf ^^^Tav ifacra. efHoc* otts yl kox cy> aurcccj Xupat? cvap- U7rap^«v gyef.^TY]^ov.a. wavla^^S '^ n ra. confonantias habuifle Neque enim imperfedtas. oJr -ar^^f hoc eft. inftrumenta quibus antiqui utebantur. IV. which leads naturally to an occafional temperament of any difagreeable concords. quod ad prafiicos earn pertinere arbitrarentur . But Sed. [XH-iKO^ dy.ov et rriv sux^qtc-i'av «s" ly. : Kca r'l ^cai(j.a<. fic inquit (h) It may mous Salinas. li|'yi^juiocraTO' eT5p^ ^g«'a?. Xu'/ogtv. caufam potiffimam efle crediderim. non cujus pleniffimum arte aut ratione femper fieri folita fit et evidentiffimum teftimonium reperitur apud Gahium^ libro primo De Sanitate tuenda. ut ea.^^Col.: 34 HARMONICS. to con- <al compofitlons in feveral parts. haheat.

t. bus in muficis utebantur inftrumentls. H. H. as in the foU lowing proportion. alio becaufe HARMONICS. T. from that experience and neceffity did introduce fomething of a temperament before the reafon of it was diiccvered. T. . which two we fhew(/). and the method and meafure of it was reduced to a regular theory. Tones. When the elements are this T. 13. femper femper it efle fu- De Mufica lib. Be fo . we are afTured 35 hifloiy. and why they cannot ? (i) Sea. quin potius et fuifle turas. Fig. Art. order. ed to be the beft t. 7. cap. of imperfeB intervals and their fynchronoiis varia- tions. T. H. m. IV. PROPOSITION II.II. To reduce the diatonic fy[Iem of perfeSl confonances to a tempered fyflem of Mean Plate ranged in this.Prop. SECTION Of the temperaments V. T. H. or T. that all the concords cannot be tuned perfedl. and the arches C Dy C 2 -DE. t. 14. III. but did they know. jam tunc imperet fe6tas effe. t.

aCE. EF. gbd. In the fyftem of mean tones every perfed v^^ is diminiihed by a quarter of a CorolL by going round the and comparing the tempered v*% faC^ CEg. tional to tliem.36 HARMONICS. 11. 4- . are Sed. which reduces And by the all the tones to an equality.E. limmas bC. be diminifhed at both ends by the intervals FJ] Gg. DE. comma: H the angles. and the o6tave will then be divided into five mean tones and two limmas. Bb. Art. be bifeded in d and let the other two major tones. with tlie perfed ones. being made equal to half or a quarter of a comma. FG. Aa. AB. by means of the notes T. Egb. each limma being bigger than the hemitone by a quarter of a comma. it appears that every major tone is diminiflied by half a comma. Ef exceed the conftrudiion the hemitones by a quarter of a comma apiece. V. BC. FG. DE. Aa^ Bby feverally equal to half Z)(^. Dd Q. proporfituated -. For the interval Dd being half the difference between the major and minor tones. And each of the temperaments Ffy Gg.D. GA. t. CD. in as will appear 13*'* figure. dfa. between the two hemitones. Tliis (>f) Sea. and therefore the new tone C^or dE is an arithmetical mean between tliem. let the major iii'' CE. and that every minor tone is as much increafed. is half a comma {k). AB.

Prop. n.

HARMONICS.

37

This is ufually called the vulgar temperament and might be proved feveral other ways independent of the firft and fecond propofitions ( / ).

PRO( / ) Salinas tells us, that when he was at Rome, he found the muficians ufed a temperament there, though they underftood not the rcafon and true meafure of it, till he firft difcovered it, and Zarlino publifhed it foon after ; firft in his Dimonftrationi Harmoniche, Ragionamento quinto, ^ropofta i^^, and after that, in his Infti-

tutioni

Harmoniche, part. 2. cap. 43. After his return into Spain, Salinas applied himfelf to the latin and greek languages, and caufed all the antient muficians to be read to him, for he was blind ; and in 1577 ^^ publifhed his learned work upon mufic of all forts ; where treating of three different temperaments of a fyftem, he prefers the diminution of the v'^» by a quarter of a comma to the other two, which he fays are peculiar to certain inftruments. De Mufica Lib. iii. cap. 22. Dechales fays, that Gu'ido Aretinus was the inventer of that temperament Ipfe nulla habita ratione toni majoris et minoris, hunc unius quintae defectum aliis omnibus quintis communicat, et quafi dividit, jta ut nulla deficiat nifi quarta parte commatis. Hoc fyftema, quod valde
:

commodum eft, dicitur Aretini. Curfus Mathem. Tom. i, pag. 62. De Progreffu mathefeos et muficae, cap. 7 et Tom. IV. pag. 15. cap. xi. But that opinion wants
;

confirmation, efpecially as Dechales makes no mention of the claims of Zarlino and Salinas to that invention i for it feems they had a difpute about it,

38

HARMONICS.

Sea.V,

PROPOSITION
If
the Jive 7nean tones

III.

and

the two Urn-'

maSy that compofe a perfeB oUavCj he changed into jive other equal t07tes

and two equal limmas, of any
terminate magnitudes
;

inde-

the fynchro-

nous Variations of the

limma L,

the

mean

tone

M, and

of every interval

compofed of any numbers of thei7ty are
all exhibited in the following tabky

by the numbers
tndeter?ninate

and fgns of anyf mall interval v : And are

the fame quantities as the variations

of the temperaments of the refpeUive

imperfeB intervals.
For
2d

Prop.III.

HARMONICS.

39
is

For
5'y,

fince the perfect viii''^

= 2L+5M
L
is
i

in-

variable, if the variation
as in tlie table, that as being the
is

of

be put equal to
cu, and that

of

2L

of 5M,
viii^'^,
is

complement of 2L to the icuj whence the variation of

M

2V.

Confequently the variation of the mean 3*^, L-fM, is 5'u— 2'u=3'u, and that of the iii^ 2M, is 4'-j, and that of the mean 4''', L+2M, is ^v 4'u=i;, and that of the mean iv*'', 3M,
is

— 6v.

— —

The variations of the intervals in the lower half of the table, are refpedively equal to thofe in the upper half, but have contrary figns j the
correfponding intervals being complements to
the perfed: odave.

For which reafon the compounds of every
one of thofe intervals with any number of odaves, have refpedively the fame variations both in quantity and quality. And if the fign of the variation of any one interval be changed, the figns of all the reft will alfo be changed ; becaufe their quantities will vanifh all together when v or any one multiple of it vanishes. As to the fecond part of the proportion, it will appear in Fig, 1 3 that any variation v of the mean interval CdEf is the fame in quantity as the variation of the temperament Ff of the faid interval CdEf: and the like is evident in any other inftance. Q^. D.
,

C4

CorolL

40
CoroU.
I.

HARMONICS.
It is obfervable in
all

Sed:.

V,

the table, that

the variations of
ii'^,

the major
vi'*^,

mean

intervals

iii*^,

lign,

have the fame and thofe of the minor intervals the coniv'^,
V*'',

vii'^,

trary fign.

CcrolL 2.

Having extended the circumference

of Fig. 13 into a right line, as in Fig. 1 4, at the points i E, g^ a^ b^ that terminate the major mean intervals 11^, iii**, v^'', vi^'', vii''', meafured from C, (and the minor too meafured from c the other extreme of the octave Cc)

CdEfgabC

place the refpedive tabular

numbers

2, 4, I, 3, 5,

denoting the proportions of their

fynchronous variations; and in Fig. 15 divide any given line 6 into 6 equal parts, at the points I, 2, 3, 4, 5; then conceive the 14'**
Fig. transferred to the
into five
ral
5'''
1

five feveral

times,

parallel
I,

pofitions, fo that the feve-

points

2, 3, 4, 5 in
it

each Figure

may co-

incide.

And

will be evident,

that any right line

by coroll. i, Ovvvv, draw^n from O, ter-

minates the fynchronous variations, iv, 2'u, 31;, 41;, 51;, of thofe mean intervals, v*'', ii'', vi*^,
the variations being meafured from their refpedive origins i, 2, 3, 4, 53 and that
iii'^,

vii''',

thefe arc alfo the fynchronous variations of the temperaments of the refpedive imperfed: intervals, and of their complements to the viii'^ and compounds with viii'^', that is, of all the intervals in the fyllem.

fby Fig. 14, its contemporary variation in Fig. 1 5, will be the line
as to the
iv'*'

For

mean

6v

Prop.
61; in

III.

HARMONICS.
F6B'F', when
its
/?'

41
tem-

the fixth parallel

perament5'6 or B' is taken equal to twice 5^ and placed the fame way from its origin b' or 6. Becaufe in Fig. 14 the temperament of the imis Ff-\-Bb=2Bb. As want of room in Fig. 1 5 will not permit the feveral intervals CG^ CD, &c. even lefs than

perfect iv'^fb

one odave, to be reprefented in their due prothe quarter of the comma, portions to G I which is but the 223'' part of an odlave^ we muft conceive them continued far beyond the margin of the paper. Coroll. 3. When the iii'^ is perfect, the temperaments belonging to the v*^ and vi*'^ are feverally 4: of a comma, the former in defed:, the latter in excefs and if either of them be made lefs, the other will be greater than ^
, :

comma.
PI. III.

&

IV.

Fig. 15, 16.
falls

Temperer
perfe6t,

Ovvv

For when the upon E, the iii'* CE is
'•*

and the tempered v^'' Ci is lefs than the perfedl v'^ CG by G i, and the tempered vi C3 is bigger than theperfed vi'^ by ^3

comma. Hence when Av, any other temperament belonging to the vi'^, is lefs than ^3 or ^ comI

G

=

CA

=

Gv the correfponding temperament belonging to the v'^, is greater than i or i- comma,

G

ma: and on
than

the contrary,

when Gv

is

lefs

G I, the refpedlive Av is bigger than yf 3. whatever be the magnitudes of thefe temperaments of the v^'' and vi'^, thofe of their
And
com-

42

HARMONICS.

Sea.V.

complements to the viii*'* and compounds with VI 1 1'^* are the fame. CorolL 4. When the vi''' is perfed, the temperaments of the v'^ and iii*^ are feverally ^ comma, and are both negative. falls Fig. 16. For when the temperer upon the line OHAI^ the temperament of the vi'^ vanifhes, and thofe of the v^'' and iii"^ are For the equal and EI, and are equal. lines Gi, y^3 and equal triangles GEO,

Owv

GH

AOE

fliew, that the line

GH

GE is parallel to AO; whence

is

equal to £/, and the fimilar triangles
give

lEO, ^30 comma.
Coroli. 5.

/£=^^3 = *xi,comma=4.
the v*^
is

When

perfed:,
iii**

the tem-

peraments of the vi^'^ and equal to a comma in excefs. For when the temperer
line

are feverally

Owv

falls

upon the

OGKLy
and

the temperament of the v*^ va-

nifhes,

tliofe

AKand EL,
parallelograms

of the vi*^ and iii*^ are now which are equal, becaufe of the

A EGO, AELK;

and

4 G
X

I

or four quarters of a

comma.

Coroil. 6. When the temperer falls within the angle AOE, the temp^ v'^=temp*.

ELk= Owv
3'u

vi^'^+temp^
£1;,
that
-^'v
is,

III'',

that

is,

theline

or the lines

Gi
4^',

+

i'u=^3
'u

G1;=^'u-l-

+ E'y,
^c

= ~c —
7.

putting the letter
3
1; -1-

for the line iv,
is

which

evidently true.

When the temperer Owv falls within the angle £0G, the temp^ vi''^ = temp*.
Coroli.
v'^ -f

temp*.

1 11^,

that

is,

the line

-^i;=G "J Hr
Ev,

;

Prop.

III.

HARMONICS.
+ 3 "J=^G
ii;,
1

43
11;

E"J, or the line sAi,

+ Evy

that

is,

putting v for the line

Lc-\-2'v=^c^-^

i;+4'u,

which

is

true.

When the temperer falls any where out of the angle AOG^ the temp'. iii'^=temp^
Coroll. 8.
v^'' -1-

temp',

vi'*^,

that

is,

when

it falls

beyond

the fide

AO,

the temp'.

EI-fIv=GH-\-Hv
v for the line Hv, which is true: and beyond the other fide

^-Avj or putting the

letter

^c-\- /\.v=^c-[-v-\- 2'Ui

when the temperer falls OG, the faid temp'. EL-^Lv^Gv-VAK-^Kv, that is, putting v for the line Gv, c-^^v

=v + r -f 3
Coroll. 9.

1;,

which
is

is

true.

The fum

of the temperaments of

4: a comma when the iii*^ is than 4 a comma by -i the temperament of the III'' when flattened and greater than -i a comma by -i the temperament of the

the v'^ and vi'^
perfed:;
is lefs

-,

III'*

when

fharpened.
firft

For

in the

cafe the faid

fum
it

is

in the fecond,

A 2 — 2Vy

it is

G +
i

1

v-\-A2

— =G
3
is

Gi +^3
i -\-

and
I

in the

third,

Gi —

'u

1"^

A 2 + 3 v=G +^3 -\-2v, in which latter cales
the temperament of the
Coroll. 10.
iii<^ is /\.v.

+

fum of the temperaments of all the concords is lefs when the in"'' are flattened, than the like fum when the are equally fharpened and the fum is the leaft of all when the 11 1''" are perfe(fr, as in the iyflem of mean tones (m),
the
1*'*

Hence

1 1

;

(m) Prop. II.

Scholium*

where he only appeals to the approbation and pra6lice of muficians and refers to the But neither of demonftrations of Zarlino and Salmas. Huygem has pronounced it that the muficians in the other planets the beft.44 HARMONICS. not at all confidering. but has given us no reafon for his aflertion. . cur optimum fit temperamentum in chordarum fyftemate. either in that incomparable book or in his Harmonic Cycle . III"* without fpoiling the harmony of the and their compounds with odtavesj which third parcel makes up the fum of all the concords in the fyflem. cum ex diapente quarta pars commatis ubique deciditur. are more difa- greeable in their kind. that the vi*^ and 3'* and their compounds with odlaves. whether thofe equal temperaments have the fame. (for I have not the books now by me) than reduce the Diatonic fyftem of perfedl confonances to that of mean tones.V. than the v'^ and 4^^ and their compounds with o6laves. that equal were it evident temperaments caufe different con- cords to be equally difagreeable to the ear («). in faying may know per- haps. But if it fhall appear. or a different effect upon the feveral concords. to make them 6^^ all as equally harmonious as poffible. by diftributing the fchifm of a whole comma into quarters. Cofmotheoros pag. 76. and For («) Mr. Sea. thefe celebrated authors do any thing more. that the temperament of the former Parcel of concords lliould be fmaller than that of the latter. will it not follow. Scholium. From the third and tenth corollaries I think we might juftly pronounce the fyflem of mean tones to be the beft poffible. as in that fyftem . all being equally tempered. if I rightly remember.

given fyftem. and the moft harmonious ther. it muft be allowed. that fhall caufe all medium of one with anobe equally. as the nature and properties of numbers will permit. and to determine the temperament of -a. which chiefly offends the ear . HARMONICS. cceteris paribus^ for having all the concords as equally harmonious in their kinds. 4^ For if it be the immediate fucceflion of a worfe harmony to a better. In order to refolve thofe queftions upon philofophical principles. I found it neceffaiy to make a thorough fearch into the abftradl nature and properties of tempered confonances and thence to derive their effeds upon our organs of hearing: A large field of harmonics hi-the concords. But before of the leaft I enter upon it. to in their feveral kinds. that a fyftem would be the better. it will be conve- nient to finifh this fedlion with a determination different parcels. PRO- . III.. Prop. as in inftruments badly tuned. at a therto uncultivated. fum of any three temperaments in when any two of them have any given ratio.

and the fum of all three fh all he the leafl poffible. As. Now . as required GI :) r : : : : : : : AM: firft : by the condition. th PROPOSITION To find a fet of temperaments of the v VI*'' and \\\^ upon thefe conditions \ that thofe of the v"^ and v^^ fhall have the given ratio of r to s. draw another tempelines MAC AN= GRP. Ni produced. Mi. VI. For by the fimilar triangles Grp. A K : the interfed:ion^of the lines AG^ the temperer Or j/^ J I fay Gr. which it likewife anfwers the firft con- and is eafy to underftand. and by the i fimilar triangles : ASP. we have GR AS (GP :AP ::Gi: AN or AM: :) r s by coni : ftrudion. and through wards PI.46 HARMONICS. Asp. : P rer ORST . dition . take Again. G\ :: s r. IV. and G P. we have Gr As (Gp Ap s by conftrudtion. ANP. V. draw Et are the temperaments required. from take AM'. Part of the 17*'^ and iS''^ Figures tobeing conftruded like the 15^**. in the fame line of the AM.V. Sea. and G ip. and through the interfedion AG. AMp. that no other temperers but thofe two can anfwer that condition.

AM AN OP AOC = : ET GR : : : : : : : : AM Orst is parallel to GA-. When r is lefs than s. the temperers Op. the temperers Op. 7 and 8. roll. 17 and 18. 4. or Gi to or AN. and Cafe 2. As=^Gr-\-Et. as appears : : : : ratio 1 8. 17. and therefore Gr ET.Prop. prop. Fig. i. and GR^AS. Whence. . iii. which is a ratio of minority . which is lefs than iTj which is lefs than ET. by coroll. and therefore Gr-+AS-VEt 4. OP fall within j the angles AOE. 6 and 8. For when r is bigger than or the ratio of r to j. Fig. lu. IV. becaufe Gr As r s GR: AS. or the is a of r to j. Fig. HARMONICS. C^E. as Gr is lefs than GR. becaufe Gr is lefs than GHov EI{o) and £/lefs than ET. andET==GR-\-AS. {0) See coroll. Coroll. prop. as within the angles EOG. Gr As-\-Ef. or of i or yf 3 to G AM = or AN^ is a ratio of majority. by coappears by the conflrudlion. whence it is plain. Cafe I. fall refpe6tively . as required. is lefs than GR-^AS-VET. 47 Gr-\-y4s-\- Now whatever be the quantity and quality of the given ratio r to I fay the fum Et is lefs than GR-VAS^ET. D. fo As is lefs than AS. When r to s. Prop.AS -[-ET which is a ratio of minority. Whence. whence. the temperer Orst coincides with the line OE. iii. AOCxt- fpedllvely by the conflruftion. Gr-^-As^Et GR-\. is the ratio of equality.AS-\-ET: As ET. or of G i to or ratio of minority. s. Cafe 3. that the fum of the temperaments G 1+^^3+0.

y+ s ^ y-T is yrs lefs And according as r falls bigger or than s. = the -j^r. 17 and 18. v***. Et = Gr^As=~c. iii. prop. As ^Gr : or : sK : :: s : 2^. Fig. in cafe 1. VIII. coroll. 843070 &c. If / to r be a ra- of minority. VII. . Coroil Putting c for the comma when the temp*. PI. EL : ov four : G I. vi : Sed. ^y and Gr = As = -^ and in angle Et=As — Gr. the ot temperer Orst within the angle AOE : : EOG.s 48 HARMONICS. by the equations but in EOG.r. v temp*. wt'. 20. \ To find afet of temperaments of the and ii\^ upo?t thefe v*^ conditions in'* that thofe of the and fhall have the given ratio of x to t^ and the fum of all three fhall be the leajl fojffible. Whence As r. and As Or :: s r. Fig. V. 5. : r 5. or even of ma- jority lefs than to --g — or o. AOE. PROPOSITION vi'*" V. tio 1 9. For. the required temperaments of the v. and As As -\-sK : or c (p) : 5 *'- 5 + 3 r. or of i equality. and through from [p] E See towards / take EM:Gi Dem. vi and iii are.2.

Fig. 20. p of the lines A^i. 19. 19. therefore EM or EN Fig. angles AO E. draw the temperer Orsf.^*S.indi Gr\Et \: {Gp Ep : :) r : t by conftrudion. and through the intertake EN: Gi t fedion of the lines Niy G Ey draw the temperer ORSTy and the required temperaments will be Gi?. Now when f in a to G i to r. and the required temperaments will be Gr. OP fall within the flrudion. as re- quired by the firil condition. and and in the fecond. Fig. from E towards r. tlie temperers Op. 843070 &c. Again. HARMONICS.. and ratio of mi- nority. through the interfed:ions P. Orst. G EN::) I : GP ET: f {GP r : which alio anfwers the firil by conftrudion. 843070 &c. we have : GRP. or GB.Prop. Then by the fimilar triangles G : : ip. 20. by the fimilar triangles and G I P. AS.E TP : : EP :: ENP. But if the ratio of / to r be greater than i to o. Mi with GE. EM G I : we have : G r p. E t p . Et. draw two more temperers ORST. condition j and it is eafy to underfland that no other temperers but is thofe can anfwer that condition. EOG refpedively by the con- D . their fums being equal. 49 through the interfedion /> of the lines Mi. i o. ET". As^ Et. produced. EM= EN==EM. in Fig.£r. E Mp.V. Cafe I. the requiAnd if ^ r red temperaments will be Gr. As. take GE L : : : P : : : : EN. In the firil cafe.

before. HARMONICS. Whence. coroll. prop. Cafe 2. which than is is a ratio of minority tt is lefs becaufe being lefs r.i / / /. AS. Fig. the fall . 6 and 7. Asy Et. and and GR i I. Whence Gr=: — — / 4. When t to r.- ^ : <r. .r:^t. Whence GR== — ^ =-GR= -^c.r '. EOG OPT and reipectively within the angles. Et=Gr-VAs AS=GR-\-ET. temperers Opt.r-\-t. and AS=GR~{£7"= —^ by the equation above.V.'.rr+r^:4rr + 4r T 4r— : : '^ -. In which cafe the theorems for the values of Gr. by : Sed. 8 and 7 prop. Whence. and therefore Giy a ratio of majority. £ / orri But Gr Et ::r ty and G r : i. E M or E N to AGCy 3. -^^ c. than 2 r t. by coroll. and £/=-Gr=—— ^r.::4. : ^^aS : : + 2 r/ — / / Gr\As-rEt GR-\-AS^-Er —^— ~ -^—r. Therefore Gr r/. and Et f. GR. ' by the equation in the laft paragraph. A. 4r and As=^Gr^Et= 2^. : Gr=^s-\-Et and J[S=GR-\-Er.ET or : GR : Gi?+i^ or ^ ^ : r c. r-\-l. so ilru(flion. as appears by the confl:ru(5tion. : : r : : 1 : ' /. 20.t : : A. 3. and : Gr Gr — r : i ox ~c : : r i r — \t * Ar ^r ~ r — t. ET : : are the fame as Therefore Gr-\-As-\-Et GR-\-AS-^ET: -\- : ^t:AS::-^ : -^ : Ari tt : Ur r-\4r/ ./ . : Ri : Likewife Gr:ET::r '.

// or) 51 — rt— is ^rt-\-tt. in the fecond the ing lefs than the former. 744<.— — Prop.ZZxx —^_^x—. will make the value of xx — ^x — '^.62 &c. except either or-i 4?-r Lrr —rt— 2//=o.e whofc fquare roots !1 — -/ — i .^—0.V. Gr-rAs-^-Et or GR-^latter only. ~ —^=0. Ir^v/33 -g 1^5. ~^ = g"g . or - - n::. 843070 &c. D 2 . ter 843070 &c than i or the ratio of t to r to o. will produce a negative value of the latter. -\-^rr rf — rt— 2//. when rr which a ratio of minority. we have EM or EN= cides G I J therefore the interfedion p infinite diflance. (r) fince the root o.^__ whence _. Cafe 3. 2X a fmaller number fubftituted for x. Whence xx—:^x=^t I: ^"^ ^^ —^^^+ 4/ T^T^ T^T + are * r_ =tX-8-|^^3 . is removed to an and the temperer Orst coin- — (g) ^^^ For fuppofing . /^rt HARMONICS. or of x — i — zi o. when fubftkuted for X.. and confequently of the former quantity. 843070 &c. 843070 2//. In the firfl cafe either AS-\-ET^ as being equal. are the required temas peraments . which {q) . be- When /=r. ^^ &c 5: or when ^rr —rt— ^ — is negative. is lefs is than grea^ o. ^or or -- gives -=l-^-^= o. and confequently (r). — 2tt =0.zz^^ => / I zzix^ we have — / / ].—^ For 3 „.

/=r in the terms of that ratio in cafe CLE. Coroll. t A5= 4r — Orst lefs -''-^ t Cy Et= —— 4r ^ And f.— HARMONICS. produced by putting or 2. V. the re11 1 are. c. they are -GR = ^r+t AS=!±Lc. their fums are pro- equal and either of them anfwers the blem. a ratio of minority. When the temp*. P R O- . Andif -== 0. D. v : temp*. VI and -^Gr= 4r — or c. t quired temperaments of the V. and : : to GR-^AS^-ET i 5 : 6. iii : : r if -be bigger than 0.S43070 &c. /. with : 52 cides Sedt. ^r-\-t the temperer and ORST Arr-\-t falls within the angle EOG.843070 &c. Hence Gr-\-As-\-Et htis comes=GI^+o-f £ J. the temperer falls within the angle is AOE AOCy But according as r bigger or lefs than if - be c.Er^:=±'. than o. OHAI. 843070 &c.

VI. 53 PROPOSITION To find afet of temperaments of the v^^ vi^^ and 1 11^ upon thefe conditions that thofe of the vi^'' and iii'^ fl^all have the given ratio of s to t. s p^ Et p and For by the fimilar triangles E Mp. EM '. of the lines N^. we h^v^AS :ET::{AP:EP A ^ E N or E M) s t by conftrudiion. and the [urn of all three pall he the leaft pofftble. 21 and 22. temperer Orsf. and the required temperaments PI. ETP ^ndAT^P^E NP. /. X. taking produced. : : : AE Gr. the temperers which can anfwer the ratio Now that whatever be of j- to I fay Gr-\-As^Et is lefs than Gi^+^5+£-r.VI. will be A : : A ' M \ : : terfedtion M. From E towards A^ t s and through the inC take draw the terfedlion p of the lines M3. As.Prop. HARMONICS. IX. and by the fimilar E N=E P AE : triangles ASP. v/e have As Et w {Ap Ep Aip. as re2 quired by the firil: condition. which alfo an: : : : : fwers the are all firft condition . Cap D 3 . E ::) s t hy conftru6tion. through the inAgain. Fig. Et. and it is plain that thofe it. draw the temperer O R S'T.

::/:l5 and E^ 2^: E/+7^or4-c (i) ::/:/+ 3/4-45. And^j=EifX7=j7^/. which evidently a ratio of minority. the temperers Op. / is to When EM OP EOG Whence by coroll. Cafe 2. is or ^ss-\-'7^st — 2st— 3// / is to s. coroll. re- OP within the angles AGE.And Gr=^j + £ /= -^ . fpedively. Fig. or temperers 0/.IT'^ET. iii. Cafe plainly a ratio of minority. Whence. GOc : : Ipedively. 21. : ^ A S or IE or lT::t:^s : — : : and / : ET'. ^ to s. in fall a ratio of majority. l-c :: t ET: A S ^s :: t : s and ET 3 /. GR^AS-VET ^ss-V^st-^ist : Gr AS : _i±^ : l^Ill! — 3//. by the equation in the laft para- Again. 5. Gr-=As-\Et is ET-=GR-\. But *i 1:3 iii. 3 in a ratio of minority. and Gr-{-As-^Et which GR^AS-^ET: Gr ET. prop. Whence £r=_^^r. 22.= Therefore Gr-{-As-^Ef : : 4 i — : : : or Whence -^^c. and Et ^As '.54 Cafe I. graph.V. Gr=As ox If Et As \ \\t : '. as appears by the conjftrudion.^. (j) See Dem. the refall within the angles y^OE. When EM to ^3 jii. HARMONICS. -\rEtzneiAS=GR-VEr. . 6 and 7 prop. : 3 / : ET=-j^^c2indAS = ET>^'. 4. 45^4-3 or 5/.AS. 6 and 8 prop. by and : coroll. Fig. Sea.

and this the three magnitudes of the temperaments of all the concords. be the leaft poffible. But if bodi the given concords be contained in any one of the three parcels above men- D 4 tioned. whatever be their numiber.— f. To find the temperament of a fyilem of founds upon that the odaves be perfed. HARMONICS. namely. vi and : : III are. that the given ratio of the temperaments of any two concords. a ratio of minority. Etzu ' A tio of s to f. Grzz —— . P OGKL. thefe conditions that the ratio of the temperaments of any two given concords in different parcels be given. The reafon is. . Scholi tion Thefe three problems comprehend the fbluof a more general one. When the interfcdtion EM or EN=:A'i^. Gr-\-As-]rEt o-\-AK-^ EL. VI. as be:: Gr vanifhes. 4^4-3^ 4^+3^ 4/+3' ' Hes within the angle O Ey and the temperer whatever be the quantity and quality of the ra' . Whence by tlie conclufion of the fecond cafe.D. turn. determines the pofition of the temperer of the fyflem. Co?'oIL /. and that the fum of the temperaments of all the con. iii v. Cafe 3. When the temp*. c. : EL s : : fore. t=s or ^^ and the temperer as appears by O R *S T' coincides with the conftrudion. QJE.Prop. As— —. cords. vi : the required temperaments of the temp*.

Any two founds whofe fingle vibrations ratio. HARMONICS. I. VL this the given ratio of their temperaments can be no other than that of equality 3 and datum is plainly infufficient. according as the difference of the leaft terms of that ratio is an unit or units III. each part called a Period of the pulfes IV. PRO(/) Schol.: : : 56 tioned (/). DEFINITIONS. And when many a complex cycle is divided into as equal parts as that difference conis tains units. SECTION Of the Periods^ VL Beats and Harmony of itnperfeSi confonances. -prop. And the cycles of perfed conlbnances are often called Short cycles. have any fmall given Unifons are called Imperfect II. . III. Sed. And the cycle of their pulfes is called Simple or Complex. to diftinguifh them from the long cycles of imperfed: unifons.

V. VII. III.. Art. and the middle inflants of BC^ dieir pulfes (u) Se6l. 24. let the fucceffive vibrations V. HARMONICS. VII. {x) Def. 11. Let the vibrations be V and v. be reprefented by the equal lines AB. 23. 26. To affiil the PI.Prop. V. and V : i. we have the comrY-=Rv^rv-\-dv {ii)^ and the period ^ V== ^ i. CDj Sec. which when d= i. 25. 3 the integers i?. imagination. r being the leafl in that ratio d=R r. Fig. : : R : r. ^y PROPOSITION In going from either end to the middle of any Jtmple cycle or period of the pulfes of imperfeEi pulfes unifons^ the Alternate Lejfer Intervals between the fuccejfive increafe to uniformly^ their proportional that end\ it lefs and are diftances from and at any difla?2ces from than half the fimple cycle or period^ are lefs than half the lejfer of the two vibrations of the imperfeEi unifons. &c. 4. XI. 12. .1.is a fimple and putting plex cycle — cycle [x).

•) V. having divided it into two equal Se<?t. a. c. by 3V j V 3 V— 3 : : the equa: -. the adjoining interval 3 d is lefs 31. increafe uniformly. y any affigned diftance "J : 3 V : r V v : : 3 'u : 3 V— 3 whence tlie rV rv=dv. &c. U and x. . bigger than half v. or than half v .— — 58 HARMONICS. -. B. and the middle inftants of their by the points a. but if bigger. c d. of their dilfances from A.. 24. pulfes a If. &c. I. Sed.. Art. 12.VL and the pulfes (y) by the points ^. U Fig. Cc. &c by the equal lines lucceffive vibrations v. d. Then beginning from two coincident pulfes at A or a. it is obfervable. &c. C. Now rv tion :'. by the repeated addi- D — — tion of the firfl leffer interval V— 'u. at every equal increment V or 1. 2 V 3 f. Now if the difference d=2. b. be. and the length of the complex cycle be the line or AU a x=}'V=rv-'r2 (. .. or V 'u. a. dieir larger and lefler alternate intervals being evidently of the fame magnitudes as in going forwards. that the fucceffive intervals lefs of the pulfes are alternately bigger and and that the Alternate Leffer Intervals Bh. The alternate leller intervals are therefore proportional to their diftances from the coinci- dent pulfes A. &c. And the argument is the fame in going back- V— D wards from the two next coincident pulfes at and w. 3 V &c. v. : "j con- fequently if lefs affigned diflance 3 V or y^D be than half the fimple cycle or period ^ V. 21. &c.

kY^^v XL XN Xm Xo L m : : : : : : W— : : : : : : : No. XN. oriy—lv. XL. it R. pulfes of V are Xm. &c. which increafe uniformly by the repeated addi- V X tion of V— "J or -TT^ — : to the iirft and fucceedins: intervals.v-\-v. iV—iv. as and a remainder KX=^'^y=^KL. or 4 v.Prop. &c. We AX= . HARMONICS. Sec. Xfi. r . confifls other of of a multiple of v (one more than that V) as A/j and a like remainder IX= Now the diftances of the fucceffive pulfes of are XL. AX. tional or the alternate leffer intervals are proporto their diftances from the periodical point X. iV-^iv. XN. confifts of a multiple of V. or \V and iV 4V \v 4i. XM. Affign any diftances 4V \Vy • then that is. and the differences of thofe rcipedive diftances. r. Xo. XU. No. Now (z) For if 2 meafured r-\-2. Mn. and fo the terms inot be the Icaft. and thofe of the fucceflive 4V. have alio. &c. are Lm. 2 meafure r (z). or from the point 4V. by the fame equation. would alfo meafure Rzz of the ratio V to "y would as they are fuppofed to be. we 59 equal parts riod have die part or pe- AX^-Y-y which becaufe 2 does not AK. &c. or the alternate leffer intervals between the fucceffive pulfes of V and v. wliich becaufe 2 does not meafure r. VII. IV. &c. iVy -iV.

and their differences. by the given equa• tion. and therefore confifls of a multiple of v (one more than that other of V) h.=i.ively equal to L m. in going And Fig. the is adjoining interval 4-V Iv or No. : - V : : iV— - V— . if bigger. at equal diftances on each fide of X. &c. 4V. &c. of the fucceffwe pulfes of V are XH. that if is. AG. &c. be . iV : 2 V : : 4V— l-u : : confe- quently lefs the affigned diflance than half the period but 4V or XA^". \Vy 4*^. multiple of V. A whofe complement Xi=^v. as and a like remainder h X=\v=y:) i. backwards from X. whofe complement XH=iV. Now any affigned diftance -i-i. bigger than half v. Mn. XI.— 6o X Sed-VI. Ik. In like manner if ^=3. &c.V or half XU. No. as The fame period AX is alfo= -i. the alternate lefler intervals Kl. i-V. ~ HARMONICS. Xk. lefTer Hence the diftances from X .+'u by the fame equation. XT^ TU. are reiped. 25. Hi. and thofe of the fucceflive pulfes of V are Xi. XK. which confifls of a and a remainder G =tV (or tV hereafter to be confidered) =-|G H. having divided this cycle ^4 or ay into three equal periods u^X. or tV. &c. lefs than half V . or the alternate..V. XI. &c. or 4^. or 7'V=:rv '+ 3 V. that U equation gives AX = .i. : IV : V v : : -iri.

bigger than half 1. are equal. fothatiVr complement TO=iV. By doubhng the period ^X=^G+4V. And in going contraiy ways from towards V X X Ai and from /'towards V. is=4-V and its by doubling AX=Ah-\-^v. KIj or the alternate lefler intervals are propor- tional to their diftances from the periodical point X.. 6r lefTer intervals between the fucceflive pulfes of V tI^j -fV ^v^ and V. in going oppofite ways to equal diftances from and from T. W W XH : XH and : : XK ^v : : : XK.^v. Ik. Now any affigned diftance 4 V : - V : : ^v : -v:: 4V that is. or tV ^v. complement Tq^=^v. : 4V - 3 V IV—I'u XT. Sec. lefs v. or -V. Affign any diftances and 4-V J then : 4V^4'u. we have^r=2^GH-4V=^Ar+4. Again we have AT== its ^Ah\^j^Ap\~v. HARMONICS. \v : : -V : : — - v=v by the equation. &c . which increafe uniformly by the — W— ^ repeated addition of V v ~^'^ or to the firfl and fucceeding intervals. fo that/r=T'u and Hence pulfes of the alternate leffer intei-vals of the and v. are Hi.V.—— — — : Prop. KI. fo that if the affigned diftance 4V is or X-K" be lefs than half the period val V or half the adjoining inter- 4V \v or KI than half v 5 but if bigger. VII. W—^i. Xi X/ Hi : : : : . the alternate leffer intervals . : that is.

V. 3 '. W— -r'u is lefs than half 'u 3 but bigger than half v. . &c. always within thofe values of v that are feverally contained within as the is many corresponding values of V.7 5 V-^ 3 3 v=v as before. I. 26. the ad- joining interval if bigger.62 intervals are HARMONICS.V. lefs So that if the affigned diflance to" •^V be than half the period . and the fall periodical points X. 4V— Sed. T. ^Y-^-^v. defires a general proof of the proany value of the difference </. need only read the lafl: example over again with a deiign to make the proof general j and he will perceive that what has been faid of the number 3 as a value of ^. pears by its equation. -ut. &c. D. and a reof a multiple of V zs. Coroll. J V=^'u-i-'u. Fig. mainder G X=tV. and in each number of thofe points complex cycle CorolL ^— I. Any limple cycle or period of the pulfes of imperfe(ft unifons contains one more of the quicker than of the flower vibrations. W—^v. before j and tV which increafe uniformly as or Ty we being an affigned diftance from X have iV'/-V::^v-'-v:: 4-V—^i.VI. which remained to be conlideredj its AG complement XH'i^=^\Vy and the demonftration would proceed in the fame me- thod as before. mutatis mutandis^ is plainly applicable to any other value. as ap- Whoever pofition for Q^. Laftly confifts when the period AXy= .

- wnen whea 1 „ 4<j ^> 4 4 ' J=4. or of any two confonances. counted from the nearefl coincident pulfes j and others are the differences of equal numbers of the fame part or parts of their iingle vibrations. Let and t be the vibrations of one couple. and V and v thofe of the other j and lince : V :: r-\-d Ty the cycles of their pulfes t ::Y CoroIL 3. V — 'V 2V —Z'v zV Z'V and the points of coinreft and are d I . T '. XI.. Some of the alternate leller interof the pulles of imperfe(fl unifons. CorolL 4. multiples. Coroll. and the -.r-\-d x t 1. counted from the neareft periodical point. the periods and cycles of their pulfes. and are in the ratio of to V. 5. If the vibrations of two couples of imperfed: uniibns. are the differences of equal numbers of their vibrations. be proportional. will be in the ratio of the homologous vibrations. The lefs 63 nearefl leffer Intervals that lie to the periodical points cidence. of its pulfes.v / to v. and T all its . HARMONICS. whether fimple or complex. are ""^ than any of the t. T : {ire rT=r+^x t and r Y=. vals &C. VII. periods are ^ T= ^^ T and ^ V= ~. 2. is the fame as that of the period PI. The length of the period of the Leaft Imperfediions in any confonance of im- perfed: unifons. or of Coroll. as 2 j whereof the j 7 multiplier IS ^3 v J - 3V 3V d^'iy ^ ' V — 4 V— 2'y ) 3 V— 3'y 4V— '-. .— — — Prop. - — 4 — — — greatefl 31.

and iince they increafe in going from the beginning to the middle of every iimple cycle. and imperfed: when the ratio of is a little altered from the ratio of equality {i)) . and thence decreafe to the end of it (c). XL Fig. 25. if AB r. 23. (^) Seft. which are the Imperfe<flions of this confonance. 24. 3. PROPOSITION If either of the vibrations VIII. . For unifons are perfect when their fucceffive pulfes are conftantly their vibrations coincident (^). I. 26. XL Sea. and ^ ^ be the vibrations of imperfed: unifons. Defin. 2AB (a) (c) Sea. vi. or period of the pulfes. ally Separated and then the pulfes are graduby Alternated LefTer Intervals. VI. HARMONICS. Fig.^ 64 PI. VII. 27. the length of the period of the Leaft Imperfedlions of imperfedl unifons is plainly the fame as that of the period of their pulfes. PI. Prop. Art. of imperfeSi unifons and any multiple of the other or any different multiples of bothy whofe ratio is irreducible^ he conjt- dered as the fingle vibrations of an imperfeEi confo7ta72cey the length of the period of its leaf imperfe&ionsy will be the fame as that of the pulfes of the imperfeB u?tifo72s. For inftance. 23.

are the unifons. periods. 23. tiples Now let as any different mulor of AB and ab. as appears by fuppofing ox ab i pulfes o^ to be fo intermitted as to leave only fingie equi- mAB m— AB dift ant pulfes in Fig. of the alternate leffer intervals pulfes in their fucceffive fhort cycles (J). i^AB and 2a b. E {d) Defin. tempered odaves. E. &c. Now if thefe ocflaves were perfed:. . of the imperfedl unifons. HARMONICS. 24. AD Sea. A. by of the the And thus the imperfedions of the faid unifons. D. be one of the or a by as vibrations of the imperfed confonance . or tjtab. VIII. C. Fig. Ee. The intermediate pulfes of the treble. which in perfedl odiaves would bifed: the intervals of the pulfes of the bafe. 65 and ab will be the vibrations of imperfed: o6taves. PI. whofe treble is one of the unifons. are alfo gradually feparated . Sec. vi. B. 25. from the round points which reft them. or the Diflocations of the bifed. as and alfo if any other multiple of . every where the fame as the imperfedions of and confequently have the fame The argument is the fame if 2a b or ac and AB AB in Fig. 2 8 he the vibrations of imperfed odaves. and whofe bafe is derived from the other by intermitting every other pulfe of the feries.Prop. every pulfe of the bafe would coincide with every other or pulfe of the treble lAB AC but here they are gradually feparated by fome of the alternate lelTer intervals Cc. IV. 34. XII. 26.

being equimuland n.66 confonance HARMONICS. of the fliort cypulfes G and g. the alfo bigger than the multiple 6 AB or AG is equimultiple ^^. VII. 33 : N and perfect. coroll. from and a b. cles. &c. tiples of For tlie like reafon the Interior pulfes. AD^ or their exterior pulfes G the vibrations. then would ov ac :\ '7^: 2. Gg. &c. yet the argument is the fame if we fuppofe them feparated by [e) Pro. f e. which pulfes were coincident before. But = i. Hence the diilocatlons of the pulfes in all the imperfe(5l Ihort cycles. . . AB AD intervals. and fo the Exterior and . Nn. &c. are lefTer intervals Ibme of the alternate of the pulles of Ab and ab. .?. &c. VL AD and ^r be the and \i vibrations of the imperfeft AB zab or Z) be to 3 y^ the fhort cycles of 5 ^ were=<2 b. 34 being bigger than ab.?. of the imperfect fliort cycles are alfo fepaand ab (denoted rated from the pulfes of points when different from thole of by round and ac) by fome of their alternate leller the diftances of the pulfes N AB A . 3. of : the pulfes of AB G and gj and ab {e) and a. and all would be g^ Fig. For though we began the iirft fhort cycle from two coincident pulfes A^ a. are now feparated by Ibme of the alternate lefTer inor 6ab N tervals. ac and 6cc. as in becaufe 2 x -^-DG would then ^eg. Sed. v/ould be coincident.^^ or 2 3 X2ab or 3<^c AD or AD or ac-]rce AB in Fig.

when and ^aby or and ady are different multiples of and ab. 2 . are proportional to and a by the remaining diftances and yn. and KZ and Aw. 26. whofe diftances from tKe next periodical point or coincident pulfes Z. gA. are con^ ilantly fome of the alternate leffer inter\^als of the pulfes of and ab. and of the interior too. the periods of im- E (/) Prop. fuppoling the proper numbers of pulfes to be intermitted. as Q^nd r. AB A XZ &c. AB >?. and when they make periods. For fince i. whofe interval Qr^ is an alternate leller inteiTal of their pulfes (/). &c. is constantly the fame as that of the pulfes of and ab. And thus the period of the leaft diflocations of the pulfes of the imperfe(5t conlbnance.Prop. are proportional to the vibrations y4Bj a by that is. or begin to count the vibrations of the confonance from any two pulfes of and a If. Fig. 24. HARMONICS. 67 by any one of the alternate leffer intervals . AZ K X AB AB AC 2AB AB the periodical points Xy Ty in Fig. are alfo proportional g)j. the like is evident by inipedion of the pulfes about . &c. of the fubfequent fhort cycles. 25. to JIB and a 6 which Hiews that the diilocations of the exterior pulfes and j. VII. and A. 35 fliews the fame thing. whole pulfes make long fimple cycles. VIII. the leaft terms of any perperfect fect ratio being m and «. and e. XA the feveral lengths and y Ai^and Q^ and ry. or of die leaft imperfedtions in its fhoit cycles. And univerfally.

or into equal periods of an imperfeft flat confonance whofe vibrations are mab and 7iAB. And the fame might be faid with refped to this other perfed confonance of the vibrations mab and nab^ whofe interval is the fame as that of the former perfed confonance. yet the remaining pulfes continue in their own places periods of the fame length as the and make whole num- ber of pulfes did before. and the latter imperfed conis tempered flat by fonance of mab and the fame ratio 7nAB to mab of the vibrations By ab of the imperfed unifons. the perfed ratio being the fame in both. nAB nAB A Coroll. AB vibrations are ?fiAB and . by i pulfes of ab and . With refped to the perfed: confoCoroll. For tho' fome of the alternate leifer intervals of the pulfes of the imperfed: unifons are deflroyed by thoie intermiffions.VL perfed unifons whofe vibrations are and will be changed into periods of the fame length of an imperfect fharp confonance whole ^/^. 11. .z^^ by intermitting m-^—i pulfes of and i pulfcs oi ab-. D.z i pulfes intermitting w AB «— — — of ABy fo as to leave equidiftant pulfes at larger intervals for the pulfes of the refulting confonance. zndftAB. QJE. the former iniperfed confonance of ??iAB and nab is tempered fharp by the tempering ratio to nab (^ ). . I nance whofe vibrations are mAB. (^) Se(Sl. Art 5 and 6. Sed.68 riARMONlCS. whofe interval is therefore the temperament of both thofe imperfed confonances.

whofe terms have a com?non half urn ^ so. 10. whofe period is the fame multiple of the period of the given unifons [h). is therefore the whole length of the imperfedl fhort cycle of either of the foregoing tempered con- fonances. s For by the fuppofition the point ab and cd. The fame multiples of the vibra- tions of imperfed unifons. And any hyperbola defcribed with the center and E3 redangular {h) Prop. 4. [i] Sed. VIII. The logarithms off mall ratios^ LEMMA. /<? b o. Coroli. will be the vibrations of other imperfed unifons. Confequently the imperfeft (hort cycle of any imperfed: confonance contains equal numbers of the flower and quicker vibrations AB^ ab of the imperfed: unifons from whence it Coroli. and whofe interval is the fame too at a different pitch 3 becaufe the ratio of the vibrations is the fame (/). The : 69 lengths of the perfect cycles of thofe perfedl confonances are ?n?i ( AB and mnab-j \ : becaufe f?iAB iiAB : : m : n mab nab : . is derived. and mnAB being the greater of the two. . 36. VII. Art. Coroli. the differences of thofe if bifeds both terms. c o /<? d o. a o f are very nearly proportional differences to the of the terms of each ratio.) Prop. XIL Fig. 4. ^ P]. 3. i. 2. HARMONICS. coroli.

h. cdhg. cut off by the tangent ptq at the point / in the middlemofl perpendicular ts : becaufe the common bafes ab. arith- metically exprelTed. e. acge^ or very nearly to the trapeziums ablk. c. re(ftangular afymptotes so. it is well known ratios that the areas abfe. ratios. a which have a common term are alfo very nearly proportional to the dif- ferences of their terms j but not fo nearly as if the terms had a common half fum. cdnm. D. logarithms of fmall a ao. cdhg. acmk.70 HARMONICS. a to CO are proportional to the areas abfe. j. or to the redangles under their bafes ab. st. as the area abfe to the area cdhg. Q^^E. It appears then that the logarithm of the rato bo is tio a to the logarithm of co to do.j\g. d. CorolL . or as to cd. For the logarithms of the ratios ao to bo. in t. or very nearly as the trapezium ablk to the trapezium cdnm. And thofe areas (ibfe. SeaVI. differ very little from the trape- ziums ablk. and that thefe logarithms are proportional to any other logarithms of the fame ratios. ferences of the terms ao and co and do-> are fuppofed to be very fmall in comparifbn to the terms themfelves. co to do. cd. are hyperbolic logarithms of the ao to bo. their felves mean : altitudes. or (becaufe j / is the mean ab altitude of both) as the red angle under ab and st to the redangle under cd and Coroll. The to CO. b. I. or nearly to the bafes ac and themis becaufe the ratio of the mean altitudes veiy fmall in comparifon to that of the bafes. oq^ cuts the perpendi- culars erected at ^. to bo. or difbo.

o ae -. / ^ by ' : cor. 37. is the logarithm - of ^ to ^ : : to the logarithm : of ^ + ^ to s — -a 2d : ^p d ::i:p : c :P c. of any finall in the ratio HARMONICS.Prop. 2.dto p s —-d P the ratio whofe los^arithm is - c very nearly. and that of the terms s -{ ~ P d and s — P d is -^ d. ao : : co : If ^ and b be the terms of any is fmall ratio whofe logarithm part or parts or s it . ratios 71 ao \bo^ co \ The logarithms do are very nearly do of ao to CO . Fig. becaufe ae'. 1 ao \ bo^ co\ do.^ ae eo. XII. ed of the dired: ratio of the differences of tlie terms of the propofed ratios. Coroil. taking s-= is and a="-* \-.VIII. For the terms of both thofe ratios have a common half fum s. i. The fecond part may be by taking/i? Coroll. and c bein? the lo^^aritlirn 00 E 4 .ao: cd co by the fuppolition. c and - ^ be any . : proved in like manner do. or as — to — no ^n or - . Whence the loga-.. ab . and the inverfe ratio of their homologous terms. For fuppofing ao : eo co do^ thcfe ratios have the lame logarithm. Whence by the lemma. are as abX. and fince s-\-d^=a and s d=bi the difference of the terms a and b — is 2 d. or of ^' to bo ^ compound^ . PI. 3. : : rithms of the propofed or ao : ratios.

— — p 72 HARMONICS. the inV-f-y i6i/» V-f-^' p terval belonging to the ratio i6jp-{-q 16 J ?. by fubilituting 81 for ^ and 80 for ^ in the laft corollary. we have 2 5 =— 2 . VI. — For the comma c being the interval of two founds whofe lingle vibrations are as 8 1 to 80 (/).y V — — orV— V and —-i— Whence =^r. if (/) Sea. And converfely. -. rithm of a to to s the logarithm o£ s -^^-d — -d. 11. . P Coroil. the ratio of the fingle vibrations be- longing to the interval ~Cj very nearly (m). J=~ p and j+ -</ p : p •'^ i6i/>— ^. 4. : — — . : Y — xi6if. Art. any part or parts of a comma c denoted by be the interval of imperfedl unifons. and vzz-ibip q y then vzziq and V-j-i»— i6ix2/>. 4. This (k) (?«) Sea. Hence as mufical intervals are proportional to the logarithms of the ratios of the fingle vibrations if of the terminating founds (^). 4. Art. I. Lz ^ is Sedl. orViVy by coroll. the ratio of the times of the fingle vibrations of imperfea unifons be V : : to Vy their interval is 2/ For fuppofing ibip+q: 161 p a V-\~v i6i/)+? p and q being indeterminate numbers. ratio be I of the times of their fingle vibrations will 6 I p-\-q to I 6 ip q.xi6i ^— ^ (. 11. the - r.

-c=^Cy 161/ q : or : />=4 and ^=1. and their of imperfe<fl unifons being CorolL 5.part of a 330984^ comma ficient for every a degree of exa(5lnefs abundantly fufpurpofe in harmonics. then i6i/>+^ as 645 : 643. («). Corolh («) See Scd.00134. Likewife the Vibrations of other imperfect. ratio as will approaches furprifingly near to the Let appear by an example.87580 *^^^°g-^ the difference = = o» o. it ^ of =0. — : ^—.— HARMONICS. : q' their pulfes is 2y . Prop. 00134-87417 00000. . Zq v'. log. VI. The -^.50319 =0. times of the fingle vibrations and 1. The V interval ^ ^ j V of : -u : : 161/)+^ pulfes : ib\p ' — ^ ^ q and the - period - their is V or —— 1.00539. Now by tlie Tables of Logarithms. Defin. iii. which {hews that ~ c deduced from the ratio 645 643 differs from the truth but by J . V and v' and V w'w i6ip-\-q' 161 p— and the period i^i^' V or ^^^^±^' of unifons being their interval c . 73 This truth. VIII. . 00163 and the logarithm 539-50319 divided by the difference 163 gives thequotient 330984.

to finity in quantities />. fhort cycles of perfed: unifons. Hence if the intervals Sea. . . of that of V q V to — ^ q their intervals inverfely. the ratio 161 p — q to qto q' i6\p^-q of equa- will alfo decreafe lity. 5.to q q ^ cv' For fuppofing the coroll.VL Coroll. the intervals . by a like argument. fonances of imperfed: q=q\ tio of two conbe equal. or the periods of their pulfes have the raunifons of their flower or quicker vibrations.f. the or V to {o). to - Hence if two confonances of im- perfed: unifons have a found or vibration V=V'. -u. i. y. Coroll.to -..' in be variable and^ to increafe to inc^ any finite time. and vanifli in the ratio and therefore the Ultimate Ratio with increafing which the ^ - periods at ^——^ V and 7^ V' became time. . vir. or 'V=-v\ the ultimate ratio of their periods is q to q^ the inverfe ratio of their intervals (0) common This agrees with Cor- 4. V to V. 74 HARMONICS. v\ which ratios are therefore fame The Ultimate Ratio of the periods of imperfed: unifons is compounded of the ratio of their flower or quicker vibrations directly and Coroil. or . infinite the end of the given and vaniflied into is innumerable . or. 8. - will decreafe and vanifh in the ratio of firfl: given. 6. Prop. . nj and fo it is .

which the ultimately ratio of the periods like argument is applicable to the ratio : and the v v'. 4. ^ = zq X m Z l6ip4-q y. Coroll. I. the periods of their pulfes are ultimately equal. 9. . I. of the differences of their vibrations (/>).P= ^ m i^il=:-^ ''- Tj ^ \ . : PROPOSITION If feSi ratio is IX.^lP±5 x ^ 2 q 2 q n V and V be rament ^ c.Prop. If the two llov^er or the For is if V : V : : ^ : q\ then 1 V : v 1 : : i : i. or of their leaft imper-i Coroll. 11. AV then V : -J : : i6ip-\-q: 16 ip—q {q) and the period of (/») their pulfes. i. then in Car. Art. or i. For if the times of the complete vibrations of imperfed unifons whofe interval is the tempePI. and Se£l. the interval of two founds whofe per- m to n. and av. 38. {q) Lemma. be ijicreafed or diminifded hy -^Cy and the times of the complete vibrations of the bafe and treble of either of thefe confonances be 7j and z and P the period of its leafi imperfeEiions be P. intervals . •J ^ CaL -f t~t r 2. IX. XII. n' 2q z 161 p — q ^—-? X or . Coroil. and confequently is 75 the inverfe ratio two quicker vibrations of two confonances of imperfedl unifons have the ratio of their intervals. or Fig. HARMONICS.

E. ^r^ -l^ -l-x. we have =i. which values being we have - =V and V -='u . Cafe 2 is deducible from only by changing the fign <.HARMONICS. The its value of P i . fubftituted for and v in the period ' of imper'^"t^ x ^ fect unifons. Corol. 7j=mV and z=nv. or Cor. i. Defin.zV.z And •u in Caf. 76 is Sed. it when + Ic cafes is the fliarp one. (Z and being fuppofed indeter- minate) taking X^^mv and z=. (r) {s) Sect. vixi. Pror. 2. - ^ (r) and has the fame length as the period of the leaft imperfedtions in a fharp confonance whofe vibrations are and nv^ or in a flat confonance whofe vibrations are jii'u and «V: both con-r fonances being derived from the perfedl one mW whofe vibrations are niN and taking . D. 5. Q. iii. Hence in Caf i . V= Imperfedions.zV. And thus one expref- fion of the value have ferved both of the propofltion. Lemma. in value in Cafe is. ^ X -. but two are more difl:ind CorolL of P might for future ule. VI. . and-=Vi which being fubftituted for and give P= —^-^ y» V in the faid 161/14-0 period of imperfed unifons. of q 5 that tive or flat by fuppofing as to be the negareally is temperament. give P= ~^^ x -= . "^^ i. VI. or mv and nv (i). X - Z = 1616 ^ <7 2.

CorolL 3.c P and P c for their tern- fort. When the baies are the fame. 2. as before they had no dependence on the trebles and minor terms. the bafes and temperaments are the fame. Hence 77 if any two imperfe6t conand Z'for the times of the complete vibrations of their bafes. to the Coroll. fo . and then.Prop. 6./ for the minor terms of the perfect ratios j the Ulti- mate ratio '. periods of their ^ is qm is — to -r^ qm . I . Coroll. 7. z and 2' for fonances have Z thofe of their trebles. the periods have ultimately the inverfe ratio of the major terms. peraments. qn The ^ proof of which the fame as was given for the Ultimate ratio of the periods of imperfed unifons in Coroll. HARMONICS. to inftead of major . or one of each m and tn' for the major. only by reading trebles inftead of bafes and minor terms Coroll.IX. and n and . the periods of the leaft imperfections have ultimately the ratio of the fingle vibrations of the bafes. the periods have ultimately the inverfe ratio the temperaments and major terms jointly. Hence when the temperaments are equal and the major terms the fame. When When CorolL 5. of the bafes and major terms are the fame. the periods have ultimately the inverfe ratio of the temperaments. 4. Lemma. . All thofe corollaries are applicable the trebles and the minor terms. whether fliarp or fiat. or ^ qn to ^. Cm'oll.

I. Change the firft and fmalleft ftring of a vio- loncello for another about as thick as the fe- cond. plainly vifible to the eye which fliews that the times of their fingle vi{t). little. fkrew up the firft ftring. . now Sed. that their founds having nearly the fame Then ilrength may beat ftronger and plainer.. phtEnomena of If a confoitance beats. and while it ap- proaches gradually to an unifon with the fecond. by the bow or finger. brations are equal Alter the tenfion of either firing a very and ( their founds will beat again. will excite large and regular vibrations in the other.VL ma- they have none upon the bafes and jor terms. either of the ftrings ftruck alone. But now the motion t ) Sea. till at laft they make an uniform confonance withAt this juncture out any beats or undulations. of two fouiids be uni~ for my without any beats or undulations^ the ti^nes of the f?tgle vibrations^ of its founds have a perfeSi ratio \ but if it beats or undulates y the ratio of little the vibratio7is differs a from a perfeB ratio^ more or lefs according as the beats are quicker or flower. Art. the two founds will be heard to beat very quick at firft. then gradually flower and flower. I. 78 fo HARMONICS.

I. are the fame when the parts of the have any other perfe6l ratio . and prefling it to the finger-board. . at the diilance of from the nut mark that firing with a fpeck of Then placing the edge of your nail on the ink. \. not only an audible but a viiible beating and irregularity is obfervable in the vibrations. 7. Meafure the length of either firing between the nut and bridge. which being very quick are not eafiiy diflinguifhed from the uniform roughnefs of perfecl difcords. The (a) Sea. ftring flriick 7^ makes the motion of one other only tions . and in both cafes the imperfed: V'*^* will beat quicker or flower according as that is perfect ratio more The Phsenomena firing or lefs altered. And fpeck. you will hear an uniform confonance of V*^'. whofe fingle vibraBut tions have the perfed: ratio of 3 to 2 {u. which in the former cafe were free and uniform. when they are perfect of that length unifons. IX. except that the beats of the fimpler concords are plainer than thofe of the lefs fimple and thefe plainer than thofe of the difcords. upon founding the remaining ^ with the other firing open. but excites no regular vibra- a plain proof that they are not ifochro- while the founds of both are drawing out with an even bow. nous.Prop. or very near it. Art. HARMONICS. alone ftart. that ratio will be a little increafed or diminifhed.) upon moving your nail a little downwards or upwards. and.

So HARMONICS. treble voices. the hearer being near the fteeple j or in a full organ badly tuned nor can the beft tuning wholly prevent that difagreeable battering of the ears with a Gonftant rattling noife of beats. quite different from all mufical founds. beats. Thefe are the general phcenomena of whofe theory I am going to explain. tions of unifons and odlaves to the Diapaibn.: and chiefly caufed by the compound flops called all the Cornet and Sefquialter. their beats are accordingly more diftindt. VL The founds of an organ being generally more uniform than any other. Quicker undulations are beats. and by other loud ftops of a high pitch. PRO- . whatever be the quality of their founds. and deftrudlive of them. when fome of them are out of tune . when mixed with But if we be content with compofithe reft. when every thing elfe harpfi- are alfo pretty plain upon the chord. and are perfedlly ifochronous when the blaft of the bellows is fo uniform as not to alter the vibrations of either found. or in a ring of bells ill tuned. the beft manner of tuning will render the noife of their beats inoffenfive if not imperceptible. Beats and undulations is filent. and are remarkably difagreeable in a concert of ftrong. efpecially while the founds are vanifhing. Seft.

34. wherein the harmony of the confonance confifts. Confequently after taking away the greateft equal numbers of fhort cycles. Fig. contains one more of the quicker than of the flower vibrations (. 35.X. its leaft imperfeBions. will always remain in the middle of the cycle or period. that can be taken from both ends of the Ample cycle or the period of the imperfecl unifons. Any /fimple cycle or any period of the pulfes of imperfe6l unifbns. 8i PROPOSITION An imperfeB confona7we makes a heat in the middle of every period of its leaft imperfeBions-. the (hort cycles on each {x) Prop. 3. viir. And this part. coroll.v). VII. and the fhort cycle of any imperfe(5l confonance contains equal numbers of the quicker and flower vibrations of the imperfed: unifons (^'). XI. HARMONICS. as confiding of unequal numbers of the quicker and flower vibrations of the imperfe(fl unifons. X. a?jdfo the time between its fucceffive beats is equal to the pe- riodical time of PI. coroll. interrupts is its harmony and : caufes the noife as the inter- which called a beat efpecially ruption is made where i. \y) Prop. 23 to 27. by interrupting the fucceffion of the Ihcrt cycles. F fide .Prop. fome part of another fliort cycle or two.

and its . where they are moft imperfed: and inharmonious. + 161 p mN. or-^^ nM. and its j8> be the number of beats made by either of thofe confo?mnces while hafe is making N. be increafed or fect ratio is m diminifhed by the temper a7nent -i c (a). treble M complete vibrations Caf. p. or of the leall: imperfections of the confonance (2). I. of Sed:. 161 p + ' q or -/-^. 2. •J = -7^ V ^ N. loi p—q For of if either the time between the fucceffive beats confonance be called P. VI. 4.82 fide HARMONICS. The time between the fucceffive beats of an imperfect confonance is the fame as the periodical time of its Greateft Imperfedions. it are the moft imperfe6l and inharmoTherefore the time between the fucceffive beats. is equal to the time of this period. VIII. D.ade in the middle of each period or Umple cycle of the pulfes of the imperfed: unifons.nM. PROPOSITION If the XI. And the caufe of the beats of imperfedt unifons is a like interruption of the fuccellion of their fliort cycles. See Lemma cor. m. Coroll. interval of two founds whofe perto n. and the time of (rt) (z) Prop. nious. in the middle of every period or limple cycle of their pulfes. ' J then in ' /2= f^ iS ' 161 x--'^— p—q q Caf. . QJ^. 72.

the ultimate ratio of the numbers of their beats. /2. will be ^ /^z an ^^ qm am N qm^\ an i^r qnyi\ q?2M\ :%- oil. I. ^'. HARMONICS. z and z for Hence if thofe of their trebles. D. and the given time being conftantly Z'=M2. m and rrl for the major.XI. and the trebles in any given time. i c and ^ (^ for their temr whether fiat or fharp./N qmW ^ cor. The manner of proving the two firfl: ratios has been (hewn before (<:).'. or one of each fort. by its fubftituting values in Prop. and N' numibers of complete vibrations made for the and M' for thofe made by by the bafes. X.— Prop.. any two imperfecSt conr fonances have Z and Z' for the times of the iingle vibrations of their bafes. n and ri for the minor terms of the periedl ratios. made in that peraments. N M : orV time. . P is Hence /3 = -^ wt . F [h) Prop. have in of Caf. or ^ fo fince the time leafl: equal to the period of the imperfections of the confonance [b). /^" ^ /3=NZx ibxp—qsL ' = -^-"-^ 161/ and q the other values of Coroll. Q^.=M' 2. {c) 2 Like- Lemma . of its 83 of a complete vibration its bafe be Z and that of treble z . we N Z=N' : have N : N' : : ^ ^.« :^'/«' give ^. I. ix.'J—. which : ratios compound: : : ed with ^. the time of their beat- ing and vibrating will be conftantly meafured by and /3P=NZ or Uz. 7.

CorolL 5. have ultimately the inverfe CorolL 3. Coroll. When the bafes and major terms are the fame. the beats have ultimately the ratio of the major terms. as in the former cafes they had none upon the trebles and minor terms: which abfent terms may therefore in both cafes have any magnitudes whatever without al: tering the ratio of the beats. vibrations of the bafes. q'n'M' / "' ' X z' CorolL 2. by reading tre- bles inftead of bafes and minor terms inlliead of major and then they have no dependence on the bafes and major terms. ratio of the iingle When the bafes are the fame. When the bafes and temperaments are the fame. the beats of the confonances.: 84 Likewife HARMONICS. M M': which : Seft. VI. made in a given time. ' : g'n give q nM. the beats have ultimately the ratio of the temperaments. 4. : CorolL 6. All thefe corollaries are applicable to the trebles and minor terms. CorolL . are equal Hence. the beats have ultimately the ratio of the temperaments and major terms jointly And therefore when the bafes and beats are the fame. when the temperaments and the major terms the fame. : - : -. z z ratios : com: pounded with qn ?" . the temperaments have ultimately the inverfe ratio of the major terms.

conib- The temperaments of apy two c. ratio plainly m -^-'t. XL HARMONICS. z. Things remaining we have in 1 . An4 ^ a like refolution of the other values of in the proportion gives the other proportions. is the ratio 161 p^.:7j '. as in the propo- Caf. X : z m— n :: m : 7i > For by tlie Prop. is the perfed: one. fition. made to 161 tive if in any given time.. Scholium I.Prop. the imperfed. 7j 85 Coroll. affirmative if F 3 For . n '. nances being . To Jhew that the ultimate ratio of the beats or the periods of imperfeB confonanceSy when ufed injlead of the exaB ratio y can produce no fenfble difference in the I.c and - the difference between die exadl and the ultimate ratio of their beats. I i . = \l^p_ either ratio whence compojite ^+ xv of which and m to . or flat.'. in Caf. q p:^q' . where the fign of q or q' is negathe refpedtive temperament be fharp. 7. /3 ^: m : '. Harmony. : z wm :: -\-^\n :^: \\ tn \7i —^ -V y:^ j .'. 2. 2q 161 : m :: ratios i6ip-{-q being the — q and 161/ — tempering p ^. Caf.

{e) . A^^. and the leaft magnitude of it is 161x18 + 3 to 161x18 + 2. being greateft or leaft according as the difference of its terms is greateft or leaft in proportion to the terms themfelves .. ^- For the temperaments c. — 3 Hence the number of beats in either term of any ultimate fer ratio in that fyftem. by above t-tt and therefore not part of that firft number by : {d) Prop. -^tC. and -r\c (f). cannot dif- from the number of them in the correfponding term of the exad ratio. or lefs than 2901 to 2900. Schol. N to m N' (f). 86 HARMONICS. XI. (/) Prop. XI. compounded with the exad rais -^J".. have no other values than a couple of thefe. lO and 13. XVI. For that ratio Sedl. Where p being 18. or 362 4. 1. •.z tio of the beats. . Prop. which makes 2. the greateft magnitude of the faid ratio i6i/'4r^toi6i^4r^'is 161x18+3 to 161K18 5. their ultimate ratio ^ — to —^ (^. cor. the ultimate ratio of the beats of any two concords cannot differ from their exad: ratio by any ratio greater than 3624 to 36 1^-. — ^' Now the magnitude of the ratio i6 ip'^q to i6ip:^q\ hke that of all ratios. it will follow. to 361I. 2. that in the moft harmonious fyftem of founds hereafter determined (/).VI. or 2901 to 2900.c of any two concords in that fyftem. Art.

that e. Becaufe it will be fliewn hereafter. it fhould lefs make in that fyftem. But fuppofing it done. Now pered. HARMONICS. is a to ^+-34t^. fliall that in a given time one of the beats v'''* make 362 is and the other 361. This indeed extremely difficult to execute. the numbers of beats being fo large. For ceeds let ^ to ^ be an ultimate the correfponding exad ratio greateft difference 3624. or a — -%^-za to 361^ to 362^'. which exby the Then by fubflrading this difference. have the fame bafe and diffeand fuppofe them fo nicely temrent trebles let . is to adjuft every v^^ to the number of beats 5. 4.Prop. harmonious fyftems. and neglecting the fractions. the difference between the exad and the ultimate ratio is fomeIn F 4 thing . near the middle of the fcale of a good organ. the exa-il ratio is.XI. two v^'^^ or any two concords of the fame name.to 36i-|-. that the beft method of tuning any fyftem. when that 87 is lefs by a fingle beat number ratio than 361. without doubt the theory rence in the : of ultimate ratios is Efficiently accurate for determining and adjufling the Harmony of the beft fyftem of founds. my opinion is (from my own experience in fmaller numbers) that the mofl critical ear could not diftinguifli the leaft diffeharmony of thofe v'^'% or in the no not if the ratio of rate of their beating the beats were much greater than 362 to 361 : And if it could not.

3. their terms being always limpler than thofe of the exa(5t ratios. exponent of the time of a fmgle vibration of any given found. the mofl critical ear and what has been proved of beats holds true of Periods. 2. : of mean the temperament of the vi*^ is v''' is ^ c. and of the be the fame in —I Cy 9 I whence is if their bafes the exa6t ratio of their beats. 322-^ to tones (g) . of thefe. made any 36 It is to 362T by Prop. Scholi. For inftance in the fyftem of equal harmony. urn t 2. The in {g) Prop. coroll. ix and XI with their corollaries. as appears by comparing Prop. I. 362 to Sed. but 3214 fhll not fo great in any tolerable fyflem as to afted. as thing greater than in the fyilem 361 . but their ultimate ratio which is fimpler. PI. I. Therefore the ultimate ratios of beats and periods ought to be ufed in harmonics. 6. xi.3. . given time. and the harmony of the con- that of equality cords not fenfibly different [h). Fig. 'To Jhew that the theory of beats agrees with experiments. the ratio of the periods being the inverfe ratio of the numbers of beats made in any given time. VI. 4. {h) Art. by coroll. as f.88 HARMONICS.

the numbers of beats made any given time by y with every one of the other founds. i.XI. Here the numbers N. all the intervals above c are increafed by the common where temperar in Cafe i mcnt cy tbe = -c in Prop. Tab. while ^^ is . without altering their in a given fyftem proportions. And all the perfe(ft brations. in Cafe 2 the number of beats of any given confonance y vibrations. Then a little if the found whofe exponent is i. xi.f ^ 89 Prop. its treble y is making M 161 p — n M. as the ma- jor term 9 of the perfedl ratio 9 to 8 belonging . M of the vibrations of cafes. y made in any given time are equal. while its bafe y is making N vi. confonances of ponents. xii. will be proportional to the Denominators of their exin the feveral imperfed. made by any given confbnance yd. be altered to y either higher or lower.^^_. is number of beats intervals below c being diminifhed by c y. of perfed: confonances may be changed into i by dividing every exponent by that of the given found. HARMONICS. B. which changes them to thofe in PI.m N. and ->— the beats oi that is being the fame in both are to thofe of q/ B yd to as »7 to «. For when y is flatter than <:.

VL is to the minor term 1 5 of the perfed: 15 to 16 belonging to ^ B j and thofe terms are the Denominators of the exponents of d and B. ceilive Hence in Tab.. the Denominators of the exponents of the bafes B. And by the like proportions the beats of ^ B. being a geometrical progreffion in the ratio 2 to i. AF. AF. are the exponents of the lingle vibrations of fucviii^**'. are as 15 to 5. A.. are as 9 to 5 which terms are the Denominators of the exponents of the trebles dy e. AC. 2. 90 to HARMONICS.^.^. ex cequo the beats of y d and y e. Sed. 2 and 3 each feries of fractions. And iince the beats to 15. AC. 2. y dy ratio of yd and y B are as and by the fame demonflration thofe 9 of yB and ^^ as 1 5 to 5. makes in a given time with its bafe and with every 8 ^^ below it and as many 8'^' above AD it . are changed ^ to thefe \o\ —pr m N and ^ q and the demonftration goes on ' o \6\p-\-q before. or AF. the beats which the treble of any imperfed Minor confonance. having the fame bafe. yA. AE. and are feverally deduced from exponents of the bafes of as many given the concords AC. the treble of the former and the bafe of the latter confonance. ^: . Qj:. And when y is rems above . as In Tab. AD. fliarper than r. which have the fame treble. D. the two theo—.11 M.

. 91 refult from a continual bifedion of the Numerator of its exponent. are all ifochroBut the beats which that treble makes nous.Prop. with the fucceffive 8'^' ftill higher are continually doubled in any given time. it as HARMONICS.XI.

AC.^. The its Sea. TAB.AE orAF^^. any beats which the treble of imperfed: Major confonance.92 Tab.VI. I 3. if an Even number. 3. makes with every refult S^^ bafe. . and with and as many 8'^' below it as from a continual bifedion of the Denominator of its exponent. the beats which its treble makes with it and every 8^^ below it are all ifochronous. HARMONICS. 5. But if the Denominator of the given bafe be an odd number. in it above any given time. are continual proportionals in the ratio of 2 to I } and the beats of that treble with every 8'^ ftill lower are ifochronous.

and if not. Hence any tw^o imperfecfl confonances which compofe a perfed: 8*^.. cafe 0. ineie experiments attentively tried will be perceptible in fome (i^gree upon a fingle flop of a good harpfichord. as requiring no more to be done in many inflances than to examine by the ear whether the fucceffive 8^*^% as A'. the afcending the major. But if the Denominator of the given bafe be Odd. 2. will beat equally quick. i 4. till it be reduced to an Odd Number . agreement of the theory of beats with the eafiefl experiments. all 93 if it be an even number. Thefe examples are fufficient to fhcw the 5. it is itfelf the denominator of the exponents of all the inferior 8^^^ Therefore tiic law of the beats is evident by Art.XI. Tab. minators of the exponents of 8'^% and continually halved. Prop. the ear will judge very well whether the beats of fuch concords as by theory ought to be ifochronous. as they ufually are and ought to be. which continues to be the denominator of all the exponents ftill lower. are really fo or not when founded immediately after one another. For the confonances which compofe thofe 8**^* being made imperfed. a. and very plainly upon the . it will beat twice as quick as the 8'^ major the : the denominators of the exponents of the bafe and treble of the firft being equal in and as 2 to i in the fecond. d^ &c. if the minor confonance be below the major but if the minor be above . 3. throughout the fcale of the organ cr harplichord be quite perfedt. HARMONICS. A. gives thofe of the defcending S''"'. I. to make them fo.

XII. PI. HARMONICS. I. Sauveur ayant cherche la caufe de ce Vheno («) menc. quele fon des deux tuyaux cnfemble devgit avoir plus de force. the open diapafon of a good organ where the beats of the fimpler concords about the middle of the fcale will be very diftin6l and flow enough to be ealily counted.5M. Scholium I. VI. 4. (/) quaud . Saii"jeur imagined that they beat at every coincidence of their pulfes («). {m) Se6l. 3. j Sed. -'^'t. Of confonances which have a common found and a common temperament. and obferving thai he Merfenniis and writers I know Art. in. Mr.g4. of thefe. the fimpler generally beat flower than the lefs Ample do j the denominators of the exponents of the Ampler being generally finaller {m). a imagine avec une extreme vraifemblance. Tab. 7. Sawoeur are the only of that take any notice of the phyfical caufe of the beats of conlbnances. The equal times of beating may be meafured by a watch that fhews feconds or a limple pendulum of any and if the blafl of the bellows given length be fufficiently uniform. it may be queftioned whether an 8^^ may not be tuned perfed or nearer to perfedtion by the ifochronous beats of a minor and major concord which compofe it (/) than by the judgment of the moft criti: cal ear.

that thofe confonances which beat fafter than 6 times in a fecond. pag. pag. Hiftoire de I'Acad. are difagreeable becaufe we can diftinguifli their flow beats J which difpleafe the ear. by reafon of the inequality of the found (/). Royale des Sciences. S^^' (o) Done dans tous les accords ou les vibrations fe rencontreront plus de 6 fois par feconde. pag. 176. acaufede du fon. et on les fentira au contraire avec d'autant plus de facilite que les vibrations fe rencontreront moins de 6 fois par feconde. And in purfuing this thought he found.XI. 95 he could diftinguilh the beats pretty well when they went no quicker than 6 in one fecond. whofe vibrations coincide very often. on ne fentira point de battemens. 171. and on the contrary. que ce qui rend les octaves fi agreables. c'eft qu'on n'y entend jamais de battemens. and ftill plainer when they went flower. and he adds. et Ton peut croire avec beaucoup d'apparence. .Prop. that when a confonance is a difcord at a low pitch and a concord quand leurs vibrations. fays he. 177. apres avoir ete quelque temps feparees. are agreeable and pleafant becaufe their beats are too quick to be diftinguiflied. are the very fame that muflcians treat as concords j and that others which beat flower are the difcords . ibid. venoient a fe reunir et s'accordoient a frapper I'oreille d'un meme coup. he concluded that he could not perceive them at all when they went quicker than at that rate (0) . annee 1700. ibid. that the more complex confonances whofe vibrations coincide feldomer. (p) Les I'inegalite battemens ne plaifent pas a I'oreille. and thence he inferred that otflaves and other fimple concords. HARMONICS. be the pitch of the founds ever fo low .

beats are fo quick that I cannot count them all. i. that is. 13. 2. et que ceux dont les battemens fe font fentir. {q) En fuivant cette idee. 2. For the lengths of the confonances to a cycles of perfed: bafe. on trouve que les accords dont on ne peut entendre les battemens. et que quand un accord eft diffonance dans una certaine 0(5lave. . & confonance dans une autre. fhew. Smiveur appeals to numbers. and it will follow that the major iv^'' and minor ^^^ cannot beat above once in a fecond. font les diflbnances . Then let them beat but 4 or 5 times. pag. let us fee what evidence they produce. I find their . The tones and fevenths major and minor being difcords. Table of Art. Se6l. even at a low at pitch. (r) (j) Se(£t. But in founding the latter dilcords upon an Organ. Harpflchord or Violoncello. that the latter mufl: beat 4 or 5 times flower than the former. et qu'il ne bat pas dans I'autre. c'eft qu'il bat dans I'une. 177. III. ibid. as flow at leafl: tional to the lefler terms as a clock that beats feconds. muft beat flower than 6 times in one fecond by his own hypotheiis. Sed.96 HARMONICS. font juftement ceux que les muficiens traitent de confonances. It beats fenfibly at the former pitch but not at the latter (q). Art. As Mr. but only flutter. or rather they do not beat like imperfect confonances. perfc6t ratios. VL concord at a high one. common are propor- of the ratios of their vibrations (r). which being but 8 and 9 in the former difcords and 32 and 45 in the latter (j).

XI. 3. becaufe we can alter the rate of the latter by altering the temperament. I . and higher. at the fame time. by comparing imperfed: confonances (/) which beat becaufe the fucceffion of their fhort cycles is periodically confufed and interrupted {ti)j with perfed: ones which cannot beat. 1701. HARMONICS. but not of the former. 8^0. is The fluttering roughnefs abovementioned perceivable in all other perfed confonances. both the flutterings and the beats of a tempered confonance. fufficiently diftind: from each other. XII. 473. general. x. maniere de trouver le fon fixe. tempered fyftems the times of the of moft of the confonances are incommenfurable quantities. Dem. Syfteme. In all fingle vibrations G («) In (/) Memoires de I'Acad. pag.Prop. at diftindion between perfed: gentleman confounds the and imperfed: confonances. flutter. becaufe the fucceffion of their fhort cycles is netruth this The ver confufed nor interrupted. and is of a different kind from the fmoother beats and undulations of tempered confonances . 97 a flower or quicker rate according to the pitch of the founds. of Prop. in a fmaller degree in cles is proportion as their cytheir pitch are fliorter and fimpler. is. the confonance being perfed: at a given pitch And becaufe a judicious ear can often hear. . Sedt. : Scholium 4.

the fingle vibrations of the founds which ter- minate the tone are in the ratio of y^ 5 to 2. vm. VI. . be faid of any perfect confonance tempered by any aliquot part or parts of a comma . In the fyftem of mean tones. Likewife the lingle vibrations of v*^^ tempered by a quarter of a comma.98 HARMONICS. are in 5 to i. the fubduplicate of 5 to 4. and the ratio of the iingle vibrations which terminate temperament. as of the xvii^'' or 2VI11 y^xU=h V+V + V + V-~f=xviij whence V— ^r+V— ^c+V— + V-~i:<.= fo l. ^01 to y/ 00. Now {x) See coroll. pered by a quarter of a comma.c + 111. or ^3x3x3x3 4 ^2x2x or 3 to 2y^5j and confequently die ratio of the vibrations of any confonance tem- 2x2x5. its The fame may We 2. is alfb incommenfurable. Elem. as being compofed of the ratio of the vibrations of the perfect confonance. as the mean tone is half the iii^. may conclude then. 2. Prop. Euclid. Foras4xT><T XVII. Sea. the fubquadruplicate of the interval of the v*^* is a quarter the ratio of ^ 5 to I. founds whofe interval IS Laftly the ratio of the vibrations of two is a quarter of a to comma. that in tempered fyftems the vibrations of mofl of the confonances are incommenfurable. becaufe 81 and 80 are not equal powers of any two numbers whatever (x). whofe vibrations are always incommenfurable. for inftance.

according to the received principle in Harmonics. fo will the time between the fucceffive coincidences. by the ratios of whole numbers .Prop. or the length of the approximating cycle of the pulfes : by which I mean the time of either of the incommenfurable vibrations multiplied by the heterologous term of the approximating ratio. whofe vibrations are incommenfurable.XI. Let any man tell us then cycles and which of thofe nance. HARMONICS. all the conib- nances in tempered fyftems. fo no multiple of one vibration can ever be equal to any multiple of the other. And yet experience fhews that fuch confonances are much more agreeable than perfec^t difcords whofe pulfes coincide very often. can exprefs the of fuch vibrations. We pleale. if the 9^ Now agreeable fenfation of conlb- nances. For as no two numbers ratio how large fo- ever. excites the determinate fenfation G 2 The . may and approach indeed certainly as near as we much nearer than the fenfe can diflinguifh. but as thefe will grow larger and larger without bounds. whofe repetition of the confo3. it is. 2. ought to be the greateft being impoffible for their puifes to coincide more than once in an infinite difcords in nature : it time. towards the exadl mag- nitude of an incommenfurable ratio. and confequen'ily be more or lefs agreeable according as the coincilefs dences are more or frequent . be the refult of the frequent coincidences of their pulfes. where we may flop.

Of ^ . that is as 3 to y^ 8. to 201. that there is no fuch thing as a juft hemitone prafticable in mufic. and the cycles of their pulfes will accordingly be longer and longer and their coincidences fewer and fewer without limit. For fuppofing the proportion of a tone or full note to be as 9 to 8. nances which indeed is applicable to none but Accordingly Dr. HARMONICS. &c.roo 3. WalHs {y)^ perfe<5t ones. except when ratios occur whofe terms are reducible . For if either of its vibrations be pretty much altered at once. VL approaching gradually even to a commenfurable ratio of the vibrations of any perfeft confonance. and the Hke for the divifion of a tone into any number of equal parts. {y) It hath been long fince demonftrated. as is certain by expeFor inflance the ratios 30 to 21. It is grow and therefore impoffible to account phaenomena of imperfedl confoupon the principle of coincidences. thofe interruptions excepted . four or more. that of the half note rtiufl be as 9 to y/ 8. though the cycles of their pulfes grow longer and longer to infinity. approach nearer and nearer to 3 to 2. and the v^^* whofe vibrations are in thofe ratios grow more and more harmonious. and yet the confonance by regular degrees till it arrives at perfe6tion. for tlie Mr. the terms of the feveral approximating ratios v^^ill grow larger and larger without bounds and in regular order. 300 rience. The like difficulty occurs in Sedl. will better better 4. and then be made to approach by degrees to its former length. three. 3000 to 2001.

242. '. Petropoli. -7^7. G ties IS '. fe6l.. v of imperfed: unifons to be incommenfurable. -~-^= VP-yq which 1. riQVce Theoria muftcay . 17. But fuppofing the vibrations V. edit. N°. and V x m n. and the hke for any other number of equal parts: which will therefore never fall in with the proportions of number to number. loi and others difapprove incommenfurable vibrations as impradicable and inhar- Mr. 5. 1739. etiamfi hebetiores aures difcrepantiam vix percipiant. = m — X. and the ratios of the indeterminate numbers m. hoc genus [muficum] harmonise maxime contrarium eft cenfendum.V ^'. which are incommenfurable quanti- and that of a quarter note as / 9 ^^ '^ 8. Tenta7nen cap. though the length nV. n to approach gradually to the given ratio of *y p to s/ q . 705. i. XI. or impoffible. -^ m— n limit period of the indeterminate ' of their pulfes tends gradually to a determinate vP—Vi V. ^ : : : : : increaies without bounds. (z) Denique ob nullam fonorum rationem rationalem praeter oftavas. Etiler {z) monious. or \ V '. Tranf. i. Phil. IX. Upon the hnperfeaion of an Organ. infinite ienfatlon of the imperfed: unifons. HARMONICS. 3 I or as 3 to 2 y^ 2. neverthelefs the length -^ V. which yet more incommenfurate . vol. ^=^ m x^ of the indeterminate cycle of the pulfes of V and a*. p. or Abridgm. And this is the period of the pulfes of the incommenfurable vibrations excites the determinate be the complex cycle of their pulfes ever fo long.: p s/ q-> and x to be an indeterminate vibration.« Prop.

For further illuftration I will add an example or two. . and feems agreeable to experience in obferving the identity of the tone of imperfect unifons held out upon an I fay determinate fenfation. are not precifely equal (^).. the cycles of the pulfes of the major and minor tones. Prop. and 1. fomething lefs than the arithmetical. 2. the length of the period of the pulfes V and v^ -^ m —n V= —-.= 8.00930244 &c V= ^ -^2 1. are the vibrations Again. (^) See Sed. vii. but not quite fo little as the harmonical mean be- tween them {b). For though the of the pulfes in the ieveral fucceffive periods of and i. or even the geometrical mean. We fhewed above that the vibrations V. pulfes of X V I and v —V= 0. whence the peis - riod of the 2-99'^ 97!. alternate leiTer intervals organ.I02 HARMONICS. even when commenfurate. 6. Or (n) Coroll. vii. o. 2. V Sea. yet it is highly probable that the ear could not diftinguifh a repetition of any one period from the fucceffion of them all.47213 &c X V. Def. 11. Whence of 23606796 &c is : 2 : : m : n. : : 3 : 2 / 5 or '. V of the mean tone are as ^5:21:2. -when of two founds whofe interval is a quarter of a comma.VI. 23606790 &c —77. 4060 &C • / x V. V we found V 99069756 &c \\ m n \ : 1. which is a medium between 8 V and 9 V.

has been faid of imperfed unlfons the difficulty vanifhes in other imperfedl confonances. whatever it be. 3. 964. V 3000000 to 2990697 byfmall numbers the ratios greater than V to 1.Prop. 645 to 643. &c. are 322 to 321. 3 2 1 4 V. 1612 to 1607. if the ratio fed. &c. from the inftant of this change tlie diflocation of the pulfes. HARMONICS. canparcels of air^ excited by different not be reduced to a fynchronifm by the mutual actions it f of the particles. will continue unal- G4 {c) tered i. as in Prop. CoUi'i Harmonia Menfurarum. . &c. agreeably to the former com- 967 putation. XI. are all too fhort. For while an imperfed: confonance is foundas in ing. (c). See Mr. die cycle 322V and peThereriods 3214-V. Schol. by obferving the redud:ion of the periods of their imperfedions to thofe of imperfect unifons. ifocht'07ioiis From what 7. the true period falls between the laft fore mentioned limits.990697. or 3 to 2 to 103 Or of or thus. &c. [as I think they cannot^ will folhiv that coincideiit pulfes are not ne- cejfary but only accidental to a perfeB confo7iance. viii. of the vibrations be made pertuning a mufical inflrument.. And the ratios lefs than V to f being 3 2 3 to 322. are all too long. or 3 to 2. to "Jy In approximating towards the ratio / 5. Whence the cycle 3 2 1 V and the periods 321 4 V. If the '•oibratiom of contiguous rings. Pi op.

be lengthened greatly and indeterminately. will approach indefinitely near to perfe6l unifons certainly nearer than the ear can diftinguifh. And the fame argument is applicable to any given confonance. . at the inftant of the coincidence of two 8. as in tuning an inftrument any given part of it. as long as any mulical note. all is Sea. . as is evident by often repeating the fame confonance. This howe'ver ftems indifputabic. as being formed by intermitting a proper number of pulfes of each found of the imperfe6l unifons and For if : the . 104 tered in HARMONICS. VL and the fubfequent ihort cycles perfect without thus the confonance cident pulies. any long period of imperfed: unifons. unlefs ratio any coin- when the change of the happens pulfes. which can hardly begin conftantly in the fame place of the long period. intercepted between twobeats.ftance of that part from the periodical point or point of coincidence.. that coin- cident pulfes are not necejfary to fuch harmony as the ear judges to be perfeB. Neverthelefs the ear cannot diftinguifh any difiference in the harmony of fuch different parts. of any determinate quantity between infinitely great and infinitely fmall. as And being often doubtful of their perfedtion. in proportion to the di. yet throughout that part (fuppofed to be fmall in comparifon to the whole period) the pulfes of one found divide the intervals of the pulfes of the other very nearly in a given ratio.

to the ends of Hence. while by the finger. 105 the conclufion feems to be confirmed by the following experiment. will keep fingerboard moving time tion '. and fo on. compel them to oppofite and fynchronous motions. but not prelTed to the the two halves of the firing will j found perfect unifons. from one half of the going towards the ear. HARMONICS. ways at the fame which received their mofiring. which received an antecedent motion from the other half of the firing : Or. while others are returning from it.XI. and thefe parts compel the next to the like motions. an eighth above the found of the whole . and will keep moving conflantly oppofite ways. it follows that different particles of air at the ear.Prop. the fucceflive pulfes of one found are conftantly bife(fling the intervals between the pulfes of the unifons is other : And yet the harmony of the perfedly . in fewer words. becaufe thefe oppofite mothe firing. When any firing of a violin or violoncello its is moved by is a gentle uniform rriddle point being lightly touched bow. Becaufe the tenfion and flifFnefs of the parts of the firing on oppofite fides of the quiefcent point. 9. placed any where in a perpendicular that bifed:s the whole firing. conflantly oppofite thofe particles. kept at reft. tions of the halves of the firing communicate and propagate the like motions to the contiguous particles of air and thefe to the next fuccefiively.

{d) But Newt. appear to interfed: and pafs through or over each other. 11. 2. And in fo rare a fluid as air where the intervals of the particles are 8 or 9 times greater than their diameters (<^). 12. if true. have often is. were it neceffary to enter into that conabove. which in an equal fpace contains 8 or 9 hundred times : as many fuch particles as air does when it rains upon flagnating water. that of confequence there is no bifed:ion . that a conflant bifecSion fideration. I Sea. and therefore without any fenfible alteration of their motions. Lib. Princip. there feems to be room enough for fuch oppoiite motions without impediment eipecially as we fee the like motions are really performed in water. lar (d). If it be objedted to the experiment of the intervals of the pulfes of one of the unifons by thofe of the other. Schol. a fatisfad:ory anfwer to the objection might eafily be drawn from die different duration and flrength of the fingle pulfes of different founds at a different pitch.io6 HARMONICS. For the circu- waves propagated from different centers. and Prop. Prop. without any vilible alteration in their circular figure. 23. 50. as experienced.VI. . perfedly agreeable to the ear. 10. even in oppofite diredions. and as it does not. ought to excite a fenfation of a fingle found an eighth higher than the unifons.

parallel D A A : : {Bzi^z::) BC:(3y:: {C z y : z) . in the fame ratio. pallifadoes. Art. /2. fuch as pales. Let the points a^ by c. as a fimpler prinupon. 12. and yet as fit for that purpofe as a more general one would be. y S'y &c.CD &c. by r. which are to the equal confequents a jS. : y S" : : A B Cy C Dy are . even fuppofing it were inconteftable. &c. &c. /3 9/.. 3. Fig. &c y^ &c reprefent tlie places of two rows of equidiftant and parallel objedls. PI. yy ScCy let lines drawn from z through ay (3. /3. 107 is But as abfolute certainty this dif- ficult to be had in inquiry. iii. we have B a ^ : and a. Having obferved a very flrid: analogy between the undulations of audible and vifible objeds. ^. a. and let them be viewed from any large diftance by an eye at any point z. after all. Then by the fimilar triangles B z and cc (3 Zy B C z and (B y z. as an illufiration of the foregoing theory of imperfed confonances. &c. HARMONICS. yy &c. I chofe to give the vulgar definition of a perfed: ciple to build confo- nance in Sed:. By C. Scholium 5. I will here delcribe it.Prop. cut the line of the other row in ^. C z and y S" Zy &c. In a plane pafling through the eye and cutting the axes of the parallel objeds at right angles in the points. XIII. XI. 39. Therefore the antecedents B. &c.

and yet the periods of their apparent approaches will fubfiA in this cafe as well A as in the other. it will be impoflible. that the B and a b ov a fi. Schol. we b= — : '!^=^ m ah=-^AB = AXoy: — mn XK. Art. Now if the objects be white. and m at K. have a line m>^a the cycle between the equal to the length of apparent coincidences of fome of the objecfls in one row with fome in the other . and the other row. according to the demonftration of the vii*^ propofition. or B z and /3 Zj lines or Cz and y «. equal ^ . which are all in the fame ratio. &c. rent projections of the confequents upon the line ab c oi leafl Hence fuppoling m and n to reprefent the in the given ratio of nxAB. 2. . luminous about the coin- tind their breadth be confiderable as ufual. But if the point z be fo iituated. 4. are the appa- are alfo equal to one another.io8 HARMONICS. for more than one couple of obje(5ts to appear coincident (f). xi. VI. happen to be incommenfurable. the will appear the leaft {e) See Prop. as of and ct and a at Ay of x. Sed. to the length of the apparent period of their neareft approaches towards coincidences . &c if m 71 be not an unit we have a fhorter line whole numbers AB to a b. or of any co- lour that reflects more light to the eye than what comes rows to it from the ipaces between them. mathematically fpeaking. as on each fide of the point X.

the vifible undulations will at be broader and flower than before. and from to Ly &c. For then the apparent coincidences which were at A. he will fee an alternate fucceffion of and while he moves forlight and fhade. fixt points : (S. At Xy Ky ScCy where the objed:s of the nearer row hide the whole or fome part of thofe behind them In the remoter row .Prop. T. ob)e(5ts 109 and the periodical points. XL HARMONICS. ^. &c. &c. and the rows will appear gradually more luminous towards the middle of the periods. jc. ^. as is evident from the angular celerity K is A motion of the or objedls a. he will then fee an undulation of light and fhade. &c. tranfverfe direction z &>. from the rows. and fixes wards in any his eye upon a given place of the rows. K. &c And this a known phaenomenon. where the objects will be feen diftind from one another If they And the contrary will hapbe not too broad. &c. vifual rays about the A. and upon his moving tranfverfely. pen If the objects in the rows be lefs luminous than the Ipaces between them. the If the fpedator recedes period -^ a b will grow longer. Confequently if the fpediator ftands ftill and moves his eye from one end of the rows to the other. movcoincident ing forwards quicker or flower according to the of his own motion. and a very . and confequently the intermediate periodical points X. will gradually fhift from to B.

and therefore all imperfed. . The like of pales that phsenomenon meet in any refults from two rows angle. Sed. As are perfedl confonances of the fame their Name cycles are equally harmonious fimilarly becaufe of their founds . Cor. divided by the pulfes Hence all imperfe(5t unifons ratio. . fo imperfe(ft confonances will be equally harmonious when their periods are fimilarly divided. will imperceptible as become being changed into an uni- form appearance of both rows in the place of one quite analogous to the audible undulations of imperfed: unifons. are equally harmonious. very great diflance from the rows. VII.no HARMONICS. ImperfeU confonances of the fame Name are equally harmonious whe?t their fhort cycles are equally numerous in the periods of their imperfe&ions. as they grow flower and : lefs perceptible while the unilbns are approaching to perfediion. PROPOSITION XII. 4. whofe fingle vi- brations have the fame are equally har- monious.VI. as having fimilar periods {/) . confonances of the fame name whofe tempering ratios are the fame. For (/) Prop.

VIII. (/) Ibid. m of the correfponding have the fame given ratio. HARMONICS. 2. made in equal times. the limilar periods of the unifons are thereby altered into fimilar periods of imperfedt confonances . After an organ making all the tempered had been well tuned by v*^' as equally harmo- nious as the ear could determine. viii. will contain equal numbers of imperfed fhort cycles (/). (o as to leave equidiflant pulfes in every feries [g) . and the vibrations of the imperfedl ones are derived from thofe of the fimilar uniibns by i and n intermitting m i pulfes of their homologous vibrations. m to n. to the lengths of the fliort cycles of the perfed confonances. Scholium. D. . were inverfely proportional to the times of {g) See *' Dem. 2. q!j:. &c. Prop. Coroll.Prop. i. I found that the numbers of their beats. and the equal intervals of the unifons into equal temperaments of the confonances (^6).Xir. Cor. towards the end « And Univerfally. {h) Prop. Confonances of the fame name are equally harmonious when equally and fimilarly For fince the vibrations perfect confonances — — tempered. that is. And the lengths of theie limilar periods being proportional to the lingle vibrations of their bafes or to equimultiples of them. Cor.

112
of the

HARMONICS.
iingle vibrations
:

Sea. VI.

of their bafes or trebles, as nearly as could be expected or that the times between their fucceffive beats, which are equal to the periods of their leaft imperfections
(/('),

were

diredtly proportional to thofe

homologous
them,

vibrations, or to

equimultiples of
cycles,

or to the lengths of the fhort
therefore

which

were equally numerous in thofe

periods.

PROPOSITION

xm.

ImperfeSi confonances of all forts are "equally harmoniousy in their kindy

when

their Jhort cycles are equally

numerous in the periods of their imperfe&ions.
PI. XII. Fig. 34.

The

times of the fingle

vibrations

of imperfed: unifons being repreand a Cj that and ab, let and 2a b be thofe of imperfect v'K is And one length of their imperfed: fhort cycle AG^ and the other being being 2
fented hy

AB

AD
G^

^AB

'}^ac

= agi

AD=

their difference

is

the difloca-

tion of the pulfes
fhort cycle
pulfes
tions
cles,

G, g at the end of the firfl AagG, meafured from the coincident Aa. And the greater of the two diflocafeveral fucceeding cy-

which terminate the
is

double,

triple,

&c

of

Gg

(/).

Again,
(/J)

Pro. X.

(/)

Prop. VII.

;

Prop. XIII.

HARMONICS.

113

Again, conceiving the pulfes f, g^ /, &c, to and a e^ that is be now intermitted, let 2,A.B and 4^^ be the fingle vibrations of imperfedl ^^^\ And the two lengths of their firfl ihort cycle and being is the diflocaa e=a 77, their difference 3 tion of the pulfes N, n at the end of that cycle

AD

ANna

^AD^=AN

Nn

and

in the feveral fucceeding cycles the greater
is

of the two diflocations of Nt7,

double,

triple,

&c

And
of the

the
v'^^

common
and
4^^',
is

period

AZ or

/?

»

of thole

diflocations or imperfediions in the fhort cycles

the fame as the period or

fimple cycle of the pulfes of the vibrations

AB^

ab

oi the imperfect unifons (m).
the

Now
iirft

two

diflocations

G g^ Nn^
and

in the

imperfe(fl cycles of the

period, are in the ratio oi

lengths of the cycles, that

AG to AN {n), the of 2A D to AD,
is
4.

v**"^

4'^' in

that

or

I

to 2

:

and the two greater
lafl:

diflocations

Xj/y

AX
KA

Xy g A, fame period AZ, are in the ratio of their diflances Z X, Z Qj_ from this end of it and this ratio is lefs than that of to A Q^or i to 2. But the two greater
Qr,
in the

imperfedl cycles

QVgA,

in the

:

i^A, IIo- in the fubfequent cycles 0- g A, of the next period, are in the ratio of Z i^ to IT, which, on the contrary, is greater than that of iC to n, or
diflocations
g

A,

n

Z

A

A

I to 2.

H
(w) Prop. VIII,
(«) Prop, vii.

The

^

114

HARMONICS.

Sea.VI.

The periods muft be conceived to contain a much greater number of Ihort cycles than can And then, as be well reprefented in a fcheme.
the correfponding dillocations in the
lie

v*^^

and

4*^*'

farther

diftances

and farther from Z, the ratio and magnitudes will approach nearer
of their
to
i i

and nearer

to 2.
to 2, or the ratio

of the lengths of the fhort cycles of the v*''' and /\}^\ is either the exadt or the mean ratio both of the greater
Therefore

and the
ing
is

lefler dillocations in all their

coixelpond-

fliort

cycles

:

becaufe the

increaling diflocations in

leller of the any fubfequent cycle,

the fame as the greater in

the antecedent

one.

while the length or ag remains imagine the diflocation of the •yths (Q ]^Q increafed in that ratio of i to 2, and then it will be equal to the former magnitude ?t in of the dillocation N?i of the 4'^", or to
unaltered,

Now

^G

Gg

N

Fig. 35, fuppofing the pulfes C, G, And the firft diflocation be abfent.
pulfes

Z/,

&c

to

Bb

oi the

B^ by of the imperfe(St unifons, being at the fame time increafed in the fame ratio, their period AZy which is alfo that of the diflocations in the v'^'(o), will

be diminiflied very nearly

in that ratio inverted (/>).

And

thus the pre-

fent period of the imperfed;

v^^*

and the

for-

mer

period of the 4^^^ are in the ratio of the
their
fliort

lengths of

cycles

3

wliich

therefore

(c/)

Prop. VIII

[p) Cor.

7.

Lemma

to Prop. ix.

Prop.Xni.

HARMONICS.
numerous
and

115

fore are equally
riods.

in their reipedlive pe-

And
at the

fince the greater

lefler diflocations

of the correlponding fubfequent of the v^^ and 4'^', are now refpectively equal, either exadly or at a medium of one with another, and equally numerous too, the whole periods compofed of thcfe fhort cycles, will be equally harmonious. Becaufe thole equal diflocations of the pulfes in the correfpondends
fhort cycles

ing fhort cycles, are the caufes that fpoil their harmony and caufes conflantly equal will have
:

equal
cation

effedls.

The

conclufion will be the fame if the diflo-

Nn^

in the

firfl

cycle of the

4'*^=

in ei-

ther figure, be contracted to the magnitude of the diflocation belonging to the v'^' in the

Gg

other.

For then the new period of the 4**'% being double of the old one \q), will be to the

old one, or that of the v^^% as
that
is,

AN

to

AG,

in the ratio of the lengths

of their fhort

cycles,

which

therefore are equally
:

numerous

in thefe periods

ends of the feveral fubfequent fhort cycles of the 4'^%
diflocations at the

and the

being likewife contrad:ed to the refpedtive magnitudes of thofe of the v^^\ the confonances are again made equally harmonious.

And
is

laftly,

fince either

of thofe confonances

equally harmonious to anodier of the
at

lame
fhort

name,

any other pitch,

when

their

H
{q)

2

cycles

Cor.

7.

Lemma

to Prop, ix.

ii6

HARMONICS.
4^^'

Sea.VI.

cycles are equally
it

appears that

numerous and v'^'

in their periods (r),

are equally
their

harmo-

nious at any pitches,
are equally
like proof

when

fhort cycles

numerous

in their periods.

And the
:

is

plainly applicable to any other cale

of thefe or any other confonances I mean when the common period of the imperfed: unifons is terminated at firft either by coincident
as will plainly ap; pear by conceiving a fhort cycle or two to refult from a proper intermiflion of the pulfes of im-

pulfes or periodical points

perfed: unilbns
iig.

on each 24, 25. Q^. D.
I.

lide

of fuch points in

Coroll.

Imperfect confonances are more

harmonious in the fame order as tlieir fhort cycles are more numerous in the periods of their
imperfedions.

any two imperfect confonances be fuppofed equally harmonious, their fliort cycles will be equally numerous in their periods, by Then if either of the given the propofition. periods be lengthened, the fhort cycles will be more numerous in it, and the leaft diflocation of their pulfes being fmaller than before, and the greateft much the fame (j), the diflocations will firfl increafe and then decreafe by fmaller and more degrees from one end of the period to the And thus the confonance will be more other. harmonious than it was at firfl, or than the other
if j^iven

For

confonance.

And
(>)

Piop, xir.

(.»)

Prop. VII and viii.

Prop.XIII.

HARMONICS.

117

And on

the contrary, if the period of either

confonance be fhortened, the number of its fhort diminifhed, and the dillocations of their pulfes will increafe and decreafe by And larger and fewer degrees than before. thus the confonance will be lefs harmonious than it was before, or than the other given concycles will be

fonance.

Coroil.

2.

Imperfe6l confonances

are

more

harmonious in the fame order, as their temperaments multiplied by both the terms of the ratios of the lingle vibrations of the correlponding perfed: confonances, are fmaller j and are equally harmonious when thofe produds are
equal.

pofing

A B ab :: R ~AB'y call p, K-—r
:

For the vibrations of imand ^ ^^ and the terms of any perfed ratio of majority jn and 7?, ihe vibrations of an imperfed confonance tempered /harp are ??2 and 7i a b, and thofe of the imperfed confonance tempered flat are w a b and nAB; and tlie periods of tlie leaft imperfedions in both have the fame length as the period of the imperfed unifons (/) ; which length, fupPI. XII. Fig. 34, 35.

perfed: unifons being

AB

AB

:

r in the leafl integers^

is

it

-'

Now
cycle

the

length

of
is

either

of

thofe

of the imperfed fliort imperfed confo;

nances

?nn

AB

(u)

call

it

c.

H

Then
P_

3

c

(/)

Prop. viii.

{u) Prop. VIII, Cor- 2.

r

r

;

Ii8

HARMONICS.
-i_ ^S X »z«AB
/

Sea.VI.

'-= /K— c
taking

=

= -1 mn
R
\

X

/R—

=

-i-

mnt

by '

,

which being
ratio
r,

as the

logarithm

of the tempering
is

or

A B to

ab

[x)

very nearly as the temperament of both thofe

confonances [y).

Therefore in the fame order in which the
values of - or
c

mnt

—^

grreater, or the values of are ^

mnt are fmaller, the correfponding confonances are more harmonious, by corol. i ; and are equally harmonious when the values of
mnt
are equal,
3.

by the prefent

propofition.

Confequently imperfed: confonances are equally harmonious when their temperaments have the inverfe ratio of the products of the terms of the perfed ratios of the
Coroll.

correlponding perfect confonances.
are equal, the values of
tio

For when the values of the product j?iny.t / have the inverfe raof the values of

m n,
the producfls

Coroll. 4.

When

mn

of the

terms of the perfed: ratios are equal, the tempered confonances are m.ore harmonious in the

fame order as their temperaments are fmaller and are equally harmonious if their temperaments be equal. For
(v) Cor. 2.

Lemma
Art.

to Prop, ix and Prop, viii cor. i»

{y)

Sed.

I.

J I.

confonances equally pered are generally more harmonious in the Coroll. Becaufe the terms of the perfect ratios of confonances of the fame name are the fame.are greater in the - fame oras thofe der as the values of inn . =— >. 8. and their product the fame. Therefore imperfecSt confonances of fame Name are more harmonious in the fame order as their temperaments are fmaller and are equally harmonious when they are equal.. III. tios belonging to the perfect confonances are J fmaller and are equally harmonious when / thofe products are equal. Imperfect confonances equally tempered are more harmonious in the fame order as the produds of the terms of the perfedt raCoroll. Imperfed. the values of c =— j ^ are o:reater in the '-' fame 7nn - order as thofe of are fmaller are greater. the pure ones chiefly excepted (2. 4 Art. equal when the latter are temJ. For the values of thofe of - being fuppofed equal. oi t 119 For if the values mn or — be equal. HARMONICS. (z) which are * more harmonious H Sea. the Coroil. *-> o]- of mn are frnaller . or as thofe of t / and are equal when the values of are equal. XIII. fame order as they are fimpler. .' ^. .are greater. 6.). and the former values are fo. Prop.

de Mufica. propter perfcdtionem. quin fimul auditus ingenti moleftia afficeretur. Tom.VI. or the lefs fimple ones ge- nerally ipeaking will not bear fo great tempera- ments as the fimpler will : contrary to the com- mon opinion {b). xi. cap. that order This will appear from the fixth corollaiy by a feries of the producls of the terms of the ratios in the firft column. ix. CoroIL 8. 6. {b) perfe61:a ratione Dechales Curfus math. Confequently fimpler confonances will generally bear greater temperaments than the lefs fim. co magis fcnfibilis fit error minimus . IV. 9. iii. Art. eaque i ad 2 contenta. 10. 5. 2. Petropoli [c) Prop. fe<5l. cap. and by infpedlion of the terms of the perfect ratios annexed to the charaders of the concords in the iirft of the tables in {h) 06lav2e autem fiant exa£lae .ean tones (<:) are not equally harmonious in their kinds. .ple will . minus autem fentitur exiqua aberratio in intervallis minus perfeflis. Namque quo perfccSlius perceptuque facilius eft infcrvallum. The tempered concords in the fyftem of m. nious than fome others that are fimpler j though feparately conlidered exactly. they follow Sea. Hoc enim intervallum. compared with the feries of numbers in the fecond column of the table in Se(5t.I20 HARMONICS. lyic^. vix aberrationem a ratione i ad 2 pati poitet. fhewing the order of the limplicity of confonances. Coroil. l^entamen naves Tlocorlcs inufxcs. For by CoroU. 0£lavarum autem omnium unica eft fpecies. nam vel minimus oftavas defe6lus fit intolerabilis.

ID. fhould be fmallerthan that of the v*'' and 4^^ and their compounds with viii*^% to render them equally harmonious. order as their Beats multiplied by the ratios made in equal times and Minor terms of the perfed: fmaller of the refpedive perfed conibnances are and are equally harmonious when thofe produds are equal. Coroll. fe(flion. . The harmony of thofe concords is ftill more unequal in the Hugenian fyftem. common temperament of the and 3*^ and their compounds with viii*^% which by Coroll. that the and their compounds with viii*^% are harmonious than the vi'^ and 3^^ and their more compounds with equal numbers of viii*^% as being all equally tempered in that fyftem {d). when the l^eats are inverfely as the minor terms {IS).will be greater on both accounts {f) and the harmony better (^). For the quantities . refulting from a divifion of the od:ave into 3 and 4'^ equal intervals [e). XII and xiii. HI.1 Prop. Scholium. in the HARMONICS. 3. 1 2 Imperfed: confonances having the fame Bafe are more harmonious in the fame . xr. it 121 v*** next will appear. XIII. Becaufe the vi*^ Imperfedt confonances are more harmonious both as they beat flower. is on the contrary fomething greater. that is. CorolL 1 1 . Coroll. Coroll. : For {d) Prop. (/) Prop. xvii. (^) Prop. (<r) See Prop. 4 and 9. and as the cycles of the perfed: confonances are fliorter.

Fig. : '. the Hence if the Bafes and Beats be harmony is better as the minor terms are fmaller and equally good when they are the fame or if the Safes and Minor terms be the fame. /3 7n is fmaller. Z or as I. be conby Coroll. Se(a. 1 CoroII. it is better as the beats are flower. 3 . the interval of the fucceffive beats j and the is harmony beine o •' as .122 For let HARMONICS. xii.or c —^ linZ if or (imz better as the values of (^n are fmaller if ftant. See PI. 3. z be conftant. : Coroll. the period/ is as . by reading trebles inflead of bafes of minor. i. and equally good when they are ifochronous. m ?i in the leafl numbers. And the two lafl corollaries are applicable to trebles and major term. I.') as and major terms inftead appears by the demonftration. and Plate xii. SECTION . Prop. X. the fame.VI. ?i Z and putting |S for the number of beats made in any given time by the correlponding imperfedl treble of = = confonance. (h) (. 14. Tab. the fingle vibrations of the bafe and an indeterminate perfed: confonance be Z and z^ and Z z :-. Prop.as being equal to (/) ^ . then the fhort cycle c mz.

is mean among tlie quan* . all Hence the fum of the excefTes of the greater quantities above their arithmetical mean. For let the arithmetical mean 4 ^-^ = r.— Defin. WhtnQQ . of founds wherein as many concords as pojftble^ at a 7nedium of one with another^ Jhall be equally and the mojl harmonious* DEFINITION I. then a-Vb-^c^^ d=A^r=r -^-r-^-r-^-r. and has the fame fgn tient as their fum has : Or it exprejfed by numbers^ if they be is the quo- of their fu7n divided by their number. Coroll.I. is equal to the fum of the defeds of all the finaller from the fame. 123 SECTION Of a fyjlem VII. arithmetical a. The Arithmetical Mean among any nutnher of quantities^ is to thefum of thein under their given fgns-^ as an unit is to their number . I. HARMONICS. Thus the titles a^ Oj r.

q -\. it is like quantities q. is equal to the fum of the parts rc^ rdon the other fide of it. If any quantity q be added to. Fig. and therefore q h the arithmetical mean among thofe — a-{-q. q^ c q^ q. augmented of every and by changing the d-\-q the mean among appears that r — q — a— b— the diminifhed — d— -\- quantities b-^-q. d be proportional to a^b^c^. — do and Accordingly if the lines ao. d=/\. Coroil. q 124- Sea. c-\-q^ : fign q. and r. Whence if a and b be feverally greater than we have ^ r-\-b r=r' c-^rr-\-d. DE- . But a -\. and therefore nr na-\-nb-\-nc — nd the arithmetical tlien r is their mean among the quantities na^ nb^ nc. 3. their arithmetical mean will alfo be increafed or diminifhed in the fame Coroil.. r — d-\-q=^r-\-^q = ^y'r-\-q.VIL r. or bo J CO ro. — — PI.r.ry is arithmetical ^=^\7iry But mean.. — dy given ratio. then r is their For let a-\-b-\-c arithmetical mean. rb on one fide of the point r. 40. a^ bj Cy If every one of the quantities be increafed or diminifhed in any given ratio of i to . XIII. — taken from every one of the quantities a^b^c^ their — dy arithmetical mean v^ill accordingly be augmented or diminifhed by that quantity q. 2. the fum of the parts ra.b -{ q -\.^^ nd.— HARMONICS.c -\- — '. let For a-\-b-\-c — d=/\.

+ i+lis the harmonib c a mean among a. 125 DEFINITION The Harmonica! IL Mean among any num- ber of quantities^ is the reciprocal of the arithmetical ?nean among their reciprocals. dS". if an abfcifs ro he the arithmetical mean among the abfciffes aOj boj cOj do. the reciprocals of a. -. the reciprocals of their the center upon the other afymptote mealUred from . aOy bo. PL XIII. Likewile in any hyperbola where the ordinates parallel to an afymptote are ablciiles. dS" by the definition. whofe arithmetical mean is-x-^-j-f-reciprocal and cal its ixi "}. its ordinate ^^ is the harmonical mean among the ordinates ^ a. r ^ being the reciprocal of the arithmetical mean r among their reciprocals. b. abfcifs mo the harmonical : mean among their abfcifles. Cy where i fignifies any given conftant quantity. b ^y Cy. Likewile tical its if an ordinate is frifx. and on the conCorolL . ao^ bo. are -. 41. mean among the ordinates cOy do cy. f. be the arithmeaocy ^/3. Fig. trary. cOy do. For -.Defin. inftance.IL HARMONICS. b.

b. dS"y whofe arithmetical mean m is therefore greater than r ^ (771). .. dh. de {k) ^/3. dh (/). top of either of the ordinates next to rp. fign. (. and the lines af. mean among the fame ordinates. the harmonical jui. will be very fmall when the differences of the quantities themfelves are fo. cy. a a. dS" to approach gradually towards one another till they coincide. mean among the proporeg. Coroll i or 2. Cof'oll. thofe ordinates. VIL the harmonical if The arithmetical mean is greater than mean among the fame quantities. Defin. cy. and r^ the arithmetical af. are feverally cepting the common fmaller than the hyperbolical ordinates. b ^. exordinate b^. is and the afymptote ro in is the arithmetical mean among . ce.126 CoroII.« /a. all Sea. HARMONICS. b^. b^. The difference between the arithmeetical and the harmonical means among the fame quantities. cy. refl: let produced through the e. i. and confequently between their arithmetical means . I . is will gradually dealfo the creafe to nothing. becaufe ro CO. r ^. bo^ doy thehner^ the arithmetical mean among tional lines the lines ae. d^. eg. {h) (/) I. I. For then the differences between the hyperbolical ordinates a a. Defin. For the tio. 2. 3. This will appear by conceiving the ordinates cicty b ^. cal But r ^ harmoniCorolL mean among Defin. cut Then in fl g. they have the fame the line (8^.«} CoroII. be. which.

r. dS^y their harmonical mean r ^ has always the iign of the fum of their reciprocals ao.Defin. or the mean (<?). For the reciprocal of each quantity has the fign of the quantity itfelf. PRO- . 43. r. Whatever be the of the propofed quantities <^ a. 42. CO. {0) Defin. which is the harmonical m. bo. and the arithmetical mean among them (. will feverally be diminiflied in that ratio j and the reciprocal of this mean. the arithmetical mean amone them. fo is their arithmetical ciprocal. will of confequence be increaied in the fame latio.z). Fig. Coroll. By the harmonical 127 Increafing every quantity in any given will ratio. and according as Coroll. mean among them be increafed in the fame ratio. 3. For the reciprocals of the increaied quantities.II. b ^^ cy. 3 . and fo is its re- harmonical mean among the propofed quantities. 4. {n) Defin. Coroll. HARMONICS. figns their fum is affirmative or negative. doy or of re.ean among the increafed quantities.

to the defedls of the fhorter from the fame. XIII.128 HARMONICS.) \<l) Def. Sedl. PROPOSITION XIV* Injlead of feveral imperfeB concords differently te7npered and belonging to the fame perfeEi one^ if it be neceffary to ufe but one^ let the period of its imperfe&ions be the arithmetical mean among all the periods of thofe concords. CoroU. and it will befi anfwer the feveral purpofes of every one. CoroU. 2. and becaufe the arithmetical mean period is longer (/>) and therefore more harmonious {q) than the harmonical mean among the fame. Q^E. i. D. (/. PRO- . SeaVII. i. vir. Becaufe the excefles of the longer periods above the arithmetical mean are equal. Prop. one with another.

The truth of this propofition appears iii. iit any one of the the v^^. iii the concords were which may be feen in one view in Table i placed after fchol. diftributed into three parcels. In the fcholium to prop.Pfop. (r) Q^. XV. HARMONICS. and prop. and no others cart be made foy becaufe they ca?27tot have differeiit tejnperaments while the oUaves are per feEi. vi'^ parcels derived 1 from or whatever be their com?no?ttem* pera?nent^ are conflantly more harmonious in the fame immutable order as the produEls of the terms of the per^ feEi ratios belongiftg to the refpe&ive perfeB co/icords are fnailer \ and thofi concords only are equally harmonious which have equal produBs belongi7ig to them .XV. coroll. prop. XIII. D. from prop. 129 PROPOSITION 'The tempered concords 11^ (r). xvi. 6. 2. PRO- .

tlie fecond and diird columns of the Table following (5). coroll. or the pofitions of die temperers Or sty Orstj &c. belonging to eveiy one of thofe ratios. . of this prop. and D taking (5) (/) After Schol. transfer every couple of concords in the given fyftem.130 HARMONICS. G?\ &c. XIII. Sea. whofe characters can be taken from the different parcels in . 6cc. draw three temperers ef OgHi^ OkIM. PROPOSITION To find the te?nperament of a fyfiem of founds of a given exteitt^ ^wherein as many co72Cords as poffible^ at a medium of 07ie with aiwther^ fhall be equally and the fnofl har^nonious.VIL XVI.l parcels Gr. GZ). 2. &c. taking three harmonical means. 4. Prop. £/.the \^ Table } omitdng all other couples whofe characters are both lituated in any one of the Into 11^ parcels. Then will the corollaries to the iv'^. Asy As. AHy EMy and transferring them to Fig. Among the temperaments in the three fever?. v*^ and vi^^ proportions give the temperaments themfelves. 3.4. PL xiv. £/. in Fig. 45. And afcer each couple place the ratio of the temperaments which would make the two concords equally harmonious in their kind {t).

Al. Ef. Fig. Ei. In combining the concords all the couples whofe chara(fi:ers are both in any one of the parcels in Tab. GD'. I.pe- taking rer Eq mean among three temperaments E M. Now fuppoling all G ^ to be the Gr. XV. E /. And by repeating the like conftrudion we may approach as near as we pleafe {u). 46.Prop. 44. Gk. XI V. i are omitted j their harmony with refpeft to one another. among the three temperaments in the three feveral parcels GD. or the proportions of their periods being immutable.AH\EM. D' ej\ O g' and taking Eq' the arithmetical mean among the three temperaments EM'. taking. Q^. [x] Prop. three harmonical means. {x). Ac. Onpq will approach very near to the poii- tion required in the propofition. AH. and transferring them to Fig. it arithmetical mean among I 2 the temperaments {it) Want of room in fuch fmall plates made neceffi- fary to alter the true proportions of the lines in the gures j otherwife fome parts of them would have appeared confufed. by reafon of their com- mon temperament PI. EM. . Gg. XVI. Ef. HARMONICS. If greater exadnefs be delired. Ef\ Ei\ the tcmperer G n' p' q' will approach flill nearer towards new H' /'. draw three the required pofition. the arithmetical 131 the the tem. THE DEMONSTRATION. temperers Ok' I'M'-.

3. for inflance. &c J and confequently is fliorter {b) and therefore (y) Def. XIV. &c. coroll.G r. coroll. with refpe<5l to their temperaments Ab. Gr. 2. I. Ef. as having the temperaments Gr. Gr. fe^t. Gr. and drawing the temperer O ab c^ the temperaments Ab and Ec will be the like Means among As. coroU. Whence if the periods of concords of the iame name to the fame bafe were proportional to their temperaments. the beft temperer would be Oabc [z) : Becaufe the period of the v*^. 4. anfwering to the temperaments G?. of the firfl: parcel of concords.VIL Gr. 6cc. anfwering to the feveral temperaments G r. belonging to the temperament G a. &c. would theft be the arithmetical mean among all the other periods of the v^^' to the fame bafe. Et. common to them all. and Ec. Def. and likewife of the periods of the feveral concords in the other two parcels. vii. &c. As. {y). Se<£t. and Et. And the like may be faid of the periods of the 4*^ and of every other concord in this iirfl: parcel. As. belonging to the arithmetical mean temperament G^ is (not the arithmetical but) the harmo- nical mean among the other periods of that name. vii« . But lince the periods of concords of the fame name to the fame bafe are (not dire6lly but) inverfely proportional to their temperaments (^) j the period of the v*^. &c. IX. (a) Prop. 2. {z) Prop. I. &c. (b) I.132 HARMONICS. Sed. Sec. or any other concord.

taking one fum with another. i. Ec and EM. fec^. &c. VI.ents terminated at the feveral temperers Orsf.XVI. are alio and harmonical mean and ^^ 77. V. &c. would heft anfwer the defign were of the propolition. all iituated in one temperer. periods at a me- dium {(i) {c) Prop. Prop. EM being mean the harmonical temperaments therefore the leafl pofall and that of the correfponding arithmetical would render the fyftem of I 3 periods being the greateft [f). fore lefs HARMONICS. if the points D. AH. I. M the leaft poffible : the fum total being the fame in both diftributions of the particulars.Et. IV. coroll. (/) Prop. 2. are the leaft that can render the concords in each couple equally harmonious in their kind (d)y it follows that the fums of all the temperaments G r. IX. EM. cor. in the third. G r. in the iiril parcel. i. &c. and of all the temperaments Et. 77. &c. AH. lible [e). The fum of GD. xiii. .Prop. Vii. with refpecl to the arithmetical temperaments Ab Therefore the arithmetical mean periods belonging to the harmonical mean temperaments GD. 4. {e) Def. in the fecond. For fince the fums of the temperam. of all the temperaments As^ As. and cor. D : 12^ period harmonious than the arithmetical mean among them (r) anfwering to the harAnd what monica! mean temperament G has been faid of the periods in that parcel is applicable to thofe of the other two. Oi^st. Def.

yet it could not pafs thro' H. feft. compared with art.£/^ J5/. 8. it appears. con I. the moil harmo- the three harmonical points cannot fall into any one temperer.Gg.134 nious. H. dium of one with Uut another. 45. cor. VII. in. . I following. jEM. fedl. and confequently Ap the lilce mean among A H^ Ae^ Aly and G?2 the like mean among C D. by cor. iii. that the befl temperer of the fyftem muft lie within the an- D. 8. 3. HARMONICS. D as of Oabc G and and M than Ab(i). by lb as [g) (/) Tab. AH being and lefs the the points refpedive arithmetical means G<7. in Sed. I. (/) Def. In the iblution of the problem it was therefore necelTary to reduce the three temperers ODeJ] OgHiy OklM to one. £ on one on the other And the harmo- A : nical means G£). 2. prop. on the fame fide on the other H fide. Therefore if a temiperer could pafs thro' Jj and M. Gk {k). coroll. 6. Now the differences of the three temperaments in each of thofp parcels being but fmall. JSf. PI. For the concords in the firil parcel being fimpler than thofe in the fecond and third [g) and therefore requiring a fmaller temperament (^). 7. Fig. XIII. mull: lie E do. M reality gle temperer j^OE. I. {h) Prop. Defin. therefore and fide of it and mull have the points G. and fo mufl the arithmetical mean O ab c^ as lying not far from the beft. 5. drawing the temperer Oiipq^ as to make jE^ the arithmetical mean among £il/. vii. XV. 2.

135 by the following calculation (/). Ef. as the And we may find a temperer approaching as near as we pleafe towards the pofition required in the propofition. HARMONICS. D. at the end of . Fig. PI. Prop. Hence and by lafl prop. I. 2. Q^. will give a temperer O n p' q . and approach veiy near to the fituation of for the purpofc if their extremities the required temperer. XVI. i. 46. vii. {0) Tab. VI. 2. H\ M' could be fituated in any one temperer [71). El' from one another (0) and confequently from their arithmetical mean q'y than the former. /. tlie arithmetical means among them will differ but little from the refpedive harmonical means among the fame (w).\ differ lefs Ef'. xiv. fituation approaching fliill nearer to the required Becaufc the latter temperaments £ M. did from one another and from their arithmetical mean Eq. three (/) Tab. Coroll. it appears that a repetition of this conftrudion. xiv. Confequently as the temperer Onpq falls in the middle among the three temperers conceived to pafs through the harmonical points D\H\M\ it will nearly anlwer the feveral purpofes of thofe three.Prop. the line G 45. 2. column (m) Def. XVI. coroll. and fuppofing any I 4 (n) it. or four times being the unit. E E E fame may be faid of the temperaments of the other two parcels. as defcribed in the folution. M. which would be fitter as will appear D'. Fig. The comma. it appears that by a further repetition of the fame conftrudion.

2. ~ and Ef=^d— EOA. (from the limilar angles under the line rers 3 £.. the fign of b or m will thofe theorems. Fig. Sea.3^4-/^+ . i-3-. and jE^ == 4^— + -^. ^— I. accordingly be changed Coroll. g . tional to the fradions -'. yond but and Ei =^'^—'^^ all fituated provided the three temperers be if OiJ or OM m lies within the angle out of it be- A or E refpedively. and the three pa- O rallels G A AH. the middlemofi: parcel of .) I that Gg= -. 2. OklM. the three tempeODef. three temperaments of different parcels to be given. are drawn their ordinates to the afymptotes to their A Ai^\ and common abfcifs A3 are made propor&c. by reprefenting to the eye the proportions of the periods of the concords.7. VII. the three a- rithmetical mean temperaments G 72 = x d-^ '-± + if?.X Ap= i '- X I. as it AH=h i and E M=^m.+ SchoUiifti I PI. &c. The line A being parallel to hyperbolas "J E O. It is thus confi:rud:ed. EM. . I 136 HARMONICS. OgHt. -^ . XVII. a. tri- will he eafy to collet. 10 IS 5 6 Hence . 47 ferves to illuflirate part of the demonflration of the propofition. GD = d. -. -.7. - .. Hence we have .

IX. portional to thofe ordinates [p) . Prop. reprefented by the common abfcifs At^ . IX. In order to calculate the required tempera-? ments of a lyflem of any given I . whether eveiy two characters of the con- cords. [q). to tlie fame pered by a quarter of a comma. Tab. 3''+ VIII. and Tab. at (/>) Prop. each of in which lie in the different parcels be placed over againfi one another in the fecond and third columns of Tab. column of that be rightly deduced from the fradions an^ nexed i. 5. And oilier the like conftrudion being made for the two parcels of concords. coroll. &c. sx^ sy^ sz^ &c. 2. Hence when the imperfed vi. the end of the next Scholium. HARMONICS. ^. coroll. their periods are pro- bafe are each tem- and when they have any other temperament reprelented by the abfcifs Asj their periods are then proportional to the ordinates sv. 4. 3''. X^a. fee According to the folution of the problem. ii"'. it will not be amifs to explain the following tables. (f) . . 137 vi +viii. i. extent. Part I. the ordinates erected from the interfedions r.Prop. fliew the proportions of the periods in the : whole fyftem and thefe proportions are the fame whatever be the unit of the fradional ordinateSe Scholium 2. Then examine whether the ratios placed after thofe charadters in the 4'^ table. / of any temperer Or St.

which lies wholly out of the angle AOE^ I fubtra(5t it from o and place the reitfelf mainder in the table inilead of the reciprocal Thus at N^ 10. iv. v. differs from the dividend by lefs than half the as divifor. table. . rightly transferred into the refpedlive columns of which is readily done by means Tab. iv be right. 3. See whether the reciprocals in Tab. Ill and there cafl them up. Examine whether the reciprocals in Tab. For 71 being any given integer.66667 affirmative. VIL fame charaders in Tab. according to the rule in prop. coroll. 4. 138 nexed HARMONICS. ?i 5. 33333 &c.— 6) 26 (= 4.!!"^ Parti of the correfponding numbers in the iirfl: column of each 6. the number 71 — 4 — \ = — 54-7. See whetiier all the temperaments in Tab. for the fake of — unifoj-mity in the work j the integer 5 being only negative and the decimals . 3. ii*^ Part ii*^ and there added to the politive reciprocals. of the temperaments in Tab.i. v. When a reciprocal is negative.. by the corollaries to prop. coming from a negative temperament of the iii'^ or vi'''. ii"*. 7. is. 11"^ Part u''. IV be rightly deduced from thofe ratios in Tab. in Caft up the feveral dozens of reciprocals Tab. v be 1''. xiii. vi and whether the numbers in the firfl: column of each table correlpond to the fame ratios and con- cords. that whether the produd: of the quotient by the divifor. to the Sea. Tab. and transfer the fums to Tab. 66667 to be transferred to Tab. which fubtrafted from o gives 5.

part of the and therefore a negative temperament of that concord. 44. or an affirmative one of its complement to tlie octave. And by a like calculation the values of E q\ in a fyflem of two and of three odtaves. the coroll. the fecond approximation tow^ards the true temperament of the 1 11^. their and as harmony is ftronger and better within that compafs . prop. is 139 Tab. will be found as put down under thofe of £ ^ in Tab. XVI. comes out affirmative. vi . interval is it is EC of the perfed. the ^^ folution . VII contains the calculation of Eq'. of the problem the fraction in Fig. iii. and Tab. v. and as the computed from prop. 72013 — — = G Z) its the harmonical mean among becaufe the temperaments "*""' Gr. &c j reciprocal ^^°^^ is the arithmetical their to mean among their reciprocals. by E q. 2. I. and is fufficiently evident from cor. 2. The fame is iinderflood of all the other fractions : be value of the temperament coroll. as being fum divided by their number.Prop. 8. vr. This is the firft approximation towards the required temperament. nerally contained within three o6taves. iv. 7. Gr. XVI. in a fyftem whofe extent is but one odlave. By . to prop. vi. Therefore the refult of the whole is this. As all the parts of mulical compofitions in any given place (fetting afide double bafes) are ge9. Tab. VI thus deduced from Tab. care being taken in the operations to continue the quotients in decimals as far as they are juft. HARMONICS. ^ is 42. XVI. iii^.

III. would differ from that of the concords alone. odave perfect. vi'^ and iii^ are ~^> "^"l and ~^. nearly t't^ comma. laft tliis being very nearly the value of the 0. Becaufe {r) it is the limpleft and moft harmonious and its 2^ and 3d coroll. (5) 1 1 to the muiical primes 5. in tlie iyflem of equal harmony the temperaments of the v^^. vi. and confeiii'^ quently to diminifli the by . he will find by continuing the tables.. 1 Eq = 10.of a comma reipeclively (r) and are proportional and 2. i Becaufe the difcords are feldomer ufed than the concords. and therefore be lefs fuitable to them. {s) But if any one chufes to have all the concords in 4.comma. that the iii^ muft be diminiflied by Q87 Prop. of a comma. Laftly I have kept the 1. wth and iiid will then be — — 40 40' . r y . . be the ever fo great . eompafs than would be in a larger I chufe to make all the concords within eveiy three oc- taves equally harmonious extent of the fyftein and no more. 1024 in Hence Tab. Becaufe a thofe of the concords 3 . 3 In determining thefe temperaments of the diatonic fyflem. which being. I40 HARMONICS. 12. mean temperament among and difcords too. VII. 2. Becaufe the ear is generally lefs critical in the difcords than in the concords. . odiaves made equally harmonious. the temperaments of the vth. I have regarded no more confonances than the concords. and — 40 of a comma refpectively. . it Sed.

Art. (z) Prop. [y) Prop. 4. . caufe upon fcveral trials of keeping other inter- vals perfedl inftead of the o6tave. XI. in. 2. 46. (x) (u) Sea. It may not be amifs to obferve that in E^y the difference of Fig. Prop. 14.69 of a comma. and if the bafes of any v* in each lyftem be unilbns. cor. computed for three for is one odtave is — two is — ^ oH . 3. 45. of Harmonical Means. 4. Hence in 3 octaves the arithmetical and harmonical mean temperaments of the v'*"' are as 76 to yy very nearly.. in order to determine the variations of the temperaments of the reft (f). the concords. 13. many reafons have occurred to them. XVI. in. that an accurate folution of it required the hdp . TAB. both in itfelf 141 and its Becaufe feme one interval muil: be kept perfect. ' —. 44.-xi. 7. Ec the Aritlimetical andHarmonical mean tempera- — ments of the for 1 1 1*^. fciiol. See Scholium. that the fyftem of equal harmony. their beats made in equal times are alfo as yG to yy (y) wlience I judge that the harmony of the founds in the two fyftiems can : fcarce be fenfibly different (z) Neverthelefs it appears by the demonftration of the proportion. I. art. is the beft tempered and moft harmonious fyftem that the nature of founds is capable of? {x).. as above derived from the beft fyftem of perfed: intei-vals (u). me for rejeding eveiy one of Does it not follow then. (t) Prop. iv. Bemultiples. Prop. nious of all HARMONICS.

VII.J42 HARMONICS. Sed. .

.

TABLE I. facing p. Contains the charafters and terms of the perfect ratios of all the concords. 143. I'' Parcel. .

TAB. H3 PART II. HARMONICS. XVI.Prop. II. N° .

144 HARMONICS.Vlt . Sed.

1 I C II. iu. 1 . S.XVL HARM O N TAB.6th&:Comp.4th&Comp. 11. H5 PART N* Reciprocals of the temperaments of the v. VI. 3d &Comp.Pfop.

Sea. VII. PART I. N° . 11. TAB.14^ HARMONICS.

IT. N° .Prop. H7 PART II. XVI. TAB. HARMONICS.

TAB. N° Ratios of the temperaments for equal harmony of the . VII. PART I.148 HARMONICS. 11. Sea.

II. HARMONICS. XVI. TAB.Prop. N° . 149 PART II.

Sed.^JO HARMONICS. TABII. N° .Vir. PART I.

66667 5.1 1 facing p.36364 4. 51724 40. 11688 1. 00000 4. 87500 61. 5. 37 W fD •-1 20 17 77 <^3 4 I <^ en 25 1 tr - 3 " s 4 41 In one t 00000 4.93750 I.05732 I. 00000 19. V VI ilprocals > N &c r ^ &c 17 S"^ of all the Odaves. o 23 O Slaves . 18182 2.10256 212-33333 2. 31 3 44444 66667 ^57 6 26 3 3 3 52 33333 5 73 13 23 61 19 3 •12 24 33333 4 33333 8 33333 3 21053 ^^ p p 3 Odaf 10 317 32 22 66667 3 3 22. 00000 12.88235 9 3 . 00000 4.56250 13. 150. 75000 5.58333 3. ^7 16 19 37 4. III. 52941 77 25 AI 4 19 ft) 6. different temperaments ^ Comp. zL 25000 12500 10 7 Oaave 31. 00000 2.24324 2. 66667 4. 16667 45. n o :3 ft 5 I 16 50000 00000 4. 31 00000 6 33333 66667 ^ 40 gcJQ 37 ^57 II Octaves ^< 10 121. 00000 1. 16667 3-33333 3. 16. 28302 76.33333 25. 66667 8-33333 13. 3 137 39 121 . 6''' & Comp. O n O n O 1 26 19 16 73 I 12 13 13- 28125 00000 4.24 -II 637 44 12 40 3 31 -48 68 24 76 66667 3.28571 8.

.facing p. 150.

151 PART IT.Prop. N° . II. XVI. TAB. HARMONICS.

. 11 1^.0949868 In 2 Oflaves. ^he values iviv^ds TAB. 72013 = 0.VII. the Sea. ofEqandEc( in Fig.= 0. 65428 2 o- — = 41^-53436 258043 3 "^-^ / / .o^2^gi6 In 3 Odaves. 27^1606 /^ y 0982587 d 488^50656 ""' =AH=b = EM =m ^^-^^=o. -- 87-47583 12 =AH= h = EM^=m = GD = =0. ^7—75.152 HARMONICS.0J2Q Kiy == AH = h yj 1480. for equally and In {^) I Od:ave. 45 and temperament of the the moft harmonious. 12 42. 175. = GD = d — 43123 = O. VI. z^-' c -^ {a) See the laft Table. 2808980 1371808 = GZ)= d 12 = o.074 coo = EM=m 1449.71500 = = o. 46.

TAB. VI. EM== m Eq Eq =0. E/ = . Eq = E^'= ^ Ef J I 0. See Tab. EM== m =0. In I Odlave. HARMONICS. o. . 1258306 iz^yig.0824916 3)0-3774917 = = o. to^ making 2 or 3 oBaves Ef =4^—1 Ei = = ^^ = 3 ) Hence o.Prop. all the concords in 153 being the firft and fecond approximations i . 3690044 1230015 122233 .0949868 o. El = 4« — = 0926784 = =0. in 2 Odtaves. 1235920 1504256 o.XVI. vii.2023217 Q o. o.

being the ment of the 11 i^. ^ = 0.15)919 . 56001 ^=7=F I =0.2806^1 -^ 3.0949868 __ I Arith.— 154 1 HARMONICS. 72013 I I _ 3. '> 1573060 5* *^-'' ryo-J -^ I 4 I Al d. 3) 10. 494 9 19-240780 6. ) .689898 mean 3.w 4 __ 0. == 6.7150396 3 Arith. VII.563299 I I 87.8628192= 3-476974 3-05^913 r Gk 4 4 __ ~ \m~ 1. The computation ofY^o^ in Fig. 563299 GD'=d'== -^ = 0. Sed. VII.for making all the concords 42.47583 o . TAB. 46.41^593 mean AH' = h'=^-. --— Ae I = — 3« = I — o.

See the values of Eq' in 2 and 3 oilaves in part 2^. VII. 122524 125441 118733 o.= HARMONICS. 3) 0. TAB. =4/ — = — = — 4^' I o. 155 Jecond approximation towards the temperain I oBa'ue equally and the moji harmonious.. PRO- . Em'= HI = = o.=-X_^ = —4^ 0.647805 ^ -^ 25. XVI. vi. 266720 Arith. mean 422240 EM' =^771 = 8. 1 I 126. 2^222 Ef El 4^—1 I = o.366698 Eq' o. 8.091138 1235920 -i. 8.4512768 ^= 3 ) 6. Prop. 422240 = i 0.1187^1 ' -^"^ Hence E/' ^ El . 122233 Tab.

. L + ^T according the table of elements will differ infenfbly ft from the fy em of equal harmony : I mean with regard to the harmony of the refpe&ive confonances in both. which is to the comma <:=log. . Hence tem{a) Prop. VIII : : 8 : 25. 001 30. PROPOSITION Afyjlem of commenfur able XVII. 1 6 and the vi 1 1 1 11"^ T = 8 and the 2 T = 5 T 2 L = 50.156 HARMONICS.'20I02. the 50319 as 4 to 37 very nearly {b). 00539. III.Vn.leaves the temperament 0. Se(fl. 95962. whence the iii"^ VIII = — 25 Q loo. {b) See an example of the like redudlion in the next Scholium. = o. the greater iii^ 2T= 4^ L^2r=^2iy &^Cy {a)y the v'^ to = 29. = the 13. from perfed = log.00058. For fince = the L= : 5.04168. intervals de^ into duced fro7n dividing the oBave 50 equal partsy and takiitg the Urn- ma L =^ of them^ the tone 1^^ T= 8 a7id confequently the lejfer L -\-T 16. we have iii'^ -h _ Q lT = — 25 tlie 2T o. - = — 09691. g()g^j = o 2=— 25 O XO. 111^^ which fubtra(5ted o. •-' 09632.

I. and vi*'^ as in Tab. 2. 11 1** 157 temperament of the the v'*' is —i. and thofe of iii. cor. 3. TABLE T:L::8:5 viii= 50 . XVII. I. by prop.Prop. HARMONICS. r.

-c VI 4. pag. Scholium 2. 19 4 III 35 12 III 4 ~c no no 12 19 III 35 On the contrary. XVI. which Hugenius has adopted (e). . Art. where 2 T = in c [f) . 9. 78.c-\. Let it of be propofed to approximate to tlie fyftem of T equal harmony. OcSlob. at the end of his Works. we may proceed as follows. D. then the 5T+2Lis=3i and the temperament of this lyflem. or Ouviages des S^avans. will be found as in the third column of the next table. Scholium. In like manner odlave if T= 5 and L= 3. 19 I 35 9 —c — no c VI 4. then [e) Hiftoire des Cyclus harmonicus. Sea. 1691.~c V 4 I c V 4 4 .-c-\- 4 .158 HARMONICS. if from the given temperaa fyftem it ment of be required to find the ratio to L. VII. 2 : I T:L::3:2 VIII I 12 = T L : : : 19 3 c VIII = 31 c-\- 5 : 3 3 V— . caufing two concords to the fame bafe to beat as in the table. (/) Prop. TABLE T:L: VIII I I II. Q^.

94480* Whence and ^ X 2 VIII VIII 2T = iii III — .c= o. &c. 2 159 then fince (viii 5T + L = viii. : by the lefler and of the lefler divided by the remainder and of the former remainder by the latter &c. 3. 09631. Now the quotients of the greater term of this : 29 II to 7. Mr.06025. Schol. 8 to 5. 09691. and the lefler are 3 to 2. XVII. = 30102. 99957 ^^^ 2 L = — -XIII — -(7=0. &c Hence taking T to L fucceflively in thofe ratios. 2 0.35832. 00059. i. are i. G/tv's Harmonia Menfurarum. 00130 and the comma ^=log. 64125 and the =log. 05650 — c=o. find this ratio. 2. the temperaments of the apas in proximating rational fyftems will be found the tables.Prop. 50319 and .00539. I. by the method ufed in the demonftration of the propofition. - = o. (g). 24077. HARMONICS. . we have 2 L= — 5T=) — -XIII — -Cj — -c:viii — ^xiii — T:L:: iii To 929 we have the VIII whence c. Whence the ratios greater than the true one are ratio divided 2 to I. — =0. &c. i. 24. and 9 laftly T:L: 963105650 602535832.c=o. By which we fee how much and which (g) See prop. 5 to 3. in = log.

as SECTION VIIL The fcale of mujical founds is fully explained and made changeable upon the harpfichord^ in order to play all the flat and Jharp founds^ that are ufed in any piece of mufic^ upon no other keys than thofe in common ufe. 3. &c. The notes A-^^ B^. 3. and A^^ B^. fignify founds which are fliarper. The interval of a perfect odlave being di- vided. it is fubwhich ought to be ufed often is for want of a complete fcale of -. iv art. DEFINITIONS. The difference of the major and minor limcalled a Diefis. founds in thofe inftruments. IV. ma is III. in any tempered fyftem. founds which {}}) See feci. VIIL which way they differ from that of mean tones. 2.i6o HARMONICS. Sed. is called a Minor limma. or prop. well as from that of equal harmony in Table i. into 5 equal tones and 2 equal limmas [h)^ the excefs of the tone above the limma II. If the difference of the intervals of two confonances to the fame bafe be a dielis. or the dem. &c. of prop. I fhall call either of them a Falfe confonance when ever. I. . in playing flituted for the other as it on the organ or harpfichord.

. A^ ov A^ from A and ^ alike fituated. 48. £. a perfedt o6tave being rcprefented — AA^ diefis I {k). IV. of which the tone is 5. (i) Prop. 49. xvii. In the Hugcnimi iyfi:em the odtave is divided into 3 1 equal parts. Fig. (/} Prop. limma is the minor 3 and the diefis Therefore the former tone to the latter as 5 31 L (/) Sea. and towards the graver take AA^ equal to AA^. Ji^^j &c. Fig. and by both into tv/o minor limmas with a diefis between them J and each primary limma. and when the like flat and Iharp founds are placed at that diftance on each fide of the other primary founds J5. E. 5. XVIII. towards the acuter founds equal to the minor limtake tlie interval ma AB J5C. F. 2. The interval of by the circumference of any circle (/) and fuppofed to be divided by the founds A. &c : And ^**. BC^ EFj will be divided by a flat or a fharp found into a minor limma and a diefis. In the fyfiem of Equal Harmony the odtave is divided into is 50 equal parts. Fig. lignify founds whofe diftance from is double the diftance oi 1. 7. i6i are flatter by a minor limma than the reIpedive primary founds^. Z). By C. F. the major limma 3. G. the major 2 (/). B. of which the tone 8. which HARMONICS. G into 5 tones and 2 limmas. art. £).ArM. and by both into two diefes with an interval between them. the minor 2 and thq PI. 48 or 49. XVII. every tone will be divided by a flat or a fharp found into a major and a minor limma. fchol. C.

B^ Rb A^ D^ G^ : O F^. Oppoflte to any Key as Z) write the 1 2 trebles Eb. pf 2 by . and FCGDAEB. In either of thofe fyflems or any other of that kind. E^b B^'o. Fb C^ Qb Ab Eb F'^ &c. F. again twice (liapened from jF by v*^% &c Likewife in defcending they will recur once flattened in : that order thus inverted. Fig. 48 or 49.VIII. or as 12 c to 124. E. the former dieiis 31 viii contains above - and 4 the latter almoft 5 of a comma. and the former c dieiis is to the latter as -to -5 or 2 to -3 1 . Db and again twice flattened &c fion afcending And thefc feveral cyclesjoined together make the following progref- by v'^' . and fince a quarter of a comma is about — 223 viii (. i VIII - VIII. — .«) . 4.FCGDAEB. by going many times round the circle it v^ill appear. which trebles are found by going round the circle s then place die fame progreflion of v*^* above their {m) Found by dividing the log. Hence a Table of the minor and major confonances to any number of Keys or bafe notes in Bb.log. 2^ ii^ 3^ IIl^ &c at the top of the table. F^. to Sed. («) Plate XIX. C^ G^ D^ A^ £* F^^ C^^ that progreflion placed in the firfl: column (. that in afcending from F continually by v'^^ the 7 primary notes and will iiril: occur in diis order then recur once fharpened in the fame order. &c of the minor and major confonances within the viii in the order of marks. 4 3.i62 HARMONICS.z). . jB^. is thus deduced.

(/>) Dtf. As the organ or harplicord has but 1 2 founds in the odtave. C. the table is finiflied. D. 2. as being the difterences of the inteiTals marked at the top. /.Prop. by circles round them. as ftands above and below £^ in col. HARMONICS. and E^. or diftinguilLed from the notes that have founds. the interval AB^ equals D E^ j and 2 and the fame be faid of the reft of the table. A^.C.whofe notes are F. E^. i is equal to i E^ Bl^ in col. &c. both in the table and in Fig. i of the minor confonances. C^^. that are above G^y occur in a piece of mufic. 2.XVII. .Z). diefis (0) make falfe L Likewiie (0) As appears by Fig. fignify the major and minor limma and the dielis. as moft of them in thofe often do. Confequently when any of the excluded notes D^.B^. 5. above. and are therefore excluded. i and in thofe of the major above G confonances have no founds anfwering to them in thofe inftruments . 163 above and below the treble £^ in col.y^. re- fpedtively. G. the mufician for is obliged to fubftitute them the founds of E^ 2 B^. F. B^. G^. and having done the like to the other trebles £. For lince the interval it D^ D in col. qr by the collateral notes in the columns of i\ ths and 5'hs in the table of confonances. widijp*. 48 and 49. i . F. 48.G. At the bottom of it the letters Z/. i j all the notes below E*^ in col.£. III. below may them and in col. C*. which being higher by a confonances (p). F*=». and all ^ in col. follows that in col.5.

and is the lowefl: of all where it note in every is the major iv^*' to the Key C. and the numbers of them in the fucceffive higher or lower Keys.i64 HARMONICS. as fome of them often do. 5. Gb. Cb. C^. Fb. them G'^. which to pafs that the concords (q) are tlie {q) Seel. have confonance in each. 3. 5. the confonances to all the keys below C have no iliarp notes . J. Bbb^ that are below EK occur. infalfe creal'e in Hence A the arithmetical progreffion it is 2. The confonances to all the Keys above have no flat notes. are falfe j befides a larger proportion of falfe ones among the Superfluous andDiminiihed confonances hereafter mentioned. art. III. one the two middlemofl. 6. Likewife when any of the excluded notes Db. and is the higheft of all where it is the minor 5^*^ to the Key E^ Again. which being lower by a dielis make confonances. iith. . 6. CGDAEy among themHence it comes to the 4 middlemolf keys GyD^Ay £. E. becaufe F^ is the loweft fharp note in every column of major confonances. 4. JP^. Therefore the confonances to thofe two and the intermediate have both flat and iharp notes Keys. Keys Z). becaufe 5^ is the highefl flat E column of minor confonances. Sea.VIII. Whence eafy to colled: that (tw^n twenty- fourths of the whole number of major and mi- nor confonances in the fcale of the organ or harpfichord. the mufician AK mufl falfe fubflitute for refpeftively.

The interval of a major confonance augmented by a minor limm^a makes the interval of a fjperfluous confonance. i. will have one falfe falfe D^ confonance changed into a true one. Now in this inlarged fcale of 14 keys all the conlbnances to and A. and fo forth. HARMONICS. major and minor confoTable there are others in the fcale of Fig. L 1 Thus . and the interval of a minor confonance diminifhed by a minor limma makes 8. which I think are called Superfluous and Diminifl^ed confonances. would be neceffary to make all thefe confonances true in the 12 middlemoft keys. 7. D. Therefore univerfally. 165 but the open firings of the violin. fo that the 24 founds in col. XVII. Likewife by adding anoevery one of the 6 higher ther found for keys A. A^^ every one of will have one confonance changed into a true one. are not all the dilcords. C"^. the number of the middlemoft keys to which all the minor and major confonances are true. F*. 48 or 49. Ey B. is equal to the whole number of keys or founds in the odiave diminillied by 12 . all true. And a like advantage will follow from giving founds to D D^ and A^. G'». By adding a found for the 6 lower keys £^ B^ F.Prop. C. tlie two middlemoil. as appears by infpeclion of the oblique diagonal rows of ^^ in the table. the two next exterior keys. G. But befides the nances in the the interval of a diminifhed confonance. are true.

XVIII. But this method of fupplying the defecfls of the fcale is quite laid afide. A^. The octave being aland tv/o limmas .c. will be contracted to nothing.C^^. and the treble of the diminifhed 2^ 3^ 4*''. ^nd the fhorter for founding A^^D^^ &c and by doing the like for D^. the diefis. and the following palliafirings for A^^. ways divided into 5 tones . 6'^. which by Defin. is C^. &cc. iii annihilates all the falfe confonanBut the harmony in this fyilem of 1 2 Heces. where the trebles are often double fharp and double flat founds . Fig.C^. C *. 5*^. B^. but are all omitted in the Table to avoid confulion by adding fo many D^ EK GK AK notes to 9. fuperfluous Sed. on account of the great difficulty in playing upon fo many keys without extraordinary practice. and dividing the keys of their fubfhitutes G '^. each into two keys the longer of them for founding G^. 7*^. have heard of but one method of fupply- ing the organ or harpflchord with more founds in each odlave j which is by adding pipes or D^. Sec. iii"^.i66 HARMONICS. F^. I it. And the like is to be underftood in the other keys.E^y refpedively. For PI. mJtones is extremely coarfe and difagreeable. &c as ufual. or difference between the major and minor limma.D^. 48 or 49. by equally till each becomes increailng the tones double the diminiiliing limma BC or EF. J : tive remedy is univerfally received. VIII. th i Thus the treble of a ii^. &. &c to the key B.

make up the odlave or circumfeienca . lO and 13. 167 For the temperaments of the v*^ and 4*''. of another found to terminate each diefis in the fcale. 4 9. fchol. the as great as two leaft of thofe temperaments being thofe concords can properly bear. i. HARMONICS. which inlarges the tones and lellens the major limmas and diefes or.Prop. and thus to approach towards that inharmonious fyfi:em of 1 2 hemitones. as by a flandard. a comma re- ipe6llvely (r) and in the fyilem of equal har- mony they are - . till the harmony of the fcale becomes very coarfe before the falfe confbnances are barely tolerable {u). Tab. fchol. That (?) Prop. ii^ col. becaule any 6 tones or 3 major iiids and a diefis (as A^C^CE-\. XVII. all other fyftems ought to be examined. ^ and - by which fyilem. Now as being the ~ being much lefs than ~ . Now for want L (/) Prop. {//) This is done by fliarpening the major iiids more than the ear can well bear. art. it is necelTary in the tuning to diminifh the diefis till one found may ferve tolerably for the other. 2. moft harmonious. XVI. -. make the concords in the other two parcels much coarfer than they ought to be. 48. makes the concords in the iirfl parcel {t) finer than they ought to be 2 6 } and - — and — being much greater than and 9' . vi*'' and 3^ iii*^ and 6''' and their compounds with viii'^% are nearly ' J 10' 10 ^ and -of 10 [s) . : EG^ ^ G^ Ab) in Fig. \s) Prop. III. XVII.

Having therefore been long diffatisfied with the coarfenefs of the harmony even of the true confonances in the fcale of our prefent inftruments. which is fo defective too that not above a feventh or eighth part of the beft compolitions made fince Corelli% time. is farther evident from the Hugeniaji fyftem. {y) Tab. wher-: the temperament common to the vi**^" and q^. as they often do in the remaining two thirds or three fourths o^ Corellts works.of a comma (jy). Viii. 2. that is. let the founds [x) Prop. being: - + — greater than it than 7 of a comma. yet the as in the lyflem of equal harmony j and Hu- genian dieiis is . 3. 10. HARMONICS. and fix fevenths orfeven eighths of all the refi: I was c^lad to find out a better remedy for both thofe defects s at lead in : a fcale of 1 1 fmde founds. i68 9. The ftrings of the fore unifon of the harp- fichord being tuned as ufual to the notes of the common Se£h fcale in the following lower line. Sefl. nor above a third or fourth of his can be played upon it without ufing many falfe confonances j and being flill more difgufled when thefe come into play. XVII. co!. . &c of a comma {x) is conliderably ouo^ht to be.. VIIl That this is a bad expedient for fupplying the want of more founds. art. 2. which being Gonfidered as a temperament of the falfe confo- nances and being fb much greater than - + -^ of a comma mufl: needs make horrible diffonance.

HARMONICS. C"^. and their firings will E^ B^ FCG be flruck by the refpedively. by a diefis {z). For example. and either of them being llruck by the fame key. can foon fee what flat or fliarp founds are ufed in it which are not in the common A and to fave that trouble for the future. each of which diiFers from the note under it G^A B^ B C C^D Eb E F F^G flrike the firings Now fince the jacks which of any of thefe couples of notes. flop. 5*. the mufician before he begins to play it. occur in a A^. 169 founds of the back unifon be altered to the notes in the upper hne. fhould keys of 12. tlie execution is always the fame as ufual.Prop. that key can ftrike either firing And fince alone without founding the other both the founds in any couple are feldom or never ufed in any lingle piece of mufic. alfo Z)*. 49. xi'*! folo and CarhmeVs ill^ 5cc. Vv^hofe founds are ufually fubflituted for the founds required. . can put in. XVII. F^^ piece of mufic (a) move their flops. Now and then it may be proper to obferve whefcalc J ther (z) {a) As appears by As in Corelli's Fig. that G^ in the common fcale. as G'^ and A^y ftand both upon one key. may write them down at the beginning of the piece. if befides the founds F*. by the : found which he fees mofl occafion for. by moving a ftop hereafter defcribed. £^. mufician by cafling his eye over any piece of mufic.

VIIL ther the outermoft of in their progreflion left its fubftitute it- by v^^'. And the like may be done for any given by putting in flat notes below £^. Sea. To fliew by infpedion which are the falfe confonances in the Harpfichord after any flat or fliarp founds are put into it by the ftops j imagine the two middlemoft tranfverfe parallelograms in the Table {b) and alfo the circles furrounding the notes which are not in the common harpfichord. and in this upon the pane will cover all thofe notes in the table which are not in the prefent fcale of the harpfichord.170 HARMONICS. i. as free from falfe confonances as in the or A D common fixed fcale . move the pane two lines higher till the uppermoft line of the two parallelograms A^ juft takes in'thofe two notes in col. 14. to be drawn with the point of a diamond upon a pane of glafs laid over them. Then if the for inftance be put into founds of Z) ^ and the harpfichord. than the principal found If both occur. . namely by notes above putting in by the ftops as into the middle of the many fliarp G^ in the column of keys as fliall bring £ and B 1 2 keys then in inftru- ment. them fhould be put in or not. that in the fcale. lliould occur oftener felf. 13. as Thus you is fee how to make any given key E or B. key below D And {h) Plate XIX. and point out the pofltion the circles falfe confonances to every key. which recurs oftener fel- muft be But as both occur very dom the matter is fcarce worth notice.

when like that of a fingle firing. 2. 1 5. efpecially after {c) Prop. \d) Seft. by themfelves or with an od:avc are indeed an addition to the loudnefs of the tone. and preferred it to that of uniand octaves. I fay the fineft harmony . I mufl confefs I have long been that opinion. lo and 13. . becaufe the would be fo large as to render the falfe con- fonances infufferably bad (d). fpi- fons and duration. becaufe this changeable fcale may eafily be tuned to the moft harmonious fyftem {c) which is impradicable upon the diefis common fixed fcale.Prop. Riickers and other muficians always valued the tone of a lingle firing for diflindnefs and clearnefs. even before I thought of this of changeable fcale of fingle founds. but not nearly in proportion to the number of ftrings. The famous its of a rit delicate ear. art. loud and flowing. HARMONICS. VIII. which however after fome years experience upon my own harpfichord has fully confirmed 16. XVII. Unifons me in it. fchol. hinders the facility and duration of its tremors j and fecondly becaufe in tuning unifons or odtaves. art. it is manifefl: that their tone is never clear. except they are precifely perfeft. XVI. But as this perlittle fedion continues but a very time. Firfl becaufe the opprefTion of the belly of the inflrument by the force of fo many fl^rings. 2. 171 thus a mufician that tranfpofes mufic at fight can accompany a voice with the purefl and finefl harmony in the propereft key for the pitch And of the voice.

XIII. not only for leifons and cantatas but alfo concertos accompanied with inflruments in a large room. itfelf fo indillind:. room is Sed:. like that of a but too plainly perceived when the ear is held over the firings of the harplichord y and lince it refults from the multiplicity of firings. To me. (e) Prop. when founded by them- noile. founds. This indeed is more than a perfon could expert who has feldom or never attended to the tone of fingle firings except in the fnort pianos after the long continued y^r^^j. This confufed dulcimer. The reafbn is that the very our fenfes very differently in as is very evident in atany other fenfation as well as that of tending to fame objeds affed: different circumflances.272 after the HARMONICS. die tone is as loud as I defire. VIIL Is warmed by company. . corol!. that clear linging tone The foon deftroyed. being of what beating and jarring mufl refult from their compHcated mixtures in playing three or four parts of mufic? Efpecially as the imperfections of the unifons and odaves in the courfe of playing are frequently added to the temperaments of the other confonances.upon the full harplichord. hear any other than 1 7. which if they were perfeifl could not bear thofe imperfedions fo well as the unifons and o6laves do felves (e). compound tone of unifons by themfelves. or with an odtave. who feldom the iingle firings of my own harplichord. S. is it appears that the heft is way to improve thisinfhrufor increafing the -ment to find out methods flrength and clearnefs of the tone of fingle firings.

with their pens pointing oppofite ways under the firings on each fide of them. will be fufficiently light. 173 " For inftance. And abed reprefents a fmall brafs fquare of the fize in the figure. But after ftaying fome time in the fame " or a much darker place. 267.XVII. HARMONICS." This obfervation is plainly applicable to founds.Jm-in?> Effay on diflind: and indiftind: Vifion at the end of my Optics (/). as G* and A^^ the back unifon being raifed to A^. and more of them upon the other fenfes may be feen in T)v. in coming out of a ftrong " light into a room with the window-fhutters al" moft clofed. we immediately have a fenfation " of darknefs or a very little light. and the longer leg bced^ being placed diredly over. j^n expedient for changing thefounds of any harpfechord ready made-^ whereby to experience the truth of the foregoing obfervations. The 66*'' figure reprefents the heads of two jacks {landing as ufual upon one key. is filed PI. 1 8. founds. whofe fliorter leg ab h made very thin and placed between the jacks with its flat fides facing them.Prop. . XXVI. jf. II four (/} Art. and this con" tinues much longer than the pupil requires to " dilate and accommodate itfelf to that weak de" gree of light. the fame room which *' appeared dark before. which is almojft inftantaneoufly " done. and parallel to the next couple of firings that are clofefl together.

which is fupported a little above tlie firings by a row of fmall brafs pillars placed between the larger intervals of the ftrings. j. There mufl be as many fuch fquares as keys or couples of jacks. to hold it faft upon the fhoulders of the pillars. the upper nuts Ry S. &c in the bottom of the trough. and Hides lengthways in two fquare notches at c and d made in the parallel fides fcg^ hdi of a long brafs plate turned up like the of a long fhallow trough. Thefe the holes pillars have long necks pafUng through and the r. nuts r. u are kept at their full height by holding down their key. &c.174 HARMONICS. to keep the lid tightifh upon the longer leg of the fquare ^^c^ and others of the fame fize. and to move in it to and fro by a touch of the finger laid upon the pin. A flit mfi is made in the lid for a fhort round pin e in the longer leg cd to come thro' it. and the trough and lid may be each of one piece or confift of two or three pieces joined together at the necks of the pillars or any where elfe. Sed. . j. 5. with oblong holes R S. as at r. &c muft be fkrewed upon the fame necks. (but farther afunder) and fkrewed faft into the pinboard of the fides harpfichord. &c are fkrewed upon die necks down to the bottom. or inner fide of it with a line drawn clofe by the upper edge of the And a brafs lid FGHI &c correiponding to r. VIIL four fquare. i. While the jacks /. with your finger laid upon the pin e pufh the leg ai againft the far jack and mark the edge. &c. being laid upon the troughy^/?/.

a piece of a proper length meafured from the and taking hold of its thicker end with a pair of pliers. which therefore will be filent while the far jack plays alone upon the ftring leg ^^j or. HARMONICS.Prop. leaving about half of it void in the middle between the oppofite ends of the pins. fuch another mark upon the edge of the jack. a little it. above the mark and far enough and do the like to the oppolite Let each pin projed: from its jack about a quarter of the Ipace between the two jacks. as reprefented in the to ftick faft in iigure. and then all die fore jacks will flrike the founds of the vulgar fcale .XVn. tlie fliorter leg nb will it come under the pin in the near jack. When all the firings of the back unifbn are tuned to the notes in the upper line in art ii^'' all their jacks mufl be fufpended on the fliorter legs of the fquares. Then from a fmall llender pin cut off near make point. ing the fquare forward with your finger at the go under the pin in the far jack. jack. they mufl firfl be introduced by holdwill ab ing . and iiifpend its pen above the firing A^. 175 the leg ^z^ J and after the fquare Is drawn back. by drawing the fquare backwards with your finger laid upon the pin e in the longer leg. and when other flat or fliarp founds are required in any piece of mufic. Now when their the two jacks are again raifed by key and kept at their full height. while the near jack plays alone upon the firing G ^. and its keep fufjpended with pen above the firing G^. by pufhe. prefs the point into the inner edge of the jack.

and then draw the lid lengthways by the button /». and take it quite away withchord out the leaft damage to the inflrument. So changeable long as you choofe to fcale. this I have defcribed apply it mechanifm {o fully. keep the knobs of the right-hand ftops ol a double harpfichord tyed together by a firing. When the firings are tuned unifons again. Sea.VIIL down the keys of their ufual fubftitutes. one by one. I think. you may play upon them without removing this mechanifm.176 ing HARMONICS. till it be oppofite to the angular notch 0. provided you firfl draw every pin e towards the middle of the flit mn^ in the lid F/. I have ufed it fome years in my own harpfichord with great pleafure and no other inconvenience than that of removing the mufic book in order to touch the pins in the brafs fquares behind it. and by drawing back the correiponding fquares with a finger laid upon their pins at e. But the at a fmall following mechanifm for the reception of which . If that middle fpace be too narrow. that any eafily man who works true in brafs may expence to any harpfiready made. till the notch embraces the pin e and keeps the fliorter leg abm the middle of the void fJ3ace between the ends of the pins in the oppofite jacks: otherwife thefe pins may fometimes ftrike againfl the fhorter legs of the fquares. try whether it may not be widenthis play upon by feparating the Aiders with fome very thin wedges put between them perhaps a little may be planed off from the back edges of the ed a little : lliders without hurting them.

Art. 67. quite free from convience. Each of the keys. 1 9. £. muft be made is 177 that in- a little preparation in the fabric of a new harplichord. to be taken away from the fore uniibns of a common harpfichord. may be as like each other as pofTible. without putting down their keys. firings lides be altered to the notes here placed by the of their pins. the remaining pins. £). Fig. that moves but one jack (which therefore muft be made as heavy with lead as two of the other jacks) flrikes always one and the fame firing. But each of the 8 remain- M ing . firings and jacks will be fufficient for the new harpfichord. Z). and let thefe notes be written on the pin board of the new harpfichord j and that the tones of the firings founded by the jacks in each row. To male a new harpjlchord wherein the founds bei?ig changeable at plea-- fure^ the ufualfet of keys pall immediately firike the proper fcale for any propofed piece of mufc. and thefe oppofite edges be placed in the new Aider as near as may be to one another. fbings and jacks which in every o6lave belong to the notes A^ B. A^ B. Let the founds of thefe PI. Conceiving the pins. HARMONICS. as reprefented in the figure. let the tongues of die new jacks be put as near as may be to their inner edges. XXVI. £. and changes any found together with all its ocflaves in an inllant. ig.

to be occafionally changed by pufhing the knobs the contrary way the other four. G^\ EK B^ F. C. G^ to F'^'^ or G. : would be : : are fixt founds. C^ or DK D* G^ or £* or F. The .^ ing keys. towards the right hand. namely F^. and all the reft towards the left. G. BK Q C% EK F. ji^ or BK B^ F^ or or C. as in the figure where the notes of each couple of die changeable foufids are written on oppofite fides of each knob. I think the beft way to have eight flops or brafs do this knobs fKrewed as ufual on the flianks of eight draught irons made moveable in eight flits cut in But to the fore board of the new harpfichord fave a quarter of the labour and expenfe I propofe to do it almofl as well with only fix. or EK ^K PI. E. each extreme knob is defigned to change two founds at one pufli of it towards either couple of notes at the end of the flit. which intended to ftrike ei. Hence by pufliing the two outermofl knobs at the bafe end of the fore board. HARMONICS. the keys will flrike the eight changeable founds in the vulgar fcale. G.Vin. XXVIII. C*. may be flruck alone by the key belonging to both the notes. ^. while the other firing is filent. 70. And fince eight founds are intended to be changed by fix knobs. that is.i. ther of their firings alone at pleafure that is. moves a couple of jacks. according to the fame rule as before. to the intent that the found or firing fignified by this or that note to which the knob is piijhed. Bj D. three at each end of the fore board. G*. Fig. F% is Sed.

Now this delign may be executed as follows. by.of die fucceffive knobs. as denoted in the figure. When the pens for the back common haip- unifons are put under their firings. or rather longer at firft than that of a common flimill be der. xxvi. In order thereto let fix brafs plates well flatted by a ception of their dimenfions. Becaufe diis order will be found much more convenient for altering and adapting the Scale to different pieces of mufic. that the founds belonging to the notes on the fame fides . and the breadth of each be fufhcient for M2 leaving . the jack holes in the except as already obferved that the fpace between the two rows fhould be much narrower than in the all common harpfichord. it a general pattern for at leafl to give mak- a clear con- which a workman may execute in what manner he pleafes. PI. HARMONICS. or figure. made equal to each other in all their dimenfions. 179 changeable founds are placed an order. the jack holes be an accurate draught of a long brafs part of which draught is reprefented in the thefe directions if made upon may ferve as ing the new Aiders. Fig. 19. fichord. Let the length of each be equal to. than the alphabetical in fuch The notes of the order of the fame notes. By plate. andthofe for the fore unifons are drawn off from theirs by the flops of the fituation have the fame two parallel rows with lefped to each other as they are intended to have in the new Aider. continually afcend or defcend by v^^\ as in the Table of keys and confonances in Plate XIX.Art.

by -of an inch. and being placed as near to the keys as may be. below fig. on the is Sed. as reprefented at N"^ i.i8o HARMONICS. VIII. fide. let all the be made wider on each fide. that being with jack holes diredily oppofite to one another but nearer together as already obferved. In tlie 2^ Aider the holes for the jacks B'^ andC and. In the 4^^ Aider the holes for the jacks E^. let an upper focket rj be made . outlides leaving a pretty ftrong margin of the jack holes. 6j. ing reft made equal to thofe in the pattern. for F^ ^ and G be- pattern. make and the reft wider on each fide by .of an inch. let all the reft in each Ai- der be made wider on each by . as at N*^ 2. by a twelfth of an inch. than thofe in the pattern. PI. than thofe in the pattern. A^ being made all their ocequal to thofe in the general and B^ and let all the reft be made wider on each than thofe in the pattern. to being made all equal to thofe in the C* and G^ pattern. In tlie 3"^ Aider the holes for the jacks fave another Aider. and in the the 6^'^ 5*'' Aider for E^ * and and F.of an inch. need not exceed a twelfth of an inch. and in D Aider for G* and A^ being made equal to thofe in the pattern. 68. XXVII. An under focket/^ is. 67. Fig. after the work finifhed and poliflied on both fides. for F'* D^and. made of wood as uflial. and then the thicknefs. to fave another Aider. In the 1" plate or Aider the oppofite holes for the jacks taves. fide. Fig.

or half an inch in height above this upper focket r s. brafs. 3. to lie upon it.Then pufli all the Aiders towards the right hand. D. till the pens on the right hand of the 5' When the two fockets /> other jacks in the far too. as they would appear to a diftant eye placed at the fore end of the harpfichord. widei: on its left fide only Leave . will Then if any Aider be drawn back the widened holes will permit. Ej be made by — of an inch. 19- HARMONICS. B. 5. exadly equal to the pattern in 67 but without the notches for the tongues to play in. again. i8i made of fig. fuppofing the fore board and fore margin of the fockets and Aiders were taken away.Art. B. without Airring th? reA. Z). 6 as above. and let all he liapported as ufual by crofs pieces of boards fixed underneath. and rs are fb adjufted in their places that the jacks ^. fee alfo fig. 68''' figure reprefents All the jacks being put thro' their holes. fix the fockets in that pofition at one end only. E ftand upright and ftrike their firings. row Aiall Arike their firings 67. 4. it which draw back narrow holes only. this a view of their edges and of die widening of the holes on each fide. for the fix Aiders numbered I. 2. that the flirinking or fwelling of the harpfichord may not bend or ftrain them. in which ibcket let every jack hole except for A. and bring the right hand pen of the A\r the jacks in its M3 jack .

laid When the fix fliders are upon one another in any order.VIII. 69. 70. and then this latter firing will be founded alone by the fame key while the Tormer is filent. as reprefented by put the firing the fliades. E. by — inch on the right hand and by as much on the left. no inconvenience will follow from it. and the hole at k in the i ^ Aider. The holes in the Aiders for the jacks ^. XXVIII. jack from under firing on the right hand and left hand pen of the near jack under its on the left hand. its Sea. to make room for the fliders to move towards the left hand . according to the general diredlion above.l85 HARMONICS. need be widened on their right fides only. all the refl mufl be lengthened . . According to the ufaal breadth of harpfichords compafs of ourfcale double G up to ^ in alf. tjie may conveniently be from PI. provided they coincide in length and breadth (and keep fo by two pins put thro' two columns of holes at their ends) three round holes mufl be drilled through them all in the vacant places at k and /. Fig. which have no motion lideways. and at m in the 2^ remaining round. B. oppofite to the jacks I? and d in ^//. and at m a little above e in alt . D. at / in the 5'^ as numbered above. but if they be widened on both fides. to the end that a fteel pin put thro' the round hole in any of thofe fliders (g) may draw it {g) See thofe numbers in the lower line of Fig.

are drawn about . without moving any other Aider.or . P.p. are riveted to the far ends of three flat A^. but the plate at p is firil let into the pin board as deep almoft as the plate is thick and then is fkrewed down. one with a radius about - Each . and each pin is kept firm to each iron plate by a flioulder below and a colat r. The upper half of each neck is filed fquare and a fkrew hole is made in the middle of it. 5^^ 2^ Aiders. fl:raitefl: draught iron P and its fl:eel pin into the column of holes in the Aiders drical hole at ?n. plates n. Three ky /. and at the diftance of about an inch and half from each center. already men- tioned. The round are flcrewed upon the furface of the pin board with flat headed iTcrews funk below the furface of the plates . where two concentric circles . w. are three other centers n. /. ky Oppofite to the centers of the round holes at /. each. j. and having put the Ihank y of the thro' the flit /. o. draught irons lar above. and the large cylin- P over the ncckp which jult fits it.Art. 19- Hx^^RxMONICS.of an inch. 183 it on either fide . O. p upon the pin board. and the other about 4 a cylindrical neck whofe bafe is the lelfer circle and height about a fixth of an inch. 10 4 larger circle reprefents a brafs plate having . fteel pins made and to fit the round holes m in the i^. by moving the fliank fideways the 2^ Aider whicli M4 haij . 0. Cut three flits in the fore board di- reftly oppofite to the centers n.of an inch.

and the breadth of any fhank at the Hit added to its motion there. will be moved alone by the fteel pin. and are N placed in like manner as before upon the brafs having another large hole wide enough to receive the fkrew head at p and to give liberty to its own angular motion in the third about the neck 0. the motion of any iron its flit is fhank at ratio to — of an inch. or circular fpringing plate. The hole at iron plate being put upon the neck n and over tlie two former plates. Sea. VIII. that upon N Allowing liider. circles 0.184 HARMONICS. — of an inch for the motion of any or pen of a jack. circle whofe below. has two other holes wide enough to receive the fkrew heads at and/*. die end of the bridge crooked to go round about and the extreme pins in the pin board. a diameter it equal to that of the brafs is fitted brafs waflier. the planes of thefe two iron plates being fet off" upwards with cranked necks in order to move them above the other plates. upon the fquare part of the brafs neck and prefTed down upon the draught iron by a fteel fkrew fkrewed into the hole p in the tight middle of the neck. has the round hole. And to keep this Aider from being ftirred by a like motion of thofe above or below it. are made The other two draught irons O. in the given of /> t to p m^ which motion is therefore detirmined. ?2 . and alfo to afford room for its own angular motion about the neck «. gives tlie length of tlie .

G^ andZ)^. or B^ and F**. 70. For as the extreme founds G^ and D^yOr B^ and F^^^ are feldomer ufed than any of the means that are out progreffions of the vulgar fcale ftitutes. which are both excluded by the principals. . of fimilar fhapes to thofe at the treble end the ftraitefl being next the fide board and funk down a little. In the like vacant places at the bafe end of the Aiders. are changed both togeby the extreme knobs. it follows that (/.) F^ (i) See the See thofe numbers in the lower line of Fig. or Cand G. and the holes in the 3**. Note that the draught irons move under the ftrings of : 6'^ the harpfichord.Art. and 4'^ Aiders remaining round {h) all the reft muft be lengthened on both fides. and the 3*^ over both. Fig. fhould chance to occur and interfere with them in the fame piece of mufic. on purpofe to draw any of thofe Aiders feparately (without moving the reft) by fteel pins fixed as before in the ends of three other draught irons. two founds belonging to two extreme notes at each end of the two ther by v''^''. if either of their ufual fub- and C^. three other columns of holes mufl be drilled thro' them all. or blocked up a flit. if experience fhall require mufl either be augmented. which length. 19. the 2** going over it. 185 the it. little at either end or both. rather than any two belonging to the intermediate notes. HARMONICS. (/). 70. Table in Plate xix. Two Aiders being faved. for adjufting the pro- per quantity of the Aider's mc*:ion.

. Ludiam and the Reverend Mr. may not be workman might rately. the Reverend Mr. i86 HARMONICS. SECT. VIII. that a mufician even while he is playing. in the that fuch accidents will happen feldomer former than in the latter caie. Upon communicating this method of changing the founds of a harpfichord at pleafure. amifs to obferve that a careful fave fome time and labour. . to two of the mofl ingenious and learned gentlemen in this Univerfity. if inflead of widening each hole in the Aiders fepa- he fliould pierce out fome long holes between thofe couples of narrow ones which move the jacks . leaving a few (lender crofs pieces here and there to add lufficient Hrength to the Aider v/hile he is working it. they encouraged me to put it in practice upon a harplichord made on purpofe by Mr. Kirkman. Michel. can without interruption change any found for another which he perwhich however is felceives is coming into ufe : dom required it the fcale be properly fore It adjufted be- he begins to play. but alfo to improve the ufual method of drawing the Aiders in the accurate ileady manner above defcribed which anfwers the defign fo well. Sed. and were fo kind not only to direct and aiTifl the workmen.

tlie rate A fmall alteration is fboner perceived in of beating than in the harmony of a confonance. Any little alteration of the interval of a perfed: confonance makes it beat or undulate. if it neither beats nor undulates. III. difco- An imperfed confonance will be vered to beat fharp. 187 SECTION i?ijlruments. . IX. I. xx. to Beat Flat [k). The harmony of a confonance is the finefl and fmoothefl when it neither beats nor undulates. VI. and grows gradually coarfer and rougher while the beats are gradually accelerated by very fmall alterations of the interval.Sea. and both mufl: be attended to in tuning an {k) See Schol. II. its 'y if a little diminiflied. in the Appendix. V. flower tlie alteration is or quicker according as or greater. the imperfed: one faid to Beat Sharp IV. A confonance of any two mufical founds Is imperfed: if it beats or undulates. 5. or to beat flat if f any diminution accelerates them. HARMONICS. to Prop. fmaller If the inter\'al of a perfed: confonance be is a little increafed. IX. and is perfed. Methods of Tuning an organ and other Practical Principles. if a very mall diminution of interval retards the beats .

VII. v. of 2 to A VIII*''' more equally harmonious. PI. db and the x*^ Gb will be found to beat fliarp and fo quick as to offend the ear by the coarfenefs of their harmony compared with that of the v'^'. Which fhews that in order to make all thofe concords and their complements to. 9 or of 9 tio to 8 nearly . efpecially upon the organ. the beats are efpecially the harpfichord. i j of 5 to 4. where the beats are ftrong and durable at pleafure. da and the descending viii* a and the two next afcending v^^^ Ae. Sedl. Beginning at any note as G of the undermofl progreffion by tones. the intervals of . that is. they are not equally harmonious . Tab. XX. VIII. if two afcending v^^' G d. If feveral imperfedl confbnances of the fame name. VI 11*^ higher. eb be all made perfed:. an inftrument.i88 HARMONICS. or elfe which of them beats quicker. where weak and of (liort duration. IX. and compounds with if a v^^ higher. even without counting the beats made in a given time. IX. an attentive ear can determine very nearly whether they beat equally quick. if a iii'' higher. it fhould beat quicker in the ratio of i o to fo. to make them the higher in the fcale ought to beat as much quicker than the lower as their bafes vibrate quicker . If any imperfed: confonance be founded immediately after another. in the ra- of 3 to 25 if an &e. the vi^^^^G^. if a v*^ be a tone higher than another. IV. as v**^' for inftance (by which the whole fcale is ufually tuned) beat equally quick.

Tab. the lower v*'* very llowly and the higher a little quicker. Alter fucceflively the trebles of the afcending v**" G d. PI. I. coniiderably flower than the w^^Gdy or not at v*^^ muft be made flaarper.o the fame baie. alter the trebles of the next afcending v'^* Ae. and the defcending viii**» being made perfedt. the contrary. HARMONICS.da till they beat flat. eb till they beat flat a very little quicker than the two former refpedlively. But v'*"* if that X*'' Gb beats fharp conflderably d^ every one of thofe four quicker than the v'^ G dy da^ Ae^ eb muft be made a very little flatter in order to beat a very little quicker than G before. Then if the x^*" Gb^ between the bafe of the firfl: and treble of the fourth v'*". v*''' 189 vi*'^* of the and confequently of the little and x*''' mufl be a manner. to beat ftill flat a very little flower in the flrfl cafe.Art. riower in the fecond and third cafes till and an equality . I . XX. all. thofe 6 notes are properly tuned for the defedlive fcale of Organs and Harpflchords in common ^^ ufe. V. if the thofe four x*** Gb beats fharp. beats fharp and about as quick as the v*^ Gd X. On or flat. diminifhed in the following PRECEPTS for tuning an organ or harpjichord by ejlifnation and judgment of the ear. .

If the infl:rument has a changeable fcale (/) having put out all the founds by their fliops but thofe of the common fcale. the defcending ing B bev^*"' made perfed. dG refpeBively. of nev^^ Laftly : ceffity. Tab. Let the afcending viii'^ G^ be made perfed:. PI. the whole fcale might have been tuned by afcending two v^''^ and dejfcending anviii^^ alternately j but it is lower part of it in going backwards from G. perfect viii*^' to every one of thofe 2. f^ the * be made a 'eery little quicker than the v*^^y^^. viii^^ ^ In like manner. . i8.J90 HARMONICS. Then tune Notes. 19. XX. till the x^^ Fa and the v*^ Fc. the fame equality of beats of the faid x^^ bafe G be nearly obtained. and by altering fucceffively the bafes of the defcending v'^^ gCj c Fj make them beat flat a very little flower than the v^^' ad.0 the fame bafe v''* eb juft as quick as the x'"" to the fame bafe. the (i) Se£1:. make the iii*^ ^^'^ beat as quick as the Becaufe the iii^ beats X. V. If we had begun at the lowefl: note £^. as follpws. and fo may the refl: as the notes diredt. art. beat equally quick j and thus thofe two v*^* are properly tuned. viii. to the common bafe F. and v*^ to Sea. afcending by an viii*^ and better to tune the v*^* defcending by two alternately. IX. 1 1. eb refpedlively. f let the two next afcending to beat flat Bf^. fo as make the id^Ac^ beat fharp about as quick as ^<? to the fame bale.

D and refl: Then having common fcale. proceed as before to tune the of the afoending S'^* G^^^«. da^ Ae^ eby muft beat flat a 'very little quicker than before in the common defective fcale. C. df^. as eg and c a^Fc andF^» &c beat equally quick j and thefe being fb adjuflied the x*^ and iii"^ as Fa and FA^ &c.G^ &c. their 8'^ to the notes in ii. F% &c and their into^^ D^.*^ PI. till every v'^ and vi*^ to the fame bafe beat equally quick. &c. v/ill beat flat very flowly. Likewife in tuning backwards from or ^. G. S^*'^ tuned to all the founds of the change £^ BK F. ^^^* &c. their 8'^% Lafl^ly change G% C=^. But if d^^ be tlie extreme flat note in the infl:rument. A^. as G ^ and and Af^. Ac^. c little flower than ad^dG refpecii'-oely^ till every v^^ G F and vi*^ to the fame bafe. B'^. and according yth.eg ^. da and db^ being fo adjuflied. the mufl: alio beat flat a ''oery delcending v'*"' gc. all their ^'^'m- toD^. it is 191 the method of tuning the fame as before. ob- ferving only that every one of the four v^^\ as GJ. E^. alter the bafe of the v*^'' A^ e^ till it beats flat and juil as fafl: as the vi''' y^^/ beats fharp. F'^% C^<^ and Tab. Ae and the vi**"' {harp. and thefe every x*'* and iii"^ as G b aiid will beat flowly flat G B. the v-'^'' flat Ge.Art. xx. likewifo .and to the notes in the to tune the reft and according fame Table proceed as before of the defcending v*^V^ A^y aU^^dl'GKScc. as they ought to do. as they ought. HARiMONICS. 2.

commonly ufed for fome of the loweft notes of a harpfichord. I lapped the other end round a peg. to is fine and when it is coarfe {m). likewife alter d^ as fail as the thev*^ d^^ a^ beats flat and juft vi^'' Then put out d^ b^ beats fharp. iv. that turned ftifly in a hole made in the wainfcot near the organ. all the founds but thofe of the common be changed again as occafions fhall require J and the harmony of the whole will be much more delicate than ufual in the opinion of fuch judges as can diftinguifh when harmony fcale. art. or returns to the places they went from.19^ HARMONICS. Plate xx. xx. («} See the notation. Then by ened turning the peg to and fro I lengthened or fhort- [tn) See Prop. till Sed. I made upon our d. Tab. taken from a violin. 5. And this number of vibrations is what I call the Pitch of the Organ. i. Schol. Having fufpended a brafs weight of feven pounds averdupois at one end of a copper wire. found that the paror of air in the cylindiical pipe called de-la-fol-re in the middle of the open diapaion {ti) made 262 complete vibrations. tHE FIRST METHOD. . To find the pitch of an organ. IX. PROPOSITION XVIII. By organ ticles the following experiment at Trinity College. in one fecond of time.

i. .Prop. was 4x131 (/>). was equal to 49000 grains troy. XVIII. and added to it the femidiameter of the peg. HARMONICS. made by the wire in one fecond was 131. coroll. I found no fenfible difference either in the length or weight of the vibrating part. tember N {0) Prop. while ftretched by the weight. art. i. 7000 Hence by a Theorem hereafter demonftrated (<?). Scholium. 2. I. XXIV. and the number of fuch vibrations made by the air in the pipe d^ two od:aves higher. I. And having repeated the experiment with another piece of wire taken from the fame bunch. 193 ened the vibrating part of the wire. art. 55 inches and the weight 3 1 grains troy . forwards and backwards together. and fo the number of complete vibrations {q) was 2x131 or 262 allowing for each pound. the number of femi vibrations. 12. length of the vibrating part of the wire. (/>) But Seft. till it founds ed a double octave below the found of the pipe d Then having meafured the abovementioned. the length being 35. iirft at the point of contact with the fide of the peg. 3 and 7. I made that experiment in the month of Sep- at a time when the thermometer flood at temperate or thereabouts. from the loop below to the under fide of the peg. {q) Sed. and the feven pounds averdupois that ftretchedit. I cut the wire. and then at the loop below j for I found no need of a bridge either above or below. <ij:.

'TEE . that the fame pipe gave but 254 complete vibrations in one feccnd^ fo that the pitch of its found was lov/er than in Septem- November ber by fomething more than - of a mean tone. I found by a like experiment. towards the end.. convenient to keep a thermometer con- flantly in the (r) organ See Mr. compared with Sir Ifaac Newton^ theory of the velocity of founds. a cold day in Sed. CorolL In order to organ again. Cotei% xv^h Ledlure upon liydroHat. from its greateft degree of cold in our climate to its greateft degree of heat (r).IX. in the ratio to the 5 to 16) which anfwers of the of major hemitone or about — mean tone and agrees very well with the foregoing experiments. varies. 194 But upon HARMONICS. a pretty hot day in Auguft I collecanother experiment. I find alfo tliat the air in an organ pipe may vary the number of its 1 vibrations made in a given time. that the fame pipe ted from gave 268 complete vibrations in a fecond of time And upon which fhews that its pitch was higher than in November by almoll half a mean tone. and Pneumat. it is know when the pitch of an and when it returns to the fame cafe. By fome obfervations made upon the contraction and expanlion of air.

or a pendulum-clock. gy For example fuppofe the viii*^Z)<^be found to beat65 times in 2ofeconds. or a limple pendulum that vibrates forwards or backwards in one fecond. Z). tune upwards three fucceffive perfecft v'^' DA^ Ae^ eby and downwards the perfed. c. whofe length from the point of fufpeniion to the center of the bullet is 39 inches and one eighth. d. A. 195 THE SECOND METHOD of finding the pitch of an organ^ or the number of vibrations made in a given time by any given note.Prop. a The time may be meafured either by watch that fhews feconds. F. viii'^ Ddy the number of complete vibrations made in that time by its treble dy will be 8 1 times diat number of beats. while another perfon counts the number of the beats made in that time j v/hich number dimi- N 2 niflied . Let the notes C.f. then 8 1x65 or 5265 is the number of complete vibrations - made by 26-2 ^ is the treble ^ in 2ofeconds. yi^^ bdj then having counted the number of beats made in any given time by the imperfect. and in —.eafure of the time muft give a ftamp with his foot at the beginning and end of it.XVIIL HAR MO N I C S. e. E. and from any Bafe note not higher than jD. ciy by c\ be in the middle of the fcale.or 20 the number made one fecond. And the perfon that oblerves the m. B. G.

IX. ihews that d IS tempered fliarp by a comma. the number of the tween thofe fucceffive beats and properly fpeaking is the number required. putting i =§'. ii*'.andoijS=M 01 ' the </ number of complete vibrations of the treble of that viii*^. CorolL Hence the numbers of vibrations made in a given time by any founds in the Dia- tonic Syflem (j) are given in the given organ being (f) Se(Sl. Prop xi. DEMONSTRATION. I. HARMONICS.— beats in -'81 one fecond. is Sea. E.— 196 . which ratio being tios we have Did:: 81 refolved into 81 : 80 and 80 40. F. the Yiii^ caf. i. i. . which number being fubfhews that the viii'^ i)^ in that ftituted for M or?an •^ made — - 81 or 7 . intervals be- nifhed by one. wq :A:: 3 : 2. art. the notes Z). ftand for the times of the fingle vibrations of their founds. which are not too quick to be counted. For greater accuracy the experiment Ihould be repeated feveral times and a medium taken among the fevera) refults. By thejirjl method d was found to vibrate 262 times in one fecond. Whence in and 6 : : D /= /z=i wehave/3=--7-^ ' ' \blp-\-q r— =5. y^ ^ : 3:2.^:^: 3:2 have For if D : : : : d:: 2' 5> ^^^ ^7 compounding thofe ra40. &c.

Ae. 7. will give A^= Sii?-\.Prop. Coroll. "THE THIRD METHOD of finding hy experiment the number of vibrations N made by any given found c of a given organ in a known time T. cor. 2. GC ifflat.16 (^ or perfedt v'^^ . By v''^' diminifliing each of the afcend- ing perfed: DA. <: C : : 40 + ^ ^ : 81 and this viii*^^ being fharp and making N (t) 3 Coroll. In the fame notation as before let ca be a fliarp making /3 beats in the time Tj make ad. -. («) Prop. HARMONICS. the vin^ Dd which was too fharp by a comma. in fed: viii*^ and Cc will be an imperwhich if fharp and making b beats the time T. known ratios 197 of their being reciprocally in the /ingle vibrations. XVIII. eb by of a comma . becomes pcrfed which is another : proof of the vulgar temperament (t). XI. ii^. caf. c : For and d: a : : 5 '^ jj' 2 (^) ^^^ a :d : : :: 2 : . : Whence by compounding thofe ratios. . iV=i6/2— 81^. i.^ G :: 2:3 and all G C : 2 : 3. Prop. vi*^ dG.of a and increafing the defcending vi*'' ^^by comma.

7. i. The notation of the fcale being flill the fame perfedt.198 HARMONICS. then. unlefs vi*'^ thofe of the fliarp eafily counted. caf. IX. : : b beats in the time T.16/3. cor. to the 2*^ method. XI. be made to beat flat 40. + l|^ 8 — ^-^ and iV=8i The can its VI 11*^ Cc cannot well come out flat nor beats be too flow^ and indiftind:. Wherefore 80 /^4. 45 times refped:ively in a known time T.') and ^ : G : : : i : 2 G:^:: 2 {z). gives c 1 2 : i — i [x). {}') l^rop. : ^ : : 3 —^ : 2 (. 'THE FOURTH METHOD of finding the pitch of aji organ^ or N the nianber of vibrations of the foujid c i7t a known tifne T. XI. But if it be a flat vi'^. i^ ca be a fharp vi^'^ making j8 beats in the time T. 7.v) Prop. let the v'^' c g^ and the o6tave Gg being Gdy da. XI. cor. we have A^=324o4. Ar=324o 16^. and coroll. 7. cor. I. C == : Sea. This may ca v/ere too quick to be be collected from the fecond method. 30. as in the firfi method — For and yr: <. caf. (z) Prop. 3— ^t 2 (2) and J ^ : : 3 — Whence by compounding all thele ratios. 2. . (.16 /3.

cor. The pitch of an orga?t a7id the te^nperament of the v'^ being given^ to find the mmibers of heats that every v'^ will make in a given time. make the M^^cg beat flower or quicker refpeftively.Prop. xx. or elfe too quick to be eafily counted. XIX. A^=324o — ca If the refulting beats Iharp and too llowly and therefore too indiftindly. where \ica he a (liarp VI''' heats in the time T. [a] which I had fent him fometime before. ratios. . 199 c'. vi'*^ But ca be aflat vi*^. Bayes F. R. make the ^^ beat much quicker. (: : ^ 5 : : S + %'Z{'')' Vv^hence27--^: and therefore 16:: + if 1^: 3 A^= 3240+16/3. an Organ defcribcd in fcholium 2 to Prop. Tbo. The is rate of beating between 2 and 3 beats in a fecond *. all the v^^^ of different names in a complete of founds. XI. in return for a method of Tuning. 7. i or 2. Plate xx. HARMONICS. caf. i6/3. was pleated to lend me thefe two laft method^. i.a\'. S. PROPOSITION XIX. The fliew fcale muflcal notes in Tab. beats yth flat Alfo if that vi'^ moll: convenient and confequently too flowly. * In July 17=11 that excellent mathcnatician the Reverend and Learned Mr.2j— making /3 ^ : 16. which v'^' by interpofing 8^^' are placed 4 N Prop.

*U^ ^9 .yia A. 'u of the times of the fingle vibrations of the bafe and treble of the and ^ alfo the conflant ratio to i yth Then if a ieries of v^'^" equally tempered afcend their beats continually from d. and there^vS. and therefore will be.' ^v^ 32 4 8 16 16 32 In like manner.* jB-y^ feries of beats into /3i. By the given temperament of the v**^ and the given pitch of the organ. as often as any of thefe v*'^' are deprefby an odtave. ^. — > J ^v^ 8 /3^'* j8t.iji. if the former feries of v*''* be continued downwards from dy as in Tab. fo often muft thefe beats be divided by 2 {b) which Now fed -.7 this. 3. /3i. ^vZ. /3i. /3'u. as in the upper half of the fcale afcending from d in Tab. iSi. XI. the numbers of their beats made in a given time will continually decreafe in the ratio of I 1. the numbers of made in a given time. /S'U^ /3"j7. sea. to i or of to-. i or 2. will continually increafe in the ratio of i to "u {b) fore will be jS. as in Tab. placed at fuch a pitch that the higher v*^' may not beat too quick to be counted. changes that $1. -' -4' ^> —' V V V *v^ v* v^ ^7 ^8 — ^. nor the lower too flow to be diftinguilhed.8. t.2. 3. the time by the number /3 of the beats made in a given v''^ da may be found by Prop. Now (b) Prop.4. corolla 2* . /3<u9. i. ^.> 200 Harmonics. xi.

. the logarithm of the is. 17609 1 3. - = o. 0053950.J > 1. and fuppoiing the log. and I c = i> 0. mean tones will make i of a Here the temperament of the v*^ is comma perfedl (c).I. ii<^. xviii. was 262 (d). i as thefe v^'^' are raifed by an oclower half of the fcale defcending tave. - interval of the v^'' comma which c = = =0. i.^ ij^ — V* ' — —5 ' this feries of i^> ^IJ^ V^ V^ V'** Q^E. .4953 ^° which fented in the iblution of the problem we by -u to i Now when rate. i. cor. Scholium* For example. XIX. (^) Prop. which every vth in the lyftem of in 1 5 feconds of time. or the number of complete air in fecond by the the pipe denoted by made in i d in the Hence middle of our table. number 4953 repre- or lii21?j that of the ratio of 1. — lot Prop.00134 is 88. 1747425. fo often muft thefe beats be multiplied by 2 . from in Tab. we have the . be it propofed to calculate the number of beats. the thermometer ftood at tempevibrations the pitch of our organ at Trinity College. which produces beats ?> ' —5 — ^y — > -y* i. and the v'^ = o. as in the Now as often 4 1. or 2.r log. in Tab. Plate xx. (c) Prop. HARMONICS.

to find the in prop. in the given time will make 15x262 = 1 5 feconds iV. I. .z=2 and it and ^-c=-c.202 Hence - HARMONICS. .pered flat by comma. we have ?7i : 72 : : 3 : 2 or z«= 3. or ^==ij /'=4> fince the bafe I d makes 262 complete of fuch vibrations vibra- tions in fecond. xi Sea.IX. feconds by the number of beats made in 15 v'^ above d when tem. and the Abacus 0.

XIX. 8252575 . 562984 1 . I. the :. number of beats made ^1-'^- 161X4-H1 43 4-? logarithm is i. ^^ HARMONICS. to which adding continually the log. of 1.. we get the logarithms of 161/. 2. in that time. = iniULT-ii! = liZf =/3. whofe Abacus 2. 203 by caf.Prop.

The . or by the addition of its arithmetical complement remembering to divide and multiply the correfponding numbers by the fame powers of 2 as before in each Abacus. which multiplied by the proper powers of 2. 3 or 4 quartertones. which log. 5cc as in the 2^ Abacus.IX. continually added gives the loo. Sec. of /3. 0121138. as above dired:ed. to the log. as noted at the beginning of the table. give the defending half of the fame fet of beats oppofite to the pitch 262 in Tab. and thence the correlponding numbers.204 jS'u. and be found by the continual addition of the logarithm of a quarter-tone to the logarithms in each Abacus . HARMONICS. And thefe logarithms give the num- bers tliemfelves. i.-. : may And rithm is as the i log. I tone 4 is i of the o 11 1^ its logaconti- -= 4 o. of a quarter-tone from the faid fet of logarithms. jS'y^ Sea.arithms of -. log. jS-u*. of . 2. The fuperior fets of beats are defigned for tuning the fame or different organs. and the iirft inferior fet of beats may be found by the fubtra(flion of the log. as in the firft Abacus. when their pitch is higher than this by i.-. I. give the afcending half of the fet of beats oppolite to the pitch 262 in of V fubtradted from o gives the log. Tab. which divided by the proper powers of 2. as diredled in the folution of the problem. which Dually .

ratio of their temperaments ^c and -^ ^ {f)i For the beats would be in that ratio if their feveral bafe notes were exadlly unifons (g) . coroll. gives the log. 2. to be unifons. and fchol. peraments. &c. to prop. gives the of the higher pitches 269. ii*^. 2. overagainft tlie lowefl: fet of beats. 4. (h) Cor. From the given temperament of the fyflem of equal harmony (e) the beats of all the v^'^' may be calculated by the fame method 3 and will be found as in Tab. of the loweft pitch 255. the numbers of the beats in a given time. XIX. 4. in the column of the table. 2. XVI.Prop. or ^ Cj which produces the difference of but tables. cor. Plate xx. xi. (g) Prop. CoroJI. 277. ix. Schol. prop. lO. and the difference of their pitches at the diftance of the tenth v*^ from the middle note ^. firfl: 205 fucceffive logarithms nually added to the logarithm of 262. is but ten times the difference of the temor as 9 to 10. of any two correfponding v^'^'are very nearly in the given CoroII. lemm. 2. fchol. In the fyftem of equal harmony the ratio of the numbers of beats of the iii*^ and v^^ to Prop. XI. xvi. lo. art. HARMONICS. I beat in 290 in the extreme v*^^ in the and lefs in the reft in proportion to their diflances from the note ^ (h). art. I. (e) . and cor. Suppofing the niiddlemoft notes Jy in the firfl and fecond tables. over againfl: the correlponding fuperior fets of beats j and fubtrafted from the fame logarithm of 262. and prop. (/) Prop. i. 2.

PROPOSITION table of beats. as properly llgnifying the number of intervals between the luccefiive beats. of Coroll.2o6 to the HARMONICS. iv. 3. i^k) See the notation tab.and -^ Cj : and of the major terms : 4 and 3 2 (/). xviii. allowance mufl be made ting the pitch. by the Then bove d beats. plate xx. is Seft. number of vibrations denofchol. XX. To tune any given oi'gan by a given Having found the pitch of the organ by any of the methods in Prop. be meaiured as direfted in the Second Method But in this cafe count one beat more than the tabular number. whereas in that of mean tones they are in the ratio of 3 to 5 in a their perfecfl ratios 5 . being compounded 2 to 3 in ^ given timej as of the ratio of their tem- peraments . (/) in prop. i. the number of made in 15 feconds (/). look for the neareft to it in the firft column of Table i or 11.IX. Plate xx. XVIII. 3 given time. fame bafe. and overagainfl it is the Proper Set of Beats for tuning the given organ. If the weather be conliderably hotter or colder at the time of tuning than it was when the in the pitch was found. to prop. xi and fchol. flatten the treble a of the perfect till v*^ aits [k) more or lefs. agrees with the tabular (/) Corvnll. To . For the fame reafon the beats of the v*'* and vi^'' to the fame bafe are ifochronous in the fyftem of equal harmony. xvi 11. prop.

the next defcending and the like again upall on the next. and repeat the like operation upon the next afcending v''^ Ae. the other founds be made odtaves to thefe.XX.Pi-op. agrees with the tabular number placed over this v'^ in the proper fet. going backwards from d. that v^'' 207 in the pro- number placed over per fet. that temperament in the will be equally tempered. . Then From the bafe of the v^'' t/G. next below that which anfwers to the pitch. tune upwards the o(flave Gg and repeat the like operation upon v^'^^^:. da tune downwards the odave a A. i. all the v'^' purpofe. If you chufe to tune the organ according to the Hugenian lyftem. XII coroll. tabular HARMONICS. which anfwers the deflgn of tuning hy a table of beats. and confequently equally harmonious {m)^ and fo will all the vi'^% and every other fet of concords of the fame name. fo as to be quite free from beats. and the fcale will be ex- actly tuned according to the given table. the fet of beats in Tab. made in 15 feconds. This being done. found by any of the foregoing methods. fharpen the bafe G of the perfed: v''^ below d more or lefs till die number of its beats. For [m) Prop. and the like again upon the next till you have tuned all the Iharp notes in From the treble of that v^^ the fcale of your organ. will ferve your is. till you have tuned let all the flat notes in the fcale of your organ.

Scholium 1.. 2o8 HARMONICS. plate xx. Schol. Q. by the help of fuch a pipe one may know by how many quarter-tones the pitch of any other organ is higher than that of ours. whole organ was tuned is to the open diapafon. as it did alfo when the pitch of our organ was found to be 262. I aflifted at the tuning of the v'*^' of the open Diapafon hy the fet of beats oppoflte to that pitch in Tab. Tab. {0) Sec column 2. as I judge by its agreementwith that of the pitch pipes made about the year 1720 . IX. in the ratio 53 SS (^)> t>eats flower in that proportion. For the Hiigenian • having 4 its temperament of —4r + — no ^^ c fmaller than ~. 2. determine the proper fet of beats for tuning it {0). 2.c. and upon examining the iii'^' and x**'' I found them all perfed: : ' a manifefl: proof of the theory of beats certainty of fuccefs in tuning and of the 3 At that time the by it. i. At a time when the thermometer fl:ood at Temperate. and thus (without any of the methods in Prop. F. if its pitch were depreflTed by i of a mean tone. v*'% Sed. and now univerfally allowed tg («) Prop. and thereby reduced to the Roman pitch. E. 2. Since our organ at Trinity College was new and by altering the diipofltion of the keys was depreflTed a tone lower. which is than the tabular v*'* but very httle flower than it would do. i. XVII. . Tab. xviii) voiced. I.

but rather towards the evening. when much fliarper than per- and its harmony. diefe But tion. For the properell: times for tuning the Diapafon of an organ feem to be. from the latter end of Auguft to the middle of Odober.Prop.XX. on very fall:. 209 the major thirds were fedl ones . But at that time I had not finiflied the calculation of it. will keep nearer to the fame degree of elallicity for a given time. 4. much more harmonious than before. when the air being dry. according to the fyftem of equal harmony. when the air is drier and its declining warmth is kept at a flay by the warmth of the perfons about the organ. will howany ever contribute to the accuracy of tuning by fo nice a method which is plainly capable of O defired . to be HARMONICS. and to repeat the tuning of the organ over again would be troublefome and improper at the prefent feafon. Becaufe a very fmall alteration in the warmth of moifl: air will fuddenly and feniibly alter its elaftic force and thereby the pitch of the pipes before the whole ilop can be accurately tuned. is ftill improveable by making them flatter than perfed:. when cold and damp weather is coming. temperate and quiet. and the little like cautions may fooner be defcrip- learned by a prad:ice than by any and if not altogether necelTary. For that reafon conflant care mufl: be takea not to heat the pipes by touching them oftener than is needful 3 nor to flay too long at a time in the organ cafe j nor to tune earlyin the morning. I doubt not.

between 20 and thereabouts 5 by fetting it to beat accord56 or ing to any given number in the table for tuning an organ. Sedl. After tuning an organ according to any new fyftem whatever. 6. as it ealily might. and by comparing its beats with thofe of the correfponding v^^. In . IX. and thus a harpfichord might be tuned almoft to the fame exad:nefs as an organ . and the tuning of an organ might be performed much quicker by the help' of fuch a machine than by counting the beats as above. as is evident in almoft every thing It is therefore neceffary to objec^ts ence in different to which we are more or lefs habituated. and after a longer ufe they could not bear the coarfe harmony of other organs tuned in the ufual manner. till after a little ufe they became better fatisfied with it. Some muiicians here who had conftantly been ufed to major thirds and confequently major lixths tuned very fharp. have equal experiof fenfe. whether they were ifochronous or not . any given number of times in 15 feconds. If a machine were contrived. to beat like a clock or watch. in order to judge impartially. we muft be cautious of judging too haftily of it.210 HARMONICS. the ear would determine immediately and exactly enough. could not well relilh the finer harmony of perfe6l tliirds and better fixths in the organ newly tuned. which of the two is more grateful than the other. delired degree of exadnefs provided the blaft of the bellows be uniform. 5.

Prop. In the following method after 3 or 4 fifths by a little table of beats. the organ does the office of fuch a machine in all the Scholium *To 2. and let the v''^' cg^ Gdy 38. flat Gg founds in the middle of the fcale being make the quite perfect. HARMONICS. XX. tively in 1 5 feconds of time. The called VI 1 1^'^' ^<2 CDEFGAB cdefgabc. 28. tuns any given organ by ifochronous beats of different concords. be made to beat 42 times refpec- NO of beats of the vith . 211 are tuned itfelf reft. I .

count ca in 1 5 feconds. 45 times relpedlively remembering by the way to make perfect viii''^. to beat equally quick ought to do in the fyflem of equal har- mony {p). Gdy da. bu: if the beats of the 4. Like wife in Tab. Alter then the trebles of the v^*"' eg. oppofite to it Seel. to beat equally quick. in each table are the Pro-r v*^' per Set of Beats. the neareft number to in the i. . firft column is 50 and oppo-^ iite to it in are 40. 3 5. the v^^ as they and vi^'". coroU. ce. Ae. Gd. For example. the proper {et of beats of thofe v'^^ cgy Gd^ da for cauling Tab. when tuned according to the iyfcem lliouid beat mentioned in the title of each table. fchol. 30. and if their number be 40 as that of the v^^ £g was. 212 numbers HARMONICS. the proper fet of beats of the v'^' eg. ilippofe the refulting vi'^ 48 times it in 15 feconds. the beats of tlie be defired. for cauiing the v*^ and iii^. over or under.. which property makes fcaies 3 till a very proper fyftem for the defe(5tlve of organs and harpfichords in prefent ufe. in the given organ. . Then upon founding the v^^ flat VI '•^ eg. immediately after each other. 30. if greater certainty vi^'^ But vi^* (/>) Prop. 2i gG and 40. oppofite to the faid number 50 are 3 1 23. the ear will judge near enough whether they beat equally quick as they ought. IX. eg and ca. you have found the proper let . 2. 26. 45. XIX. or differs from it by no more than 3. eg. ca. 3. which the faid ought to make 2. da they beat 1 in 5 feconds.

which half cannot eafily be meafured.Prop. as appears by the differences of the numbers in the firft and fecond columns. I 42 times if 15 feconds in the vi^'' ^ experiment. . The proper let for i'* found. half the interval of the v^*" eg. of the fucceffive beats a given organ being once experiment need never be repeated afterwards. Gd. Yet the choice might be determined by altering the pitch of the found c a very little and repeating the experiment.ent the beats of the VI ca fhould come out exadlly in the middle between any two numbers in the i^ column. HARMONICS. For which reafon. if in any experim. the fet fo determined need only be verified as in Article 3 or 4 whenever the organ wants to be retuned. 28. fcholium. XX. At moft. the next above it will be the proper fet in hot. After the v'^' eg. For whatever be the proper fet in temperate weather. the 6. XVIII. over or under. is the proper fet. and the next below it in cold weather {q). or too flow and indiflindl: to O {q) 3 Prop. the beats of die ca had b^ come out too quick. the next higher or lower fet Becaufe an alte- ration of lix beats an alteration fame bafe. 5. 9. tliat is. da had been made in to beat 38. 3 213 vi*^ differ from 40 by more than and lefs dian refpedlively. you may take either of the fets oppoiite to them for the proper fet the error from tiie truth ''^ of the vi**" anfwers of but one beat of the in time to v''' to the j being but half a beat.

and in the fecond 17 inftead of 153 and upon repeating the experiment the beats of the vi"^^ ca will come out within the limits 20 and 565 of the numbers in the iirft column and point to the proper fet. which fometimes happens. ^. the excefs of a beat may be dilpenfed with as being lefs erroneous in that cafe than the defedt of a beat j and on the contrary. Fig. make Ge beat fharp and juft as quick as the given v'^ Gd^ and do the like for every the order annexed.IX. 65. Sed. a tuned by the proof beats. in afcending from the founds. 7. Laftly. Now if pereft for a changeable fcale (r). bular number has the fign — you chufe to tune the organ tp the fyftem of equal harmony. PL XXV.) in the iirft cafe ufe 13 feconds. if the beats of any v''^ cannot foon be adjufted to the tabular number. c^ G. if the taafter it. which being the moft v harmonious is tlie pro8. per fet the vV-"^ vi*'' in Likewife in defccnding from the faid given founds . and that number has the fign 4after it. be eafily countedj (which however cannot happen unlefs the pitch of the organ be immoderately higher or lower than ufual.214 HARMONICS.

26. XXV. HARMONICS. ^^£^. Ae beat flat 31. and the \\\^ ce will beat fliarp equally with the v''' C7> O 4 PI. But till Infl:ruments it Is are made with a more proper to tune the deby making every v *^ and iii'^. And do the contrary in the defcending part of the fcale. and repeat the like practice in the or- ^^f v^^ der annexed. tune downwards the two viii^^^ eE and ifB and leaving out die uppermoft row of the /harp notes. as el> and and ec^ for inftance. the former flat and the latter fharp. viii they beat equally quick. proceed with the lower rows. fe(5tive fcale in prefent ufe 23. d^ a^ 215 bafe G. 9. for the given organ. and Fd^ till v^'' v Fc. to the fame bafe. .g Prop. tliis being the proper fet found by Art. i. 2. the v^'^ flat. alter the common vi B'o F of Fc and vi'''. c. founds the XX. If this fcale afcend fo high as to caufe a vi'^. Eh &c Sc tuning Eh^ &c. &c. da. leaving out the undermofl flat notes where you find they beat too flow and defcending by the higher notes. F^& tuning Ff 5 ^/. Make the v^^' eg. changeable fcale. 35. E^ B^. times refpedively. andthevi^'^fharp. beat equally quick. to beat too quick. Gd.

Sedr.2l6 Plate HARMONICS. Fig. J.IX. A^ e fo make the next iii'' GB beat {harp and v equally with the given \^^Gd. and do the like for the reft in the order annexed. XXV. a. Then in from the founds gy G. c. 65. afcending tur^d. . Likewife in defcending from the fame given founds alter the bafe F of the vi^ith 1 1 1'^ FA and B ^fy Fc to the till it beats fharp equally the given v^^ fame bafe^ and do the like for the reft in the order annexed.

^l. by the -^c.: : Prop. and fchol. have any a. Then fup^ r^= d -^r.'.^gives It. i. and /3 their common number made in that time when their temperaments were A Gr ^= \c and^i= 18 4 18 poling the difference triangles <^ as before. tab. ^''' 40. After (x) Prop. jo-^. 5 — a- ^. 3 of that table are ^computed by the method in Prop. ly) Prop. Gor. we have /3 a : Gr ^== ' '. = 48. As : A : • 3 -1- whence and Therefore j/Sr— 54=^— . ^ • fet In the method above for finding. limilar Or^^ Ostr. Gor. the proper of beats we affumed ^ 38 and in vthe ex- ample we fuppofed ^ ^^ZliL = . /3 J likewife ^: b again /3 — r—a :: . let a and h other temperaments. = ^+ 6~* . 4. we have S(t= And ^mce the numbers of beats made in equal times by a given confonance differently tempered are proportional to its temperaments (^). as Gp and be the refpecftive numbers of their beats made in any known time.. XX. whence 3 : ^= IflZlf 3. ^ . 217 organs of dliFercnt pitches (x) and from thefe and the given temperament ^ f the beats of the other v'''' Gd^^da in col. XI. HARMONICS. • ' . XI.G^'. being 4o. xix.y.v'^ and vi''' eg and ca. the nearefl to which in column the proper fet. i '2Q- .. 2.^. = whence /S^^^^Sv^. When the. 2. . 45-.

If ^ = o. which O Tab. 28 -f. . to the Roman pitch. 30—. 45— becaufe the ratio of 36 to 40 or 9 to 10 belongs to the tone nearly. tho' lower than ordinary j . exceeds 3 8 by . .IX. and our oigan +. Table. fet for I found the proper making the quick in 36. i. 42 +. the common difference of the correfpondent values of b or beats of the vi*'' ca muil: be fix. When appears if that /3 ^ = 38.2i8 After this HARMONICS. that 3 3 if 3 8. Tab. = 38 + ^-38. continued downwards would give the pitch and the proper fet for an organ about a tone lower than ours. in a vi'^. that is. of it had been deprefled a tone lower. I. 1. as in the column prefixed to the of the defedt.of that excefs /3 is i if /^ be de- ficient from 3 8. we have jS i = 38--6-=3i-. whence ^ exceeds ^= /3= 8 jS i it 3 8. manner v'*^ Seft. to be after the pitch 27— 40 warm feafon. that deficient from 38 by I the values of So that the common difference of jS or beats of the v*'' eg being unity in col. in col. and adapted to it the column of beats of the vi^^ ^^ in the following manner. For this reafon in the method above I chofe to begin the experiment with the intennediate fet 38. only by changing the places of the keys. cg^ ca^ beat equally at Trinity College. if the vi^^ ca fliould T come out perfe6l. Confequently the proper fet for the former pitch would have been 40.

and accordingly the beats of the former confonance will be accelerated while thofe of the latter are retarded. caf.may ha\''e any value. (a) Prop. The reafon of it is this . HARMONICS. the VI''' ca cannot beat flat upon any organ now in ufe and if its fharp beats come out too flow or too quick. and the temperer O ^ a. (b) Prop.r mufl: be within the angle EOG. i. art. a remedy has been given above in art. In Tab. where the major leflen 11 1^. not here .Prop. if either of the temperaments G^. VIII. ^c(l?). 1 219 . is becaufe the fecond condition of the propofition required. Therefore in the experiment above for finding the proper fet. note u. in order to the diefls {z\ is defigned to beat fliarp and as quick as the v'^ beats flat. 9 to 8 belonging to the tone major. 2. Ichol. But in Tab. 3. Et. 6. cor. of the v'^ and iii*^ mufl: be 5 to 3 (^). V. i we had Gr= and fo the ratio 18 of the beats made in a given time by the correipondent (z) Sedt. So the beats of the vi*^ come out too quick to be eafily counted. at firfl: muft be or the fame : them mufl: be contrary. the other will decreafe. Acr^ of the v*^ and vi^'' be in: creafed.or ordinary J becaufe the ratio of 36 to 3 is 32. 2. XX. they fliew that thofe that when v*^ of the were too flow accelerated. Hence G^= ^„ <:. XI. cor. made in a lefs when the beats of and therefore number of time and on the the vi'^ come out too flow. 2. the ratio of the temperaments Gp. where .

= 3484 complete that is 232 - vibrations in ^^^ ) one fecond j and therefore the found which is almoft a mean tone higher than c. IX. coroU. ^. when it beats flat and equally with the vi^^ ea. in which the proper fet may be found as before in the i** experiment. Tab. makes 260 fuch vibrations in one fecond. which agrees with the experiment made with the brafs wire in prop.. xi. 4. . in Sed. Thus 5cc if that conds. but it differs fo little from that of equal vi- harmony that the mention of it is fufficient. j8= '{c) Prop. In like manner a table of beats for any other fyftem might be computed and fubjoined to Tab I. i and 2. xvi 1 1 For the temperament of the v^^ eg. in this time the found c number of beats be 36 in 15 Semakes 36x96. where in caf. Hence we have the number of brations made in made a given time in of a given organ. 220 ipondent to 1 v*''' HARMONICS. XI. is Gr to G^ or 2^ 8 (c). Corollary. 2. 7 - number of beats made in that eg when it beats equally with the time by the vi^^ ca. was found to be -o lo <^j = Pr <: in prop. Another lyftem might be tuned by ifochronous beats of the 1 1 1^ and VI*** . to be found by the method above demultiplied by the v'^ fcribed. vibrations by any given found For the number of complete a given time by the found c is conftant the produd of this number 96.766 vibrations.

SchoUtim 3. having found /S the proper number of beats wliich the v^'' eg ought %Q make in a gi\'en time as j 5 leconds. or with equal accuracy v/ill be lefs expeditious than the former.l6lp-j-q' HARMONICS.. &c would alone be fuflicient for tuning any given organ according to the given fyftem. whereas given time. which will generally contain Ibme fraction of a fecond. Prop. could be readily and accurately meafured.7 -x/3. For neareft if inftead of the mixt number t we ufe the whole number of feconds for the proper in uling the is time. number of vibrations of the found c. the time f in which it will make the number 3 8 in the given fet. ^^ ^r— ^^^P+^ p — 161x18 + 2qm the 221 5 10x3 ^ /?-_ *9'6. 28. iqmN § . and that time fo determined is the Proper Time in which all the other numbers of beats in the given fet ought to be made by the other v'^* in the faid organ. as 38 is to . is to 15 feconds. For. If we could meafure any given part of a fecond of time more readily and exadlly by any Other means than by the beats themfelves. But unlefs that time /. the error Proper Set for any but half the interval of v'^ cg^ the fucceffive beats of the which is tv^''o 05 . the limit of the error will be half a fe- cond . 42. a fingle fet of beats for a given fyflem. XX./3. this method will with equal expedition be leis accurate. as 38. by the method above.

any other to contrived. and pretty exadt too if the apparatus to the monochord be well may not be amifs to fhew the manit ner of dividing according to any propofed fcale. As the known method of tuning an inflrument by the help of a monochord is eafier than ble of counting them. the number of feconds in which the beats are made. it lefs skilful ears. 107. Sea. is always between two and three times greater than 15. and be to the whole. . unlefs by caufe a fet of beats whofe numbers are between 2 and 3 times larger than thofe in the Tables. 42 beats in 15 feconds.IX. or three times fmaller than half a fecond. and let the feveral parts of the monochord be meaiured from either end of it. 38. which would proportionally increafe the time and trou- For inftance. Becaufe 15. in 38 leconds. inftead of counting 38. betlie number of its beats in col. And the larger error cannot eafily be reduced to an equality with the fmaller. temperament of the PROPOSITION XXI. 72. 28. i. we muft count 96. To find the parts of a given mo?tochorcly whofe vibrations fhall give all the foimds in an o&ave of any propofed tempered Jyjiem* Let the fyftem of equal harmony be propoled.222 HARMONICS. Tab. i. 96 are continual proportionals nearly.

to 1 00000 j I fay the vibrations of the parts fo found. . 5. which 00000. G+T=F F + / =F^ F + L=E .83007 limma ma- and from the logarithm 4. A+T=G G + L=F*. 2T = o. I.52825 = 0. c B+/=:B^. will give all the founds in an odave of the propofed fyflem.03012. &c + I =^cb c + L = B B+L==A^.00043 of the number 50000. 67916 T—L = /= o. L— / =^=0. 09631. 00000 and fhews that the till + ^= B*. 01802. xvii 05650 and 2L = 0. A + /=A^ G + /=G^ F+^=E=». 84909 L From jor thefe logarithms of the tone.69897. XXI. we had v/hence we have T= 0.01209. Q^. comes out c you come down to C. and of the whole. as denoted in the firfl co- lumn of the For table. B + T=A A + L^G'^. in the ratios of the feveral numbers in the 3** column of the following table. the uppermofl in the table. 223 whole.06025. dielis. &c &c logarithms .04815. 358323 in the fcholium to prop. HARMONICS.Prop. all the logarithms below it will be found by the following additions : where the mulical notes in column i are fuppofed' alfo to reprefent the logarithms over againfl and minor and the them.

SECTION . notes will be right too. Scholium. Sed. are right j and thofe of the fecondary E. IX. but not divided as there into 50 equal parts. F. 49 defcribed in Se(5l. logarithms of the principal notes B. provided the tone of the mo- nochord be good and the divifions accurate. fhew the required parts of the monochord J as a very little refledion will fatisfy any one that underftands the common properties of logarithms. and attends to the intervals of an octave in Fig. G. which is only an approximation to the iyflem propofed* Q^E. laft Hiiygejjs.5524 HARMONICS. who has fhewn how column of numbers in his Harmonic And as all the meafures in the 3 fyftems may be taken and marked upon the founding board of the fame monochord. whole vibrations will give the founds of the oppolite notes in the fyflem of mean tones and that of to find the Cycle. the different effeds of thofe lyftems upon the ear. The correlponding numbers in column 3. may be eafily tried and compared togedier. Mr. D. and the moveable bridge does not ilrain it in one place more than in another. if the operations in the D addition be right. The numbers in the 4*^ and ^^ columns of the table (hew the parts of a monochord. A. which may be found by the tables of logarithms. viii.

Tloe divifion of a Mo?tocbord. 224. I c ci^ B B^ A* A A^ G Gh F« F F^ E E^ D=» D c« C .facing p.

.

Prop. which would grievoufly if offend the muficlans (f). ii. If the bafe be fuppofed to move (^). IV. X. with w^hlch a good mucan perfectly exprels any found which his car requires. PROPOSITION XXII. i. 225 SECTION Of certs well performed occajional temper a?nents ufed in con- upon perfe& in- flruments.XXII. &c. Confequently they are pleafed. inftance. By ficlan a perfed: inftrument I mean a voice. art.Prop. {e) SecL IV. bcfl fyftem of perfedl intervals the it other part or parts cannot conflantly perfed: move by without making ibme of the concords im- by a comma (f). art. 9. i. (/) Sect. . T^e feveral Farts of a concert well performed upon perfeB injiruments^ do not move exa&ly by the given interfern whatever^ but vals of any one fy only pretty nearly^ and fo as to make perfeB harmony as near as pojjible. vio- lin or violoncello. For by the too. HARMONICS. thofe intervals are occafionally tempered P {d) See Se<ft. and coroll.

And the argument is the fame if the bafe be fuppofed to move by any other fyflem of tempered intervals : and that it cannot conftantly move by perfec^L ones. which the bafe is fuppofed to move by. being nearly inftantaneous. And if fo. coroll.HARMONICS. ^h) Prop. whether by a perfed or an imperfed interval. For the pafling from one found to the next. though the feveral parts do not move by perfed: intervals. . do not move by the fame is Sea. What concords. Likewife if the bafe be fuppofed to move by the fyftem of mean tones and limmas (^). But the fucceeding confonance is long enough held out to give him pleafure or pain according as he makes it perfed or imperfed. D. the upper part or parts cannot m. When the harmony is made perfedl they are pleafed and fatisfied. as near as poffible. cannot much offend the mulician. Now the reaibn why the befl muficians acquire a habit of making per- fed harmony. has been faid of is perfe(5t and imperfed applicable to difcords too. II. 3. CorolL (g) Prop. they feem to me to be always per- fect. in. I fhall fhew in the next fcholium.226 .X. Bat whenever concords are held out by good muficians. the other part or parts cannot conftantly do fo too. which therefore intervals which fuppofed to move by. pcred by the upper part or parts. is plainly this. Q^.ove by the fyftem of mean tones. the bafe widiout making about two thirds of all the concords imperfed: by a quarter of a comma {h). a good ear being critical in both.

to prop. The propofition holds true though one of the inftruments be imperfed:. : CcroU. Coroil. though ignorant of the cauie of it. v/hich make imperfed. Appendix. I. HARMONICS. lo. difagreeable. art. Cceteris paribus the fame piece of mufic well performed upon perfedl inftruments. 6. XXII. than with the chords to them. in tl\e Schol. but the fum of the occalional tem-^ harmony will be lyftem which the bafe peraments will be the leaft poffible. coroll. are far from being 4. and prop. &c. paribus the 227 Cor oil. is more agreeable than it would be if it were as well performed upon imperfed ones. as an organ. coroll. if it moves by the fyftem of mean tones and limmas (/). And yet a few flow beats. Confequently thofe parts do not move by the tempered fyftem of the thorough bafe. 3. like the flow undulations of a clofe fliake now and then introduced. confonances with one another.Prop. For nothing gives greater offence to the hearer. III. than thofe rapid rattling beats of high and loud founds.4. 2. . if it moves by tlie fcale of equal harmony [k). . as when the thorough bafe is played upon an organ or harpfichord becaule the performers of the upper parts are more attentive to make perfed: harmony with the bafe notes. 51. and gene- P (/) \li) 2 rally Prop. Cc7-oll. Cceferis the lame whatever be the moves by . cert will be fmoother Therefore the harmony of a con^ and difiinder. XX. and but very little bigger.

4 ad 3. for taking the chords of the thorough bafe as near as can be to the bafe notes. and fo the voices and other inftruments will appear to greater advantage. rally more pleafing. 5. pag. Cor oil. and no more of them than are neceflary. C. and keep him from making worfe concords with the bafe and other parts than the organ it felf does. Htiyge?2s obferved long ago. G. alternis voce afcendens deiceudenfque j pofteriorem hunc ionum C. and by tempering intervals. that no voice or perfed: inftrument can always proceed by perfe6t pitch at without erring from the alTumed (/). Cojmoihcoros lib. fi qiiis canat deinceps fonos. 2 ad 3. Scholium. quod vocant. Inferiorem fore C priore. iirfl: the (/) Aio itaque. flower and fofter. 5 fici jam 4 ad 160 ad 162. f\ D.X.228 HARMONICS. dcfcendille vocem. Mr.oportet. hoc . Sed. cujus ratio 8 ad 9. unlefs to afliil an imperfed: linger. he naturally avoids it by his memory of the pitch. quse Aint ad 6. tonoq^ue excidifT. that no voice part ought ever to be played on tlie organ. quosMunotant Uteris C. componitur ratio eft 80 ad 81. omnino perfedb. and thefe few upon the fofter and fimpler flops of an organ. toto commate. Ut proinde. 3. qucs eft commatis. per intervalla confona. Quia nempe ex rationibus intervallorum iftoruni perfeclis. 77. i. Becaufe the beats will then be fewer. unde cani coepit. It appears alfo from the realbns above. fi novies idem cantus repetatur. jam propemodum tono majore. But as this would of^ fend the ear of the mulician.

1707. Itaque cogimur occulto quodam temperamcnto uti. Huyge?2ss remark. dt. it would have fcents folved his difficulty. This was not the thofe mufical ratios firfl time that the truth of in queilion. the final found. But if he had known Mr. . intervallaque ilia canere imperfecta ex quo multo miner oritur offenfio. would fall about a whole tone below it. he concluded that the mufical ratios. quemadmodum («) Methodc generalc pour former les Syfleme temperis de mufique. Mem. XXII. fed eodemque revertitur. . 262. Ann. facile cognofcitur. fo as to it again {m). and the chant were repeated but four or five times. 229 return to the intervals of the intermediate founds. HARMONICS. de I'Acad. Atque hujufmodi moderamine fere ubique toni ab initio fumpti meminit. had been called For Galileo obferved that the reafon commonly al- P3 [m) Hoc vero nequaquam patltur aurium fcnfus.8vo. ibid. whereby he meafured thofe fucceffive afcents and defcents.Prop. . were erroneous. pag. which in that chant fliould be the fame as the initial. But finding that the voices in his choir did not vary from the pitch affumed. who found.s Scicnc. by fubtrading all the afcents of the voice in a certain chant from all its defcents. that the latter exceeded the former by two commas fo that if the afcents and de- This is alfo : were conftantly made by perfed intervals. confirmed by what we are told of a monk {?i). hie fecimus. cantus indiget uti colligendis rationibus.

Dicono effi ^^c. che {\ri qui hanno fcritto dottamcnte della mufica. Taylor alledged for At iail motion of a been cultimufical chord (^)j vated by feveral able mathematicians (r). by Jones Vol. and Philof. 4. 1 11. Tom. Petropol. 2. 347* Mr.2'. art. and being the principal foundation of Flarmonics. indeed he hit upon a couple of experiments which gave him fatisfadion (/>). Sea. p. foffe concludente a ba((?) tlelle fianza. non mi parendo che la ragione. .o o HARMONICS. Maclaurin's Fluxions. a mufcal chord vibrates freely^ the force which urges any fmall arch it of towards the center of its curva^ tiircy StettI lungo tempo perpleffo intorno a quefte forme confonanzc. SECTION Of chord. it. or Abrigd. but a fcientific proof was ftill wanting till Dr. Comment on the Principia Vol. Difccrfi attenenti alia JHecanica. 391. 22. pag. appeared to him infufficient {o). 23. XL a mufical the vibratt7ig motion of PROPOSITION TVhe?i XXIII. {p) Ibidem. 337.XI. publiflicd his theory of the vibrating which has lince deferves to be further conlidered in the next fection. Commentarii Acad. Dialogo i^. (r) N^ prop. IV. towards the end. che communementefc n' adduce dagli autori. 929. ( q) Methodus incrementorum. Traiif.

E FG^ Plea^ P4 . are each equal fince the elallic forces at C and to the force of tenfion. would diflend it to the fame lengtli which it has when it vibrates freely by the force of its ela- by tlie leail force and elafiic . agreeably to the conilrudion of the equal triangles EDG.Prop. to be uniform. or rather to flexible and its tenfion or quantity of elaftic force to be meafured by a weight. D.Let^CB reprefent fuch a chord fixed at the points CE and A and B. HARMONICS. and draw FG perpendicular to produce FEj and G to DE. XXIII. I fuppofe the chord llender. j which produced if need be. fo as to D CED der the other two diredions. which if hung to one end of it. fticity. Then imagine the chord t6 keep its cur\'ature while a force applied at £ or i^ drav/s the tangents EC. and thefe the points of contad: as EC F D DF GE ED And keep them in aqziiiibric. 5o. and confequently will coincide with the line G EH. PL XXI. and joining towards H. take E equal to ED. and very be a mathematical line. the tenjion 231 ture^ is to of the chord in le?'igth the ultimate ratio of the of that arch whe?t radius of i?ifnitely dimi72ijhed^ to the its curvature. CD any arch of DE tangents at C and D in either of it. the direction of the unthird force at E will bifedt the angle C. Fig.

to the fides C and D. by the known theorem in Mechanics {s). DF. . a force conftantly equal and oppofite to the former of the which urges the vanifliing arch E G. For (0 See Theorem t. which are proportional GD of the ifofcelar trian- gle DFG. the lito FG. Then to C. which their feveral directions 3 E H. of the faid mit of the variable ratio forces. which ultimately coincides with CL . whofe fides are either parallel to. in the diredion Coroll. provided the latitude of the vibrations be veryfmall in proportion to the length of the chord. conceiving the point D to move up CD And and confcquently iWand G up to L. would keep the point E at reft. two. accelerate its the forces which fmalleft equal arches. Hence the three forces at H. will be that of the evanefcent arch DF to CL is the radius of that its cuiTature. or in part coincident with thofe diredions. tri- EC. fion.^ of Keill's Phyfics. are conftantly proportional to their cur- vatures very nearly. D. FGy to Sed-XI. CD When a mufical chord vibrates freely. ED is are perpendicular fimilar to becaufe that as angle any other.232 HARMONICS. and therefore proportional to the forces ading in them. EDI. and the curve jL Af to be the locus of all the centers of the curvatures at every point of the arch CD. and the latter was the force of tenQ^E. D. Now fuppofe CL and Z)iW to be the radii of the curvatures of the chord at the points C.

. Coroll. and C DEy any two circles CFG any two fe77iidiameters-. let in which pf^ocluced both ways-. (/) By the prefent Propofition. common center of EG. Fig. the fejnidiaiiieter moves round the ceiuer C and carries with it the li7te IFHK. and whofe bafe ACB is equal of the circle to the femicircumference EG. the forces vs^hich accelerate its fmalleil equal arches are very nearly in the inverfe ratio of the 7'adii of their curvatures (^). let FH be the fine. the lines III and to the other UK be CFG fever ally equal then while arch EG-. 51. which is the fame as the dired ratio of the cur- vatures themfelves. its 233 For the force of tenfion being then very nearly invariable. XXIII. HARMONICS. the Let C be D F.Prop.. DEFINITION OF THE HJRMONICJL CV RFE. parallel to it felf and coiiflaittly equal to tiioice the arch EG the extremities /. and of either of the included arches as DF. K will de' J fcribe a curve whofe vertex axis is D a7jd D C.

znd : : : ex aquo. we have CL CF iiFr: Ff. ture radius of curva- For drawing y/ KM: LE::LE quad. Then by the definition. will be parallel to For drawing let KN perpendicular CFG go fonvards a little into the and carry the line place Cfgy into tlie place khfiy cutting KN'm O and FL in r. be the ra- In the line the triangles El take Es = EL and joining Xj. LC L E :: P N P K :: KO Kk. At any point i^ the : CorolL 2. NPK are equiangular. Confequently the right angCLE. or jLE j and : KMky CEL : CEl and sLly are ultimately equiangular. and ex aquo CL CG or CE:: { Fr :Gg::OK: the radius KHFI HK = EG : : : Ok:: ) NP : led Triangles line NK. Sed. Fig. Now by the fimilar triangles CLF and Frf. OKk and NPK. to the bafe. and alfo fince hk :^= Eg J their difference Ok is= Gg. kMy perpendicular to the curve at ky will be pa- rallel to Ely by coroll. and Now KNgvFL LC :: fr rF ox KO. parallel to FL another line .234 CorolL I. and CFiCG: F/: G^. XXII. HARMONICS. i j confequently if the arch either of the coin- Kk be infinitely diminifhed. KN: LE ::fr:Kk'j But . KNxCE. 52. ciding perpendiculars dius of the cui-vature at KMj kM will K. and the perpendicular KPM is parallel to the EL. XL per- Drawing a line FL pendicular to the bafe dicular to the curve at ACL^ Ky KP perpenEL. PI. CFf and CGg.

Coroll. 52. Cj^of 53. Fig. i^> the ratio of the circles CDF be vaftly great. KN from the bafe AB. HARMONICS. CF be diminifhed. When and becauie the line CH CF diminifhed in the fame ratio with Coroll. and the will be changed into another curve AxS'B of the fame fpecies. the very fmall curvatures at any points D. curves are veiy fmall in comparifon to their bafe common AB. EG equal : to is p-iven in magnitude. ::{sL: Kk Hence if or fr. : : : NK CD CcT. For while any arch ratio. 3. Fig. the curvature at any point K will be extremely fmall.KM. Coroll. the curvature at K. K are very nearly in the ratio of their diflances DC. 6. CFJ/ retains its Jpecies. 53. two the axes CD. the curvatures at the tops of any .Prop. Coro/I. 5. 4. and every ordinate AB KN AKDB to the common that bafe will be diminifhed in the is.XXIII. be- caufe the lines equal. being reciprocally as its radius KM. dius KM :CE:: CE KN very nearly : its . :: s : 235 But CE L E : L LI : componendo^ KNxCE LE quad. and raCEG. For when CE and confequently is given. therefore : :) LE'. is diredtly as by coroll. LE and CE will be veiy nearly Upon the fame flippolition. let the other CD is or the triangle or or NK CD. fame HK or CN radius A^x Fig. While the greater circle remains let the lefler be diminiffied.

236 HARMONICS. ading In the diredlons DC. it will vibrate to and fro in curves very nearly of the fame ipecles with the given curve AKDB. be the radius of curvature at jc. For let the firfl: effort of the tenfion reduce that cur\T into fome other. it fliall lofe will be Ipecies. S" B. And by the motion here acquired it will be carried towards the oppolite fide of the bafe. KN D is J^. AKDB to have the elafllcity large. . whence jc A^ k jx. X /A X 3c A^. '. Confequently very nearly of the fame fpecies with AKDB. in the firft moment of time y and lince the ordinates C. D KN are in proportion as the curvatures at D and K by and thofe curvatures nearly. by coroll. DC : : -. fuppofing the curve and tenlion of a mufical chord. 3 we have KMxKN-== CE quad. DC it S'C KN DS" '. Ny. any two coincident ordinates NK. as Ay. xxiii. : by coroll. 7. AB all (u) Coroll. moment and fo on. provided none of the vibrations be too Coroll. And in the next fame changed into another of the till every point of the to the bafe chord be reduced at the fame inftant. Hence. till by the oppofitlon of the tenfion. For if xfjt. coroll. 'videndo. : KN : : KM = : that is. prop. and the velocities as the nafcent ipaces nando.XI. as the curvature at x to the curvature ati^. Sed. 5 the curve x Ay. and thefe forces as the velocities generated by them in that time. as the accelerating force at KM or AW very we have : D and K {u).S'B : N Kk alferKx and di. 4.j are in the ratio of the ordinates.

Therefore. fical The fmall vibrations of a given muchord are ifochronous. For if the chord at the limit of its vibratlort afllimes the form of the harmonical curve. B in Fig. equal in length to in ^B fer in nothing but their curvatures.Prop. fame was acquired. curve. and its feveral particles. and curves. prop. KM. L. all its HARMONICS. and the reliilance of the CorolL 8 . and the intercepted parts of the chord will be more or lefs incurvated towards than the correfponding parts of the curve. prop. will de- fcribe thofe unequal diflances in equal times. K. 54 . 7. being accelerated tlieir by forces conftantly proportional to diflances from the bafe ^B (x). according as they fall without or within them . by which it 237 in the motion by the fame degrees. like a pendulum moving in a cycloid. 6. neglecting the fmall difference in the directions KN. and will accordingly be accelerated by greater or fmaller forces than thofe of the correfponding parts of the curve (y). as v^. and thus the chord will continually vibrate in curves of the fame Ipecies as the firft. xxiii. XXIII. . fuppoling the chord and curve to difit fumes any other form. If the chord at the limit of its vibration al^ an harmonical one or more points. it will vibrate to and fro in curves of that fpecies bycoroll. XXIII and cor. curve. will cut it. the difference of the curvatures of the correfponding parts will be continually dimJniflied by the ditterence of their (x) Cor. air. Defin. (y) Cor.

is of the fame fpecies as the Figure of Sines. Fig. or when they arrive at the bafe tlie AB. the rathe the duplicate ratio of the diajiieter of a Fig. XL the parts coincide either before. till Sea. or given ratio of KN OR is incrcafed in the to CF CD CE. And the times of will be the feveral vibrations of the thus chord fame as thofe of the curve. grow bigger figured caufe any ordinate to the ablcifs or arch GRj being conftantly equal to FL.238 their forces. 52. . The Figure contained under the harmonical curve and its bafe. the will become a figure of fines. Be- D KN ^N thus every ordinate as to CO. KDB For fuppoling the circle F^to till it becomes equal to EGR. And on the contrary the fio^ure feveral ordinates in the faid of fines diminifhed in that confiiant ratio are the ordinates in the figure of CE to CDy AKDB of the harmonical curve. and there- fore equal to one another. Co7'olL 9. HARMONICS. will and then be equal to the fine of the arch . of a mujical chordJlretch' edby a weighty are ifochro7'ious to thofe of a pendulufn^ whofe length is to length of the chords in a co7npoimd tio of the weight of the chord to weight that firetches ity a7id of circle to its circumference. PROPSITION ^The vibrations 'XXIV.

equal at from P other equal diftances of the particle and from C. fince Z)^ vibrates like a firing were fufpended by a at the highefl points cycloid ^JPR = 2DC or DCF. the force radius of its curvature at the towards Cis feat urges any fmall particle PI. ^P. like that pendulum (2). OP Z)Cin a = ged ^ Rhy .. XXIV. v/culd impel it through equal parts of the equal lines times. D CM 239 P be the weight that be the chord ADB. . Def. HARMONICS. but equal to the faid force jj-r^ x P. If Dd = ^xP by And if it prop. Fig. DC in equal particle Again putting /> for the ADB or Dd '' weight of the chord its ACB. Prop. 8. Dd ot the F of all its vibrations the times of thofe ofcillations and of thefe vibrations would be equal Becaufe the forces being alio to one another. XXIII. force ading downwards of gravity. and were ur2. and ftretches the vertex D. equivalent to the force and the firing particle in Dd he again fufpended by the L another cycloid of the length 2 L fmce (z) Coroll. ^ the weight of Dd OP Z) = JB ^^ Hence if another firing this latter L be to the firing or DCy as weight •— x/> is to the at former jr^ x P. which urges limits Z). XXIII. 54. of the curve.

240 liiice HARMONICS. and the diameter is to the circumference of a circle as 113 to 355 very nearly. Dmiu . reciprocal is the number of fuch vibra- made in one fecond. For the length of a pendulum that vibrates forwards or backwards in one fecond. and we iliewed above that every particle of the curve vibrates in the fame time D. at the hlgheft points is Sed. CoU<'% Harmon. 3. 4 De Motu Pend. its ofcillations will be ilbchronous to thofe of the former pendulum {a). Becaufe we took their lengths in the ratio of the forces that aft upon them is.126 inches in the latitude of London. and its is ^ v^ AB ^ x . Q^. by the definition of the curve . Whence putting t for that of tions the {a) CoiolL Theor. by inches and decimals. of the chord . is 39.XL particle of this cycloid the urged downwards by the whole force -— x/> of its own gravity. Mciifiirarum. with the middlemoil. CoroU. in Mr. {b) Coroli. formeafured wards or backwards. at the higheft points : AB. that L DC::pxDM:F diameter to the circumference. For CEq is to ABq in the duplicate ratio of the 9c : of the cycloids. and the times of the vibrations of pendulums are in the fubduplicate ratio of their lengths. which was to be proved.. givQh: AB ::p ^DMx DC or p x CEq {b) P X ABq. I The time of one femivibration. which two ratios compounded with DC toAB.

For the logarithm of 2.Prop. 6. Suppoling the laft ?f~ number lo^. i. If the lengths and tenfions of two chords be equal. by coroll. 4. HARMONICS. 5. 126 =: 58676. by coroll. Q_ . by coroll. 126.1 number of femivibrations made CoroU. 5 when-e t is as AB x_d ^ p CoroU. ^^ x 39. i. . the times of their fingle vi- brations are in the fubduplicate ratio of their lengths. 3. we have : 1" : : ^L= t" 3SS y p \/ ^11^ P^ AB P AB P -b ^ 1 39. of CoroU. lengths and fquares of their diamet that is. 126 z 3 and / I = ^^^ v^ 113 -^55 /P /> ^^!j^ yf5 39-126 ^ the . the times of their iingle vibrations are in tlie fubduplicate ratio of their weights. If their lengths and weights be equal. /" : 241 pendulum L. tlie times of their iingle vibrations are re- ciprocally in the fubduplicate ratio of their tenfions. which gives 72 veiy expedi- tioufly. the XXIV. 52698. 52698. i./. in one fecond.ts. we 2. The weights of cylindrical chords ratio are in a compound s of their fpeciic gravities. -— 4- 58676. CoroU. CoroU. p is as X AB x d^ i. If their tenfions be in the ratio their weights. 2. by coroll. ^ and X == 111 355 . CoroU. have the loo^arithm of = — p to be . ' X 39.

towards the end. comparing firetched it with the found of a given chord by a given weight.niilar chords be as their fpecific gravities. the times fingle vibrations are in the ratio of their lengths. 04. Hence we may find the number of vibrations made in a given time by any mufical found. of their Coroll. xviii. If the tenfions of fi. Dialogo i^ attenente alia Mccanica. 7. (d) Prop. HARMONICS. Sea. femivibrations made in one fecond by the wire I ^=31 = = = [c) See GalhWs experiments on chords. Hence by coroll. Scholium. by I.242 Coroll. If the tenfions and lengths of homogeneal chords be equal. we have n the number of 1 3 1. For example in the experiment abovementioned [d) y^ 5 = 35. when fiiretched by the weight P 7 pounds averdupois 49000 grains troy. the times of their fingle vibrations are in the ratio of their diameters.XI. .55 : found the length of the vibrating chord inches and its weight grains troy And the found of it. 9. ters Hence. if the tenfions and diameof homogeneal chords be equal. 8. the times vibrations are in the duplicate ratio of their fingle of their lengths or of their diameters (<:). Coroll. was two octaves below the found of the pipe d there mentioned. 2.

Before this experiment was made the orifice of the pipe was cut perfedly circular. 4^ = 524.6 inches. being accurately made. Philof. and its mention becaufe the experiment. When -the thermometer is at Temperate.Prop. and then the length of the cylindrical part 21. which I to the length of the pipe. XXIV. Princip. is of ufe upon other occalions. 11. which its double the number 262 of whole vibrations. 4 is the number of mivibrations made hy-AB. 2. the latitude of a pulfe of the found of that pipe is was exadly diameter 1. or by the pipe ^. by prop. and HARMONICS.16. by coroU. Lib. 0^2 AD' . almoft as 2 . 243 fe- AB. L.9.to i. 7.

xiii and its third corollary^ with an illufiration of thefirft and a fcholium or two confirming the theory of the harmony of imperficB confonances^ and fiewing the abfolute times and numbers of their vibrations^ ^ Jldort cylces and difiocations of their pidfes. x. with a fcholium confirming the theojy of the beats of impcrfeB con- finances. Another demorjiration of prop. [convifible and and ofprop. ADVERTISE MENT. Another demonfiration cffihoUiim ^. SchoL . vii. 4 to prop. con- tained in the periods between their beats. Afcholiiim to prop. THOUGH the theory of imperfeB confonances has been demonfirated pretty clearly^ fixth SeBio?!^ yet as it in I thinks in the I had confidered fome parts of little further difwent lights and fearched a in- to fome others for my oivn diverfon^ I thought it not a?nifs to print my papers i?2 the form of the following Additions that if the reader fhoidd defre any further infor7nation^ he may have recourfe to them whenever he pleafes.!244 APPENDIX. cerning the analogy between audible imdulatiofts) xi. xx^ containing tables and obfer- vations on the numbers of beats of the concords in the principal Jyfiems. An illufiration of prop. Schol. 'j THE CONTENTS. viii.prop.

perfect confonance.T ¥ 7 H EN different multiples as 3 AB and 2ab of the vibrations VV ah of imperfed: AB. 1'he different mul- T^AB and 2. unifons. For thofe multiple vibrations (^AB and A.AB and 2 ^ah. XXV.AB. the multiand 2 are in the ratio of the Iingle vibraor ^ah and 2ab of the and therefore fliould be irfmaller numbers. But if different multiples of the vibrations AB^ ah^ as (iAB and \ab^ whofe multipliers 6 and 4 are reducible by a common divifor. are the fingle vibrations of other imperfed unifons. 63. Fig. are the iingle. in v/hich the equimultiples 2AB and 2ab.. 245 SchoL 5 to prop. — — and between every of the lmperfed:ions of this confonance will not be equal to tliat of tlie imperfed: unifons AB. (as they may by intermitting 6 i of ah^ fo as I pulfes of y^^ and 4 PI. vibrations AD^ tions pliers 3 ac of an imperfe(^l confonance. 64. fie'wing the methods of altering the pitch of an organ pipe in order to tune it. xx.ab are the fame as 3 x 7. the greateft common divifor of the multipli^ ers 6 and 4. to Prop. reiulting from Q_3 to leave iingle pulfes at firfl intermiffion.) the period -- AC . reducible to tiples of the vibrations of imperfedl unifons are therefore fuppofed in the propoiition to be the leall in the fame ratio. 64. or and ac in hg. Scholium Fig. be the fin2. or ^AC ^nd 2ac.APPENDIX. viii* 63 .le vibrations of an imperfed: confonance. ah^ but multiple of it by 2.

part of another 3 and AX. the greateft common divifor of the multipliers 6 and 4. there remains iILm. PI. after taking from each end of the period away JD^. after taking away 2 fliort cycles of imperfed v'^' from each end of 3 fhort cycles there remains the cycle AZ of the imperfed. 63 . after taking THUS part of away 9 fhort cycles from each end of the cycle ^{7of imperfed: unifons. and the period of their imperfedions is equal to that of 3 AC and 2ac^ or and ae by this viij'^ propofition. there remains kKLiUy two m. Scholimn. in which cafe the beats will be made the middle of every period. 34.ore. xi. after taking away 4 fliort cycles of imperfed o6taves from each end of the period A^iV. unifons. 4 to this AC propofition. as fame multiple of the period of is of AB. in Fig. 27. 25. part of 2 morej and laflly in Fig. in Fig. by reaof another fliort cycle. xii. .246 APPENDIX. 23. there re: mains 7iN^'. and in Fig. is com- A Z it AB the paratively very near when is number of fliort very nearly in cycles in the period veiy large as ufual. x. or ac G^ ab by the coroU. that is by 2. PI. AB from an intermiflion of every fecond pulie o£ and ab in fig. part of another which though not fituated exadly in the middle oi AZ. g fon of the part containing equimultiples oi and ab. and is the and ab. AG AB An illujiratmt of Prop.

APPENDIX.
SchoUu?n,
It
is

:S47

very unreafonable to fuppofe with

Mr.

Sauveiir that the beats are

made by

the united

force of the coincident pulfes of imperfed: uni-

fons (e).

For while the

imperfecfl uniibns are

made

to

approach gradually to perfedion, experience fhews diat they always beat flower and flower (f) and by theory (^) the periods of their pulfes grow longer and longer. Therefore in confequence of that gentleman's hypothefis, the unifons fhould alfo beat at the ends of the periods where the pulfes do not coincide Becaufe it is very improbable that the cycle of unifons, fuppofing it llmple at firft, while it lengthens gradually, will not fometimes be changed into pe:

riods as well as into other limple cycles.

Nor can

it

be allowed that the unifons will
as the

beat only at the ends of their complex cycles.

For according

numeral terms expreffing
to

the ratios of the fingle vibrations of the feveral
fucceffive unifons,

happen

reducible or to be irrational,
pulfes will fometimes

be reducible or not the cycles of the

be fhortened, fomedmes

lengthened again, fometimes invariable and fometimes impollible, as iliall be explained by and

by ; which
cafe.

accidents difagree with die

condant

gradual retardation of the beats in the prefent

CL.4
Prop. XI. fcho]. 3. (/) See Phasnomena of beats placed before pr^p. x. (^} Cor. 5. lemma to prop. ix.
{e")

If

;

248
If
it

APPENDIX.
be
faid that the pulfes

next to the perioas to

dical points fall fo clofe to
affed: the ear in the

one another,

quite coincident

;

it

fame manner as if they were rnay be fo, and moft probait

bly

is fo.

And

then

will follow that the bar-'

mony

of the fhort cycles terminated
be

pulfes, will there

much

by fiich clofe the fame as that of

it will certainly be better about the periodical points and coincident pulfes than any where elfe in the periods. But the found of a beat has no harmony in it , on the contrary it rather refembles the common found of a beat And or ftroke upon any grofs, irregular body this found refults from pulfes of air which rebounding from different parts of the body, difpo-

perfect unifons

;

at leaft

:

fed to vibrate in different times, will ftrike the ear

one

after

another at irregular intervals, like the

pulfes in the middle

between the periodical points Therefore thefe are the only pulfes in each period, which can excite the fenlation of the beats of impeffed: unifons. And the like argument is applicable to any other imperfed confonance by prop. viii.
of imperfed: unifons.
PI. XX IV. Fig. 55.

As

to thofe uncertain lengths

abovementioned of the fimple and complex cycles of the pulfes of imperfed unifons, while their
interval
let
is

continually diminished or increafedj

one of the founds be fixt and the time of its Imgle vibration be reprefented by any given line and thofe of the variable found by the fucceffive lines ^, 5, C, &c, all v/hich lines may conftitute any increaiing or decreafing progreffion and

V

APPENDIX.
and fuppoling n
ber, to rcprefent
:

249

any large given
'.n\b,

num:

let^
&c.

:

V'.

n

:

a,

B: F:

C F:i

n

:

c,

nF=

of the pulfes of F" and yf, a A, nF=bB, rand B, Fund C, &c, be 72 cC, 8cc, provided every one of the numbers a, d, Cj &c, be integers and primes w^ith refped: to the alTumed number 72. In which cafe the feveral cycles are equal to one another and
will the cycles

Then

F=

to

nF.

But if the terms of all or any of thofe ratios have a common divifor, the correlponding cycles will be fliortened in proportion as the greateft common divifors are larger ; and therefore their
lengths cannot increafe or decreafe fucceffively
in regular order while the fucceffive intervals

of

the unifons continually decreafe or increafe, uniefs

the greateft
rarely.

common

divifors decreafe or inj

creafe in regular order too

which can happen

but very

And when
vibrations

the terms of the ratios of any of the

happen to be incommenfurable, a fecond coincidence of their pulfes will be impoffible becaufe no muldple of one vibration can be equal to any multiple of the other.
:

But

in all cafes whatever, the periods

pulfes of

F and

A
JLK.,

F and

B,
5^c

F and
(Z)),

C,

of the &c,

which

are

^,

^,

will decreafe

continually in the fame proportions with the fractions
Def. 1:1. fed. vi.

(/;)

250
tions
n

APPENDIX.

,

a' n

— —

-5

b

n

—o

whofe magnitudes can ne°
divifors

ver be altered

by any common

of their

terms, whether integers fractions or fards.

Another demonjlration of fcholimn
Prop,
xiy

5.

and of Prep,

vii.

upon two rows of parallel objeds, may be alfo found by the following conflrudlion. PI. XXIV. Fig. 56. Let a plane palling through a diftant eye at z, cut the axes of the parallel objed;s at right angles in the points a, b, c, &c, a, /8, y, &c, which are fuppofed equidiftant in both the parallel lines abc, a^y- From any objed: in one of thcfc lines to any fucceffive objects in the other, draw the lines a^, a/^, af, &c, and the lines z-vV, zxX^ ^jT^ &c, drawn parallel to them, will intercept the equal breadths of the
apparent undulations.

T

HE

breadth of the apparent Undulations

of the lights and fhades feen at a diftance

Becaufe while the eye

is

gradually dire(3:ed

from the middle of any of the breadths VX^ XT^ &c, towards either of its extremities, the objedts
will appear clofer together in couples, in proportion to their fmaller diftances

from the next ex-

tremity,

which was fliewn
lines ^cT,

in this fcholium to be
^jj, &c, being parallel by confliudion; and &c, being parallel to

the caufe of the undulations.

For the
to ^ct,

es^f^y

are parallel to
i,

Vv

the lines /$, k

/x, ///A,

APPENDIX.
hoL,

251

Xx j and fo on. Let lines z through the objeds cT, g, ^, &c, drawn from of one row, cut the line of die other in JD, E,
are parallel to

F,

Sec.

Then
to

becaufe the rows are parallel, the
£^2;,

ratio

of D^T

£g

to ez,

F^

to

^z, &c,

is

the fame as

Fv

to

vzj or

Xx

to

.x-z,

&c

(/).

Whence
the rows,

alfo,

becaufe of the parallels between

we have
:

Dd:dF::D<S'

S^z
e

-]

Ee

Hi

z Ff-./F-.-.FZ-.^z Qg :g F ::G n iiz
'.e
:

F ::Ee

:

X::HB:Bz z Ik :kX III :x,z KI :l X::Ky: Lm mX Lk Xz
:t
I
: I
:

>:

:Fv

ivz-,

: :

:

&c.

&c.
thofe ratios are equal, and, alter-

That
Ggj

is,

all

nately, the leffer apparent intervals

Dd^Ee^

Ffy

are proportional to their diftance dF, eF,

fF, gFj from the next extremity
F'X', and alfo Hi, Ik, KI,

F of the breadth
propordonal to from the next

Lm,

zX, kX, IX,
extremity
breadths
be,

X of the fame breadth FX,
and the
triangles
boiCy 6cc,

mX,

their diftances

And

the

FX, XT, &c,

are equal, becaufe ab,

&c

are fo,

FzX ^jx^Laccb,
by conflrudiion.

XzY2sA
Qj:.D.

are iimilar

Coroll.i.

The projeflions DE, EF, &c, of the
d^g,

equal intervals
(/)

g^,

&c, are

to thefe intervals in

2 VI. Euclid.

252

APPENDIX.
Ez to €Z,
to

in the conilant ratio of jD^j to S'z, or

or

Fz to vz,

and confequently are equal

another. Therefore fuppoling the lines
S'e

DE

one and

ov de to reprefent the times of the iingle vi-

brations of imperfed; unifons, the periods of the

neareft approaches of their pulfes Z),

&c, are

VX, XT, &c

;

And

in

£, &c. d, e, going from their
are

extremities F,
fer intervals

X to the middle,
jufl

the alternate lef-

between the

fucceffive pulfes,

proportional to their diftances from the next extremity,
as

we fhewed

now

:

which

is

ano-

ther proof of prop. vii.

Coroil.
lel to

2.

If the eye be

moved

in a line paral-

the rows, the breadths of the apparent undulations will be conftantly the fame, and if it

be moved uniformly in any other right line, their breadths will vary uniformly, and be conftantly proportional to the diftance of the eye from the rows. Becaufe the triangles FzX, FzT, &c, are conftantly ftmilar to accl^, aac, &c. And this conclulion feems to agree with what I have tranfiently obferved of thefe undulations. But it is eafy to colled: from the conftrudion of the figure, and the different ratios o£ to zv exprelled by numbers, that the intervals between the apparent conjundions of the objeds will increafe and decreafe very irregularly j and that no conjundions can happen except when the eye arrives at certain points of its courfe, and none at all, mathematically ipeaking, when its diftances from the two rows, meafured upon any right line, happen to be incommenfurable.

zF

Which

APPENDIX.
Which

253

conclufions being contrary to the continual appearance of the undulations to the eye in all places, and to the regular increafe or decreafe of their breadth, fhew, that their breadth
is

not equal to the interval between the apparent

conjunctions, no

more than the

interval

between

the beats of imperfecft unifons
terval

is

equal to the in-

between

their coincident pulfes.

LEMMA.
Ifi

any period betiveen the
cycles

fiiccejjive beats

of an
of the

imperfeSi confonance, any given nu7nber ofJJjort

next
is

to onefide

of the leaf

difiocation

pulfes^

more harmonious^ and the fame number

of them next to the other fide is lefs har7noniom than the fame number of them next to either fide

of the coincident pulfes : and thefe degrees of harmony diff.r more in thofe periods where the two leafi difiocations differ lefs, andmoft of all in the periods where thefe difiocatio?js are equal

when

pojjible.

PI. XXV. Fig. 59. Let and ab reprefent the times of the lingle vibrations of imperfedl

AB

unilbnSj

A and a their coincident
Cj dy
',

X), 8cc, b,
fide

&c,

their fucceffive pulfes

of A, a

Rr

their leaft

B, C, on each difiocation in any
pulfes,

given period,

and confequently the neareft to the periodical point 2;, which is here placed under A, for the convenience of feeing at one
viewj

coroll. as appears alio by their fmaller diflances from tions But on the other fide of Rr. Rr cycles view. as being fmaller than i>B. ^B thofe parts of l^B. z. yet tz [m). &c. . the numbers of them being the fame and that the degrees of their harmony differ more in die periods where the two leaft diflocations i?r.254 and ^a. bB — {JB — Ab — RS—rs—)Rr+sS{l). will whole the and give fome offence whole may be perceived even when one or both its parts are imperceptible. 2. {m) Prop. &c. sS differ lefs. For more harmonious than though the diflocations Rr+sS^rQ=l?B. VII. &e. VJI. vji. coroU. ST. : when For poflible {k). I. APPENDIX. the fhort RS. Hence the fucceflive diflocations sS. are more harmonious. Now the fhort cycle RS which includes z. BC. and &c. is next to ^. &c. And cC—{JC-^Jcz=iRr—rt=:)Rr-^tT. the difloca^j Pp. by the fame Rr. &c. &c. &c. And for the fame reafons the fhort cycle RS will be ftill more harmonious than j4B in other give lefs offence to the ear than the : periods (i) See prop. by i?r. the fhort cycles next to both fides of Firji I fay. &c. for the like reafons. lefs harmonious than ^B. (/) Sec prop. fT. and moft of all where Rr =sSy which include R^^^P. cC. are refpedively greater than bBj cC:. are refpedively fmaller than ^B.

Secondly any imperfe(5t unifons will be changed into imperfect o6taves whofe fingle vibrations are AC^nd. or ^. and the harmonious where they are equal when moft their fum being every where the fame. periods where poffible (n) : 255 Rr.c. to be intermitted. Therefore the taken together.ndAB. &. and harmonious than AB. Pp are larger. fmaller. The next fhort cycle ^ST" is alfo more harmonious than5C. which would deprefs one of the unifons an odave lower. &c. till sS he equal to Rr. cycles («) Prop. Rr being larger than Bb and o.APPENDIX. are more taken together . flill more harmonious in otlier periods where sSy tT arc. the diflocations ^q. 2. till Pr be equal to sS. &c. c. coroll. b.sS are left unequal. And the fame is evident in any larger equal numbers of fhort cycles throughout the period between the fuccefUve beats. . Therefore R totogether are lefs harmonious than AB^ gether J and ftill lefs harmonious in other periods where Rr. BC ^P BC ^ ^P J Now if that intermilTion fhould take s. the fhort cycle R ^is lefs harmonious than AB. ^. by conceiving every fecond pulfe of the feries Aj P. &c. ^g being refpecthan BC. But on the other fide of Rr and Aa. tively larger than Cc. Ab^ ox Ac 2. away the the fliort alternate pulfes 5. the diflocations sS^ ^'T being refpedtively fmaller than b fliort cycles RS^ 5 T. By c C. C. U. is alfo lefs harmonious The next fhort cycle the diflocations P/>. Bb. or «. VII.

Therefore the Ihort cycles RTy TlV. P A^. and the iliort cycles . t'Ts. and than CEy the dillocations Rr. riods t t%wJV RP PN : Likewife take if that alternate intermiffion ll:iould r. next to one fide of R T. and the latter lefs harmonious than ACj &c. refped^ively and is Hill lefs harmonious in other periods where Rry Ppy Nn are larger. for the fame reafon as in unifons. bB are one of their conftituent pulfes in each being taken away.256 will be APPENDIX. CE. The next fhort cycle 'TW^h alio more har- tTy being refpedively fmaller than cCy eEy as in unifons . But on the other fide of Rr and ^a. &c. the fhort cycle IS lefs harmonious than y^C. JVy &c. &c. T. and Ppy Nn bigger than Ccy E e. the numbers of them being equal. &c are more.re lefs unequal. 6cc. And i^ 'T is ftill more harmonious than y^C in other periods where Rr and tT are lefs unequal. : TJV. that is where T'and Rr are lefs unequal. or w. Rr. /. &c are lefs harmonious than ^C. and becaufe the intermediate dillocations sSy vaniilied. away the pulfes P. and i^P. &c CEy the I {^. then the lealt dillocation is s S. R P. z are PN.y the former as including more. and on the other. and is llill more harmonious in other pediflocations monious than CEy the wW where are fmaller. Pp being relpectively bigger than o and Cc . that is where Rr. For we had fliort cycle Rr t'T= c Cy confequently ^ T' is more harmonious than -\- u4 C. cycles of the ocftaves.

— Cy Dy &c leaving fingle ones between. U. will be firfl the leaft of in this period. cycles Likewife in the period where the pulfes ^. and thus the interval of the new founds is an imperfed: v^''. ^. &c. If.APPENDIX. and SU. the intermediate ones will be abfent. any imperfedt unifons will be changed v''^^ ^ into imperfed: whofe i vibrations are j^c is and a. Th'rMy. and then i?r being the lelTer of the two diilocations in is the fhort cycle all RT which And of Rr^ includes z. Cycles 257 ^O. Now in the period t. w. Ty Xy Scc Q-VC Icft (iu the ^^^ parallel). on more harmonious than AG. as including z. and then ^q is the leafl diflocation in this period. Uy Xy &c. which deprefles the acuter unifon an VI 11*'' lower. taken away. as reprefented in the uppermoft parallel in the figure. s. 4'^ parallel) the intermediate ones will be in the leave the pulfes r. UX. this fide the fhort cycles RTy &c. xii'*^ which dcpreffes the graver unifon a or viii + v^^ lower . &c. and ^ greater difference than before will be found in the harmony of the fhort cycles on e^ch fide of . where thofe intermiffions i?. for the very fame reafons as before. AD. will be S more. will be lefs harmonious AGy &c For the fame reafons ^s above. T. &c. and 3 i pulfes of the feries Ay B. (as ^. by Cy dy (or AC and Ad) intermitting 2 — that zalf and ^AB^ pulies of the feries &c. Sec lefs harmonious than ACy CEy &c. &c (in the parallel) j and on the other fide. the fhort than : RLy &c.

or to thofe of any other Hence any two imperfe. La/ify in the period where />. fliort cycles on each fide of Pp A for the like reafon. Coroll. r. and then Pp is the leaft dillocation in this period. QJ^. nance. the difference lefS the former cafe. and a difference ftill greater will be found in the har- mony and of the a. which of any confbof any odd number of alfo thofe of the unifons and when either of the coincident pulfes at the ends of the complex or fimple cycles of the unifons. P. are equal when z poffible that when dical point bifedis a fliort cycle confifts . the intermediate ones are intermitted.. thefe periods made equally harmonious having a mean degree of harmony other periods in each con- among thofe of all the fonance. The like proof is plainly applicable to number of the vibrations confonance. Xx—^q being !^q and y4a 25^ than Ty — Rr in . are left (in the loweft parallel). Ad. w. bifeds a fhort cycle of any ccnfonance confifting of any even thofe of the unifons as in Fig. . when the periods (betv/een ceffive beats) which are are bifeded by their coinj^ cident pulfes. tvill AC. And is. All thofe degrees of tical harmony occur in prac- mufic. S.fl confonancea be as equally harmonious as they poffibly their fuc- can be. D. &c. f. &c.APPENDIX. the greatefl a perio- diiference will be found where thefe diflocations . IV. 35. Plate XII. and whether feniibly different or not.

Another demo7iJiration of Prop. Now the fhorter length of the c/». will be to that of the fent the times . AB A latter. 259 in theory muft be ufed as if they were equal. the unifons OP. xiii. 4. xiii» and PL XXV. xi. 8. I pulfes of the by intermitting C. and 2 of that of the fhort cycles of the imperfect od:aves is R {0) (/>} ac or 2aby and Prop. laft paragr. fchol. to 2. by fliort cycles prop. lem.APPENDIX. I. is op = ab. Z). ultimately as bB to as pP i Taking bB to pP (p). I avoided in the in the dcmonftration of prop. and we muft take the medium among them. . Sec. Let op and OF repre- of the fingle vibrations of imperab and thofe of other imperfed: unifons j and O. ab and ABy and the latter is of the fame length as the period of the leaft imperfedions of od:aves. \o prop. fchol. and prpp. not (0). Fig. VIII. fect unifons its third corollary. 5. whofe fingle vibra- tions 2 — are ab and AC or feries lAB^ Ay B-. this is now the ratio of the lengths of the periods of the unifons op and OP. jx. XI. i. and \i ab of the former unifons. As the proof of this conclufion has been pretit ty long. Book by a paragraph which may now be proved fomewhat differently. 60. a and their coincident ^= op^ the period of the pulfes puh'es . Cor. 61. art.

more or lefs according as they are greater or fmaller. &c. of the unifons (q) . 62. And fince Pp = i^bB =) ciD. and caufes conflantly : harmony of equal muft have equal effed:s And becaufe the thefe half periods is the medium among the degrees of to by the coroU.:^6o APPENDIX. gG. Bj 60. Which being the fame as that of the periods of the unifons and odaves. this now the — AD Q tween every intermifhon (g). is to 3. q^ &c. I harmony of the lemma. the difference of the the difiirft The odtaves longer length of the fhort cycle of the is ^-f is lengths cycle. ab and AB. and the latter period is equal to that of imperfe(5l xii*^% whofe vibrations will be ab and oz "^AB by intermitting 3 i pulfes of the feries -D. VIII. Again. which 6cc. ratio of their lengths is i to 2. are therefore equally harmonious : fpoil the Becaufe thofe diflocations are the caufes that harmony. q^ &c. taking bB to pP as ratio of the periods of the imperfed: unifons op and OP^. Fig. are equal refpedlively throughout their half periods. fo as to leave fingle pulfes beA. &c. it appears that the feveral fubfe- quent diflocations Prop. ends of the fubfequent fhort cycles of the oftaves and unifons. : 2AB — 2^^ = 2^i5 = <:C end of the equal to pP. becaufe j Cor 2ABi and location of the pulfes at the fhort and :: i : is we took b B pP 2 therefore the feveral diflocations at the eE. 2. fliews that their fhort cycles and the are equally numerous in them. all the reft.

the AB : AB : lengths is 2 X 3 AB— 2 x 3 ^^=2 R 3 x 3 x AB—Ab == 2 X 2bB=gG. Z). g. C. OP and the v*^% whofe fliort cycles op and ag are therefore equally numerous in them. by — — prop. 63. £. fbns 261 and xii^' are equally numerous and equal refpedively throughout the half periods on each lide oi oO and a A-. Fig. for the reafons above mentioned. as 60. Now caufe the fhorter length of the fhort cycle of the unifons op. becaufe . and equal to />P.ab and 'X. and 3 f. which render the confonances as equally harmonious as they poffibly can be. OP is op = ab. the diflocation of the pulfes at is the end of that fhort cycle. and that of the is fhort cycle of the imperfed: v'^' 2x3^^ (be- and the ratio of thefe fame as that of the periods of the imperfed unifons op. whole fingle vibrations 2. and between every intermiflion. b^ r. VIII. termitting 2 I pulfes of the feries A. &c. 3. d^ e. Fy G. And the latter period is of the fame length as that of imperfed: v'^^.AB refult from inI pulfes of the feries ^.: APPENDIX. The longer length of the imperfed Hiort cycle (becaufe zAB 3 of the v^*^^ is 2 X 3 2:3) and the difference of the longer and fhorter : 2a b is 3^^:: 2 : 3) lengths i to 2 x 3 . taking bB to this is now the ratio of the lengths pP of the periods of the dillocations of the imperfed: unifons op and OP^ ab and AB^ for the reafon above. &c. I to 2x3. Laftly. fo as to leave fingle pulfes at the beginning. B.

q^. throughout the half periods on each fide of the coincident pulfes aA. g G. at the ends of their firft and fubfequent fhort cycles. cycles are equally when their fhort numerous in the periods of their imperfedions. QJi. OP.262 becaufe APPENDIX.oO. &c. Now thofe imperfed. CoroIL [r) Prop. cC. but alfo v/ith one another j the diflocations/>P. Inftead equally numerous in their periods (r). The equal harmony of flat confonances is demonftrable in the fiime manner. if we fubftitute thofe of any other perfect confonance. D. . the method of demonftration will be evidently the fame as in the laft example. that all forts it appears of imperfect confonances are as equally harmonious as poflible. or m and n indeterminately for them. we took l?B :pP all :: i : 2x 2- Therefore at the feveral diilocations ?2N. are refpedively equal in magnitude and number too. which equalities make as thefe confonances as equally har- monious above. XII. they poiTibly can be. Qj^iy equally harmonious with the fame imperfed: unifons op. when their fhort cycles are 4. being equal and equally numerous in their periods. confonances of viii*^% ^jjths^ yths^ ^^ ^j-g j^Q|. And fince any one of them is equally harmonious to another of the fame name at any other pitch. ^Z). for the reaibns of the terms 2 and 3 of the ratio of the vibrations of perfed: v'^'. &c the ends of the fubfequent fhort cycles of the v^^* and unifons.

coroll. . This is the third corollary to prop. equally harmonious. Now and in all the exam. 263 are Hence when imperfcd: conlbnances their temperaments have ratio of the produdts of very nearly the invcrfe the terms expreffing the ratios of the Ungle vibrations of the perfedl confonances. — — to 1x2 2x3 And when either of them is equally harmo^- nious to another of the rent pitch. J i: Therefore when theie confonances are equally harmonious. The interval of the founds of imperfe(5l unitfons is the temperament of the interval of any confonance \^'hofe iingle vibrations are different multiples of the vibrations of thofc unifons (i). I. 4 the Cor. [t] i. their fame name at a diffetemperaments are eqml {u)y and the terms of the ratio of the vibrations of R (i) Prop. to prop. IX. («} i^rop. Confequently the feveral in- tervals of thefe imperfed: unifons. lem. xiii and may be demonflrated in this other manner. cor.ples of tempered con»- ibnances vve made the vibration ab conftant AB variable. VIII. or the loga- rithms of the ratios qI ab to AB were very nearly proportional to the differences bB {f)^ which in the viii*^' and v^'^' v/ere made equal to -^ 1x2 ' pP and — 2x3 i pP refpedively. is the ratio of their temperaments ^ very nearly. Coroll.APPENDIX. XII.

264. XXIV. Confequently the dired of the tempera- produds of thofe termSj are very nearly the lame in all equally harmonious confonances. III. vii and VIII. APPENDIX. by prop. Fig. let its By leffening temperament. Fig. Z). Make the perpendicular P. where ered:ing the perpen(-r) Prop. half period dicular be lengthened to a^.^= -ab^ diculars at and draw ^ ^cutting the perpenThen I. . XII. xiii. are thefe perpendiculars equal to the dillocations of the pulfes between the Hicceffive fhort cycles of the imperfed: confonance. XIII. &c be the longer or the fhorter lengths of the imperfedl fhort cycles of any given confonancej whofe half period is AP-. And if it. II. i . name are the ratio the perfed confonances of that fame. Prop. ^y. III. 58. Make the like conftrudion denoted any other imperfed: confonance of the fame or a different name. Let the intervals of the equidiftant points ^. ments and the inverfe ratio of the j^n illujlration of corolL PI.be equally harmonious to the former. in Z). &c. I. and a its coincident pulfes i ab the lefTer of the vibrations of the imperfed: unifons w^hofe half A period is alfo AP. II. its half period clit will contain the fame number of letters for fliort by the greek cycles as its AP does (x) j fuppofe 6 in each. Z). &c.

&c will be fmalthan iJ".Then the feveler new diilocations i ^. except at the ends (.APPENDIX. beginning from the coincident pulfes. in the order of their fucceffion. 3cr&c refpedively. Since only the correiponding fhort cy- cles of imperfedl confonances can admit of a juft comparifon. ral 265 dlcular/'^='7r)c join ctq cutting all the intermediate perpendiculars in ^. contained in a part of the new half period a^. 6 £'. or from their leaft diilocations next to the periodical points. ^'^ Scholium I. 8. are not only more harmo- nious than the fhort cycles a6j^. Therefore the fhort cycles a. art. one by one. (as explained in the demonftration of the lemma. 62. the comparifon will be imperfedij which is another argument a priori for the truth of the XI I and xiii^'^propofitions. In any pure confonance i^y) the fliort cycle contains but one vibration of the bafe.&c. contained in the old half period a7r>c. . 2 ^j 3 ^. III.f. 61. and the equal times pulfes pulfes of the treble are never fubdivided between the by any of the iliort of the bafe. after that of the old half period is quite extinguiffied by the beat at the end of it. 2j^.') Se6l. or than AN\D^ but thofe in the remaining part e6j%e continue the harmony in die new half period a/.) if the periods of two confonances contain unequal numbers of their fhort cycles. as in Fig. Coroll.

reflore the pulfes D. places. corolJ. 62 . in Fig. APPENDIX. 72 N. nN^ &c. and now the intermediate inequalities Sec are alfo the doubles Prop.266 fhort cycles. and here the diflocations cC^ dD are confidered and adjufted widi the analogous ones in other pure confonances. till the dift locations. XII. the equal times between the pulfes of the treble are Subdivided by the pulfes of the bafe. v'l^' For fuppofing the changed into XII ^''^ alternate pulfes Z). 6cc to be intermitted or taken away. but will not be equally harmonious with them. to their of former magnitudes and the new v*'^^ are lefs harmonious than the xii^"^' in Fig. Ki &c. 63 be doubled. But In any other confbnance whofe fhort cycle contains feveral vibrations of the bale. &c. K. K. fliort cycles. 62. but in reality is implied the ends of the as at £). will be While the diflocations ^G. Ki — Kl. feems to have been neglected in the faid propofition. 63. not only at but between them. and will i\ot be equally harmonious with them till the their diflocation. ^G. bythexiii^^ propofition. &cc. remain doubled. . where the confidera63 tion of the inequalities of the intervals cD and De. &c. in it. tliat the temperaments of both the xii*^' may be equal and their periods proportional to their vibrations and fhort cycles [z).v) . Fig. /if and Kl.Dc — De. Fig. ^. as the v'^' were fuppofed to be before that intermiflion. . thofe an od:ave lower than the xii^^^ in Fig.

and confequently tlie Di\ Ki Kl^ &c be contracinequalities Dc — — ted to dieir former magnitudes. Suppofing the letters d^ k to be reflored to the places of the ablent pulfes of the imperfed. 63. will be 7z — i x D. . of the intermediate pulfes of the Scholium 2. XXV. &. Therefore thefe interrupted confonances are xii*'^ and xiii^ proportions. Fig. and when it is tempered. but allowance is made on courie not confidered as pure ones in the for the effed bafe.APPENDIX. from the places they have when the confonance AE is perfed. that fall next to JJ and K^ I call the lines or times dD^ ^i^the Aberrations of the interior pulfes D. then £^ is an aberration of one of the interior pulfes of the bafe in the firil fliort cycle. iii^. K^ from the places d^. Likewife in the upper part of the fame figure. unifons. PI. if 2Z) be the fum of the exterior diflocations in any given fiiort cycle. 267 gGy nNy &c. The reafon of the theorem will fbon appear h^ drawing a fhort cycle or two of a 4^'' . k which they have in the perfed fhort cycles.c. the aberration or fum of the aberrations of the interior pulfes of the bafe. if and adh^ the fmgle vibrations of an imperfed: 4'^. Now if the ratio of the times of the iingle vibrations of any perfed conlbnance be m to n in the leafl integers. diilocation.

in the latter in another conftant ratio nejjdoj the totals and compoof the exterior diflocations and another conflant interior aberrations are alfo in ratio.^68 APPENDIX. . I . different Becaufe the exterior diflocations are of a kind from the interior aberrations. For is as in feeing fo in hearing. — i &c. as is plain from the arithmetical progreffion of the alternate lefler intervals of the imperfed: unifons. and by obferving. from which the given confonance is derived. in nances. and that the fum of the exterior diflocations is equal to the fum of any two interior aberrations equidiftant from them. Therefore in two equally harmonious conibfum of the exterior diflocations in any fhort cycle of the one. to the fum of them . it more difficult for the fenfe to perceive the quantity of a fmall inequality in the larger fucceflive interval of the points or {a) By the foregoing illuflration. is to the fum of them in the correfponding fhort cycle of the other. fo n is the number of its pulfes exclulive of the extreams./ is the numter of the vibrations of the bafe contained in any fhort cycle. without any regard to the fecond or tlie But third. temperaments and periods of the tAVo confonances muft be adjufled by the firft given ratio alone. as the a certain conflant ration or the ratio [d)^ fo the interior aber- fum of the interior aberrations in is the former fhort cycle. that as . or to double the aberration in the middle.

e^ D. to 3. Becaufe it appears from the corollary to the foregoing Illuflration. as will eafily appear from the difpofition of the pulfes in fuch cycles in Fig. or pulfes Cy 269 Fig. of I to I. I between the points do not err from the fimplejft but from the more complex ones of I to 2. 2. For which reafon the ratio of the fum of the interior aberrations ought not to be compared and compounded with that of the exterior dillocations. analogus to D. as in prop. I will add a putation of comtempered them in a confonance of v**"' . fhort cycles and diflocations contained in the long cycles and periods of imperfe(5t confonances. And the difficulty is greater in /\}\ fhort cycles of imperfed e. ilia's more complex vi^% &c. Scholium 3. xii and xiii. &c . and of their abfolutc juration in practical mulic. 63. than to perceive the fame or a different fmall quantity when bounded by two vifible points or audible pulfes g^ G. determined by the equality of their numbers in the periods of the two confonances. that no other regard can be had to the interior aberrations^ than what follows on courfe from the given ratio of the exterior dillocations. ideas of To give the reader more determinate the numbers of vibrations. Plate i.APPENDIX. 5. where the ratio fucceffive intervals f.

as it ufually is. cgr. the vibrations of imperfedt v*^** are ^^^ ^^^^ and the two conftant and ac. ^Z=32i^5 = ^'x 3^5 = loj AD-='^x6AB = s2>l^^' Likewife AZ == 022^/^ = — x 2^/^ =2 2 l6iac='^~x6ab And dillocation is = s?>i^g' of the pulfes. ab '. : i comma nearly is (<^). comma. or lengths of their imperfect fhort cycles are Now 2^^ AD AG= 2AD=2\'2AB Hence and ag='i^ac='2\2ab. VIII.17^ pered by - APPENDIX. the interval of the founds of thefe vibrations is PI.reateft dillocation of the ^ is - j^ 5= ^ AD.4. Whence 321 AB^=^i22ab the length of the fimple cycle of the diflocations of the pulfes of the vibrations AB. and the limi^ g. Foj. more or lefs. Fig. i. 644. . XII. 322 321. {d) Prop. a by or of the period of the imperfedions of any confbnances whofe vibrations are different muland ab {c) and whofe temperatiples of and ment is the intei-val of the founds o£ AB AB ab (d). 34. AD a . {b) Prop. in organs and harpfichords. their j after the coincidence jErfl ^G == -i. If AB '. XI. 61 (/) Prop.'. fchol. = AZ. vm. art.

APPENDIX* 27> bB For AB AB — M. I found that the particles of air in an organ pipe called d or d-la-fol-re. 12. we have 262 AD AD reprefents = a certain quantity of 1 fecond and hence the abfolute times AZ.a6= I. and '. made 262 comwent plete vibrations or returns to the places they from. and the of 644 : or \i ^22 '^ ^ : i. art. ?il^B== ix -AD = ^ AD. or alternate lefTer interval of the pulfes of AB. ^\" 131 and262^D :^Gor 2AD\\\" '.— and 262^2) :Gf ox-^ AD'. VII. and confequently propagated 262 pulies of air to the ear (e) in one fecond of time . . Now by an experiment mentioned in prop.-r^ ^ 161 262 X i6i 42182 and {/) Se£l. AG. And taking that found for the bale of our v^^. though the pitch of the organ was above half a tone lower than the prefent pitch at the Opera. 262^!): ^Z or 107^2) ::i":~-^ xi". 322 whence Bb=^ AB. XVIII. and ~ ab are the following fractions of For. Gg i". ab in any half period. 322 161 161 2 2 322 2 11' X 322 3 is limit the greateft diflocation.\^''. whofe vibration time. I. by prop. in the middle of thefcaleof the open diapafon. and ^G = 6^5 = ^l4S = -Ljn.

= alfo I == X I ^n .// ?< APPENDIX. as AgAK. the computation and the meafures vy^ill be but very little different. Scholium . And v**" in any other the fcale of that organ. ix. X. (/) Prop. in the given ratio fingle vibrations thefe meafures are to thofe In of the times of the fes. -> 1 of the dillocationG^ next to the coincident puUes. of their bagiven. 262 the number of periods 2. In this example the v^*"* were tempered fharp. and of i''. are 1. by taking yld and AC for the fingle vibrations.272 and . And the leafl: dillocations in the fhort cycles. beats in i" (/) namely ^= 45 nearly in or 245 in 100" nearly. and when they are equally tempered flat. And the like meafures in any other given is confonance. 262^2) I : ^ 2 ^^or iH7 ^jD 644 :: i": -^i^ 262x644 AZ. whofe temperament may be computed in the like manner. or derived from thefe by the corollaries to prop. which include the fucceffive periodical points Z. And 1568 the reciprocal of the periodical time is 122 X i".

But the S beats beats of the V. column i differ lefs from in column 2 and 3 do. that.APPENDIX. that perfons want- ing leifure or proper qualifications for examining the principles and conclulions requifite to determine the fyftem of equal harmony. xx* of beats. Huygens. in a ratio fomething greater. The beats in one another than thofe agreeably to the 2. oi tlie Name fyiiem. of and obfervations on the numbers the concords in the principal fyjiems. are a little quicker than thofe in col. or D-fol-re. 3. with this defign. in the ratio of 10 to 9. v-f viii. by the feveral con- cords to the bafe note D. when compared with the fy- ftem of mean tones and diat of Mr. and quicker than thofe in col. To affift tion 1. I. a^eteris paribus^ concords to the fame bafe are more or lefs difagreeable in their kind for beating fafler or (lower refpedlively. at the Roman Pitch. Scholium tables 273 4 to prop. The beats following table flicws the in number of made 1 5 feconds. upon this allowed principle. v4-2viii in col. and likewife the proportions of the beats of the fame concords to any other bafe note . may yet form fome judgment of its advantages and difadvantages . 2. the reader's judgment I have added the following obfervations refulting from inipec- of the firft table. The .

274 are APPENDIX. in the ratio of 2 to 3 and more. vi beats of the vi. | flower than thofe in col. 2 and 3. . Thefe quick beats of the vi^^ in col. 3. + viii. 2 and 3 have the difadvantage to be doubled in much every . vi + 2viii in col.

4. i than thofe in col. 2 and S 2 3. whereas the quick beats of the v''* in col.. TAB. The beats of the iii*^ and compounds are quicker indeed in col... . L . remain the fame in tlie fe- cond odtave and are only double in the third &c. 3' 4-2VIII. 275 every fuperior o6tave..concords to the bafe D-fol-re. i.Appendix.

Column . th TAB. they can fcarce be fo oiFenfive as thefe will be. I.276 3 . Likewife the beats of the 6^^ and compounds in col. but being flower than the beats of the other concords in all the fyftems. APPENDIX. 'The order II. of the harmony VI +2VIII 240 360 V III +2VIII +2VIII VIII VIII VIII 40 13 VI+ V 120 20 + III+ VI 26 60 V III 40 Syftem of equal harm. being (lower than thofe of the 5.

can hardly of- and 3^ fend the ear fo much as the quicker beats of thefe other concords will. of 3 IL all the concords. 6. Column .1 APPENDIX. +2VIII 480 321 720 288 800 4*^+ 2 VI 1 6*^+2VllI 3^ 279 + VIII 240 360 400 138 4^^+ VIII 6^^+ VIII 144 2X0 120 4 th 80 5th 104 equal Syftem of harm. The fums of the beats of all the concords to TAB. 4'^ 277 and compounds with the fame number of viii'^'in all the fyftems.

the v + viii than the iii+viii and VI 4.2viii. mony a larger nu?nber corresponds . In col. which in all probability are inoffenfive. and likewife the 4'^ and compounds than the 6''' and 3*^ and compounds with equal numbers of vIII*-*^^ 10. I. ari! to the note D-fo]~re in both the col. of the firft fame or any other bafe note fmall excefs arifes chiefly The 40 fum above the fecond veiy nearly. i. from the beats of the iii"^ and 6*'' with their compounds. which affords two or three more obfervations.VIII. 3. It may be objecfled to the fyflem v'*^^ of equal harmony little that the beats of the are not only a quicker. as we faid before. which deferves to be confidered. but fomething ftronger and di- ftindier than thofe of the other concords. fliould On the other hand it be confidered lefs diftinct too. 9.702. the v'^ is more harmonious than the iii*^ and vi'"". Hoat concord to which a fmaller nwnber correfponds^ being more harmonious. thev-fviii is more harmonious than the v and v H. I and 3.805. 35. reipedively 759. But a completer rule for comparing the harof imperfed: concords to a given bafe. In col. than any other to which appears in the fecond table. 7. in its kind. quick and beats of the whether thofe very vi*'' and compoundsj . whofe to the proportions with refped are 38. the iii''^ become more harmonious by the addition of VII^*'^^ 8.27S APPENDIX. 2. In all the fyilems.

XI '. Thefe are the principal advantages and diladyantages that occur in comparing thefe fyftems. 12. reipedively. by the corolto fupply their defects. VIII. little The {g) 5e6l. at the fides of the mouth. made of metal. xvii and fcholium. but only to the application of it to defecj two tive inftruments and I have fliewn above how without the leaft inconvenience to the performer [h). this is no objecflion to the fyftem. Scholium 5 to prop. xx. 279 pounds. I fliall only obferve. produce the correlponding numbers in the fecond table. roll. according to cotable multiplied fradlions. and that the numbers in that by the numerators of the known annexed to the chara<fters of the correfponding concords. will be flattened or fharpened a little by bendflattened or fliarpened a The ing the ears. refpecSively. tliat the firft table was calculated from the temperaments of the fyftems in prop. a little inwards or outwards. art. prop. The found of a ftopt pipe. a inwards or outwards. 2. Ibund of an open metalline pipe will be little by bending a fmall part of the metal at the open end. [h] Se£l. For as to the falib in concords being fomething worfc the fyftem of equal harmony than in the otiier (g). XIII.APPENDIX. have not a worfe eiTe^t in dellroying the tleamefs of their harmony. art. l i^h ^ . viii. laries to prop.

by depreffing or raifing the leaden plate that hangs over the open end. fomething curious in the reafons of but as they cannot be well explained in few words.28o APPENDIX. refpedively. is There thefe efl'edts. found of an open wooden pipe will be flattened or fharpened a little. The The found of a ftopt wooden pipe will be flattened or fharpened by drawing the plug outwards or forcing it inwards. refpedlively. The found of a reed-pipe will be flattened or Sharpened by caufing the brazen tongue to be lengthened or fhortened. I mufl: omit them. refpedlively. A N .

different from the fluttering roughnefs of a perfeft confonance 97 refult chiefly art. but. A. 227 how caufed 81. the time between them is equal to a period of the leafl: imperfedions of the confonance. called higl\ B. art. x. 3. 84. T the . to the Propofitions by the Roman numbers and to the Notes by the letters in hooks. 21 . harmony 80. 248.not the fame 81. made by are of ufe to find the pitch of an organ 195 &c and in tuning an organ to any defired degree of exaftnefs 206. lo. 3. the number of them made by a given confonance in a given time determined by a theorem 82 XI. and a harpfichord too by the help of a machine 210. ACUTE and grave founds whence •^^ and low 2 {b). difagreeable and deftruftive of cor. 6. Beats of an imperfedl confonance defcribed 78. from the cornet and fefquialter flops of an organ 80. 3. Sauveur 94. a falfe caufe of them by M. lin. fchol. the ultimate ratio of fuch numbers different confonances 83. referring firji to the Pages by the common numbers. xx and fchol.A N ALPHABETICAL INDEX. lin.

i. 5. and 142 tab. art. how reprefented by lines 14. art. 5. 5. Concerts performed on perfed inflruments confiderfe61:. 6. 1. the order of their degrees and modes of fimplicity 16. cor. 5. Sed:. Plate XIX. 2. 7. their theory agrees with experiments 88. art. Coincidences of the pulfes of tempered confonances not necefiary to good harmony 99. 4. 13. art. Conlbnances imperfe6l 1 1 what II. 8. 12. and in what proportions 22. cor. art. INDEX. ratio of their numbers made in a given time by the v'l^and vi^^ to a given bafe 206. are not inharmonious though their vibrations be incommenfurable loi. art. Uie cycles of their pulfes what 15. and by every concord in the principal fyftems 273. C. Confonances perfect what II. are . art. Comma what ed 225. Concords 1 1. their names and notation 9. Colours bear fome analogy to mufical founds 31 {d). art. 2. 5. divided into three parcels belonging to three temfAlfe. 8. ix. what and how many in each key 163. art.. art. viii. art. x. art. diftinguiflied from difcords 21. 4. 3. diftinguiflied into concords and difcords 2 1 . Chords of a thorough bafe to be taken near the bafe notes 227. fchol. pure and interrupted what 19. art. the periods of their imperfeflions 64. fchol. 2. peraments 44. 1 1. 2.

2. defin. Diefis what 160. iii. i. not regarded in determining the bell tempered fyftem of founds 140. equally tempered are generally more harmonious for being fimpler 119. often called fhort cycles56. xii. lin.xiii.. 1 1 6. 8. Jin. cor. 7. i the order of their degrees of harmony determined with refpedl to their temperaments 1 1 7. its radius cietermined at any given point of the harmonical curve 234. art. Eighth. iv. cor. art. Def.1 3. 265. 11. art. are eqii:illy harmonious when their fhort cycles are equally numerous in the periods of their imperfeftions i lo. fuperfluous and diminifhed what. art. art. the fimpler can generally bear greater temperaments than the lefs fimple can with equal offence 120. 3. cor. how to tune it perfect by beats 94. and more harmonious when more numerous 264. cor. 1 2. what 160. 7. a table of them 10. and the complex into periods ^6. E. 7.viii. 8. lin. D. Elements of intervals what 13. Difcords diftinguifhed from concords 21. 8. INDEX. Cycles of the pulfes of perfe6t confonances compared 22.259. faJfe. 2. col 5. u. 2. 11. Sefl. cor. T 2 Flut- . Curvature. 2. of the pulfes of imperfect unifons diftinguifhed into fimple and complex. Def. cor. cor. Diflocation of pulfes v/hac 6§^ 16. and to their beats 121. def.

i. cor. 4. 9. and equally cor. Harmony of imperfedt confonances is better in the fame order as their lliort cycles are more numerous of their imperfedions 116. 19. cor. are in the periods fmaller 117. I. H. is are fliorter 121. the tempered concords not equally good in the fyitem of mean tones 120. Harmony of. 2. its principles Sedt. is generally better in thofe that are Ampler. cor. in their confonances of the fam^e name. II. Harmonics. lin. nor in the fyftem of 3 tave 121. how defined by Ptolemy 3 (J). or as their temperaments multiplied by both the terms of the perfect ratios belonging to the perfect confonances. is better both as they beat flower and as the cycles of the perfedl confonances cor. cor.. 10. i. Flutterlngs of a perfecSb confonance are difFerent from the beats of the imperfed: one ^^^ art. Grave and acute founds whence 2 {b). better.INDEX. Galileo firft called low and high chords ratios explained the fympathy of vibrating and queflioned the truth of the mufical 229. 3. 7. if the temperaments be equal 119. 1 equal intervals in the oc- Har- . good when equal 118. cor. when temperaments are fmaller. F.

INDEX. flat and fliarp. 14. arc. art. Incommenfurable vibrations abound in tempered fyftems 97. art. 6. art. art. Harmonical curve and its properties 233. 4. Its figure is of the fame fpecies as the figure of fines 238. Interval of two mufical founds defined 5. 2. of the pulfes of imperfed unifons increafe and decreafe uniformly by turns 57. art. alternate temperament what 12. Huygens proves that the voice in finging moves by iniperfedl intervals 228. its K. and imperfedl or tempered. fchol. 9. Intervals.imma . 161. Euler and others 100. 4. art. art. 121. how to make any of them as harmonious as the beft of all 170. fchol. fchol-. 9. fchoh difapproved by Dr. art. 1 1. art. I. T 3 I. 10. vii. 10. is a meafure of the ratio of the times of the fingle vibrations of the terminating founds 6. &:c. 5. their pulfes have determinate periods but no cycles and yet produce good harmony loi. 5. cor. may perfed: be meafured by logarithms 7. how many falfe confonances in each in the organ or harpfichord 1 62. cor. Wallis^ Mr. what 11. art. Keys. and lefler. which have both flat and fliarp founds and which but one fort 1 64. 5 . fays the fyftem of mean tones refulting is the befl 44 («) his harmonic cycle from the octave divided into 31 equal j intervals 158. 224. 6.

the force that accelerates 230. 6. arithmetical.Qd. . how ear 189. Monochord how divided for tuning inftruments 222. Its its vibrating motion confidered 230. M. Mufical chord. N. xx. fom. the time of a fmgle vibration determined from the tenfion.defin. lin. G. Newfon's analogy between the breadths of the 7 primary prifmatic colours and the 7 differences of the lengths of 8 mufical chords D. to tune the .xxiv. art. weight and length 238. fome of its properties i23. iv. 6 38 iii.INDEX.e of its properties 125. XXI. Mean. Machine for tuning inftruments by beats fuggefled 210. i. 10. its lin. O. Seft. 2. tcnfion how meafured 231. in Names and Notation of Tab. art 3 36. cor. art. art. Mufical intervals are meafures of ratios 6. L- Limma what 24. confonances 9. XXIII. •. its motion at any point fmaii vibrations are ifochronous 237. by ifochronous beats of different concords. defin. Ey F. harmcnical.s^ id). Odaves why kept untempered 140. Plate J. and xx. 12. 211. it by eflimation and judgment of the by a table of beats 206. 8. Organ. Sefl.B. Logarithms of fmall given ratios in what proportian 6q^ lemma and corollaries. 5. xi. 2.

and fpecified in Table Perfect ratios anyone fyftem 225. 3. Parts of a mufical compofition. how to alter its pitch 279. Periodical points of imperfect unifons how fituated 62. fhould not lie too far afunder 227. i . Sedl. 4. I. cautions to be obferved in tuning its 209. howto find it it 192. cor. 5 . the properefl art 4. fchol. and why 226. and is the fame as that of its greateft imperfedlions 82. x. I. by heat and cold in different feafons it how to know when varies and returns Organ to the fame again 194. lin. compared with thofe of imperfed: unifons 64. 19. Period of the pulfes of imperfect unifons what ^6^ def. varies fchol. endeavour to make perfedt confonances. Table col. of the IX. i. xviii. xxii. to raife or deprefs 208. cor. leaft imperfeftions of a confonance. pipe. viii. Periodical time between the beats of an imperfedt confonance is perfedtions 8 equal to the period of its leaft im1 . n. Performers on perfe6t infliruments make occafional temperaments 225. 142. what 10.INDEX. quefkioned by Galileo 229. 2. how how much it 193. i. performed upon perfedl inflruments do not all move by the intervals of Parcels of concords defined 44. cor. T4 Pitch . art. it feafon for tuning the diapafbn 209. P. art. art. cor. pitch. 195 &c. x.

as to duration. 14. xviii 195. Ratios perfeftwhat 10. how to know when it varies and returns to the fame again 194.^^' of air or founds confidered i. art. art. Prejudices in favour of any fyflem familiar to us. fchol. 12. of an organ what and how to find it 192. 2. of imperfect unifons have cycles and periods ^6^ def. Itrength. in which the alternate leffer intervals increafe and decreafe uniformly by turns 57^ VII. 2. jiiuch it how to raife or deprefs it 208. art. 8. fchol-. mony of imperfed _ confonances loi. 1 1. et diatonum intenfum Puifes '^2-> ^^^. of an organ pipe how altered 279. Ptohnie's Genus diatonum ditonicum. cor. to be guarded againfi: 210. art. R. the frequency of their coincidences nefs but an im- perfed: charadter of the fimplicity and fmooth- of perfect confonances 22. their coincidences not neceffary to the good harart. queflionthe . 20. INDEX.i ed by Galileo iig^ lin. ult. &Cj need not be confidered in harmonics 20. 197. i Principles of harmonics ^tOi. 3. how varies by heat and cold in different feafons 193. Pitch of a mufical found what 2.. 9. 8. Quality of the puifes of founds. Q. 103. art. table col. . art. 5. . art. art. weaknefs. is 5. 7. 9. 5.

how to fupply them wholly or in part without the incumbrance of more keys 1 6^j art. of fmgle founds in the harpfichord preferable to unifons 171. Plate XIX. 247. 19. cor. its when mufical -. &c. art. Syfteni . '^^^ art. art. 2. 17. which founds are moft wanted in it 165. 4. 3 Syftems of the antients in feveral parts '^'^^ 20. art. i. 2. art. degrees of it reduced into order by a Rule 16. 4. 4. and harpfichords 163. how expreffed 72. the proportion of their logarithms when fmall 69. fchol . 7. art. claims the firft explication of a mufical temperament 37 (/)'. 5. and by a Table 1 8. whofe interval is any given part or parts of a comma. i2j 24 art. Samenr's attempt to explain the reafon of the beats of imperfedt confonances 94. 5. Salinas fays the antients ufed imperfedl confonances 34 (h). art. what 15. and compared with the perceptions of the ear 21. its gravity and other qualities not conlidered in harmonics 3. Sound. S. 9. art. art.- acutenefs 2.INDEX. 177. 15. 1 1. Ratio of the times of the fmgle vibrations of two founds. II . 10. lemma and cor. art. 2. art. how caufed i. art. 18 . confuted 96. art. "Scale defective in organs of mufical founds. 173. loud enough if well penned and often heard 172. Simplicity of confonances. unfit for mufic art.

how computed by Tables 137. 9. cor. of tones major and minor and hemitones 25. its temperament 140. not equally harmonious 121. or any given tempered fyftem by fcales of equal intervals J 58. 13. the ear 32. what 12. Temperament of a confonance. of equal harmony. how tempered 36. of Mr. Huygens 44 («). how to approximate to it. differs infenfibly from a fyftem refulting from a fcale of 50 equal parts in the octave 1565 XVII. 9. Huygens. III. xvi. fchol . 10. refulting from a fcale of 3 1 equal intervals in the o(5lave. cor. its leaft . pronounced to be the bell by Mr. cor. 2. 6. II. 1. how tempered 158. Tern- . 10. art. ^^^ ^^' I. 3. what and whence occaiioned 32. determined 130. fchol. art.3. is the moft harmonious fyftem taking one concord with another 141. art. art. are fhewn alfo by a linear conftru(5tion 40. the invention of them claimed by Zarlino and Salinas 37 (/). 4. but is not equally harmonious 121. cor. T. lin. cor. the proportions of their fynqhronous variations 38. Syftem of major tones and limmas 23.INDEX. 9. 159. Baylor the firft that determined a priori the time of a fingle vibration of a mufical chord 230. ^ art.2.peraments of a fyftem. difagreeable to art. perfeftions difagreeable to the ear 24. art. of mean tones 35. imperfecSlions 29. Tem. no footfteps of them among the Grecian writers 34 (^).

or iii"^ is nothing 41. Variations of the temperaments of intervals fhewn by a Table 38. Tuning by eftimation and judgment of the ear 1 87. by a linear conftru6tion 40. cor. xxi. Vibration . the limits of its pofition when the temperament of the v*'^. and 2. 6. 6. leaft when it is equally fharpened when the fum of them all is the pofrible43. 5. Tenfion of a mufical chord how meafured 23 1 . make any two given confonances equally harmonious 118. or iii^ is equal to the fum of the other two 42. Temperer of a fyftem. 10. 3. 7. 10. of fome of the concords cannot be lefs than a quarter of a comma 41. 140. V. cor. cor. vi^^. lin. cor. to find its pofition from the given ratio of the temperaments of any two concords indifferent parcels their proportion requifite to 46 IV. 53 VI. vi^'^. xx. in what cafes that of the v'^. 10. 3. art. 4. art. 48 V. cor. by a monochord 222. or iii*^ is equal to the fum of the other two 42. cor. cor. of the fyftem of equal harmony.INDEX. 8. by a machine fuggefted 210. 1 89. the fum of them all is lefs when the in* is flattened than 43. iii. 7. by a Table of beats 206. 4. 6. what the other temperaments are when that of the v'h. 5. 8. art. by ifochronous beats of different concords 211. vi^^. cor. Temperaments of the fyftem of mean tones 36. cor. 3. is extremely accurate 209.

weight andtenfion of given chords 238. lin. art. . xxiv and cor . Undulations. audible and vifible compared 107. fame as thole of their leaft imperfections .1. art. defin. Vibration often fignifies the time of a complete one. art. 6. its motions in fmging and talking are different . 5. their times determined ^ 3 (0. what 8. cor. Voice part of an anthem ought not to be played on the organ 228. fchol. cor. ceteris paribus are as the lengths of the chords 5. does not move by the given of any one fyftem 225 xxii.. in finging does not always move by perfect inter- vals 228. 7." how communicated whofe times are to diftant bodies i incommenfurable have determinate periods but no cycles. art. imperfe6t what 56. but io as to make perfed harmony with the bafe 226. art. and yet afford good harmony loi. 1 2. X. but intervals makes occafional tempera- ments 225. Vibrations it 8. Unifons perfedl what 2. 4. the periods of their pulfes what are the defin. 142. nearly ifochronons 4. fchol i 250. wider and narrower. of a mufical chord. 7 . 12. 3. Voice. and alfo of the particles of air at different diftances from the founding from the length. art. feft. the alternate leffer intervals of their pulfes increafe c^6^ and decreafe uniformly by turns 57 vii. body 4. 5. INDEX. 5.

cor. Zarlino the firft writer upon a mufical temperament 37 (0. CorreBions. r. 7. 12. (/>) (q). cor. l^uTipyi. Art. refpeflively. 169. 6gj 71. for Prop. 4. lin. the firft minus—' titles. FINIS. for Prop. 4. 168. hn. for cor. compared with thofe of imperfedl confonances 64 VIII. penult. notes cor. 5. r. I. cc. W. r. -— ? d. for ce^ 51. note. IX. XVII. 9. Wdlis difapproves incommenfurable vibrations as imprafticable and inharmonious 100. 227. in the harpfichord worfe art. Page 6. 71. hn. r. 171. 73 in the running r. 169. for fingle. 12. 114. 10. 2. Lemma. art.INDEX. one. 115. and r. than fingle founds 171. 4. 4. in the running titles. 5. fchol. for J^uri^o^v. tions 63. r. 7. lin. Hn. 8. 1 5. ^^-/^ r. VIII. for — -a. ^^3> 1^5? 167. their proportions 6^. 16. note. hn. dele 9. II. note {k) for fchol. .

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