General description

This Autonomous Knowledge Unit gives an overview of the historical and geopolitical context within which developed the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) (re–named Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), under the Lisbon Treaty). Specifically, it outlines the evolution of European foreign policy cooperation - emphasising the key political and diplomatic events that led to the establishment of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and of the ESDP. While there is no time limit for the study of this AKU, its study is estimated to take between 1.5 to 2 hours.

The AKU consists of an introduction, two content parts and an AKU conclusion. The introduction consists of general instructions and reading directions. During the study of AKU1 you are invited to read some relevant documents; more details of these and on recommended readings & other sources are to be found in the next Reading Directions. The first part of AKU1 describes the origins of the foreign policy cooperation in Europe. It examines early attempts to establish a European Defence Community and the creation of the Western European Union. It also identifies relevant concepts unveiled in EU treaties and in European Council summit meetings. Part two of the content focuses on the establishment of ESDP (now CSDP), its relation to CFSP, and how both policies might evolve.

Learning Objectives
By the end of this AKU, the reader should be able to: Describe early post–World War II initiatives aiming to strengthen European co– operation in the field of security and defence,  Discuss the relationship between the Western European Union and the European Community/European Union,  Demonstrate an understanding of the contributions made by principal European treaties towards greater co–operation in the field of security and defence,  Recognise the key European Council meetings that facilitated the development of ESDP (now CSDP), and  Discuss the relationship between CFSP and ESDP (now CSDP).

The recommended sequence of activities for the study of AKU1 is: Consult the reading directions. Read the AKU1 chapters in their numbered order. Interrupt the AKU1 learning path for reading the recommended documents when so indicated.  Whenever you have questions or feel the need for more details, consult your colleagues and the course manager via the Forum (AKU1 topic) and search the CSDP Knowledge base. You can stop and redo any of the parts as you wish.

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This autonomous knowledge unit is protected by domestic and international copyright laws. This autonomous knowledge unit has been made available in the framework of the European Security and Defence College. Participants in CSDP training activities may display, read, print, download and/or save (a copy of) the material for their personal, including professional non commercial, use. They may not otherwise reproduce, store in a retrieval system, or distribute or transmit in any form or by any means any part of this autonomous knowledge unit without prior written consent of the copyright holder(s). The above notice applies to all AKU1 content.

PART 1 The Origins Of European Co–Operation In The Security And Defence Field

Describes the origins of foreign policy cooperation in Europe and examines early attempts to establish a European Defence Community and the creation of the Western European Union. It also identifies relevant concepts unveiled in EU treaties and in European Council summit meetings.
Author: Geneva Centre for Security Policy

The origins of the security and defence architecture of Europe can be found in the post– World War II situation. Starting in the late 1940s, a number of initiatives set the stage for increased cooperation across Europe. Examples include the launch of the U.S. sponsored Marshall plan in 1947, the signing of the Franco–British Treaty of Dunkirk (1947) containing a clause of automatic armed assistance, the signing of the Brussels Treaty (1948) sowing the seeds for a Western European Union, and the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty in Washington (1949). With the gradual emergence of the Cold War, the first European institutions in this field had a pronounced Euro–Atlantic dimension.

The desire to avoid future wars in Europe also played a key role for institutional development. The European Coal and Steel Community created in 1951 placed strategic resources under a supranational authority. It would later serve as a model for the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community established in 1957 through the Treaty of Rome. The three communities were merged in 1967, highlighting the trend towards legal arrangements to move European co–operation forward. Follow–on treaties would develop closer collaboration in the area of security and defence, culminating with the Treaty of Nice in 2001.

PART 1 The Origins Of European Co–Operation In The Security And Defence Field
Describes the origins of foreign policy cooperation in Europe and examines early attempts to establish a European Defence Community and the creation of the Western European Union. It also identifies relevant concepts unveiled in EU treaties and in European Council summit meetings.
Author: Geneva Centre for Security Policy

1. Setting an ambitious agenda - from the European Defence Community to the Western European Union The European Defence Community

French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman pronounced a plan calling for the "Franco–German production of coal and steel as a whole [to] be placed under a common High Authority". Italy. and the Netherlands. and Ernest Bevin (United Kingdom). Jean Monnet (then serving as head of France´s General Planning Commission) proposed the creation of a unified European army. The Schuman Plan led to the establishment of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951 through the Treaty of Paris. Italy. it would include Belgium. It included Belgium. be financed by a common budget and placed at the disposal of the unified Atlantic command. France. France. . and Cultural Collaboration and Collective Self–Defence. The Schuman Plan also underscored the importance of a "united Europe" to enable peaceful relations. Germany. This common army would respond to a European defence minister. The signatories of the Treaty were Paul–Henri Spaak (Belgium).On 9 May 1950. the Schuman Plan sought to lower the potential for conflict in Europe by placing the control of these strategic resources at the supranational level. Inspired by the French economist Jean Monnet. Luxembourg. and West Germany. The Western European Union The conception of the Western European Union (WEU) dates to the Brussels Treaty signed on 17 March 1948. the Netherlands. Luxembourg. Georges Bidault (France). it calls for the member countries to assist each other in case one is "the object of an armed attack in Europe". Social. French Prime Minister Rene Pleven officially tabled a plan for "the creation for the common defence of a European army under political institutions of the united Europe" in October 1950. Joseph Bech (Luxembourg). Baron von Boetzelaer (Netherlands). Known as the European Defence Community. The breakout of the Korean War in June 1950 made it urgent to find a solution for a contribution by the newly created West Germany to the West´s defence efforts. Known as the Treaty of Economic. Inspired by the Schuman Plan.

the WEU gradually entered a dormant phase. The treaty modified the original Brussels Treaty by incorporating controls and ceilings on armed forces and armaments production. The treaty came in the wake of the failed European Defence Community. focussing on lower profile activities such as monitoring arms production and armaments stocks.However.Service photographique It became rapidly clear that a substantial portion of the WEU´s portfolio overlapped with that of other international institutions such as NATO and the Council of Europe. It also identifies . based on Article V of the original Brussels Treaty. The Modified Brussels Treaty. it also included Germany and Italy. the WEU was not formally created until the signing of the modified Brussels Treaty on 23 October 1954. It also added a new Article IV. PART 1 The Origins Of European Co-Operation In The Security And Defence Field Describes the origins of foreign policy cooperation in Europe and examines early attempts to establish a European Defence Community and the creation of the Western European Union. An external presence was nonetheless facilitated through the WEU Assembly with its status as the sole European parliamentary assembly with a mandate to monitor defence issues. Over time. which recognised NATO´s prime responsibility for protecting Europe. As a result. 1954 Image credit: Ministère des Affaires étrangères . Signed in Paris. the WEU saw many of its functions transferred away to these organisations.

when appropriate. In response. the EPC aimed to facilitate the consultation process among EC Member States. At the Hague Summit held in December 1969. common actions) and its procedures (six–monthly meetings of the Foreign Affairs Ministers. in the field of security and defence. Overall. the EC foreign ministers adopted the London Report on EPC. quarterly meetings of the Political Directors forming the Political Committee).relevant concepts unveiled in EU treaties and in European Council summit meetings. European leaders instructed their respective foreign ministers to examine the feasibility of closer integration in the political domain. consultation and. On 13 October 1981. . While the Treaty of Rome does not contain any reference to cooperation in foreign policy nor. It noted that although the EPC excludes defence issues. foreign ministers introduced the idea of European Political Cooperation (EPC) in the Davignon Report from October 1970. it defined its objectives (harmonization of positions. it could extend to "certain important foreign policy issues concerning political aspects of security". Also known as the Luxembourg Report. the European Community (EC) began to explore ways in which to harmonise members´ foreign policies. To give some substance to EPC. the idea of some form of political cooperation began to appear in the informal framework of the meetings of the European heads of state and government. the report introduced crisis procedures to enable the organisation of emergency meetings within 48 hours if needed and provided the rotating Presidency with a team of officials of the preceding and following Presidencies ("troika" formula). Author: Geneva Centre for Security Policy 2. a fortiori. Sowing the seeds of European cooperation: From the Davignon Report (1970) to the Petersberg tasks European Political Cooperation At the time the WEU entered a dormant phase.

it coordinated mine clearance along a 300–mile corridor around the Strait of Hormuz. the heads of state and government of the Member States of the EC issued a Solemn Declaration on European Union. The consistency between EPC. including a naval operation in the Adriatic (Sharp Guard). Finally. With the signing of the Single European Act. operating on consensus. WEU Membership (by membership category) Associate Associate Members Observers Members Partners (1954) (1992) (1992) (1994) Czech Republic Austria Belgium Bulgaria (1999) (1995) Hungary France Denmark Estonia (1999) Finland Germany Iceland Latvia (1995) Greece (1995) Norway Ireland Lithuania The signing of the Treaty on European Union (TEU) in Maastricht in 1991 opened the door to closer collaboration between the EU and the WEU. During the 1987 Hague Platform. and a police operation in Mostar in 1993 on behalf of the European Union. In 1988. Known as Operation Cleansweep. Among the WEU´s last missions was a Multinational Advisory Police Element sent to Albania in 1997 to train local police forces. Linking the WEU and the EU In the 1980s. the WEU is recognised as "an integral part of the . signed in Luxemburg and The Hague in February 1986 (at twelve. The parties agreed to "endeavour jointly to formulate and implement a European foreign policy" and to develop "a European identity in external policy matters". the WEU carried out its first military operation. then Spain and Portugal). The Act provided a legal framework to the EPC structures and procedures as well as to the European Commission´s role. In the TEU. it set the stage for the future Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). a secretariat was set–up in Brussels under the Presidency´s authority to prepare and follow up on European Council meetings. Known as the Stuttgart Declaration. and Community processes was likewise strengthened. the Single European Act. the Western European Union received new impetus. a police and customs operation (Danube Operation). given the accession of Greece. incorporated the EPC into the Treaties. Additional missions were carried out in the 1990s.At the Stuttgart European Council held in June 1983. WEU members reaffirmed the obligations of the modified Brussels Treaty and posited the idea of defining common positions on security policy matters.

Nonetheless. including peacemaking." Collectively." Reflecting a closer relationship with the EU. the WEU Council of Ministers met in Petersberg (outside Bonn) and outlined a new operational role for the organisation. the WEU Assembly. In 1992. The WEU presently houses a small Secretariat–General in Brussels with residual functions. now also known as the European Security and Defence Assembly. With the gradual incorporation of WEU assets and functions into the European Union – such as the WEU Satellite Centre (now the EU Satellite Centre) and the Petersberg tasks – the WEU once again plays a limited role in the European security domain. In addition.Italy Poland (1999) Sweden (1995) Romania Slovakia Slovenia (1996) development of the Union. even though the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy / Secretary–General of the Council of the European Union is double–hated as the Secretary–General of the WEU. peacekeeping tasks. continues its activities through its committees and bi–annual plenary sessions. . the WEU is "to elaborate and implement Luxembourg Turkey Netherlands Portugal (1990) Spain (1990) United Kingdom decisions and actions of the Union which have defence implications. the WEU is still the guarantor of Article V on collective self–defence of the Modified Brussels Treaty. Ministers declared the WEU´s readiness to make available military units for a range of tasks: "humanitarian and rescue tasks.4 of the TEU. As a result." According to Article J. the WEU Headquarters was relocated from London to Brussels in 1993. and tasks of combat forces in crisis management. EU–WEU relations are currently less dynamic and intensive. these became known as the Petersberg tasks.

the WEU was involved in the establishment of a European Security and Defence Identity (ESDI) within NATO. Author: Geneva Centre for Security Policy 3. Moreover. According to the Final Communique of the Ministerial Meeting of the North Atlantic Council held in Berlin.In 1996. Using the Single European Act as its departure point. as it accommodated a "European pillar" within the Alliance. It also identifies relevant concepts unveiled in EU treaties and in European Council summit meetings. • • --------------------------------------------------» --------------------------------------------------» PART 1 The Origins Of European Co–Operation In The Security And Defence Field Describes the origins of foreign policy cooperation in Europe and examines early attempts to establish a European Defence Community and the creation of the Western European Union. common foreign and security policy (2nd pillar). as ESDI could rely on the newly established concept of Combined Joint Task Forces." The arrangement was significant. Developing the EU´s Common Foreign and Security Policy: from Maastricht to Nice The Treaty on European Union (TEU) The Treaty on European Union – often called the Maastricht Treaty – was signed in Maastricht (the Netherlands) on 7 February 1992 and entered into force on 1 November 1993. These pillars encompass community affairs (1st pillar). it also served to limit potential duplication. the Maastricht Treaty created a single institutional framework (the European Union) based on three pillars. the ESDI would "permit the creation of militarily coherent and effective forces capable of operating under the political control and strategic direction of the WEU. facilitating the identification of capabilities that were separable – but not separate – and that could be used in WEU–led operations. and justice and . The groundwork laid via ESDI would eventually serve as a template for the Berlin Plus Arrangements adopted in 2003 between NATO and the EU.

Lastly. J8). European leaders agreed at Maastricht that the WEU forms an integral part of the development of the EU. In spite of a single institutional framework." Second. tasking it to elaborate and implement EU decisions and actions with defence implications. CFSP aims to enhance the EU´s ability to address the growing number of challenges at the international level. However. Overall. J9) and "may refer to the Council any question relating to the common foreign and security policy and may submit proposals to the Council" (art.4 of the TEU states that CFSP includes "all questions related to the security of the Union. A Joint Action enables the mobilisation of EU assets (human. identifying five principal objectives. First. and as noted earlier. In the 2nd and 3rd pillars. including the eventual framing of a common defence policy.home affairs (3rd pillar). financial. CFSP is more far–reaching than European Political Cooperation in at least four ways. an intergovernmental approach to policy making prevails. etc) to reach Council– defined objectives. Third. the Maastricht Treaty introduces a new legal instrument – the Joint Action – in support of the CFSP decision–making processes. . the roles of institutions in the decision–making process differ considerably according to the pillar and policy area. it breaks new ground – Article J. CFSP encourages a closer consultation and co–ordination process. it should be noted that the European Commission is "fully associated with the work carried out in the common foreign and security policy field" (art. explicitly calling for national policies to be consistent with Common Positions. which might in time lead to a common defence.

Lastly. processing. The Amsterdam Treaty also introduced a new legal instrument to enhance coherence in the Union´s external action: the Common Strategy. These may be used to specify a political objective and the resources needed to achieve the objective(s). "should the European Council so decide. including one on Russia (1999). In support of the SG/HR´s work. This mechanism makes it possible for an EU Member State to abstain in a CFSP– related vote in the Council without blocking a unanimous decision. 1997 The Treaty of Amsterdam was signed on 2 October 1997 and entered into force on 1 May 1999. its main contributions in the area of CFSP relate to institutional arrangements and the decision–making process. The Secretary–General/High Representative (SG/HR) serves to improve the efficiency and consistency of the CFSP by assisting with the formulation. and implementation of decisions. a limited number of Common Strategies have been formulated." In the area of decision–making. Coming in the heels of the St.The Treaty of Amsterdam. Building on the Treaty of Maastricht. With respect to institution–building. Ukraine (1999) and the Mediterranean (2000). the Amsterdam Treaty introduced the concept of constructive abstention. • • • ---------------------------------» ---------------------------------» ---------------------------------» The Treaty of Nice. the Treaty of Amsterdam established a Policy Planning and Early Warning Unit (now known as the Policy Unit) to provide the Council with an early warning capability. The Policy Unit also facilitates joint analysis. To date. Malo Declaration (1998) and numerous European Council meetings focussing on crisis management capabilities (treated in greater detail in the next . the Amsterdam Treaty supported closer institutional relations between the EU and the WEU – including the incorporation of the Petersberg tasks into the TEU – with a view to the integration of the WEU into the EU. thereby strengthening the EU´s capacity to support a Common Foreign and Security Policy. 2001 The Treaty of Nice was signed on 26 February 2001 and entered into force on 1 February 2003. the Treaty of Amsterdam created the post of a High Representative for the CFSP to be held by the Secretary–General of the Council of the EU (henceforth Council).

Under the second pillar. Author: Geneva Centre for Security Policy Introduction . specifically those needed to implement a joint action or common position. and how both policies might evolve. is extended to the second pillar for the implementation of relevant joint actions or common positions. the Treaty of Nice formally tasked the PSC to "monitor the international situation in the areas covered by the common foreign and security policy and contribute to the definition of policies by delivering opinions to the Council. the EU Military Committee. the concept of enhanced cooperation. political control and strategic direction of crisis management operations. introduced by the Maastricht Treaty. under the responsibility of the Council. its relation to CFSP. Likewise. and the EU Military Staff. the Nice Treaty extends the use of qualified majority voting. enhanced cooperation may not have military or defence implications. the Council may now rely on qualified majority voting when concluding international agreements under the second pillar. Enhanced cooperation allows a number of Member States (at least eight are required – nine under the Lisbon Treaty) that wish to work more closely on a specific area to do so. however. • • • ---------------------------------» ---------------------------------» ---------------------------------» PART 2 The development of European Security and Defence Policy Presents the establishment of ESDP. the Treaty of Nice formalised European Security and Defence Policy by bringing it into the EU´s institutional structure. For example.section). the PSC is to "exercise. For example. in line with the December 2000 European Council held in Nice establishing the Political and Security Committee (PSC)." In addition." In some areas of decision–making.

it would not be until the late 1990s. and the Santa Maria da Feira European Council Meeting (2000) which identified four civilian priority areas. Laying the foundations for European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) The Franco–British Joint Declaration on European Defence. which laid the foundations for the Headline Goal 2003. Malo Declaration in 1998. St. giving policy–makers additional guidance on how to further develop CFSP and ESDP. its relation to CFSP. 3rd Phase of Decommissioning. ESDP became operational through the initiation of the first ESDP missions. the Lisbon Treaty offers several provisions to increase the Union´s coherence in the field of external security. Aceh Monitoring Mission.While the European Union identified ambitious objectives in the area of external security and defence in 1992 through the Maastricht Treaty. Malo. numerous European Council summit meetings defined the military and civilian capabilities needed to fulfil the Petersberg tasks. that concrete provisions were introduced to endow the EU with tangible crisis management capabilities. In 2003. signalling the movement towards a Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). and how both policies evolve. Following the St. Examples include the Helsinki European Council Meeting (1999). 2005 Photo credit: Council of the EU PART 2 The development of European Security and Defence Policy Presents the establishment of ESDP. Nov. 1998 . Based on these and other developments. Author: Geneva Centre for Security Policy 1. in the aftermath of the wars of secession in the Balkans.

A Franco–British summit was held in French port city of St. Tony Blair´s election as prime minister marked a fundamental shift in the United Kingdom´s approach to Europe. In line with previous formulations. and a readiness to do so in order to respond to international crises. was convinced that after the Cold War domestic stability and integration into the EU no longer sufficed to ensure security in Europe. an important foreign policy concern during the post–World War II period was to maintain and strengthen the transatlantic link between Europe and the US: The United Kingdom saw itself as a bridge–builder between the two continents. with the UK and France jointly underlining the growing need for greater European engagement in the areas of security and defence. the security system changed fundamentally after the Cold War. Malo Declaration. the United Kingdom could offer both credibility and leadership. like the United Kingdom. backed up by credible military forces. Moreover. After reading the document you can come back to this page. the means to decide to use these forces. Malo on 3–4 December 1998. 1998 Texte en francais disponible ici You can either access the external link to the document by clicking on the title above or go back to "Reading Directions" and click the document icon. it is useful to briefly summarise some of the key British and French motives behind it. Furthermore. these capabilities should not challenge the role of NATO as EU Member States should act "in conformity with the respective obligations in NATO". France also hoped that such a policy would lead to a more equitable transatlantic partnership. a core objective of French foreign and security policy had long been to create a (relatively) autonomous European security and defence policy to balance the US and complement NATO. The St. And in the field of security and defence. After the bloodshed in the Balkans. To better understand the context surrounding the St. the British government came to the conclusion that the EU had to take on more responsibility for security and defence. It was a turning point in European public diplomacy. Recommended Reading "Joint Declaration on European Defense" – issued at the Franco–British Summit in Saint Malo on 4th of December. However. From the British perspective. Malo Declaration calls on the EU to have the capacity for autonomous action. France. Blair favoured a policy of constructive engagement within European institutions. .

. The European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) aims to give the European Union the means to assume its responsibilities in the fields of crisis prevention and management. sources of intelligence. the report identifies the need "for analysis of situations. Malo Declaration. • • • • -------------------------» -------------------------» -------------------------» -------------------------» Cologne European Council Meeting. Serving as the stepping stone for ESDP.After St. The Presidency Report states that "necessary arrangements must be made in order to ensure political control and strategic direction of EU–led Petersberg operations. EU heads of state and government reiterated the message contained in the St. they also made it clear that the EU´s efforts in this area should not challenge the role of NATO as the basis of collective defence of all NATO members. calling on the EU to acquire the necessary means and capacities to engage in EU–led crisis management operations. and a capability for relevant strategic planning. among others: • A permanent body in Brussels (Political and Security Committee). Malo. 3–4 June 1999 At the June 1999 European Council meeting held in Cologne (Germany)." It foreshadowed the need for. a number of European Council meetings from the late 1990s onward focused on providing ESDP with the necessary tools to strengthen crisis management capabilities." To do so. • An EU military Staff and a Situation Centre. in accordance with the principles of the UN Charter. • An EU Military Committee consisting of Military Representatives making recommendations to the Political and Security Committee.

19–20 June 2000 The Feira European Council meeting concentrated on the development of the EU´s civilian crisis management capabilities. the EU declared ESDP operational at the December 2001 Laeken European Council meeting.• Other resources such as a Satellite Centre and an Institute for Security Studies.000 personnel and approximately 400 combat aircraft and 100 naval vessels was constituted. stating that the EU was "capable of conducting some crisis– management operations". • • • • -------------------------» -------------------------» -------------------------» -------------------------» Helsinki European Council Meeting. Appendix 3 of the Annex identified four priority areas for civilian crisis management: • Police . to deploy within 60 days and sustain for at least 1 year military forces of up to 50. air and naval elements. including the need for forces that are "militarily self– sustaining with the necessary command." The annex provides further details on the development of military capabilities. as appropriate. • • • • -------------------------» -------------------------» -------------------------» -------------------------» Santa Maria da Feira European Council Meeting. by 2003. It called on EU Member States to "be able.000 persons capable of the full range of Petersberg tasks. other combat support services and additionally. control and intelligence capabilities. This position was confirmed in May 2003 by the General Affairs and External Relations Council (GAERC) which declared that "the EU now has operational capability across the full range of Petersberg tasks. Voluntary national contributions were pledged at the 2000 Capabilities Commitment Conference in Brussels. limited and constrained by recognized shortfalls" in the military sphere. Despite some qualitative shortfalls. 10–11 December 1999 The December 1999 Helsinki Summit focused mainly on the development of the EU´s military crisis management capability. and a pool of more than 100. logistics.000–60." The specific operational requirements for the Petersberg tasks are provided in the Helsinki Headline Goal Catalogue.

Within the police category. no numerical targets were provided. "Civil Protection intervention teams" consisting of up to 2. 2 to 3 assessment and/or co–ordination teams made up of 10 experts should be available for deployment within 3–7 hours. up to 1. In the area of rule of law. in the domain of civilian administration.000 police officers to international missions. At the Civilian Capabilities Commitment Conference held in Brussels on 22 November 2004.• Strengthening the rule of law • Strengthening civilian administration • Civil protection It should be noted that additional civilian priorities were added in later years. At the Goteborg European Council meeting held in Sweden on 15–16 June 2001. In addition." • • • • -------------------------» -------------------------» -------------------------» -------------------------» . Instead. concrete targets were specified. Member States were to be able to contribute up to 200 personnel "adequately prepared for crisis management operations in the field of rule of law" on a voluntary basis.000 individuals were to be available by 2003 in response to major natural. the Goteborg European Council identified the need for a "pool of experts able on a voluntary basis to take on assignments within civilian administration. EU Member States were to be able to provide up to 5. In the area of civil protection. These include monitoring. it was confirmed that "Member States have well exceeded the concrete targets set by the European Council. or environmental emergencies. and prosecution experts. and the set–up of civilian response teams." All targets were later declared to be met. Lastly.000 police should be available for deployment within 30 days. additional targets were identified for the remaining categories. Consisting of legal. By 2003. such an element would be deployable within 30 days. Of these. support for the EU Special Representatives. judicial. technological.

While there are links between CFSP and ESDP. with CFSP concentrating on foreign policy objectives at the strategic level while ESDP enabling the EU to execute crisis management operations on the ground. given the EU’s strong emphasis on civil–military co–ordination and its recognition that the new security threats cannot be addressed through military means alone. when CFSP was established under the Maastricht Treaty in the early 1990s. and as shown in the following diagram. ESDP was subsumed under the wider umbrella of CFSP. as of 2008. they are not fully synchronised. In fact. With respect to ESDP. Moreover. Ironically. CFSP and ESDP were to complement each other. when the first ESDP missions were launched in 2003 – providing a strong push forward for the ESDP – CFSP was static due to differing . it is essential to underline that it included both military and civilian dimensions. In addition. From a historical perspective. Linking CFSP and ESDP/CSDP Complementary objectives There were clear links between the Common Foreign and Security Policy and the European Security and Defence Policy. even if they are not used simultaneously or in proximity. and how both policies evolve. its relation to CFSP.PART 2 The development of European Security and Defence Policy Presents the establishment of ESDP. there was no formal ESDP. the majority of ESDP missions have been civilian in nature. Author: Geneva Centre for Security Policy 2. many late ESDP crisis management operations include both military and civilian components. Many (erroneously) believe that ESDP only covers military missions. Both serve to fulfil the EU´s foreign policy objectives.

Those provisions are about institutions. The Treaty provisions pertaining to CFSP and ESDP are by and large identical to the ones present in the failed Constitutional Treaty. and decision–making processes. Thus. • • • • • • -----------------» -----------------» -----------------» -----------------» -----------------» -----------------» The Lisbon Treaty and CFSP/CSDP The Lisbon Treaty was signed on 13 December 2007 and entered into force on 1 December 2009 after all EU Member States – including Ireland following a second referendum on 2 October 2009 – ratified it. Several institutions or positions falling within the CFSP/CSDP framework are established. renewable once. drive its work. As such. the scope of activities that the EU will be able to perform under the new Treaty. while ESDP was progressing rapidly. with the aim of enhancing the institutional coherence and the overall effectiveness of EU action. Elected by the European Council by a qualified majority for a term of two and a half years. the same was not the case for CFSP. and shall ‘provide the Union with an operational capacity drawing on civilian and military assets’. Among the key new positions is the post of President of the European Council and that of High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. the President of the European Council will ‘ensure the external representation of the Union on issues concerning its common foreign and security policy’. conflict prevention and strengthening international security’. to which it dedicates a full section. he is responsible for chairing the European Council. The former Belgian Prime Minister Herman Van Rompuy was elected the first President of the European Council on 19 November 2009.European positions on the war in Iraq. CSDP is presented as an ‘integral part of the common foreign and security policy’. that can be used ‘on missions outside the Union for peacekeeping. . a. and act as a consensus–builder within it. Institutions The Treaty renames ESDP as the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP).

Ms.’ She also chairs the Foreign Affairs Council (a new format of Council meetings. The High Representative also acts as Vice–President of the European Commission. separate from the General Affairs Council). while one of her representatives chairs meetings of the Political and Security Committee (PSC). and with the agreement of the President of the Commission. The post merges the two positions of High Representative for CFSP (held by Dr. The first holder of this position is Ms. conducts ‘political dialogue with third parties on the Union´s behalf’. Javier Solana between 1999–2009) and of Commissioner for External Relations (held by Benita Ferrero–Waldner between 2004 and early 2010) and symbolizes the disappearance of the pillar structure. With the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty. Likewise. Formally.13A). as well as the responsibilities that each will assume. Ashton represents ‘the Union for matters relating to CFSP’. and expresses ‘the Union´s position in international organizations and at international conferences. the role of the President of the Council vis–a–vis the still existing rotating presidencies is to be further clarified. the creation of these positions puts an end to . acting on a qualified majority vote.13A) The EEAS will be sui generis. the new High Representative contributes to the preparation of CFSP and ensures its implementation (art. are not clearly specified and are expected to be shaped in practice by the two incumbents. the Civilian Planning and Conduct Capacity (CPCC). European Commission Delegations become EU Delegations and are part of the EEAS. giving the European Parliament a say on his/her appointment as the Commission is accountable to the Parliament. distinct from the Commission and the Council Secretariat. Overall. a British national and former Trade Commissioner. Catherine Ashton. and the EU Military Staff (EUMS) should be part of the EEAS. but bodies such as the Crisis Management and Planning Directorate (CMPD). In her new position.’ (art.The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy is appointed by the European Council. The High Representative will be assisted by a European External Action Service (EEAS) that ‘shall work in cooperation with the diplomatic services of the Member States and shall comprise officials from relevant departments of the General Secretariat of the Council and of the Commission as well as staff seconded from national diplomatic services of the Member States. the division of tasks between the President of the Council and the High Representative.

Scope of activities The Lisbon Treaty contains provisions on the activities of the EU in the fields of foreign and security policy. including peace–making and post–conflict stabilisation’ (art. In terms of missions. Finally. humanitarian and rescue tasks. including CSDP (art. the Treaty gives the EU a single legal personality (art. ‘Enhanced cooperation’ differs from ‘permanent structured cooperation’ (see below) in that the latter is permanent and deals with defence matters. and assisting member states to meet the capability commitments (art. the Lisbon Treaty also formally endorses the creation of the European Defense Agency. .46A).28B).10). including by ‘supporting third states in combating terrorism on their territories’. The EU–led Artemis operation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo or the deployment of a battlegroup provides examples of such tasks.28D). something previously enjoyed only by the European Communities. military advice and assistance tasks. the Treaty formally endorses the extension of the so–called ‘Petersberg Tasks’. the Lisbon Treaty makes it possible for a group of Member states ‘which are willing and have the necessary capability’ to implement a task. At the institutional level. conflict prevention and peace–keeping tasks.the rotating presidency in foreign affairs. 28A §5 and 28C). within the Union framework. The Lisbon Treaty and CFSP/CSDP b. For example. supporting defence research. while the former can be activated in all EU policy areas and on a non–permanent basis. These tasks may contribute to the fight against terrorism. ‘in order to protect the Union´s values and serve its interests’ (art. that now include ‘joint disarmament operations. operational since 2004 with the mandate of harmonizing defence spending. tasks of combat forces in crisis management. ‘Enhanced co–operation’ – which allows EU Member States that wish to work more closely together to do so – can be established by the Council and requires at least nine member states participating in it. The Treaty also unveils new mechanisms or commitments. The Treaty also extends the concept of ‘enhanced co–operation’ to all EU policy areas.

in reference to the role of NATO and its collective defence provisions. states that ‘The Union and its Member States shall act jointly in a spirit of solidarity if a Member State is the object of a terrorist attack or the victim of a natural or man–made disaster. in accordance with Article 51 of the United Nations Charter’.188R1). the Treaty establishes a ‘start–up fund’ aimed at allowing for urgent financing of initiatives in the framework of CFSP and EU–led missions that cannot be charged to the Union budget (art. Finally.28A7).28). the other Member States shall have towards it an obligation of aid and assistance by all the means in their power. At the financial level. art. which was introduced in the context of the terrorist attack in Madrid in March 2004. This aims at allowing Member States (with no minimum number of countries involved) that are willing to move forward in the field of military cooperation to do so without being hindered by others. The Protocol on Permanent Structured Cooperation refers to a ‘new stage in the development of the European Security and Defence Policy’. EU Member States ‘whose military capabilities fulfill higher criteria and which have made more binding commitments to one another in this area with a view to the most demanding missions shall establish permanent structured cooperation within the Union framework’ (art.’ (art. The importance of the clause is watered down by the provision stating that it ‘shall not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence policy of certain Member States’. The Battlegroup Concept provides an example of what a permanent structured cooperation could look like. leading to the debate about a "hard core" Europe or a two–speed Europe. and a‘solidarity clause’ (Title VII. political and military solidarity among EU Member States is boosted by the inclusion of a mutual assistance clause (art. The mutual assistance clause is inspired by the Western European Union Treaty´s clause. flexibility in the CSDP field is encouraged by the establishment of permanent structured co–operation (art.28§3).188R1) • • • -----------------» -----------------» -----------------» .28A6). but other types of military cooperation are foreseen.In the same vein. It states that ‘If a Member State is the victim of armed aggression on its territory. The ‘solidarity clause’.

Decision–Making Process The unanimity rule prevails in the CFSP/CSDP decision–making processes. the unanimity rule remains when deciding on the launch of a mission. These different provisions aim at giving CFSP and CSDP more coherence and visibility. Both headline goals identify the need for rapid response . decisions pertaining to ‘permanent structured co–operation’. exceptions are introduced in the Treaty. However. In practice. shall be adopted by the Council acting unanimously’ (art. and the Treaty confirms that ‘Decisions relating to the common security and defence policy. including those initiating a mission as referred to in this Article. In particular. several provisions in the Lisbon Treaty aim to improve the coherence across the EU´s three pillars. They lay out a framework but most provisions are still unclear as to their practical implications and political sensitivities. policy–makers have stressed the importance of enhancing the coherence not just between CFSP and CSDP. the procedures for setting up and administering the ‘start–up fund’. In fact. How CSDP and CFSP might evolve? The evolution of CSDP is partially visible in its two roadmaps: the Civilian Headline Goal 2010 and the Headline Goal 2010 (which focuses mostly on military capability development). Implementation and the passage of time will play key roles in clarifying what is possible and how it impacts on the way the EU conducts its foreign affairs and security policy. this means that states involved in permanent structured co– operation may not launch an operation on behalf of the EU without having the formal approval of all EU Member States. • • • • • • -----------------» -----------------» -----------------» -----------------» -----------------» -----------------» The evolution of EU foreign policy Over time. or the appointment of the High Representative. On the other hand.28 A4). but across all foreign policy–related tools. are adopted by qualified majority.• • • -----------------» -----------------» -----------------» The Lisbon Treaty and CFSP/CSDP c.

with periodic improvements marked by occasional dips as external challenges complicate the formulation of a common policy. Examples include the future demand for CSDP operations. consistent with the establishment of Civilian Response Teams and EU Battlegroups. • • • • • • -----------------» -----------------» -----------------» -----------------» -----------------» -----------------» Basic Time–line of Events Year Event . Both headline goals incorporate a systematic review process to ensure that the EU achieves the capabilities needed to address current and future risks. the speed at which new capabilities are acquired. The evolution of CFSP is not as clear cut as that of CSDP. the level of financial/manpower resources made available for CSDP operations. While the linkage to CSDP is likely to be strengthened as policymakers strive to increase the coherence among tools in the foreign policy arena. the actual level of "common" foreign policy across the range of EU Member States remains to be seen. and EU–specific developments such as Aerial surveillance during the EUFOR Tchad/RCA mission – May 2008 enlargement. They also emphasise the importance of qualitative aspects of capability development – such as interoperability among military forces or advanced levels of training for civilian staff. the EU´s relations with third states and international organisations.capabilities. a number of lessons have been identified which likewise impact the evolution of CSDP. With some over twenty CSDP missions either executed or currently underway. Given the volatile nature of politics. CFSP is more likely to evolve in a non–linear fashion. The evolution of CSDP is also subject to external factors.

1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1954 1955 1956 1957 1961 1969 1975 1983 1986 1989 1990 1992 1993 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2003 2004 2009 End of World War II Churchill´s speech at the University of Zurich calling for a United States of Europe Launching of the European Recovery Program (Marshall Plan) Signing of the Brussels Treaty Signing of the North Atlantic Treaty Unveiling of the Schumann Plan Outbreak of the Korean War Signing of the Treaty of Paris establishing the European Coal and Steel Community Failure of the European Defence Community Signing of the Modified Brussels Treaty formally creating the WEU Establishment of the Warsaw Pact Suez Canal Crisis Signing of the Treaties of Rome Construction of the Berlin Wall The Davignon Report introduces the idea of European Political Cooperation Adoption of the Helsinki Final Act Stuttgart Declaration (‘Solemn Declaration’) Signing of the Single European Act Fall of the Berlin Wall Signing of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Signing of the Treaty on European Union (in force 1993) Official creation of the EUROCORPS Reinforcement of ESDI within NATO at the Berlin Summit Signing of the Amsterdam Treaty (in force 1999) Franco–British Joint Declaration on European Defence (St. Malo) Cologne and Helsinki European Council Meetings lay the foundations for ESDP Santa Maria da Feira European Council Adoption of the European Security Strategy Adoption of the Berlin Plus Arrangements Headline Goal 2010 / Civilian Headline Goal 2008 (updated in 2007 to CHG 2010) Entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty on the European Union. scope of activities. and decision–making in CFSP/CSDP • • • • • • -----------------» -----------------» -----------------» -----------------» -----------------» -----------------» . New institutions.

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