Division

'''<'hi*«Q

of

Agricultural

Sciences

UNIVERSITY

OF

CALIFORNIA

CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURAL

Experiment Station Extension Service

MANUAL 34
Price: 25?!

8 1

Contents
PAGE

THE HYBRIDS AND THEIR PROGENY
ALL-AMERICA AWARDS

...
. .

I

5

SELECT VARIETIES ADAPTED TO CLIMATE

6
8

PLANTING
IRRIGATING
SOIL CONDITION

10

AND FERTILIZING

....

II

WEED CONTROL
PROPAGATION

14

14
1

The Author
H. M. Butterfield
turist
is

INSECT PESTS
DISEASES

Agricul-

22

Emeritus, Agricultural Ex-

THE SPRAY AND DUST PROGRAM
PRUNING
EXHIBITION BLOOMS

....

25

tension Service, Berkeley.

28
3

JANUARY,

1964

This manual replaces Manual 13, Amateur Rose Culture in California.

SOME POPULAR ROSE VARIETIES DESCRIBED BY TYPE, GROWTH HABITS, COLOR AND FRAGRANCE
REFERENCES

34 44

This manual
Sciences,
cost.

is

one of a
it

series

published by ihc University of California Division of Agricultural

and
this

is

sold for a charge
is

which

is

based upon returning only a portion of the production
available publications which,

By

means

possible to

of production, or limited audience,

due to relatively high cost would otherwise be beyond the scope of the Division's publish-

make

ing program.

OSE CULTURE
FOR THE

HOME GARDENER
H. M.

BUTTERFIELD

he wild rose was
as

the

first

rose described

In 1859 nurserymen brought to San
Francisco such popular roses as Austrian

growing in California. Spanish setders, who saw it along the trail from San Diego to San Francisco in 1769,
it

introduced in Europe
nineteenth.

Copper and White Banksia, the former at the end of the
sixteenth century, the latter, in the early

called

the Castilian rose

—probably
had

in

memory

of the pink rose they

left in

Among many

other varieties

Spain (Rosa damascena var. trigintapetala). Later, they

brought in were Gloire des Rosomanes
matella),

imported the Castilian

rose
in

from the old country and planted it mission and rancho gardens, and in
later,

(Ragged Robin), Cloth of Gold (ChroGold of Ophir, Niphetos, and

Fortune's Yellow.

Many

of these early
still

their cemeteries.

nineteenth-century European roses
settlers

Eighty years

described

two roses growing in California, the same pink Castilian and a white variety growing at Mission San Jose. The latter was probably either the single White Cherokee or the Lamarque, both introduced in Europe in the early part of the
nineteenth century.

grow in old California gardens. By 1856, rose culture in the state had grown so rapidly that Louis Prevost, a nurseryman at San Jose, listed some 20,000 rose plants for sale. By 1858, a
San Francisco nurseryman, William C. Walker, grew between 400 and 500 rose
varieties.

THE HYBRIDS AND THEIR PROGENY
Iose
'the

growers

are interested primarily in

popular Banksia, Austrian Copper, Rosa
hugonis, and R. wichuvaiana.
cial

many

rose hybrids

and

their proginterstill

Commer-

W^r&P eny. Certain fanciers, however, are

growers are also interested in the

ested only in rose species, such as the

wild stocks that have provided R. multi-

JL1BKAR*
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA DAVIS

flora

and R. odorata
in

rose

—or

—the

Chinese tea
species,

Lady Hillingdon, Marechal
the various Cochet roses.

Niel,

and

hybrids

between

such as R. manetti.

At one time the hybrid perpetual, tea, and noisette were highly popular. Interest in the multiflora, the moss, and the
pernettiana has declined, and
in these

Noisette. Noted for its vigorous climbing habit and ease of culture, this
hybrid required
little

pruning. Cloth of

Gold, Gold of Ophir (Ophirie), La-

hybrids

marque, and William Allen Richardson,

groups are now seldom grown. Hybrid perpetuals. This class was
perpetual

representative

of

this

class,

are

occasionally seen today in old gardens.

originated in 1835 by crossing the old

Multiflora group. This group
cludes the polyantha and

in-

Damask
is

with the Bourbon

rose to secure a vigorous race.

The

cross

usually well represented by the variety

some of the ramblers. Cecile Brunner, Baby Rambler, and Yellow Rambler are old vari-

Frau Karl

Druschki,

occasionally

by

Paul Neyron and Ulrich Brunner, and by American Beauty.

Tea
many weak

roses.

Named

for their tea scent,

roses of this

group had a relatively habit of growth, and tended to

have weak stems.

Among

the teas are

Cecile Brunner

(climbing form), one of the most popular of the polyantha roses.

polyanthas, such as Rosenelfe, and the

low, compact-growing hybrid teas, such
as

Snowbird and World's
in

Fair,

which
in

have flowers up to perhaps 4 inches
diameter,
a

wide range of colors. Some of the newer varieties among the floribundas, such as Golden Slippers, Sarabande, Gold Cup, and Jiminy Crickets,

have become very popular.
rose.

Moss

The
is

moss-like

glands
its

covering the sepals give this rose

name. The flower
tive in

particularly attracfull

the

bud

stage, but not in

bloom.

Red

Ripples, a velvety, vivid red bush

rose of the floribunda type.

Pernettiana group. This group from a cross between Austrian Copper and one of the hybrid perpetuals, and includes Juliet and Mme. Edouard Herriot. Hybrid teas. These roses, developed
resulted

mosdy

in the last fifty years, have almost

entirely
eties in

replaced the

tea

roses.

They

were originated by crossing the
this class. All varieties of the

tea roses

with the hybrid perpetuals. Charlotte

multiflora

group are characterized by small flowers borne in clusters. Considerable
publicity
as

Armstrong
Tropicana

is
is

a fine

example of

this type.

a 1963 introduction.

Some

has been
a

given to
in

Rosa multiflora
states

hedge plant

with

summer

rainfall.

Most

rose

specialists agree that this rose

cannot be

expected to grow well in most parts of
California without irrigation,

and few
in
its

gardeners would be interested

small flowers. Furthermore, the plant

makes
will

a

high,

not

produce
rose

rounded mound, and a narrow, compact
is

hedge.

The

deciduous

also

a

disadvantage where an evergreen hedge
is

planned.

Polyantha
very
small
clusters.

roses.

These
often

produce
borne
in

flowers,

Cecile

Brunner, in climbing
illus-

form, and Etoile Luisante, in bush,
trate this

group very well. Floribunda group. Certain
as

roses

formerly listed
hybrid

hybrid
are

teas

or
in

as
this

polyanthas

found

Summer Sunshine

is

a canary
rose.

group. Included are the large-flowering

yellow hybrid tea bush

hybrid teas are also grown as hedge
plants.

These need ample water

in dry

climates.

Certain briar characteristics, such as
colors of old gold

and flame red, have been introduced in the hybrid teas from

The crimson stamens
climber, Dainty Bess,

Hybrid tea roses have also been used in some of the crosses. The intense copper in some of our modern hybrid teas is inherited from the Austrian briar. The long blooming period of hybrid teas makes them especially valuable for sprays and color effect. Single roses. There is still some inthe pernettiana group.
terest in the Irish single roses,

of this single, pink make it a striking

and popular

variety.

Bush

roses

and

climbers. Some of

the best varieties of these
are listed in the table

modern

roses

such as
roses,

Irish Elegance,

and the Cherokee
is

on pages 34-43. Many of the popular bush roses are also

such as Pink Cherokee. Fortune's Yellow, a miscellaneous rose,

grown

as standard, or tree, roses for use

thought by

in formal

gardens or where space
of

is

some
kee

to be a hybrid

between the Chero-

limited.

Many

the

most popular

and the Banksia. In California, Yellow is known both as Beauty of Glazenwood and as San
Fortune's

hybrid tea roses have been developed

from bush

roses by mutation. Fairy, or miniature, roses. These

Rafael.
is

One

of the best climbing singles

belong to the species Rosa chinensis var.

Dainty Bess.

minima, or possibly a recent derivative.
of the

Ragged Robin,
is still

a

popular rose for

Bourbon group, planting around
;i

Some

of today's miniatures probably are

descendants of this earlier species. Available evidence does not

orchards, but to thrive in
it

dry climate

make

clear

what

needs added water.

the type

name

is

for the miniatures.

1

ALL-AMERICA AWARDS
he
list

below shows

the All-America awards for 1954-1964. Roses in this

list

are

those considered by 16 judges,

from throughout the United

States, to be the best

introductions for the year.
YEAR
I964
1963

VARIETY

INTRODUCED BY:

YEAR
1959
1958

VARIETY
Ivory Fashion
Starfirc

INTRODUCED BY:

Granada
Saratoga

Royal Highness

I962

Tropicana Christian Dior

Golden Slippers John S. Armstrong Armstrongs
King's
1

Howards of Hemet Jackson & Perkins Conard & Pyle Jackson & Perkins Conard & Pyle Petersen & Dering
Jackson

Conard & Pyle Germains

Fusilier

1

'J

57

Gold Cup White Knight Golden Showers White Bouquet
Circus

& Perkins & Perkins Conard & Pyle
Jackson

Jackson

Germains
Jackson

&

Perkins

Ransom

& Perkins

1956
1955

Armstrongs
Jackson

96

Duet
Pink Parfait
Fire

i960

King Garden Party
Sarabande

Conard & Pyle Armstrongs Conard & Pyle Armstrongs Conard & Pyle

Jiminy Crickets Queen Elizabeth
Tiffany
Lilibet

&

Perkins

Germains

1954

Howards of Hemet Howard & Smith
Armstrongs

Mojave

Taffeta,

an All-America
is

selecits

tion for 1948, apricot shades

admired for and excellent,

glossy leaves.

Floradora, an orange-red and cream bush rose, is also
available as a climber.

SELECT VARIETIES ADAPTED TO CLIMATE
alifornia's

widely
to

varying

climate

Transition.
plain

Lies

between

coastal

makes

it

difficult

recommend any
varieties
state

specific rose variety for statewide plant-

and hot inland zone. Normal growing season averages 200 to 275

ing. Fortunately,

many

seem

to

do well
all

in

any climate. The

may

be

loosely divided into six climatic zones,

days per year. Mean winter temperature, 65° F; mean summer temperatures range from 75° to 80° F.

of

which overlap somewhat,
fast limits

so that

no hard and

can be

set.

Beach. Exposed to ocean from San Diego to the state's northern boundary. Averages 325 days per year above freezing. Mean summer temperatures under 70° F; winter mean, 44° to 48° F.
Coastal plain.
}>er

Inland. A long, hot valley extending from Shasta County south into Kern County. Averages about 225 or more
days above freezing.
tures are often 100°

Summer temperaF or higher.
zone,

Desert.

An

inland

with

an

average of 250 or more days per year

Lies

just

back

of

beach area. Averages 250 to 325 days
year above freezing.
j^eratures as high as

Summer tem75° F; winter mean,
is

above freezing. Mean summer temperature, about 90° F. Mean winter temperature may be as high as 65° F, but
nights are cold.

40°

to

45° F. Growth of roses
of

affected
is

Mountain.
of

High

elevations,
a

with

by cooling influence
less

ocean, but air
/.one.

heavy freezing in winter, and
lrost

chance

damp

than

in

beach

in

almost any month of the

year.

A

short

growing season

of 100 to

200 days above freezing. Rose canes
ety

may

Roses with 15 to 24 Petals: Suited to Coastal Areas

be killed back unless a very hardy variis

Autumn
Fandango
Fashion

planted, such as

some

of the Rosa

rugosa hybrids.

Fred Edmunds Kathcrine T. Marshall

Mme.

Cccile Brunncr

Number of Petals
and Climatic Conditions
The
blossom
average
is

Ophelia and forms of
Picture

Saturnia

number

of

petals

per
for

Gold Sweet Sixteen
Sutter's

a varietal characteristic

Taffeta

Talisman

example, the Lowell
averages only
15
to

Thomas
18
petals,

variety

Vogue
Roses with 35 to 50 or More Petals: Suited to Warm to Hot Areas
Applause

while
of

Peace averages 50 to 65.
ing on

The number

petals of a particular variety has a bear-

how

well that variety will

bloom

Candy

Stripe

under various climatic conditions. Where the growing season is cool and roses are slow to open, only those with
relatively

Chief Seattle
Chrysler

few

petals are well adapted.

Debonair Fred Howard Horace McFarland

Some
some

roses

with more petals

may do

Memoriam
Mirandy
Peace

well in the hottest part of

summer, and
satisfactory

of the popular roses in the cooler
districts

coastal

may

be

Red Ripples
Sincera

further inland early or late in the season

Suspense

when

the prevailing weather

is

cool. In

general, those roses with 15 to 25 petals

open rapidly, and those with from 25 to 35 open medium rapidly. Roses with 35 to 40 petals need more heat in order to open quickly, and are therefore better
adapted to a generally
to the

Roses with 25 to 35 Petals: Suited to Many Areas Where Summers Are Not Very Hot
Buccaneer
Charlotte Armstrong
Circus and Circus Parade

warm

climate or

Duet
Etoile de
First

warmer months

in a generally

cool

climate.

Roses with 40 to 60 or

Hollande Love

more petals are usually slow to open, and need a warm growing season. Such
roses are well suited to the interior areas

Floradora

Forty-Niner

where summers are warm to hot. The higher mountain areas will probably have some warm weather in summer, but winters may be cold, and frosts frequent. In these areas, only hardy roses

Golden Emblem Grande Duchesse Charlotte Helen Traubel
Junior Miss

Mme. Henri

Guillot

Nocturne Ophelia and forms of
Peace
Picture

can survive, regardless of petal numbers.
Roses that seem to do well almost every-

Show

Girl

where usually have from 25 or 30
about 40
petals.

Signora
to

Tickled Pink
Traviata


PLANTING
limate and
full

soil. Plant roses either in

vigorous types
inches long in

may have

three canes 20

sun or where a reasonable amount of sun reaches them during the day.
Roses grown in shade are susceptible to mildew. In the hot interior valleys the
flowers will probably

No. 1 grade. Weak varieties in this and similar classes may have only 16-inch canes in No. 1 grade, 12inch in No. \y and 10-inch in No. 2. 2
,

bloom

faster

than

Polyanthas should have four 10-inch
canes in No.
1 1

those

grown

protection

in a cool climate, and some from the afternoon sun may

grade, three 8-inch in

No.

Y2 and two
,

6-inch in
1

No.

2.

be desirable.
Frost
is

Climbers in No.

grade usually have
l
,

not likely to

damage

roses in

most parts of California although some
protection may be required in the high mountains. Unseasonable frost at time
of

new growth

could, of course,

cause injury.

A

well-drained, fertile

loam

soil is best for roses. It

should

not contain excessive amounts
of alkali salts or other harmful

No. \ /2 two 18-inch canes; in No. 2, one strong cane or two 12-inch canes. Containers. Bare-root plants are sold in the nurseries from December until new growth pushes out. After new growth appears, the nurseryman usually pots the unsold plants, often trimming
three canes 24 inches long; in

back the roots to

fit

the plant

chemicals, such as boron.

into the container. For plant-

Time

to plant.

From midis

ing in January and February, a

January on into February
or for as long as healthy,
less)

the

No. no
(leaf-

1

grade bare-root plant has

best time to plant roses in California

superior. Later in the year

you

will

dormant

probably have to buy roses in containers.
plants sold ruary.

bushes can be purchased. Bushes

planted as early as
trouble

December have more
than

Such plants rarely equal No. 1 bare-root from December to early FebSmall rose plants are often sold in

with
later.

dieback

do those

planted

Grades of nursery plants. Many
nurseries
sell

cartons
stores.

roses according to grade:

in supermarkets and variety Such plants should prove satis-

No.
2

1

(large),

(small).

No. \y (medium), No. 2 The amount of growth in

factory for their grade unless they are

held

too

long before

being planted.

each grade varies somewhat with the
vigor of a particular variety. Vigorous
in No. 1 grade usually have two 18-inch canes; in No. \y two 142 inch canes; in No. 2, one strong cane or two 10-inch canes. Weaker varieties should have three canes in No. 1 grade; two 12-inch in No. 1 / one strong cane 2 or two 10-inch in No. 2. Some vigorous roses, such as Dorothy

varieties

Those of No. 1 grade are usually superior to No. V/ or No. 2 when sold at 2 the normal season. Examine the plants
at

,

time of purchase to be sure that they

are in

good condition.

Condition of nursery plants. Nurserymen attempt to keep their rose bushes in good condition, ready for planting on delivery. Bushes are sometimes coated with wax to prevent excessive drying, and are usually shipped while they are dormant, with the bare roots snugly wrapped in moist sphag-

l

;

Perkins and

I

liawatha,

may have
1

four

24-inch canes in the
I

No.

grade.

[ybrid perpetual roses

and other very

num
time

moss.

It is

important that the bush

is

not planted too deep. Measure depth

be dormant and the tissues
of

plump
tissues

at

after irrigation,

planting.

If

the

are

when the soil has settled. Supporting the bush. Tie all stand-

severely

dried

out,

the

bark will be

shriveled. Occasionally,

through no fault

ard or tree roses to stakes so that the canes will not break in a strong wind.

of the

nurseryman, a bush dries out

Support must
ing
roses

also

be provided for climblattice,

before planting. In such a bush,

growth
all

a

wall,

or

fence,

may

be slow, or

may

not start at

depending on your preference and on
local conditions.

without special treatment. Either soak
the roots in water or, better
still,

cover

the plant

with moist
for a

soil

for

several

days

—even

week

or

more

until

the tissues have taken

up

the normal

amount

of moisture.

Transplanting. To transplant a bush or set out one that has been balled or kept in a can until after growth has started, be sure that the soil around the roots, or in the can or ball, is moderrose

Bushes with bare roots should be set out well in advance of the appearance of

new growth.

Depth of planting. Too-deep
ing
results

plant-

in

weak

lateral

growth.

(Eastern growers often plant roses very

deep to keep the canes above the bud union from being killed in freezing
weather, but this
California.)
Soil
is

crumble Prune back and thin out the top to counteract any loss of roots. If the weather is hot, protect the plant from sunburn for a few days with burlap or some other covering. This will help the bush get a good start
ately

damp

so that

it

will not

and expose the

roots.

in the

new location.

not necessary in

Replacing declining plants. With
proper care, a good rose bush

should not cover the

may

be

stem more than 2 inches above the bud
union, which should be about even with
the surface of the
is

expected to produce satisfactory flowers
for about 15 years or longer. In time,

ground

after the soil

however, the bush
replacement

may

decline,

making

settled.

The

best

new

canes will deif

necessary.

Replacement
change of

velop close to the

bud union

the bush

may

also be desirable for a

Firm the soil around the stem at planting so that the bush will stand as deep as it stood in the nursery.

Until the bush has become well established, leave a basin around the plant for irrigation water.

**^^^^SC=^^ymm

interest

in

the rose garden.

New

and

better rose varieties are constantly being

of them considered grown 25 or 30 years ago. Some are also more resistant to powdery mildew (p. 23) than are the

introduced,

many

do not replace them until the cause of decline is known. In addition to aging, decline may be caused by oak root
fungus, excessive alkali, or other prob

superior to those

lems that require
replanting
is

soil

treatment before
or
soil

safe.

Poor growth of canes
diseases

older ones.

even

When

declining plants are removed,

present

when no pests may indicate a

are

problem.

IRRIGATING
oses

cannot grow

in a dry soil.

They

readily,

the basin will not be needed
is

Xgneed a moderate amount of soil mois^ture throughout their root zone. Type of irrigation. Water may be
applied

after the plant
soil is

established, but

if

the

heavy, the basin must be perma-

nent.

between rows, in basins around each plant, or by overhead sprinkling. Furrow irrigation is often the most
in furrows

early

Overhead sprinkling should be done enough in the day so that the foli-

age dries quickly.
penetrates the
set

To

insure that water

soil to a

uniform depth,

economical method
ably level.

if

the land

is

reason-

the sprinkler heads so that water

On

very sloping ground, run

will overlap
circle

by half the diameter of the
sprinkler.

the furrows at right angles to the slope

—a

moderate drop of 4
sandy

to 6 inches in

made by each Frequency of
do not
retain

irrigation.

Sandy

100 feet for clay or loam, 10 to 12 inches
in 100 feet for
soils.

soils

any large amount of

available water for very long,

and must

Before the bush becomes well established, leave a basin

be irrigated once every four to 10 days.

around the plant

for

During hot weather,
be increased
to

this

irrigation water. If the soil takes water

twice a week.

may have to Loam

Run

a gentle stream of water around the plant until the ground is wet down to at
least 2 feet.

soils,

which retain more moisture than do sandy soils, need irrigation every eight to 15 days in summer. Clay soils, with large water-holding capacity, may need irrigation only every 15 to 30 days.

Too

frequent or too light watering

encourages a shallow root system
desirable for roses.

— not

Depth of

irrigation. Water should

run long enough to wet down all the root zone. This will usually mean to a depth of 2 feet. Do not add more water
until the roots

have used most of the
full capacity

available moisture. Soil moisture should

vary between the point of

and the point
Sutter's Gold, a bright yellow, fragrant, bush type,

which the leaves begin to wilt. If the soil is not wet down to full root depth at irrigation, it might just as well not be wet at all.
at

was an All-America
in 1950.

selection

One
directly
soils.

cubic

inch of water

will

wet
to 10

down

about 12 inches in sandy
soils it will

In loam

wet 6

inches down, and in clay, 4 to 5 inches.

To

wet

soil to

a depth of 2 feet in an

area 10 by 10 feet will require 125 gallons of water in sandy
in loam,
soils,

190 gallons
in clay.

and about 330 gallons

SOIL CONDITION
oils in

AND FERTILIZING
should keep roses in good growing condition.

most California gardens require
fertilizer.

very

litrie

Application of

1

or 2 inches of barnyard
fall

manure

in late

To

apply

fertilizer:

Dig properly

or early spring will supply

nitrogen to keep bushes in

enough good health
This oravailable

and produce high-quality
ganic material will help
to the plant nutrient

roses.

aged barnyard manure into the soil around each bush once or twice either in the fall or early spring, at a depth of
about 2 inches.
If a

make
is,

elements already

commercial
in a circle

fertilizer

is

used, ap-

present in the
a

soil.

Manure

however,
nitrogen

ply

it

about 8 inches out from
than

more expensive source

of

the trunk of the plant. This fertilizer
is

than are commercial nitrogen

fertilizers.

much

stronger

manure, and

A

commercial
acid,

fertilizer

containing 6
phoscent

should not be applied too close to the
plant.

per cent phoric

nitrogen,

10 4

per cent per

and

potash

Mix it carefully with the soil. Water thoroughly after applying
//

either type of fertilizer.

weakened
fertilizer

and
If

bud
the

development
soil is deficient

is

Too much
sometimes
a reaction

nitrogen

may

slowed because of a smaller root system.

result in a plant deformity
p. 18). Such likely to happen

Potassium.

in

resembling "bull nose" (see
is

potassium, the stems of the roses

may

especially

be weak, and even die back somewhat.

early in the year.

Leaves may develop brown edges. Iron. Deficiency first shows as light
yellowing in
tips of leaves. In time, the

Mineral Deficiencies
Nitrogen
to
is

the element most likely
soils, al-

be deficient in California

though some may also show a slight phosphorus deficiency. Most California
soils are

high in potassium.
as a whole.

A

deficiency in any one nutrient will

affect

growth of the plant
following
list

The
soil

of plant

symptoms

will help

you determine whether your
little

needs a fertilizer supplement.
nitrogen results
small, light-

whole area becomes yellow except the larger veins, which remain dark green. Application of an iron chelate may help overcome iron deficiency. Manganese. As with iron deficiency, leaves turn yellow, but even the smallest veins remain green. Damage is most pronounced in the top of the plant. Spraying with a solution of manganese sulfate at the rate of about 4/5 ounce to a gallon of water may help overcome
this deficiency.

Nitrogen. Too
colored flowers.

in yellowing of leaves

and
is

Growth

usually not

Excess Alkali or
Some
lime,
soils are

Lime
interfere with

so stunted as in lime-induced chlorosis.

Phosphorus. Older
without
turning

leaves

may drop
are

too high in alkali or in

yellow.

Stems

and such excesses

Mme.

Butterfly

is

a

pink hybrid tea with a sweet fragrance.

Christian Dior, a red-andscarlet

hybrid tea, was introduced in 1962 as an All-America selection.

the availability of iron

from the

soil,

spots,

and not

all

plants in an area

may
must

which
too

is

necessary to the plant.

When

be affected, as with chlorosis.)
Soil

much

lime

is

present,

the plants
as lime-inis

that has too

much

alkali

develop a condition

known

be washed by heavy irrigation to re-

duced

chlorosis.

The main symptom

move
and
about
help

soluble
chlorine.
1

sodium and potassium,
Addition
to 40

yellowing of the leaves regardless of

of

sulfur

at

whether or not they are shaded by other growth. If other nearby plants, as well
as the roses,

pound

square feet will

make

the alkali salts

more

soluble,

show

chlorotic (yellowed)
soil is

and

easier to

wash

out. Alkali soils

may

leaves, too

much

lime in the

prob-

be helped by improved drainage.

ably the cause. (Certain virus diseases

Roses grown on Ragged Robin rootstock (see p. 18) seem to be most resistant to alkaline soil.

may

also cause similar

symptoms, but
yellow only in

the leaves

may become

13

Isobel, a

coppery-pink single.

WEED CONTROL
r

^xi'lc^ EEDS
?<c>i6V

ma Y

De controlled by tilling the
rose

ground around the
moisture.

bushes,

but

excessive tillage can result in loss of soil

problem,

they

Where annual weeds are a may be controlled by
which
are sold

light oil sprays,

under

various trade names. Follow the
facturer's

manusuch

directions

for

use

of

sprays.

PROPAGATION
How and When to
\\v^

may

be 6 to 8 inches long. Cut so that
l

Take Cuttings
roses are often

the tip cut will be about
a bud.

A

inch beyond
!

Cut the base about

/4

inch beto

n California, dormant

low a bud. Some growers prefer

make

ready for cuttings to be taken by December. In areas with very mild winters,

a slanting cut rather than straight across.

Roots arise best near a node (the area
close to the base of a leaf); the

however, growth
all

may

continue and

bud

leaves stay green
lect

winter.

Try

to se-

forms in the

leaf axil. Since

suckering
best to

cuttings

that are
it

completely dordifficult

may

occur on rose cuttings,
all

it is

mant, because
to

is

much more

cut out

buds found on the base of
is

root

cuttings
If

green leaves.

that still have some any leaves do remain,

the cane that

to be inserted into the

rooting

medium.

remove them. Select mature cuttings from the
season's

pasl

growth.

A

Rooting
("lean,

Medium
for rooting rose cut-

cutting

about
Ix:

as

thick as a lead
ciently

pencil

should

suffiIt

sharp sand has long been the

mature by early December.

favorite

medium

/

/

tings.

A

mixture of sand and peat
in

is

If

there

is

a well-drained place in the
rose

also very satisfactory, but sand should

garden,
rooted

where
easily,

cuttings
a

can

be

predominate

the mixture. Cuttings

such

place

may

be

may

also root well in a

good loam

soil.

chosen, instead of a propagating box

with rooting medium.

If

drainage

is

How to Plant
A
dormant
rose cutting will in time

poor, or

if

the base of the cuttings canall

not be kept moderately moist
the rooting period, there
is

through

new growth from This new growth must have
develop
suitable temperature

not

much

the

buds.

use in trying to root cuttings. Moisture

not only a

and temperature

and adequate mois-

and air around the roots, but also enough light for normal growth. The first stage in callusing and rooting can
ture

good callusing (see much more easily in sand than in an open garden. If planting is done in the open garfor

below) can be regulated

den, the cuttings are usually set fairly
close, at intervals of 4 to 6 inches, to

take place with considerable shade, but
in time all rooted rose cuttings should

conserve space. Cuttings that have been

have

full sunlight.

taken from the desired variety should

The amateur
tings as

rose

grower

will prob-

stand in place for the

first

growing

sea-

ably not find conditions for rooting cutsuitable
in

son
a

if

possible, before being

moved

to

the open garden,

permanent

position.

where the
as

roses will finally be

grown,
al-

tings that are to

Most rooted cutbe budded to another

in

a

special

propagating box,

variety (see pp. 16-17) are left for a year

though commercial growers do very
well by

or two, at

which time they should be

rooting cuttings in the

field.

ready to bud.

4

Leave some
buds here

^

I

Bury two-thirds
of the cutting

Two

buds have been left exposed at top of cutting (left). Cutting at right has callused and rooted satisfactorily.

V

Cuttings rooted in a propagating box

Examine

the

rooting

medium, and
the need
is

can be transplanted
started.

to the

permanent

apply water only

when

evi-

location as soon as the roots are well

dent below the surface. Watering every

few days during the winter months when the cuttings are under glass should
prove satisfactory.

Watering Cuttings
Cuttings rooted in the open garden
will probably

Callusing

need

little

water because

the

California

rainy

season continues

When

conditions of heat, moisture,
a rose cutting

from October to March or April, by which time the cuttings should be
rooted.

and oxygen are favorable,
inserted into the rooting

medium

will

Cuttings rooted in propagating boxes

form white callus tissue over the cut. This tissue helps prevent infection of
the

may

require

some water

so that the base

woody
cells

part of the cutting base.

The

of the cuttings will remain

wet

until

conditions that favor the production of
callus
also

rooting has started or been completed, depending on how long the cuttings are to remain in the box.

favor root formation.
of a

The formation

good

callus over

the basal cut on a rose cutting indicates

Steps to Follow in

Budding

ik
A\

I

.

Select a

plump bud from

2.

the mother plant. Cut it out, with a sharp knife, hiking some hark above

Cut a T-shaped slit about •% inch long in the bark of the plant that is
to receive the graft.

?.

Pry open the

slit

care-

fully

and

insert the

bud
its

graft gently so that all

surrounding bark
the
slit,

is

under

and below

it.

itself is

and only the exposed.

bud

16

that the cutting
tion

is

in a vigorous condi-

Roots form independent of the
in the inner

callus,

and that external conditions

are

cambium,

a layer beneath

also favorable for root formation.

the bark, next to the wood. Excessive

A
in

temperature of about 40° to 57°
rooting

F

callus

can retard root formation, but

the

medium

should prove

within the upper range of temperature

quite satisfactory for callusing rose cuttings.

given above, roots should form
factorily.

satis-

Usually the temperature should

remain below 69° F. Good callusing
can be achieved in either sand or a mixture of peat

and sand. Provide enough water

Budding
Budding
economical
plants
is

to

form

a film

a

method
of

of propagation

about the base of the cutting. Too water reduces the amount of

much

used extensively by nurserymen as an

air that

way

developing

new

reaches the callus area. Air containing

some carbon dioxide provides good
tion for rooting cuttings.

aera-

and of insuring plants on good rootstocks. Practically all roses from
commercial nurseries are budded. The amateur grower can also bud roses successfully by following a few
simple procedures. Because this method

Optimum
from
that at

root formation

may

take

place at a slightly different temperature

which

callus tissue forms.

Bind the bud in place with rubber, rafor string. (No waxing material is necessary.) Remove this wrapping once the bud
4.
fia,
is

5.

When the bud has taken, cut the cane into which it was inserted to about l inch above the bud.

A

established.

Do

not allow

it

to cut into

the bark.

17

involves considerable time before flow-

ering

plants

are

produced,

however,
al-

Rootstocks
The
rootstock of a rose variety
it

many
If
is

gardeners prefer to buy plants

is

im-

ready established.
the variety

portant because
to

has a great influence
roses.

you wish

propagate

on the behavior of most
not
all

Although

already on a good rootstock, budding

nurseries
their
so.

list

the rootstock on
are

is

not necessary.
plants

You may

simply get

which

varieties

propagated,

new
If

from

cuttings, as described

above.
the parent plant
is

many do Some

of

the

rootstocks

that

have

on a

less

vigorous

proved successful are those of Dr. Huey,

or

disease-resistant

rootstock than deit

sired,

you may take buds from

graft

them

to a

and rooted cutting from a
success-

Rosa multifiora, R. odorata, R. manetti, and Ragged Robin. Many roses on R.
odorata rootstock, however,

may

not be

variety with a desirable rootstock.

able to survive in areas of very cold
winters.

Budding can only be done
fully while the

bark separates readily

from the wood and while plump buds
are available.
If

the graft takes, the

bud

will

be

Hybrid tea or similar roses budded on these stocks have a good chance for vigorous growth if the rootstock is not more than one or two years old, and
not excessively vigorous for the variety

green three or four weeks after grafting.

Budding may be done in June or August. Buds inserted as late as August or early September remain dormant over the winter and can be forced into active growth at the start of the growing
season.

being propagated on

it.

The understock

should not be too large for the top.
extremely vigorous rootstock

An

may

cause

the flower buds to be blunt and de-

formed, a condition sometimes
as "bull nose."

known

(g£fj^, phids
^$^jj
are

m

INSECT PESTS*
and plant lice. Two aphids common pests on roses. The rose
is

sects, in a fine mist,

from any good hand

sprayer.

aphid (Macrosiphum rosae)
ing

a large

Early in the season, before the roses
are
in

green or pink species infesting the grow-

bloom,
off

these

aphids

may

be

and buds. The small green rose aphid (Myzaphis rosarum) works on
tips
all

washed
enough

with the hose every two or

three days.
in

Washing

is

best

done early

parts of the plant, particularly

on the
it

the day so that the foliage

undersides of the leaves. There

pro-

will dry quickly.

duces quantities of honeydew on which

Borers. The flat-headed apple

tree

grows

a black, sooty

mold fungus.
with sprays

borer {Chrysobothris mali), and others,

Aphids are

easily killed

may
If a

infest badly

sunburned

rose bushes.
spite of

containing either malathion, lindane, or
dimethoate, applied directly to the
#

bush
soil

starts to die

back in

in<>!

This section was revised with the help
S.

and watering, borers may be causing the injury. These pests are not

good

C.

Davis

and

J.

E.

Swift,

Agriculturists,

serious

if

the bushes are properly cared

Agricultural Extension, Berkeley.

tor alter planting.

IH

effective control,

dust the entire plant

with cryolite, or spray with dane, or malathion.

DDT,

lin-

Raspberry horntail.
(Hartigia cressoni)
attacks the
roses in
leys,
is

This

insect
It

also a borer.

growing tips on climbing some of the warm interior valwilted tips containing the

but rarely does serious damage.
off the

Cut

and burn them, to prevent further injury. Dig up all badly infested host plants and destroy them before new growth starts in the spring. No spray
larvae,
is

effective in control.

Red, or two-spotted, spider mite. The two-spotted mite (Tetranychus bimaculatus) may cause a considerable amount of damage to rose foliage under
The
rose aphid is a large green or pink insect that infests growing tips and buds, often congregating in large numbers.

greenhouse conditions, and

to roses in

Fuller rose beetle or weevil. The
Fuller
rose
is

beetle

(Pantomorus god-

mani)
Ys

a gray, wingless beetle, about

inch long, which eats around the leaf
not abundant in most gardens. For

edges of roses and certain other plants.
It is

The

Fuller rose beetle.

Raspberry horntail larvae and adults. Females,

left;

males, right.

%:

%W
19

sides of the petioles.

The

insects

may

continue to appear from
the

May

through

summer until Where the rose

early

fall.
is

slug

troublesome,

spray the rose leaves two or three times

during the season, starting about the
first

of

May. Lead arsenate spray
is

is ef-

fective,

but leaves a gray residue on
less

the foliage. This residue
tionable
if

objecis

the

first

application
first

de-

layed until most of the
roses has

crop of

been

cut.

The two-spotted
female).

spider mite (an adult

DDT,

Lindane, and malathion sprays

are very effective
visible residue.

and leave
first

little

or no

Spray

about May,

or

when

the rose slugs begin to eat the

leaves.

A

second application will usually

the garden during the

summer months.

be needed in early July to protect the
leaves that have

Spider mites can be seen only with the
aid of a magnifying glass. Yellowing of

come out

since spring.

the leaves in spots
spider mite injury.

may

be caused by

Rose snout beetle or rose curculio. The red-and-black rose beetle
(Rhynchites
long,
bicolor)^

about

inch

Frequent hosing of the leaves will control most of these mites. Aramite and Kelthane are effective spray materials.

may

begin to puncture holes in the
to con-

stems or buds starting to develop in the
early

summer. The sprays used

If

possible,

eliminate other host

trol the rose

slug will help control the

plants harboring these mites.

Rose

scale.

The

presence of rose
is

scale {Aulacaspis rosae)

indicated by

Holes were made by the
yellowish-green, like rose slug.

the white, flattened, hard bodies of these insects on the older rose canes. For effective control, cut out all of the older canes without leaving any stub, and prune any bush berries nearby that may also

worm-

be infested with the
strength
or
oil

scale.

A

winter-

spray or

oil

plus malathion
safely

Diazinon may where necessary.

be

applied

Rose

slug.

The

bristly

rose

slug

(Cladius isomerus) infests roses more frequently in the San Francisco Bay
area than in any other section of California. It is a yellowish-green, bristly,

wormlike

insect that eats holes

from the

undersides

of

the

leaves,

beginning

about May, tor as long as green leaves appear. The adult resembles a small

wasp, and lays
20

its

eggs on the under

snout beetle.

Hand

picking, or shaking
oil

the beetles off into a pan of

may

be

adequate where only a few are present.

Thrips. The flower or grass

thrips

(Frankjiniella spp.) sometimes appears

on unfolding

rose buds.

The

DDT
every

and

malathion sprays used to control rose
slugs are also effective against flower
thrips.

An

application once

10

days or two weeks during the early

growing season should be adequate. Each application should wet the undersides of the leaves completely.

Other
ally

insects. Certain other insects,

such as the leafhopper,
importance.

may

occasion-

cause damage, but they are of minor

The

rose leafhopper (Ty-

phocyba rosae) is reported to have caused some damage in the San Joaquin Valley. In the San Francisco Bay area,
the blue sharpshooter (Cicadella circellata)
is

often found on rose leaves, but

does not seem to cause

Stems and buds damaged by holes made by the rose snout beetle (rose curculio). (Photo from Essig: Insects of Western North America. Courtesy The Macmillan

Company.)

much damage. and malathion sprays are useful in control. Apply the spray to the foliage, beginning in May, and repeat about once a month for two or three months.

DDT

left: adult female flower thrips (Frankliiiiella moultoni). heft: full-grown larva. Detail shows spines at tip of abdomen.

Far

21

DISEASES*
Fungus Diseases
rmillaria root rot, also
root fungus or

known as oakmushroom root rot, is

by the mushroom-producing fungus Armillaria mellea. The fungus
caused

and grows under the bark, killing the tissue as it advances. The most reliable indicaenters the plant through the roots
tion that the trouble
liaria is the
is

caused by Armil-

presence of white or cream-

colored, fan-shaped fungus between the

bark and wood, and in the roots and
trunk beneath the
soil.

Roses are susceptible to Armillaria,

and should not be planted

in soil

known
growor-

to be infected. If bushes already

ing become infected, they should be destroyed and replaced by

some other
and

namental

known

to

be resistant. (For
resistant

a list of plants susceptible

Rose root infected with Armillaria root rot. Note white spots on bark.

to Armillaria, write to: Public Service,

229 University Hall, Berkeley
fornia.)

4,

Cali-

Diplocarpon rosae,
ally
state,

Blackspot, caused by the fungus is found occasionin the moist coastal areas of the

Blackspot

and almost never
is,

in the dry inte-

disease shows in irregular, dark-brown or black spots which increase in size until most of the leaf surface is

rior valleys. It

however, one of the

affected.

This disease usually causes pre-

most serious diseases of roses in areas of the country where summer rainfall occurs.

mature

leaf drop.

The fungus produces
of the leaves.

black spots with

fringed margins, on the upper surface

around the
usually
fall.

spots,

Yellowed areas develop and infected leaves

Blackspot can be controlled by captan,
lolpet,

and the same fungicides

that

control rust.
*

This section was prepared by A.
Associate
Agriculturist
I).

II.

Mc-

Cain,

in

Agricultural
1

Extension, Berkeley, and R.
,it<

Raabe, Assoc

Professor of Plant Patholog)

Plant

Pathologist
.

m

the

and Associate Experiment Station,

Berkeh

22

Canker.

Several different fungi can

tacks the leaves, buds,

and shoots of
visible as a

sus-

infect rose canes at the soil surface

and

ceptible varieties, usually distorting their

through openings caused by injuries and pruning wounds. As a result, brown
cankers, sometimes with gray centers,

growth.
to

The fungus

is

white

gray powdery growth on the leaves

develop on the affected parts, and the

and other green parts of the plant. Powdery mildew can be controlled
by frequent sprays or dusts of sulfur,
cycloheximide, dinocap, and some other
fungicides.

branch may wilt or die. A basal canker may weaken growth of the whole plant. The canker disease fungi produce many spores, which are spread in water.
Consequently, infection usually occurs

during wet periods.

Prune

off infected parts,

always cut-

Rust on roses is caused by the fungus Phragmidium mucronatum. Small orpowdery pustules containing ange spores form on the undersides of the
leaves. In the

ting just above a bud. Cover the cut

autumn, these spores are
a con-

ends with a wound-sealing compound.

replaced by overwintering black spores.

Keep

the plants

growing vigorously by
caused

Fungus spores may be airborne
siderable distance by wind.

proper fertilization and water.

Powdery mildew,
is

by

the

On some

rose varieties that are

more

fungus Sphaerotheca pannosa

var. rosae,

found

in practically every part of Caliits

fornia. Because reduced light favors

growth, mildew

is

more prevalent

in

shady locations and coastal areas.

It at-

Powdery mildew,

a

com-

mon

rose disease, shows as a white to gray, pow-

dery growth on the
leaves.

23

susceptible to the disease than others,

Most

rose rootstocks are susceptible,

only one or two pustules on a leaf
cause
it

may
in-

to turn yellow

and

fall.

The

foliage can be protected

from

fection by spraying at seven- to 10-day
intervals

and there is no cure for infected plants. However, Rosa manetti rootstock is resistant to most strains of the fungus, and where the disease occurs, roses on
this rootstock

with zineb, maneb, or ferbam.
kill

should be used.
is

The

sprays will not

rust already

Soil

fumigation

the only

method
soil.

present, but will

keep spores from gerfurther
infecting the

for eliminating the

fungus from the

minating
leaves.

and

Fumigation must be done only by
the use
of

a

licensed pest control operator trained in
is

Verticillium wilt
soil-borne

caused by the
of surviving
years.

the

hazardous

chemical

fungus Verticillium albo-atrum, which
is

(chloropicrin) involved.

in the soil for 10 or

and capable more

Many

Bacterial Disease

different kinds of plants are attacked, especially

chrysanthemum, cotton, night-

Crown
terium

gall

is

caused by the bactumefaciens.
result

shade weed, pepper, potato, strawberry,

Agrobacterium
galls or

and tomato. Soil in which any of these crops have been planted is likely to be
infested with the fungus,

Rough

overgrowths

from

infection through

wounds on

the roots

and should

not be used for roses.
Infected rose plants lose the leaves

and crown of the plant. Occasionally parts aboveground also become infected.

Many
crown

kinds of plants are susceptible to
gall,

on one or more shoots, which then die back from the tip. New shoots may arise from the base, but the plant rarely makes a complete recovery.

and the bacterium can
soil

sur-

vive in the

for several years.

The

disease cannot be controlled by
galls

breaking off the

since they will

Rose leaves affected by
disease.

rust,

a

fungus

Leaf at left spores on underside.

shows

powdery

24

infected

plants

show

various
tissue.
all

patterns

and blotches of yellow
the virus
is

Although

present in
all

parts of the

plant, usually not

of the leaves dis-

play the symptoms.

mitted vegetatively,

The disease is transwhen grafting or

budding

is

done. Try to avoid using
plant
the

stock that transmits this virus. Unlike

many
insects.

other

viruses,

rose

viruses are not

known

to be spread

by

There

is

plants. Fortunately, the

no known cure for infected growth of most
is

virus-infected roses
fected.

not severely

af-

Root of
gall,

rose plant infected by crown bacterial disease. Such plants should be removed from the rose garden.

a

usually develop again at the same place. Avoid wounding plants at the soil line. Do not buy or plant roses infected by crown gall. Remove any infected plants from the rose garden.

Virus Disease
Mosaic
ticular
is

a virus disease.

Symptoms

vary with the rose variety and the parrose virus

Mosaic, a virus disease, may be carried from the rootstock to other parts of the plant. Infected leaves show yellow
blotches.

involved. Leaves of

THE SPRAY AND DUST PROGRAM
Timing
he times recommended for spraying and dusting have been carefully determined so that they are either best for
control or safest for the plant. Follow

Coverage

When
and

spraying, wet the limbs, twigs,

foliage thoroughly for

good control

of insects, mites,

and

diseases.

Keep

the

spray

mixture

stirred,

especially

one
settle

the

recommended schedules

closely for

containing chemicals that tend to
rapidly (for example, zineb).

satisfactory results.

25

Equipment
For
sprays,

The powdery mildew
compressed-air
spray

fungicides, cy-

cloheximide, dinocap, and sulfur, are

tanks, knapsack sprayers, bucket

pumps,

compatible with the rust and blackspot
fungicides,

and trombone-type sprayers are satisfactory. For dusting, use the ready-made equipment in which many of the dusts are sold, or any other mechanical device adequate for the job. Apply dusts uniformly but lightly;

captan,

folpet,

ferbam,

maneb, and zineb. Where powdery mildew and rust or blackspot occur together, a combination spray of one of

the

powdery mildew fungicides and one

heavy

visible

de-

of the rust fungicides
ent.

may

be conveni-

posits are unnecessary,

and may injure

some

plants.

All of the above-mentioned fungicides are generally compatible with

most

in-

Dosages
Formulations of materials for use by
the amateur rose grower are available

secticides,

such as

DDT,

lindane, mala-

under many trade names and various
concentrations. Before using the materials,

be certain to read the label and

and methoxychlor. It would be combined powdery mildew, rust, blackspot, and insect spray, but the fungicides and probably the insecticides would have reduced effectiveness. Combination sprays should
thion,

possible to apply a

follow directions for use carefully. Use

be used only

only the

amount recommended.

when

necessary.

Combination Sprays
may
Gardeners with only a few rose plants prefer to buy a trade product
as

Fungicides
Fungicides are available under numerous trade names. In some instances the trade name is the same as the generic name, which is a shortened version of
the active chemical

formulated

a

combination

spray.

Most

of these sprays are effective because

they contain materials to control insects,
mites,

ingredient in the

and

diseases.

product.

The

list

below gives the generic

Pinocchio is a salmonand-pink floribunda with a delightful
fragrance.

name, chemical, and some of the trade names under which the formulation is
sold.

avoidable that similar products under other trade names
tended, nor
lar

may

not be cited.
is

No
in-

endorsement of named products
is it is

Because of the large numbers of commercial fungicides available,

criticism implied of simi-

un-

products not mentioned.
TRADE

GENERIC

CHEMICAL

NAME
captan

NAMES
N-Trichloromethylmercapto-4-cyclohexine1,2-dicarboximicle

Captan
Orthocide
Acti-dione

cycloheximitle

Beta [2-(3,5-dimethyl-2-oxycyclohexyl)-

PM

2-hydroxycthyl] -glutarimide

dinocap

Dinitro (i-mcthylheptyl) phenyl crotonate

Capryl

Doo-Spray Karathane Mildex
ferbam
Ferric dimethvldithiocarbamate

Carbamate Fermate

Ferbam

Karbam Black
folpet

N-Trichloromethylthiophthalimide

Phaltan

Rose and Garden Fungicide

maneb

Manganese ethylenebisdithiocarbamate

Dithane M-22

Maneb
Manzate
ineb

Zinc ethylenebisdithiocarbamate

Dithane Z-78
Parzate

C

Zineb

PRECAUTIONS FOR THE HANDLING OF PESTICIDES
all labels carefully before using pest- and disease-control materials, and follow the precautions listed. Pesticides are poisonous; store them in locked cabinets away from children and animals. Do not stand in the drift or breathe the fumes of pesticides while mixing or spraying them. Wash thoroughly, and change clothing after spraying or dusting. Do not smoke or eat while applying pesticides. Do not remove a pesticide from its original container and store in a soda pop bottle, a bag, or any other container. Destroy and properly dispose of empty pesticide containers immediately. Left-over spray or dust materials should be immediately disposed of. Do not store them for future use. Thoroughly wash and clean spraying equipment after use. Do not let sprays drift onto other garden plants that will be eaten by man or animal. Keep sprays and dusts out of fish ponds, birdbaths, and water supplies for animals. Protect nearby evergreen trees and shrubs from the dormant sprays used on rose bushes. Do not use household preparations of or other insecticides on plants; they contain solvents which may injure plants.

Read

DDT

27

PRUNING
orrect pruning strengthens the plant.
Incorrect pruning can be highly destructive. All roses

should be pruned

at least

pruned early, than when pruning was done at the later date. Late pruning also encourages prompt healing of cuts with
less

once a year.

danger of infection.
the regular
different

Canes on most rose bushes can be
expected to produce good flowers for
four
or
five

When
rives,

the

dormant season arflushes of growth

made during

the year are usually ig-

years,

and occasionally
its

nored. Cut the total annual growth back
rather severely to a

longer.

When
the

a cane reaches

limit of
it

good

side

bud low

good flower production, cut
right
to

back
is

down on

the current season's growth,

ground.
it

If

the

bush

properly handled,

will develop
If

new

canes to replace the old ones. canes are
insufficient
left

the old

with only one to three buds left on the growth made for the year. Occasionally, more buds may be left on very vigorous
roses or on varieties such as Golden Emblem which seems

too long, and
is

thinning

done,

the rose bush
little
it is

vigorous

may produce so new growth that

to flower better

when

the canes
little

are

allowed to grow a

scarcely

worth keeping.
or lateral to which
cut back will northe most growth

longer than usual.

The bud
the cane
is

Summer
practice

pruning.
be

This
the
it

should
to

limited

mally

make

largely

maintaining

in length.

An

upright bush can
cutting back

shape of the bush since
volves cutting back

in-

be

made more spreading by

new growth and
plant.

the outside buds or lateral branches.

a spreading bush becomes
if

Or more upright

tends to
varieties,

weaken
such

the

Vigorous

as Belle of

Portugal and

cut back to about

l

A

inch of inside

the hybrid teas,

may
for

be

summer pruned.

buds or upright

laterals.

The
shears

pillar roses also

need some prun-

Always
clean,

use

pruning

with
green

ing in

summer

good shape. Roses

sharp

blades.

On

new,

that are being trained or
a particular

woven about
to be short-

wood, a sharp knife gives with no ragged edges.

a clean cut

form may need

ened occasionally during the summer
months.
a par-

The

cut surface normally does not
if

need to be covered. However,
ticular variety tends to

When
At

the

first

crop of flowers fades,
also be

cover the

show dieback, pruning wounds with a good
on the market.
present practo
is

the dead blossoms should be removed.
that time,

new growth may
will

wound

dressing such as one of the cold

cut back to strong side buds or laterals.

asphalt materials

The uppermost buds
in certain other

form new
will

Winter pruning. The
tice

shoots which, in hybrid tea roses and

with most varieties

prune very

everblooming types,

late in the

rather
a

dormant season late January than in December. This allows
of time between pruning
first

flower in time.
of

When

the second crop

flowers

minimum

period, the

has finished the blooming growth may again be short-

and the
ties

new growth. Some

varie-

ened-in by cutting back to strong side

have shown more dieback,

when

buds

or

laterals.

Under

this

system,

28

three crops of flowers a year can be produced under favorable conditions. Bush roses. Growers often disagree about how to prune bush roses. Grow-

more blooms, but
length of stem

the size of flowers

and

Remove
sible

as

may much

be poor.
older

wood

as pos-

without destroying the shape of

ing conditions affect the vigor. of these
roses,

the plant.
half

and,

indirectly,

the

degree

of

way and

Cut new wood back about to an outside bud or eye.

pruning.

Many

of the roses in central

California

gardens

respond

to

some-

what more severe pruning than do the same varieties in southern California.

vigorous new canes that normally push out above the bud union form the framework of the bush and replace any old canes that are removed. (Use a

The

To

say that an established bush

rose

sharp knife to cut the soft
to prevent

new wood,

should be maintained at a height of

ragged edges.)

about 18 inches, or 2
height
is

feet,

or any other

Roses that have been propagated correctly

purely arbitrary.

The

height

should not produce suckers below

maintained depends on varietal characteristics

the bush
It

and the conditions under which is grown. may take a few years for the ordi-

bud union. If suckers do appear, remove them immediately.
the

Many
habit,

of the polyantha roses, such as

Cecile Brunner, are upright in growth

nary gardener to find out exactly
type of pruning.
canes should be

how

a given variety responds to a certain

than most of the hybrid tea
shortened-in so
latter.

and usually support more canes roses. Con-

He may
left

find that the

sequently, their canes are generally not

on a

somewhat longer very vigorous and upright variety,
less

much

as those

on the

such as Sutter's Gold, than on a
variety, for

Vigorous canes on these upright varieties may develop a cluster of flow-

vigorous one. Furthermore, a floribunda

example,

is

grown

for masses

of

bloom while most hybrid teas are for quality buds or blooms on long stems. Less pruning will encourage

grown

happens, cut the cane back sound bud just below the cluster. Cecile Brunner should be cut to outside buds to prevent too compact growth. Hybrid tea bush roses usually respond
ers. If this

to a

Mature plant of a hybrid
rose. Left:

tea

before

pruning;

right: after pruning.

29

past season's
tree rose.

Diagram shows how to shorten and thin growth on a standard or

(Right side not yet pruned.) Small diagram shows top view of standard, with branches properly spaced

around trunk.

and

local

conditions,
to prune,

will

determine
at

how much

both

time of

planting and as the bush develops.

Floribundas
These

and

grandifloras.

roses are variable in

growth habit

since they include both the large-flower-

ing polyanthas and the low, compactgrowing hybrid teas. These classes must be pruned to encourage the mass color effect for which they are valued. Just enough thinning-out and cutting back
best to

moderate

to severe pruning.

A
be

is

required to encourage production of

vigorous rose, such as

Autumn, may

healthy

flowering
planted

wood each
is

season.

pruned moderately and allowed duce more and longer canes.
with
I

to pro-

When

along

driveways

and

A

rose

walks where there

plenty of room, the
1

a

Iillingdon,

weak growth habit, such as Lady must be pruned back sein

floribundas can form

airly large

bushes

that need only a small

amount

of prun-

verely in order to produce the best flow-

ing in winter.

ering wood. Such differences

vigor,

Hie

floribundas and grandifloras

may

50

also be pruned a second time during the growing season to keep the long canes
in

may
ever,

also

need

a

second pruning.

How-

bounds. Some of the vigorous kinds,
as

such

Pinocchio,

Cinnabar,

Pink

Bountiful, Floradora, and the grandifloras, are sufficiently

vigorous to justify
as

do not prune these roses in the late dormant season before the plant has flowered. Among a few other climbing roses that will tolerate more than onepruning a year are Cecile Brunner and

only

moderate pruning such
teas.

that

given the hybrid

Climbing
that

roses. For those climbers
in

Mermaid. In fact, they will tolerate almost any kind of pruning, including rather heavy shortening-in of length

bloom only

the

spring,

delay

growth or

side branches.

pruning
a

until after flowering to insure

Standard or

tree roses. Full stand-

maximum number

of flowers.

The

ard or tree roses are budded at a height
of about 40 inches.
are

climbing hybrid tea roses that have developed as sports from bush roses will
usually

The

half-standards

flower over a long period of

time. Such roses

be pruned moderdormant season. Cut back the side branches or laterals on the long canes to stubs of from one to three buds. Leave most of the length growth of the main canes, however. Do not remove any new canes needed to reately in the late

may

budded at about 24 inches. Most growers want a drooping habit of growth, or fountain effect, which gives a rounded head and satisfactory length
of flower stem.

place aging ones.

Prune standard roses once each year, dormant season. Leave only one to three buds of the past season's growth on moderately vigorous varieties. More cane growth may be left on
late in the

A

variety such as Belle of Portugal

extremely vigorous standards.

EXHIBITION BLOOMS
arious organizations have been formed
cially

on the

Pacific Coast

—stand

a

good
Cali-

(Wi

to help rose f anc i ers

m

appraising and

chance of being successful in
fornia gardens.

many

selecting

These include the American Rose Society, with headquarvarieties.

Roses for exhibition are rated by the
judges on the following points:
Per cent

ters

in

Harrisburg, Pennsylvania; the

Pacific

Rose Society, La Canada, CaliForm
Color
Substance
or shape

fornia; the All-America Rose Selections,

25
25 20

Harrisburg; and various local groups
affiliated

with the national

organiza-

Stem and
tions.
Size

foliage

20
10

The

fact that a rose has

been given
100

an All-America award does not necessarily mean that it will do well in a
particular district in California.

No
ers'

allowance

is

given for fragrance in

For

ex-

exhibition roses in spite of

many grow-

ample, Mirandy

won
it

an All-America

preference for the fragrant varieties.

award
ciers

in 1945, yet recognized rose fan-

Substance, as used in judging roses,

pronounce

almost worthless for

means firmness,
rigidity of petals.

resistance to touch, or

central California.
ties

However,

rose varie-

that are generally successful

—espe-

Good

substance helps

the

bloom

resist

unfavorable weather.
31

are therefore important even
ers are less desirable
If the

if

the flow-

when
is

full-blown.

form of the flower
rose,

your prime
will

concern, from the standpoint of an ex-

Stems on roses
healthy, shiny,

to be exhibited

must

hibition

you probably

not
or

always be debudded. Foliage should be

plant such varieties as Fred

Edmunds

and free of mildew, rust, other diseases, and insects. The stem below the blooms should be properly covered with leaves. (Certain varieties, for example, President Herbert Hoover, do not meet this requirement, and are unsuitable for

Grande Duchesse Charlotte, because their form is sometimes faulty. As for single roses, if anything happens to one of the five petals, the flower
is

not

suitable

for

exhibition.

On
lost

a

many-petaled
faulty
petal

rose,

however, a

or

show competition.)

will

not be so serious a
are
bi-

Varieties that require a

minimum
and

of

handicap.
Exhibition
color
classifications

care for control of insects

diseases

usually receive higher ratings than

do

often too restrictive to admit
colors

some

the

more

susceptible plants.

Many
ideal

roses introduced in recent years

have had too few petals to
the form of their buds
tor the deficiency.

make them

and some of the multicolored varieties. For example, Peace is not exactly yellow, and does not fit well in a
yellow color
class;

for exhibition, but their color or

Forty-Niner

is

not

may make up
roses are

limited to red. Color variations should

Most

judged

be considered
are

when show

classifications

when only
32

partly opened.

Good buds

made

up.

SOME POPULAR ROSE VARIETIES
DESCRIBED BY TYPE,

GROWTH

HABIT,

COLOR, AND FRAGRANCE

Eclipse, a yellow

hybrid

tea.

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REFERENCES
Allen, Raymond Clayton (ed.) What Every Rose Grower Should Know. Harrisburg,
Roses for Every Garden.
Pa.:

Hearthside Press, 1951.

New

York: M. Barrows & Co.,

Inc.,

1956.

Edwards, John Paul

How to Grow Roses.

San Mateo,

Calif.:

Lane Publishing Company, i960.
(rev.).

Emsweller, Samuel Leonard, and W. D. McClellan "Roses for the Home." U.S.D.A. Home and Garden Bui. 25
Printing Office, 1956.

Washington, D.C.: U.

S.

Govt.

Lester, Frances E.

My Friend the
Park, Bertram

Rose. Harrisburg, Pa.:

J.

Horace McFarland Company, 1942.
P.

World

of Roses.

Garden
F.,

City,

New

York: E.

Dutton, 1962.

Rockwell, Frederich

and Esther C. Grayson

Rockwell's Complete Boo\ of Roses. A practical guide to the uses, selection, planting, care, exhibition and propagation of roses of all types. Garden City, New York: E. P. Dutton, 1958.

Shepherd, Roy

E.,

and Catherine

E.

Meitle
list

(eds.)

Modern Roses
Society. Species

V.

A

concise descriptive
J.

of

all roses in

commerce or
in cooperation
J.

of historical or botanical

importance. (Compiled by
list

Horace McFarland Company

prepared by Gordon Rowley.) Harrisburg, Pa.:

with the American Rose Horace McFarland Company,

1958.

Thomson, Richard
Roses for Pleasure,
1957-

How

to Select,

Grow, Use and Enjoy Them. Princeton,

N.J.:

Van Nostrand,

Old Roses for Modern Gardens. Princeton,

N.J.:

Van Nostrand,

1959.

Wilson, Helen Van Pelt Climbing Roses. New York: M. Barrows & Co., 1955.

In order that information in our publications use trade

may

be more intelligible

it is

sometimes necessary

to

names of products

or equipment rather than complicated descriptive or chemical identi-

fications. In so

doing it is unavoidable in some cases that similar products which are on the market under other trade names may not be cited. No endorsement of named products is intended nor
criticism implied of similar products

is

which are not mentioned.

44

Co-operative Extension work

in

Agriculture

and Home Economics, College

of Agriculture, University of California,

and United

States Deportment of Agriculture

co-operating. Distributed in furtherance of the

Ads

of

Congress of

May

8,

and June

30, 1914.

George

B.

Alcorn, Director, California Agricultural Extension Service.

10m-l,'64(E838)L.L.

AGRICULTURAL PUBLICATIONS
207 University Hall
terkeley 4, California

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ATE

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FROM THE DIVISION OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

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MANUAL MANUAL

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Grow Then
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s*«

-

if

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Irises for

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:/

21

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MANUAL

30/

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Home
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