You are on page 1of 44

!

!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
2
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

I. Executive Summaiy........ S
II. Situational Analysis
Bianu Analysis.............4-6
Naiket Snapshot............6
Competitive Analysis.........6-11
Cieative Bistoiy.............11-12
Taiget Auuience.............12-14
ueogiaphic Questions..........14
Timing & Puichase Cycles.......14-1S
SW0T Analysis..............16-17
III. Cieative Stiategy.........17-19
Iv. Neuia 0bjectives & Stiategies
Taiget Auuience .............2u-21
Reach & Fiequency ..........21-22
Scheuuling & Timing.........22
ueogiaphy................2S
Buuget..................24
v. Neuia Syneigy Plan......2S-28
vI. NFP Flowchait.........29
vII. Refeiences............Su-S4
vIII. Appenuix ............SS-41
2
S




Since the North American launch in 2000, Toyota Prius has
been the leading brand in the hybrid car market. The
technological advancements of Toyota have carved away the
brands dominant position in authority and credibility. Over
years, the Prius has established itself to be both innovative as
well as environmental friendly, which is consistent with the
growing trend of green worldwide. The Prius has been a
promoter of an eco-friendly lifestyle without compromising
performance and reliability.
Our 2012 campaign for Toyota Prius will be continuing its
previous theme Harmony, which emphasizes the harmony
between human, nature and machine. Our primary target
audience is adults aged 35-44. Specifically, they are expected
to be well educated with higher income and they are more
environmental aware.
















Our media plan will include both national and spot markets,
and have a flighting and pulsing media schedule based upon
last years sales figures. The spot markets will be areas where
hybrid vehicles are most present.

As for the media, we will use traditional media to raise the
nation-wide brand awareness, especially in potentially high
hybrid markets. For non-traditional media, we will continue
Prius previous strategy to launch integrated marketing events
in our spot markets to involve our consumers with personalized
and experimental methods.
Overall, our media plan aims to reinforce Prius
environmentally friendly image and to strengthen its leading
position in every hybrid market.
!
!
!




EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
S
4




Brand Analysis
History:
In 1997, the Toyota Motor Corporation launched the
worlds first mass-production hybrid vehicle in Japan. Sales of
the "original" generation of Prius began in Japan in 1997. This
included models years: 1998, 1999, 2000 and 2001 in Japan
only ("Prius history," 2008). The Prius was priced at about
$17,900, which was mainstream of compact cars of the time.
Prius is Latin for to go before. Toyota President, Hiroshi
Okuda, described the new four-door sedan as an automobile for
the 21
st
century because Toyota made environmental leadership
a key part of its market strategy. On December 10, 1997, the
Prius went on sale in Japan and officials considered over-seas
sales after studying the Japanese market response after 6
months (Treece, James, 1997). Enthusiastic reviews from
international media lead to Toyota Motor Corp. announcing the
availability of the next version Prius for sale on the American
market in the second half of 2000. ("Prius history," 2008). In
2000, Toyota began exporting a total of 20,000 Prius hybrid-
powered sedans a year to North America and Europe (Rechtin,
Mark, 1998).
In just ten years, Toyota Prius has gone from a niche
vehicle to a global icon for efficiency, technology and
responsibility. More than 880,000 have been sold which helped
save American drivers an estimated 657 million gallons of gas
since the first vehicle went on sale ("Yr. 2010; the," 2010).

Awards*:
Toyota Prius was named "Most Dependable Compact
Car, Four Years in a Row" by J.D. Power and
Associates
Toyota Prius (built after December 2010) is a 2011
IIHS Top Safety Pick
Prius was named a 2011 "Best Retained Value" vehicle
by Edmunds.com
Prius was named a 2011 Best Bet by Cars.com
Toyota Prius has been named a Best Overall Value of
the Year for the last nine years in a row
Toyota Prius was named a 2011 Best Overall Value of
the Year by IntelliChoice
Toyota Prius was named 2011 "Best Car for
Commuters" by Forbes.com
Toyota Prius was named SmartChoice Maintenance
Costs winner by IntelliChoice
SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS
4
S
Toyota Prius was named a SmartChoice Ownership
Costs winner by IntelliChoice
Toyota earned the most 2011 Best Overall Value
Awards of any brand
Highest-rated manufacturer based on 2011
IntelliChoice Cost of Ownership Data Analysis
*Above information found on toyota.com
("Prius 11; awards," 2011).

The 2011 Prius embodies a sporty exterior and stands
taller than previous models. When designing the 2011 edition,
Toyota Corp. deliberately kept the specific design very similar
to the past versions. The distinct space-age shape of the Prius is
still apparent: a deliberate effort by Toyota to maintain the
Prius essential and iconic appearance. (Hall, Larry, 2011).
Even though no significant body alteration or design
change occurred between the 2010 and 2011 Prius, the 2011
Prius has more features and technology options. Keyless entry,
heated seats, a joystick shifter, a high-tech energy monitor, a
rearview camera system, and a moon roof are advancements of
the 2011 Prius. This gives Prius a boost with promoting a
greener environment while also incorporating the high-tech
qualities desired by consumers. By incorporating these
advancements, the 2011 Prius is more diversely marketed
because it now can target those consumers who believe in a


greener lifestyle but still want the gadgets and high-tech
components of luxury cars (Hall, Larry, 2011).

Prius 2011 Driving Modes:
1. Power- improves throttle response
2. Economy- reduces throttle response for
better gas mileage
3. EV- (electric motor/gasoline engine with an
efficient, continuously variable
transmission)- clicking of the EV button on
the dashboard enables the car to go one mile
at low speeds without using any gasoline.

The interior of the 2011 Prius can fit 5 adults and still
have 16+ cubic feet of cargo room in the back. The sound
system of the 2011 Prius is sufficient but many of the features
that come standard in the Prius are either optional or
unavailable on competitive vehicles. The back seat is roomy,
beating the Toyota Camry by a few inches and providing a
little more legroom than the Civic Hybridand a lot more than
found in the Honda Insight. (Hall, Larry, 2011).
The first quarter this year, about 275,000 hybrids
vehicles were sold in the U.S. and about 141,000 of those were
Priuses (Healey, James, 2011). The Prius has officially passed
the three million mark, selling 3.03 million back on February
28th. Toyota claims its hybrids have directly reduced carbon
dioxide emissions by 18 million tons. What might be more
impressive is the speed at which Toyota is selling hybrids now.
It took over 9 years to sell the first million Prius but since then
S
6
sales have grown exponentially even producing back order in
certain seasons. (Loveday, Eric, 2011). The Prius holds 69%
of the US Hybrid Market Share (Ad campaign for,, 2009).

Different Prius Models:
Prius II
The Prius III
The Prius IV
The Prius V (2012)

Market Snap Shot

The onset of the recession in 2007 brought many devastating
effects to the previously thriving economy. One American
Industry that got hit particularly hard was the Automobile
Market. (Plunkett 2011). Economic distresses, coupled the
price of skyrocketing oil created extra financial stress on
Americans. Therefore the auto market saw a shift towards more
eco-friendly vehicles. The trending green shift in the
automobile market can be correlated to public awareness of the
impacts global warming that have been particularly hyped up
on current political campaigns. Between the motivation to
reduce CO2 emissions and motivation to end foreign oil
dependency, many consumers are making the switch from gas
guzzling SUVs for fuel-efficient hybrid models.

The hybrid niche in the North American market started
December 1999, with the Honda Insight. The model generated
very little sales.

However, one decade and 1.5 million hybrids later, the auto
industry has accepted the green cars with open arms. (2010
hybrid cars, 2009) The market for EV cars is far from
saturated, although, all new models must compete with the
Toyota Prius Hegemony which has been dominated its
class for quite some time. Yet, this has not stopped many car
brands; they just keep innovating designs, improving market
strategies and differentiating their brand from others within the
competitive set. In a new J.D. Power report, analysts said that
global sales of electric-drive cars are expected to reach 940,000
units this year compared to the 732,000 units last year. And by
2015, sales are expected to soar beyond 3 million. However,
despite these impressive sounding statistics, this still only
accounts for 3.4 % of lightweight car sales (J.D. Power:,
2009).
Competitive Analysis

The competition set for the Toyota Prius includes indirect
competitors such as public transportation and the market
segment of fuel efficient cars that are considered non-hybrid or
larger than the average sedan model. We determined the
toughest direct competition as: Ford Fusion Hybrid, Chevrolet
Volt, Hunyadi Sonata Hybrid, Honda Civic Hybrid, Honda
Insight and the Nissan Leaf.

1.) Ford Fusion Hybrid

I. Quick Facts
Price (MSRP): $28,600
Fuel economy (city/highway): 41/36 MPG
6
7
II. Background of the Product
The Ford Fusion Hybrid officially debuted at the Greater Los
Angeles Auto Show in November 2008 and was introduced to
the U.S market in March 2009 as the 2010 model. It was
named the North American Car of the Year in 2010 at the
Detroit auto show. One month later, the 2010 Fusion Hybrid
was presented the grand prize at the Hermance Vehicle
Efficiency Award. In addition, Fusion Hybrid was also named
Motor Trends Car of the Year and made Car and Driver
magazines "10 Best Cars for 2010" list. (Berman & Hall,
2011)

III. Consumer Benefits
The Fusion Hybrid is a full hybrid and currently has the best-
in-class fuel economy for city driving, and the best hybrid
gauge cluster on the market. Some consumers may appreciate
that it is an American-made car and that its exterior design is
appealing too. (Peters, 2010)

IV. Consumer Negatives
The 2011 Fusion Hybrid, with a base MSRP of $28,825 is very
close to entry luxury price and costs more than $2,000 over the
Camry Hybrid or Altima Hybrid. ("Used ford fusion," 2010) If
gas prices were to remain the same, the Fusion Hybrid would
end up costing more than the conventional non-hybrid car.
(Peters, 2010)

V. Positioning
In 2009, Ford Motor Co. concentrated on positioning itself as
not just a truck maker, but as a class-leading lineup of cars, as
well in the mind of the consumers. They wanted to be taken
seriously in the market as a car company, and focused its
campaign specifically on fuel efficiency and class-exclusive
technology, such as Fords multimedia Sync system.

VI. Sales
Most recently, The Fusion Hybrid sold 216 units during August
2011 compared to Fords other hybrid vehicles the Lincoln
MKZ Hybrid at 491 units and the Escape at 563 units.
(Loveday, 2011) The Hybrid Ford models holds around 12.9%
of the total market share. (Fact #678: Manufacturer, 2011)

2.) Chevrolet Volt

I. Quick Facts
-Price (MSRP) $32,780
- Fuel economy (city/highway): 95/90 MPG

II. Background of the Product
The Chevrolet Volt was introduced as a concept car in January
2007 at the Detroit Auto Show and developed very much in the
public eye. (Riswick, 2011)

III. Consumer Benefits
After a full charge, the Chevrolet Volt operates as an electric
car for its first 40 miles, burning no gasoline and only uses gas
to extend its range. The Volt, especially when switched from
Normal mode to Sport provides a driving excitement and
transitions smoothly and quietly. (Berman, 2010)

7
8

IV. Consumer Negatives
One major drawback of the Volt is that it is a four-seat sedan
and does not accommodate a family comfortably. There is
limited leg space in the rear and obstructed visibility for the
driver. ("2011 Chevrolet volt: overview," 2011) Another issue
consumers are considering about all E-REVs (Extended Range
Electric Vehicles) is the availability of locations to plug in and
charge the battery frequently. ("Pros and cons," 2008)

V. Positioning
One tactic GM is using to market the Chevrolet Volt is
focusing on giving the consumer peace of mind by eliminating
the fear of driving on electric and being stranded. Its tagline is
Chevy runs deep, and introduced the idea of using the
everyday household electric socket for charging the new
electric Volt.

VI. Sales
General Motors has set a goal of target sales for 2011 at 10,000
units for the plug-in hybrid Chevy Volt sedan. As of September
2011, nine months into the year, theyve only sold 3,895
vehicles. In order for GM to reach its goal, it will have to sell
over 2,000 units in the next three months. (Jalopnik, 2011)
General Motors, the umbrella company of Chevrolet obtains
under 1% of total Hybrid sales in the market share. (Fact
#678: Manufacturer, 2011)




3.) Hyundai Sonata Hybrid

I. Quick Facts
Price (MSRP): $25,795
Fuel economy (city/highway): 37/39 MPG

II. Background of the Product
Hyundai introduced its Sonata Hybrid at the Los Angeles
International Auto Show in 2008 and was released to the North
American market for the 2010 model year. (Wagner, 2011) The
Sonata Hybrid is the South Koreans first hybrid car to be
introduced to the US market. During its first three months on
the market, the Hyundai Sonata Hybrid has positioned itself as
the second best selling gas-electric in the United States.
("Consumer reports pans," 2011)

III. Consumer Benefits
The cost of this hybrid is significantly less than its rivals.
Hyundai utilizes its new six-speed automatic transmission with
an electric motor that replaces a torque converter, which is its
competitive advantage. ("Hyundai sonata hybrid," 2011) Its
warranty is one of the longest among car manufacturers,
covering the cost of a repair or replacement for either 10 years
or up to 100,000 miles, whichever comes first. (Finney, 2011)

IV. Consumer Negatives
The Sonata Hybrid does not measure up to the regular Sonata.
(Finney, 2011) A central complaint among consumers is that
the Sonata Hybrid does not provide a smooth transition
8
9
between gas and electric drive. Consumer Reports also
discovered problems with the Sonata's low-rolling resistance
tires, which diminishes the car's emergency handling and
increases its breaking distance. ("Consumer reports pans,"
2011)

V. Positioning
The Hyundai Sonata Hybrid campaigns tagline is New
Thinking. New Possibilities and leads the viewer to wonder
what could happen to the world if first-generation technology
was never improved upon. Its purpose is to show how all
technology evolves. (Krivoruchko, 2011)

VI. Sales
The Hyundai Sonata Hybrid sold 2,000 units in September
2011, 51.6% less than the previous month. (Edgerton, 2011)
The market share of the Honda hybrids hardly makes a dent
into the total capital of its competitors. Comprising less than 1
percent it does not generate a significant piece of EV sales.
However the Sonata BDI is rising gradually so although
currently insignificant, this can change in the future. (Fact
#678: Manufacturer, 2011)

4.) Nissan LEAF:

I. Quick Facts
Price (MSRP): $32,780
Fuel Economy (MPG) (City/ Highway): 106/92

II. Background of the Product:
In 2009 Nissan unveiled its first model of the Leaf. An all-
electric model that was affordable and practical. However, The
Leaf model did not really catch on until this past year because
previously Nissan could not keep up to reservation list demand.
It was not until this past December that Nissan decided to
implement reservations in subsequent roll out markets where
they thought the vehicle would catch on the best. The first five
early rollout markets were: California, Washington, Oregon,
Arizona and Tennessee. The car will next become available in
Texas and Hawaii by January 2011. By fall of 2012, Nissan
hopes to have a national market (Chambers,2010).

III. Consumer Benefits:
The Leaf entered as a whole new player within the hybrid
competitor set. Its independence from the pump has made it the
most eco-friendly vehicle of its class because it has zero
emissions. Plus, the Leaf escapes the rising prices of gas all
together, unlike the Prius or other hybrids. (Chambers, 2010).

IV: Consumer Negatives:
Nissan offers strong competition in the electric vehicle sector,
with the launch of its 2011 Leaf. However, the very high prices
and limited range of batteries will cause many consumers to
stay away from electric cars. Charging stations among the US
are few and far between so the majority of the Leafs fueling
must be done at home from an expensive charging dock, which
can run up to $2,000 plus taxes.(Plunkett 2011).

V. Positioning
The newest campaign for the Nissan LEAF centers around
Innovation for all, which focuses on the innovation aspect as
9
1u
the US market theme. The campaign purpose is to echo the
innovation of a mass produced zero emissions vehicle yet
translate that theme into an idea of leadership. (Nissan
launches, 2010).

VI. Sales Figures:
IHS Global Insight forecasts volume of just 50,000 units a year
in the U.S. by 2013. In market share, that's roughly 0.5% of
industry sales at 2009 rates (Taylor III, 2010).

5.) Honda Insight:

I. Quick Facts

Price (MSRP): $18,200
Fuel Economy(MPG) ( City/ Highway): 40/43

II. Background of the product:
Honda first started selling the Insight back in 2001 as a two
door vehicle, a few months earlier than the Prius debut.
However, it was taken off the market in 2006 due to lagging
sales. After four years, Honda reintroduced the Insight as 4
door car, it was hailed as the Toyota Prius fighter (Welsh,
2009).
III. Consumer benefits
Hondas biggest advantage over the Prius is the price. The
Honda hybrid technology capitalized on making the best use
for the most cost-effective price. The Insight is marketed as a
compact car that gets 40-mpg+ for less than $20,000. This
draws in the target audience with a lower annual income,
(Berman & Hall, 2010) .

IV. Consumer Negatives
The Insight proves to be slightly less fuel efficient than the
Toyota Prius and it has cramped rear seating with little head
room. Consumers also found the engine very noisy. Another
common complaint is the lack of stability control on the base
trim and air conditioning does not function while the car is in
eco mode (Berman & Hall, 2010).

V. Positioning:
The original idea behind the Honda Insight was designed
around the target of tech lovers. Honda positioned itself as a
"hybrid for everyone". A national campaign was
started in March 2009 by defining itself among the hybrid
category as being inclusive and affordable. (Ad campaign,
2009)

VI. Sales figures
Ward's Auto reported that March 2011 sales for the Insight
more than doubled, at 62.2%, compared to the sales figures for
March of 2010. (McGlaun, 2011) It was reported that 2,782
Insight hybrids sold which is substantial considering that in
2004 only 80-100 hybrids sold a month (Flass, 2004). The
increase in sales even outpaces the Hybrid leader, the Toyota
Prius, which saw a 52% sales gain since last year. The market
share of Honda hybrids as a whole, within the US competitor
set falls right below ford at 12.2 % in 2010. (McGlaun, 2011)


1u
11
6.) Honda Civic Hybrid CVT:

I. Quick Facts

Price (MSRP): $24,050
Fuel Economy(MPG) ( City/ Highway): 44/44

II. Background of the Product:
The Honda Civic was launched as a non-hybrid model back in
1973. It has enjoyed much success as one of Americas most
popular compact cars, due in part by consistent high level of fit
and finish and an impressive reputation for reliability and low
running costs. This became a perfect opportunity for the Civic
to launch its hybrid model in the U.S back in 2003, just as the
green trend was picking up pace within automotive markets.
(Honda Civic review)

III. Consumer Benefits
Since the Honda Civic vehicle is no youngling amongst the
many Honda models, it touts a sort of consumer trust along
with its name. Its solid performance that was as easy to use as
a conventional car, plus, its fuel economy, attractive design
and of course safety features make it an attractive choice.
(2010 Honda Civic hybrid review, 2010)

IV. Consumer Negatives:
Cons found by consumers and critics of the Honda Civic
Hybrid are: the price, which is roughly $1000 more than the
Prius; the small passenger space; the electric motor does not


kick in when the car is idling and acceleration is fairly
sluggish, making it a problematic in reaching highway speeds.
(2010 Honda Civic hybrid review, 2010)

V. Positioning:
The Honda Civic Hybrid was introduced as a model that could
relate to the mass market, seeing as the traditional version was
the best-selling compact car in America.(Armstrong, 2003)

The most recent campaign launched centered around to each
their own which attached character personas to each vehicle.
This strategy did not specifically differentiate the Civic hybrid
from other Civic classes. Instead it played off the theme that
there is a civic for every personality its slogan reads, "We're all
different, that's why there are five different Civics,". (Brady,
2011)

VI. Sales Figures:
Honda has placed high hopes on its all-new 2012 Civic Hybrid
to carve out a sales niche in a segment thats commanded by
the 2011 Toyota Prius. A year to date average of sales from
2010 to 2011 according to Honda.com sales figures, is around
a 24% increase. The market trend, in this case, is leading the
brand sale trends. (Honda, 2011)
Creative History of Toyota Prius

Though Prius has been recognized as a leading brand in green
cars market, it still keeps repositioning itself in its advertising
message to expand its audience. As Prius has three generation
11
12
of models, there have been three main campaigns to promote
the new models before and after the launch.

In 2001-2003, the Prius/Genius campaign launched Prius
first generation of hybrid cars. A series of hybrid facts ads
were used to inform the consumers about this new brand and
its innovation. The campaign aimed to convince consumers
that Prius is not only an environmental friendly car with
innovation technology, but also a practical choice for daily
transportation. (Geller, 2000)

During 2003 to 2009, Prius launched The Power to Move
Forward campaign to promote its Hybrid Synergy Drive
system in the second-generation models. In the main TV ad,
people and vehicles are seen moving but their legs and wheels
seem to be locked in place. Prius is the only moving object on
the road. It demonstrates the idea that the new generation of
Prius is revolutionary in transportation and its something that
cannot wait. (Feuer, 2003) Two additional TV spots The
Holes and Bigger were launched to address the new
spacious and powerful hybrids.

In 2010, Toyota rolled out the famous Harmony campaign
for the new Prius models. The commercials present a colorful
landscape made entirely out of people with a Prius travelling in
it. The concept of harmony between human, nature and
vehicles is incorporated in the TV spots and it demonstrates
how Prius balance the natural orders of things while serving
humans as a mean of mobility. Besides traditional media,
interactive marketing also played a part in this campaign.

Toyota rolled out over-sized solar flowers in urban centers all
over the U.S. to offer seats and Internet service to people by
using solar energy.

In Sep 2011, the new ad People Persons was launched for the
2012 Toyota Prius Family. Adopting the same elements in
Harmony, the ad had 18 people linked together to create an
enormous person going about his morning routine
(Nudd, 2011). As the person steps outside, the giant dismantles
to 18 people who walk to their respective Prius cars. The ad
tries to communicate the idea that Prius is not just for one
person. Instead, its for everyone.
Its important to note that though TV commercials seem more
dominant in each campaign, Prius is very active in both online
and offline marketing. From cooperation with artists (Prius
Concept Bike), to social media discussion with consumers
(Whats the plural of Prius?), Prius tries to reach consumers
in an interesting way through a variety of mediums.

Target Audience

The hybrid market is a fairly new one, breaking into the auto
scene around 2000. The adoption of hybrid models has been
fairly slow yet constant in making up a consumer niche all their
own. However, it is important to note there is no distinct
difference in consumer demographics among different hybrid
models and brands. Hybrid consumers are a unique market
which suits not only their demographic criteria but also
psychographic as well. The Toyota Prius being the most fuel-
efficient hybrid model out right now is setting standards among
12
1S
hybrid cars. It evolved from a green niche product to a symbol
of environmentally responsible driving. This association
primes the cognitions of the consumer making them think they
are part of the solution.

Gender Profile
The hybrid market seems to take on gender-neutral traits.
Research has shown that females and males are more or less
the same in the Toyota Prius market. Both genders have an
equal index of 100. (Simmons 2008)

Age Profile:
Hybrid drivers are a few years older than the average car
buyercloser to 50 rather than the average age of 40.
According to the Simmons overview Toyota Prius consumers
generally follow this trend since the three main age
demographics that comprise most the Toyota Prius market are
35-44 (index:128) and 45-54 (index:102) and 55-59 (index:
99). (Appendix C)












Ethnic Profile:
When breaking down consumers into ethnic groups, 76.9%
consider themselves to be white. They make by far the largest
segment of hybrid consumers. The outlying second majority
among hybrid consumers is African Americans, falling at 11.9
percent. (MRI, 2008)

Income Profile:
Hybrid consumer generally has a higher income than the
average car buyer. According to a 2004 J.D. Power report
hybrid owner incomes are $100,000 a year versus $85,000 a
year for the average buyer. (J.D. Power, 2009) Simmons
breaks down the Prius market by social economic levels: Level
1 or the top 10% (index: 218); Level 2, top 20% ( index: 186);
Level 3, bottom 30% (index: 114); Level 4, bottom 40%
(index: 17). (Simmons, 2008)

Education Profile:
There is also strong evidence that hybrid drivers have higher
levels of education. According to Simmons education level
correlates to the willingness to pay more for environmentally
friendly products. More specifically, College graduates (index:
125) Graduate school graduates (index: 248) and populations
that attended school after college (index: 185) are significantly
more likely to purchase a Toyota Prius than lower education
profiles. Correlations can be contributed to environmental
awareness and income levels associated with education
echelons.

Psychographic profile:
A 2002-2003 Oregon Environmental Council (OEC) survey
1S
4
14
provides insight in the hybrid category. The survey found the
top three reasons for purchasing a hybrid car were: pollute the
air less, emit less climate changing CO 2, and appealing
technology. Even more interestingly, Mindset Media found
that people who drive hybrid cars are 78 percent more likely
than the general population to be highly creative - or
"Creativity 5s" Their profile was based on the Nielsen Online
panel which categorized hybrid consumers based on
personality traits. The consumers tend to rank high in
creativity, openness, and spontaneity leadership and low in
dogmatism, which is the disdain to so-called moral authorities.
These characteristics summarize the markets collective
behavior and set the stage for advertising techniques that
permit untraditional originality and imagination.
(MarketingVox, 2008)

Geographic Differences

According to Simmons overview, there is a large regional
difference of consumers choice towards Prius. People from the
West Coast are the most likely to own a Prius with an index of
190. But people in the South (index:93), Midwest (index:55)
and Northeast (index: 63) are less likely to be Prius owners.
However, when comparing ownership of Prius in the top 14
DMAs, Prius is found to be more prevalent in cities such as
San Francisco (index: 269), Los Angeles (index:248),
Washington DC (index:237) and Miami (index: 171).
(Appendix A:1-2)

On the other hand, when looking at the category of hybrid-
electric vehicles, the hybrid cars market is larger than Prius.
According to a report from National Renewable Energy
Laboratory, the density of Hybrid-Electric vehicles is
particularly high in lower West Coast, Northeast Coast and the
Great Lakes area. (NREL, 2009) (Appendix D) The
discrepancy between the ownership of Prius and hybrid cars
shows there are still some potential markets for Prius to
develop.

The reason behind the geographic difference may be the fact
that the culture tends to be more progressive and more open to
trendy lifestyle which is consistent with Prius brand image.

Timing and Purchase Cycles

The Toyota Prius is in the Growth Stage of the product life
cycle. They entered the market at a low price that was
appealing to consumers interested in purchasing a hybrid
sedan. Toyota is currently building brand preference and
increasing their market share. Currently the Prius is Toyotas
third most popular car, (Valdes-Dapena, 2011) and throughout
the past decade, Toyota has owned around three quarters of the
U.S. hybrid market share. (Ashley, 2009) By the end of the
decade, Bob Carter, Toyota's group Vice President for U.S.
sales, believes that the Prius will be number one in the hybrid
market in addition to surpassing sales of Toyotas long-time
top-selling Camry. ("Toyota: Prius will," 2011)
Most automobile sales are seasonal based on cyclical demands.
Sales are heaviest from March through June, and lightest from
14
1S
November through January. ("Automobiles & components,"
2007) Fuel economy averages about 3 MPG higher in summer
than in winter, (Decicco, 2009) which could contribute to
consumers considering purchasing a hybrid car during the
warmer months while they are driving more miles and
spending more money on gas. More automobile sales may take
place on the weekends if people work a traditional 5-day
workweek and have time to car shop on their days off.

In the United States, people are more likely to spend more time
in the car when the weather is mild and enjoyable in regions of
the country that experience this weather. During winter
months, people are reluctant to drive in rain or snow conditions
for safety reasons. While the weather is beautiful from March
through July, people develop a sense of environmentalism and
cause them to think about driving an electric car instead of a
gas-guzzler.

Questions about the Media Mix
Evidence suggests that advertising is more effective for
companies who are innovators and have new products or
services to offer consumers. Advertising also builds
awareness, which is important to a brands success. According
to Ad$pender, Toyota Prius spent $71,882.6 Million on
advertising from January 1, 2010 to July 31, 2011. (Ad$pender,
2011) Its advertising strategy relies heavily on spot TV
($43,695 Million), Internet display ads ($10,077 Million),
Network TV ($7,872.3 Million) and Cable TV ($3731.9
Million).
To launch the 3
rd
generation of Prius, the company rolled out
the 2010 Harmony campaign featuring the tagline Harmony
between Man, nature and machine. It used mostly TV and
online ads to visualize their Harmony concept. Its
commercial has been more transformational rather than
informational. The main commercial with a floral-landscape
made out of people also topped Nielsens Top Most-liked new
ads in May 2010.
As to online advertisements, Toyota spent $10,077,000 on
internet display advertisements from January 1, 2010 to July
31, 2011.(Ad$pender, 2011) According to FXSTD, an
alternative energy center, Over 75% of consumers when
searching for the nearest local car retailer start their research
online'. Because of this consumer behavior, Toyota has
created of ToyotaPriusProjects.com a website dedicated to
documenting different projects being completed by Prius
people throughout the country. As well as expanding their use
of social media sites, such as Facebook and Twitter.
In addition to traditional media, Toyota is also exploring
interactive ways to communicate with consumers. In the 2010
Harmony campaign, Prius had installed over-sized solar
flowers in the public to offer seats and Internet to citizens. In
January of 2011, Toyota launched the Prius goes Plural
Campaign to answer the question What is the plural of Prius?
Consumers where invited to vote for the plural of Prius on
Toyotas website, the Toyota Facebook page and the social
game Car Town. Toyota received over 2 million votes and
Prii became the plural of Prius. This campaign was also
featured on the Prius Projects webpage.
1S
4
16
SWOT Analysis
Strengths
Toyota Prius commands 69% of the Hybrid US market
share and its regarded as the pioneer hybrid vehicle in the
market.
Prius is considered as an environmental friendly vehicle,
which is best on fuel economy compared to other midsized
sedans.
Prius innovation of technology and environmental
awareness has become a pattern of lifestyle for consumers.
People who appreciate this lifestyle are more likely to be a
buyer of Prius.
Weaknesses
Higher price compared to similar hybrid vehicles.
consumers who have limited income may switch to other
hybrid options.
Though Prius has positioned itself as a green vehicle, there
are consumers who choose the performance of a vehicle
over the green concept.
One of the constraints for Toyotas hybrids is the supply of
batteries may limit the performance of the vehicle.
Consumers may not want to sacrifice their needs of
mobility just for the hybrid concept.
Opportunities
Increasing environmental concerns will create a greater
demand for more efficient vehicles. The Prius' promise of
low emission offers supports this greener trend offering
consumers a better option to save the environment.
Cost of petroleum continues to remain high, and it is likely
that it will increase as the supply decreases. Hybrid
vehicles which use combined energy of petrol and
electricity can be a solution to the increase of oil's price.
Government may give incentives for vehicles that give off
lower emissions. This may allow Prius to offer high quality
vehicles at a lower price.
The hybrid market is expanding in many regions all over
the country. There are markets which have high density of
hybrid vehicles but not dominant by Prius, so Prius can
increase their sales in potential markets.
Improving hybrid technologies will allow for more efficient
future generations of the Prius.
Recent political campaigns have brought attention to global
warming and alternative energy sources which reflects
positively on the Prius.
Threats
Electric vehicles are becoming more available and are
more environmentally friendly and cheaper than the
16
4
17
Prius. Other manufacturers are creating new hybrid
models, introducing more competition and possible
future threat of market saturation
More widespread use of public transportation. Rather
than buying an environmentally friendly car, consumers
may choose to use public transportation more often.
Another possible economic recession and the dismal
job growth leave Americans budget for pricier hybrid
vehicles over less efficient ones.

CREATIVE STRATEGY


Objective

To heighten brand awareness of the Toyota Prius as the leader
in hybrid cars to increase brand loyalty to the Toyota Prius
since the hybrid market is becoming progressively more
cluttered with competitors

To exhibit that the Toyota Prius is an environmentally friendly
vehicle that has great performance value and energy efficiency.
To prove Toyota Prius can be a smart lifestyle choice- that will
balance consumer needs of everyday life and desires to make
the world a little bit greener.

Brand Positioning

To men and women 35+ adult , who are trend setters and have
the desire to make the transformation to live the green lifestyle,
Toyota Prius, is the hybrid car that is the leader in creating the
prefect synergy between man, environment and machine.

Brand Promise

Toyota Prius promises a hybrid vehicle that will be best in
class in value and dependability focused around its eco-friendly
concepts.
Support

Our mission is to be a pioneer in innovation that paves the way
for all hybrid cars. With leading MPG, safety and low
emissions the Prius is reducing the carbon footprint while
providing consumer trust and constancy.

Tone

The tone of the campaign will be over-all cheerful and
lighthearted, innovative, bright and impressionable.

Slogan

Harmony between Man, Nature and Machine!

17
4
18




























































MEDIA OBJECTIVES
18
4
19

19
4
2u




Target Audience
!
Objective:
Our primary audience is 35- 54 adults who are college
educated and have a higher income level than the average
American. Our secondary target 18-24, stems from our
primary audience, as a brand loyal parent would be most apt to
buy a Prius for their children.

Rational & Strategy:
We choose our primary target based on the current primary
consumers of the Toyota Prius. The majority of Prius owners
are 35-54, commanding approximately 45 percent of the
market. (Simmons) Most of these consumers are college
educated adults which correlates to their willingness to pay
more for environmentally friendly products. (Index:118)
(Simmons) Toyota Prius, as a leading brand in green
automobiles, can meet our audience needs for mobility and
environmental care at the same time.
We determined our secondary target as 18-24 adults,
because most our primary audience have teenagers that are just
starting to drive. Toyota Prius can be the first car that their
parents buy for them. We foresee our primary target, parents,
purchasing the Prius for their children on the grounds that it is
an IIHS top safety pick and the money spent for gas will be
less when they drive back and forth from college.
According to Simmons Choice, our audiences are
regular users of a wide range of mediums including TV, radio,
Internet, magazines, newspaper and outdoor (with indexes of
100 on average). We decided to use all of these mediums to
reach more of our potential audience in the market.
Specifically, since most of our audiences are
professionals who often drive during rush hours; radio can be
an effective a vehicle to reach them (index: 113). Radio
programs such as Car talk radio, reach over 4 million people
and are syndicated on 370 different stations. Another station
we plan to advertising on is Morning Edition, a station that has
over 13 million listeners on a National level. It is the second
most listened to radio show in America. For Spot Radio, LA
KIIS FM. 102.7 and NYC Z100 100.3, stations would be good
examples because these Top 40 stations cater to our target
audience driving home from work and teens listening to the
latest hit songs.
The next strategic time to reach our target is during
prime time hours, when Americans gather around at their
dining tables and their TVs (index:98). We decided to purchase
spots on TV programs such as Wheel of fortune at 7:30 PM
EST. Wheel of fortune has 11.3 million viewers and a 7.3 HH
rating. We plan to advertise during the college football season
since our target audience is generally college alumni. Because
ESPN airs many college football games we plan on purchasing
spots on that network. Daytime Cable programming that
captures a good segment of our target would be TBS which
syndicates popular TV shows during the day part such as
Everybody loves Raymond or Friends. Our Net TV early
MEDIA OBJECTIVES
2u
4
21
news segments will be distributed among local news segments
before prime time hours, on channels such as ABC, FOX,
NBC, and CBS.
The Simmons Choice data also indicates that Internet
is one of the heaviest used mediums by our audience
(index:117), which is consistent with our targets high
technological sense. We plan on using Internet keyword
searches on major search engines such as Google, Yahoo, and
Bing. Many consumers start the car buying process online, and
because of this we decided that internet display ads on targeted
sites such as greencar.org, and autoyahoo.com would be prime
locations for potential buyers researching their next vehicle
purchase.
In print media, we will use specialized magazines and
national newspapers. Magazines such as Car and Driver,
Readers Digest, Womans Day, Time Magazine and People
are used to promote Prius to our highly segmented audience. A
newspaper like USA Today is a good choice because it is
widely circulated among American households.
Direct mail will be another medium we use to advertise
to our target audience within our spot markets. This strategy
will be used at very specific times during the fiscal year such as
springtime and the holiday season. Since direct mail listings
come from the Toyota Database we will have a very precise
message tailored to our target.




Reach and Frequency

Objective:
For our 2012 campaign, Prius is continuing the harmony theme
to launch its new model the Electric Prius in early 2012. In order
to increase brand awareness in potential hybrid cars markets, we
decided to optimize reach over frequency in Prius new media
plan. The overall reach of the plan will range from 71 to 84 while
the frequency will be relatively moderate at 2.4 based on the
Ostrows Model. (Appendix E) The budget share breakdown
worked out to approximately 75% for National campaign and
25% for Spot throughout the entire fiscal year.

Strategy:
Our media plan will focus on reach over frequency because
higher reach can help Prius set up in potential hybrid cars
markets where its not the major player. In addition, we
determined the 2012 frequency to be 2.4 based on Ostrows
Model. (Appendix B) It revealed Prius frequency is lower than
3 because it is already the market leader within the competition
set. In this case, this combination of high reach and moderate
frequency will still be effective in sales and brand recognition.
To achieve our goal, we intend to buy a variety of
mediums on different platforms to reach wider range of
audience. The high reach will ensure Prius presence in the
market clutter. Depending if it was a lower sales month, which
comprised of January, February, August, September and
October, we focused more of our budget towards the national
campaign to increase awareness for the predicted upcoming
higher sales months, March, April, May, June, July , November
and December. The logic behind our spot campaign is the
21
4
22
same just inversed. If there was higher sales we focused more
on our spot audiences which comprise of 31.5% of the US
Households because we knew directly advertising to our
heaviest markets would prove more effective in consumer
action.
Scheduling & Timing

Objective:
The Prius harmony campaign will run from January 2012 to
December 2012. We will use a combination of pulsing and
flight schedule in the media plan. More budget and GRPS will
be allocated during peak sales months. (Appendix F)

Strategy:
Our strategy was based off of sales pattern of Prius from the
previous year. We noticed that car consumers follow trends of
buying and they peak normally in the spring months and then
again around the holidays. We decided to use this trend rather
than quarter increments because this optimized our growth over
our competitors.
Faced with increasing competition in the market, we
used pulsing scheduling in national campaign to offer on-going
message flow to our audience. In the months when sales are
lower, emphasis on national campaign can help gain awareness
for predicted upcoming sales months. For spot market, we will
use flight scheduling by focusing on higher sales months
(March to July and November to December) to drive sales in
potential markets.
Depending on the season we also chose vehicles more
closely for the allotted budget. During February we purchased
sports vehicles because the Super Bowl falls within this month
and with playoffs a substantial national audience tunes in.
Another time is October and November when college football
is in full swing, it would key to purchase these units because
most of our primary target is college educated adults and have
allegiance to various collegiate teams.
The same patterns also correlated with direct mailings
which will go out during holiday seasons and in April for an
earth day promotion. Outdoor units prove to be the most
effective during peak sales, as well. We strategically placed 25
showings in March, April and November, heaving up our 14
spot markets, which comprise 31.5% of US HH. Our most
distributed and consistent advertisements come in the form of
television and radio vehicles. (Appendix G)
22
4
2S
Geography

Objective:
We plan on having a broad national campaign reaching most of
the United States with focus in the New England area, most
east coast states and west coast states which had higher Prius
ownership indexes.
Big cities also proved as better markets having higher densities
of hybrid cars because hybrids are more efficient in these areas
based on MPG ratings. Some major cities such as Boston, San
Francisco, Los Angeles, Washington DC, Phoenix, Miami,
Seattle, Houston, Austin, Denver, Minneapolis, Cleveland,
Chicago, Atlanta and New York City also lend themselves as
suitable markets that media concentration should be increased.

Strategy:
Our media plan for Toyota Prius will be more of an offensive
strategy. We plan on concentrating the highest advertising
budget for our national budget. Our biggest national markets
prove to be coastal states. These states tend to have high
population densities and most consistent index numbers of
Prius bought in these regions. In our national campaign we
focused more on the reach of our campaign to increase
awareness in the quickly expanding hybrid market. Less Ad
dollars will be spent towards the middle of America states
because many of the reasons that consumers do not buy Priuses
can be contributed to confounding factors, like practicality of
the vehicle in the region, income and even level of education.
which are all target profiles that lend themselves to the general
Prius Consumer.
We looked at narrower regions that had higher hybrid vehicle
density. According to the National Environmental Energy
Laboratory, Major cities such as Boston, San Francisco, Los
Angeles, Washington DC, Phoenix, Miami, Seattle, Houston,
Austin, Denver, Minneapolis, Clevland, Chicago, Atlanta and
New York City also lend themselves as suitable markets that
media concentration should be increased. (Appendix C) These
14 spot markets lend themselves to 31.55% of US HH, which
will drive sales effectively.


!
!
!
2S
4
24
"#$%&'!
!
Objective:
The budget for the 2012 campaign was derived from the 2010
Toyota Prius ad spending figures of $71 million. We cut
spending in half for 2012 due to our strategic design schedule
to capture our narrowed audience, which allowed for the new
budget to be $35 million. However, we deducted $4 million,
which is roughly 15 %, of the total media budget and allotted
that towards nontraditional advertising leaving us with
approximately $31 million for traditional media vehicles.



















Strategy:
We allocate our budget to 7 different traditional media vehicles
including TV, Magazines, Outdoor, Internet, newspaper, radio
and direct mail. Our nontraditional vehicles will be the $4
million contingency plus the $250,600 left over from the
traditional media spending.
The most ad dollars went to television because it proved to be
an effective medium for our target audience minimizing the
cost per person.
The second largest budget is allotted towards Internet
spending. A highly expensive vehicle to advertise in but is
strategic considering most people begin shopping for their new
vehicle on the Internet. Through top keyword optimization on
search engines we plan to boost hits and consumer click
through to the Prius homepage. The third largest is the
nontraditional media, which is going to take form in PR and
ambient advertising. The goal of this medium is to drive sales
up during peak months. Our smallest budget is allotted to
newspaper because the high cost did not allow for many units
to be purchased. (Appendix H)










Media
Type
$(000)
Media Mix
%
Television 15606.7 44.6
Internet 4848.3 13.9
Non-
Traditional
4250.6 12.1
Magazines 3053.8 8.7
Radio 2698.5 7.7
Outdoor 2006.8 5.7
Direct Mail 865.1 2.5
Newspaper 635.3 1.8
24
2S



Strategy 1: Air Freshener Ornaments

Objective:
Our objective through this promotional event is to promote the
Prius brand and increase sales throughout the Holiday season.
The ornaments will stand out during the morning rush of
people going to work and living about the city. We want the
Prius name to spread by word-of-mouth through this surprising
event, and result in driving sales. The Toyota Prius will be in
the front of our targets minds as a vehicle option and
opportunity to impact their carbon footprint through a purchase
of a Prius.

Strategy:
During the winter holiday season, at the end of November
specifically, when we are trying to drive sales, we will use
outdoor guerilla advertising as a promotional event. In 14 spot
markets we will hire people to hang festive,
peppermint scented car air fresheners that
will be colored green and in the shape of a
Prius on bear tree branches around the cities
to resemble holiday ornaments. We will hire
80 people per market to work throughout
the night order to avoid the
traffic of people taking
down the ornaments

while they are being hung, which would be counterproductive.
The workers will be paid an incentive of $400.00 each to work
for 4-6 hours, and will be responsible for hanging 20
ornaments per tree on 20 trees on a one-block radius. With 80
people in 14 markets and 400 ornaments each, we will need
448,000 air fresheners. This promotional event will cost us
$448,000.00 to pay the team to hang the ornaments, plus the
cost to make 448,000 air fresheners, which is estimated at
$0.15 each, increasing our total cost by $67,200 to a total cost
of $515,200.00. Our team is ultimately being paid $1.00 to
hang one ornament.

Strategy 2: Taxi Initiative

Objective:
We want to give back to the cities that drive hybrid cars as an
appreciation for their concern to keep our planet green and
decrease the carbon footprint. Since these cities are heavily
populated, we will reach a large amount of our target audience
at a high frequency. While in the taxi, the rider will experience
the advantages and benefits of the Toyota Prius; therefore we
are utilizing experiential marketing. The rider of the taxi will
get a hands-on experience with the smooth ride and transition
between gas and electric motors among other technological
features that can stimulate and reach those unaware of the
positive hybrid experience with the Prius. We hope to raise
brand awareness as well as environmental awareness. We feel
this will have a tremendous impact through the social media
MEDIA INTERGRATION
2S
4
26
involvement to increase awareness of the brand and remain the
leader of hybrid cars.

Strategy:
We will host an East Coast event by implementing 12 used
Prius sedans as taxis in the four spot markets with the highest
density of hybrid cars including Boston, New York,
Washington D.C. and Miami for one day each to celebrate
Earth Day in April. The 12 taxis will start out in Miami, make
their way north to Washington D.C, followed by New York,
and finish in Boston. This will be an event hyped up through
social media, getting people excited to look out for the Priuses
in their city. We will donate 100% of the Prius taxi ride fares to
the respective citys parks and recreation department in order
to give back to park beautification within those cities by
planting trees and flowers. All of the cars will have Prius
advertisements on the taxi tops that depict how much gas each
hybrid will save that day, compared to using a standard vehicle.
Each customer will receive a receipt to enter an online contest
through the Prius website to win a Prius of their own. This will
integrate an online
contest with the
experiential marketing.
The Priuses used will
be previously leased
cars which have been
sitting at dealerships.
Therefore we would
not be depreciating the value of any new cars. The cost of
taking the Priuses will be about $250,000. Then, we factored in
the price of gas at $3.50 a gallon times at least 10 fill-ups at the

pump for 12 cars with 11.9 gallon tanks. The gas expense will
total at $4,998 for the duration of travel. Next, the cost of
labor; the drivers for this promotional event will be paid $2,000
based on the average salary of a taxi cab driver for one week
plus the travel and hotel expenses which we estimate at $1,000
each cab. The licenses for each cab will average at $300 each.
We will allot a total of $1,500,000 to this event, as it is our
largest and most integrated movement. Prices of gas and travel
expenses may vary. If we do not end up spending all of the
allotted money towards this event, the excess money will go
directly towards the beautification funds of respective
cities, along with the taxi ride fare money.

Strategy 3: Wheel of Fortune
Sponsorship

Objective:
Our main objective through this sponsorship is to have a large
national reach to our specific target. We will spread our
Harmony message over national TV allowing our target to
become more aware of the Prius positioning and brand. We
want to get involved in Wheel of Fortunes interactive online
contest to entice our target to visit the Prius website as well. As
a result of the online contest, the winner will experience the
Prius brand. By the implementation of experiential marketing,
the winner will then use word-of-mouth to spread positive
brand awareness.


26
4
27
Strategy:
We will sponsor one episode of the TV show, Wheel of
Fortune, in the month of March. The wheel that contestants
spin will be green in color, and one option to land on the board
will be to win a free Prius. All of the puzzle categories will
pertain to green practices and products, as this episode is
dedicated to the going green movement sponsored by Prius.
This show airs at 7:30pm EST on ABC, which is after our
primary target is home from work and may be relaxing around
dinner-time. Wheel of Fortune is a show that has been around
for over a decade, so our target is familiar with the program.
Wheel of Fortune has an interactive contest for viewers at
home, selecting a User ID during each episode for a daily
prize. Once the home winner goes online to redeem the prize, a
free Prius, our banner ads will take over the Wheel of Fortune
website and redirect them to the Prius homepage. Prius exhibits
generosity by giving away the car and the go-green position
it supported on Wheel of Fortune. The cost of potentially
giving away two free Priuses is about
$60,000. We estimate the cost of
sponsoring Wheel of Fortune on
ABC to be around $1,150,000







Strategy 4: Online USA Today
sponsorship

Objective:
We want to be associated with USA Today, which reaches our
target audience across the country, being that the older
generations still rely heavily on traditional newspapers to
obtain news. We also reach our secondary target with the
online takeover. We found that USA Today reaches a younger
crowd than other newspaper titles, and this specific paper
would be most effective. USA Today is famous for computing
the holiday list of gifts that gives back every year. This will
help our positioning in the mind of the consumer to be paired
with the reputation of USA
Today and be integrated
with its digital component.
Prius will be perceived as a
charitable and generous
brand that supports an eco-
friendly lifestyle to make the
world a healthier place to
live.

Strategy:
In December, Prius will
fully sponsor USA Today
newspaper and website in
conjunction with creating an
27
4
28
insert of Go Green Gift Guide during the holiday season. The
Prius will be the number one item on the guide, leading a list of
other top-of-the-line green gadgets and products. With the
sponsorship, we will also have banner ads surrounding the
website for a complete website takeover. This will help our
positioning to support our eco-friendly hybrid car that
decreases the pollution output into the environment. We
estimate that the total cost for the online takeover with banner
ads and print sponsorship to be about $1,000,000.





















































28
4
29








































Su




2010 Honda Civic hybrid review. (2010, April). Product
reviews and reports . Retrieved October 12, 2011, from
http://www.consumersearch.com/hybrid-cars/2010-
honda-civic-hybrid

2011 Chevrolet volt: overview. (2011). Retrieved from
http://consumerguideauto.howstuffworks.com/2011-
chevrolet-volt.htm

2011 Toyota Camry Hybrid. (2011). Retrieved from
http://autos.aol.com/cars-Toyota-Camry Hybrid-
2011/overview/

Ad campaign for the launch of the all-new Honda Insight
celebrates "hybrid for everyone". (2009, March 13).
RPA: Rubin Postaer and Associates. Retrieved October
12, 2011, from http://www.rpa.com/subsections
/press.html?section=2009&id=0309insightcampaign

Armstrong, L. (2003, September 4). Hybrids shed their wimpy
ways. Bloomberg BusinessWeek, N/A. Retrieved
October 12, 2011, from http://www.businessweek.com
/technology/content/sep2003/tc20030940851tc127.htm

Berman, B. (2010, October 1). Chevy volt. Retrieved from
http://www.plugincars.com/chevrolet-volt/review

Berman, B., & Hall, L. E. (2011). Ford fusion hybrid.
Retrieved from hybridcars.com/vehicle/ford-fusion
-hybrid.html

Berman, B., & Hall, L. E. (2011). 2011 Honda Insight - review
hybrid cars. Hybrid cars. Retrieved October 12,
2011, from http://www.hybridcars.com/compacts-
sedans/honda-insight-overview.html

Brady, S. (2011, April 22). Honda Civic: characters welcome .
brandchannel.com . Retrieved October 12, 2012, from
http://www.brandchannel.com/home/post/2011/04/22/H
onda-Civic-Characters.aspx

Chambers, N. (2010, October 8). 2010 Nissan Leaf Review |
PluginCars.com. Plug-In hybrid & electric vehicles -
PHEVs - news &
reviews | PluginCars.com. Retrieved October 11, 2011,
from
http://www.plugincars.com/nissan-leaf/review

Consumer reports pans sonata hybrid. (2011, September 30).
Retrieved from http://www.hybridcars.com/news/
consumer-reports-pans-sonata-hybrid-31247.html

Edgerton, J. (2011, August 26). 2012 Camry: can it save
Toyota?. Retrieved from http://moneywatch.bnet.com/
spending /blog/cars-money/2012-camry-can-it-save-
toyota/3477/
REFERENCES
S1
Fact #678: Manufacturer market share of hybrid vehicles,
2010. (2011, May 25). Vehicle technologies program.
Retrieved October 12, 2011, from
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesan

Feuer, J. (2003, 0009 10). Saatchi unveils global Prius
campaign. Retrieved from
http://www.adweek.com/news/advertising-
branding/saatchi-unveils-global-prius-campaign-66945

Finney, M. (2011, September 29). Sonata hybrid doesn't
measure up to regular sonata. Retrieved from
http://abclocal.go.com/kgo/story?section=news/7_on_y
our_side&id=8373366

Flass, R. (2004, July 12). Hybrid hi-jinks: buyers go to
extremes to conquer short supply. | Los Angeles
Business Journal | Professional Journal archives from
AllBusiness.com. AllBusiness.com. Retrieved October
12, 2011, from http://www.allbusiness.com/north-
america/united-states-california-metro-areas/186375-
1.html
Floresca, E. (2011, January 30). Campaign: Hyundai sonata.
Retrieved from http://theadbuzz.com/2011/01/
hyundai-sonata-anachronistic-city/

Geller, M. (2000, 0009 01). Anatomy of a buy- hybrid
campaign for a hybrid car. Retrieved from
http://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/8882/

Hall, L. E. (2011). 2012 Honda Civic hybrid-review.
Hybridcars.com. Retrieved October 12, 2011, from
http://www.hybridcars.com/vehicle/2012-honda-civic-
hybrid.html

Healey, J. R. H. (2011, April 07). Prius sales top 1m as pump
prices spur interest in hybrids. Retrieved from
http://www.usatoday.com/money/autos/2011-04-06-
prius-tops-one-million-in-sales.htm

Honda. (2011, August). monthly sales reports. Honda Media
Newsroom. Retrieved October 12, 2011, from
http://hondanews.com/channels/ 167/releases/94f05cb6-
5b2b-b3e4-cd6c-7b004c34bef5

Honda Civic review. (2011). Edmunds.com. Retrieved October
12, 2011, from http://www.edmunds.com/honda/civic/


Hyundai sonata hybrid. (2011). Retrieved from
http://www.hybridcars.com/vehicle/hyundai-sonata-
hybrid.html

In otherwise dismal month, fusion hybrid doubles sales.
(2010, September 2). Retrieved from
http://www.hybridcars.com/news/dismal-month-fusion-
hybrid-doubles-sales-28518.html
Jalopnik, R. W. (2011, October 3). Chevy volt sales fall short.
Retrieved from http://www.wired.com/autopia/2011
/10/chevy-volt-sales-fall-short/

S2
J.D. Power: annual U.S. hybrid sales beyond 1 million by
2015. (2009, December 31). Hybridcars.com. Retrieved
October 12, 2011, from
http://www.hybridcars.com/news/jd-power-annual-us-
hybrid-sales-beyond-1-million-2015-28126.html

Krivoruchko, I. (2011, January 27). Marketing campaign for
hyundai sonata hybrid: first isnt always better.
Retrieved from http://popsop.com/42594

Loveday, E. (2011, September 1). Hybrid vehicle sales steady
in august; prius crowned hamp again *update.
Retrieved from http://green.autoblog.com/2011/
09/01/hybrid-vehicle-sales-august-prius/

Loveday, E. (2009, July 3). 2011 Nissan LEAF: design aimed
at mainstream appeal. hybrid and electric car news and
reviews green car reports. Retrieved October 11, 2011,
from http://www.greencarreports.com/news/
1033843_2011-nissan-leaf-design-aimed-at-mainstream-
appeal

Loveday, Eric, E. L. (2011, October 03). Hybrid vehicle sales
slip in september 2011; prius tops chart again *update.
Retrieved from http://green.autoblog.com/
2011/10/03/hybrid-vehicle-sales-slip-in-september-
2011-prius-tops-chart-ag/

Loveday, E. L. (2011, March 09). Whole lotta prius love:
Toyota's hybrid sales top 3 million worldwide.
Retrieved from http://green.autoblog.com/2011/
03/09/prius-toyota-hybrid-sales-3-million/

MarketingVox. (2008, Mar. 13). In Hybrid Car Owners
Educated, Wealthier, Older, More Creative, Less
Dogmatic. from http://www.marketingvox.com/hybrid-
car

McGlaun, S. (2011, April 15). DailyTech - Honda Insight sales
grow significantly thanks to rising fuel prices . Auto.
Retrieved October 12, 2011, from
http://www.dailytech.com/Honda+Insigh

MRI. (2008, Jan.). In Mediamark Internet Reporter:
Demographics. Retrieved Nov. 26,
2008, from http://www.mriplus.com/

NREL (2009). Vehicle density of hybrid-electric cars Retrieved
from http://maps.nrel.gov/transatlas

Nudd, T. (2011, 0009 14). Toyota Saatchi builds a giant human
out of 18 smaller humans to say there's a Prius for
everyone . Retrieved from
http://www.adweek.com/news/advertising-branding/ad-
day-toyota-134854

Peters, E. (2008, September 16). Gm reveals details about
production version of volt electric car. Retrieved from
http://epautos.com/forum/archive/index.php/t-
11067.html
SS

Peters, E. (2010, October 11). 2011 ford fusion hybrid.
Retrieved from http://epautos.com/2010/10/11/2011-
ford-fusion-hybrid/

Plunkett Research Ltd. (2011, September 30). automobile
industry introduction.! Retrieved October 11, 2010,
from Plunkett Research Online database.

Prius 11; awards and press. (2011). Retrieved from
http://www.toyota.com/prius-hybrid/awards.html

Prius brochure. (2011). Retrieved from
http://www.toyota.com/prius-
hybrid/ebrochure.html

Prius history. (2008, December 07). Retrieved from
http://john1701a.com/prius/prius-history.htm

Pros and cons of e-rev like the Chevy volt (extended range
electric vehicles). (2008, December 5). Retrieved from
http://hybridreview.blogspot.com/2008/
12/pros-and-cons-of-e-rev-like-chevy-volt.html

Rechtin, M. R. (1998, July 20). U.S. to get Prius hybrid in
2000. Retrieved from
http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic/?verb
=sf&sfi=AC01NBSimplSrch

Riswick, J. (2011). 2011 Chevrolet volt road test . Retrieved
from http://www.edmunds.com/chevrolet/volt
/2011/road-test.html

Taylor III, A. (2010, February 17). Nissan Leaf hopes to
leapfrog the hybrids . CNNMoney . Retrieved October
12, 2011, from http://money.cnn.com/
2010/02/16/autos/nissan_leaf_ghosn.fortune

Toyota Prius. (2011). GMAC advertising spending 2011, By
Month. Retrieved from the AdSpender database.

Treece, J. B. T. (1997, October 20). Toyota to test hybrid
market in Japan with $17,900 Prius. Retrieved from
http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics
/lnacademic/?verb=sf&sfi=AC01NBSimplSrch

Used ford fusion pros vs cons. (2010, August 12). Retrieved
from http://www.autotropolis.com/usedcar-
buyingguide/ford/used-ford-fusion-pros-vs-cons.html

Valdes-Dapena, P. (2011, September 30). Hybrid car sales:
lots of options, few takers. Retrieved from
http://money.cnn.com/2011/09/30/autos/hybrid_car
_sales/index.htm

Wagner, R. (2011). History of the Hyundai Sonata. Retrieved
from http://www.ehow.com/facts_4969383_history-
hyundai-sonata.html
S4

Welsh, J. (2009, August 1). Car compare: 2010s Toyota Prius
vs. Honda Insight. Wall Street Journal, N/A. Retrieved
October 12, 2011, from
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424

Yr. 2010; the illustrated history of Toyota Prius:2010. (2010,
January). Retrieved from
http://www.toyotapriusprojects.com/



































SS








































APPENDIX Appenuix A:1
S6








































Appenuix A:2
S7








































Appenuix B
S8






















!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
NERL Hybrid Density Map
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Appenuix B
Appenuix E
Appenuix C
S9
()*+!!,-")./!/*(0.1-!234!
!
!
!
Appenuix B
4u
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Appenuix E
41
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Appenuix F
42
!
!
!
!
Appenuix u
4S
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!


















Appenuix B
44