108

/

Black SHq Whtte Masþ*

Frqnte Fqnon
B\o¿k- 5Kr.r
Ct'.ørle 5 Lq.n M,rrKrnann C*co.ng.t.".\z¿ g¡eSS, t1ø?)

of that wo¡ld is corrbined with an urge to dominatg an urge which is infantile in origin and whiãh ro"ia .d"ft"uoo has failed to disciplino. The reason the colonial hi;r;lf gives for his flight-whether he says it was ttre desire to havel, or tle desire to escape from the cradle or f¡om the 'ancielt panapets,- or whether he says that he simply wanted a freer life-is of no consequenoe. . . . It is ahãys
a question of compromising out men.88

\

' Ní '" Arove

Chapter Five

with the desire for a world

witl-

TIIE FACT OF

BLACKNESS

one adds that many Europeetrs go to the colonies it is possible for tlem tõ grow rich quicHy there, that with rare exceptions tle cãIooi"l is ì mérchant, or ¡ather a bafficker, one will have grasped the psycholory of the man who arouses in the aotochthooo*þprt"'t" feeling 9f .As for the t"talagasy 99" -rnfelority.o 'dependenry complex,o at least in the only form in *iri.t we can reach it and analyze i! it too proceeds from the arrival of white colonizers on tle islanã. From its other form, from this original complex in its pure state that supposedly characterized the Malagasy -eotality throughglt_$u whole precolonial period, it-appears to me tlat M. Manne¡¡ lacks thr _sljglrtest basr oiïhich to ground any conchxion-applicable to the situation, the proilems, or the potentialities of the Malagasy in the pró;tüur;: 36. lbìd.,p. f08.
b-ecause

If

¡saning in things, my spirit filled with the desire to attain to the source of the world, and then I found that I wâs ¿ul object in the midst of other objects. Sealed into tlat crushing objecthood, I tr¡¡ned beseechingly to others. Their attention was a liberation, nrnning over my body zuddenly abraded into nonbeing, endowing me once more with an âglity that I had thougþt lost, and by takíng me out of the world, restoring me to i¿ But just as f reached the other side, I stumbled, and the movements, the attitudes, the glances of the other ffxed
me there, in the sense in which a chemical solution is fixed by I dye._ f was indignant; I demanded an explanation. _Nothing happened. I bu¡st aparL Now the fragments have been put together again by another self. 'pAs long as the black man is among his oln, he will have no oceasion, except in minor intemal conflicts, to experience his being througb others. There is of cou¡se tle

'Dirty niggerl" Or simpl¡ 'Look, a NegrotI came into the world imbued with the will to ffnd a

moment of 'teing for others," of which Hegel spealcs, but every ontology is made unattainable in a colonized and civilized society. It would seem that this fact has not been given suficient attention by tåose who have discussed the question. In the Welta¡tsclnuung oL a colæ
109

It does not impose itself on me. Jean Lhermitte. a definitive struch:ring of the self and of the world-definitive because it creates a real dialectic between my body and tle worloFor several years certain laboratories have been trying to produce a senrm for 'denegritcation". Änd all these movements a¡e made not out of habit but out of implicit Ìnowledge.Iot !. 1939). to localize sensations. that r¡sed had been provided for me sensatÍons and perceptions primarily of I a Negrol" ft was an external stimulus that flicked over me as I passed by. anecdotes. 1. are in the drawer on the lefg and I shall have to lean back slightly. Nouvelle p. I thought that what I had in hand was to construct a physiological self. "Loolç Revue critigue. I say that this is false. White Masþ. and here I was called on for more. with all the ea¡neshess in the world.\F* not only must permit us to un Þ-black in relation to it on themselves to remind us that this proposition has a converse.1I0 / Black Skín.a but by tle other. to balance space. A slow composition of my self as a body in the middle of a spatial and temporal world-such seems to be the schema. The black man has no uncertaintflff loow.s F¡antz Fa¡wn / 111 ^. I made a tight smile. . Iaboratories have sterilized their not by'residual a tactile. however. who had woven me out of a thousand details. kinesthetiq and üsual character. L'Image de tnt¡e coqps (Paris. ráther. stories.. It amused me. I :hdl have to reach íut my rigþt arm and take the pack of cigarettes lying at the other end of the table. vestibular.that if I want t9 smgke. the white man. 'Looh a Negrol" It was true. it is. The matches. 17.

. I was tespoosibl" at tle same time for my bod¡ for my race.an. I subjected myself to an obiective s¡nmin¿fisn. space. history. and made myself an obiect. I took myself far ofi who m¡-own presenoe' prisoned lrom ated. Iíthe and young Ínto a world that was or¡rs and to help Frigþtenedt Now they were begin4ng to be afraid of-mr' I m-ade up my mind io l"gh myself to tears. tbree places. . I ha¿t already stoppeã being amused. Nar¡sea. . the panic soon I I I I away? 'Á unmercifully Ímother. at varior¡s points. because I already Ïo9w that there were legends. but laugþter had become impossible. existed tríply: oc* cupied. Whíte Masþ.t. an excision. and above ùllúctot'tc' iúy. In $e.iWhat else could it be for me but an amputation. . rmable to be abroad tr.ith theme. I dis 'Mam4 see the Nãgrot Im frigþtenedl" Frigþtercdl i same way in the grandson of -I waskesiãeut Lebn¡nsl¿vesthe exactly theof tax-paying grandson was whích in hard-working lreasants. which l"¿ learned about from-faspen' 11q' assailed. I could oo lu:ogt hogh. and the evanescent other. hostile but not opaçlue' trans¡rarent not there. the corporeal schema crumbled' its place taken by ã racial epiderrral schema' In the train ¡t ias no longei a question of being awa¡e of my body ín the third person but in a triple person.s F¡anE Farcn / 113 'Loob a Negrot'The circle was drawing a bit tígþter' made no secret of mY artusement. . disappeared. vanÍshed" In the m4í'.ttioi. .traþ I was given oot ooe but two. It was not that was ffncling febrile coordinates in the world. foi ny ancestors. All I wanted was to be a man among other men. v' $. storiãs. moved toward the otüer . a native of 'or¡r' old coloniesÍ \ühere shall I hide? iar indeed. a hemorrhage that spattered my whole body with black blood? But I did not want this revision. the white man. this thematization. I wauted to come .ll2 I I Black Skìn.

my message was flung back in my face like a slap. At last I was set f¡ee from my rumination.s F¡øntz Fønon / 115 is shivering. But these are little family quarrels. the niggert going to eat me up. One hopes. What? While I was forgettiog. The Jew is disliked . I was expected to behave like a black manor at least like a nigger. The füe was long since out.. to despise. I was about to be angry. The ûeld of battle having been ma¡ked out. I shouted a greeting to the world Whatl 'When it was I who had. Whãte Masþ. every reason to hate. apart from some rather debatable characteristics. He be longs to the race of those who since the beginning of time have never loown cannibalism.. The white world. "iJ"ïm *. He is a white man.t the same time f accomplished two things: I identified my enemíes and I made a scene. the nigger is shivering because he is cold. the nigger is shivering with cold. I entered the lists. . one has only not to be a nigger." 'Kiss the handsome Negro's ass. exterminated. that cold that goes through yo* bones. since the other hesitated remained only one solution: to make myself lnown.me flooded her face. Granted.N. the little white boy throws hímself into bis mothet's arrns: Mama. My supposed ínferiorityP A hoax that it was me. It is indeed ugly.ï:'i Åll the same. Now one would be able to laugþ. had not seen it. madamel" Sha. forgiving and wanting only to love. grand slam. a white song. the |ew ca¡ be unloown in his Jewishness. f was rejected? 'When I should have been sligþtest recognition? for me to get away M. for who can tell me what beauty is? Where shall I tnd shelter from now on? I felt an easily identifiable flood mounting out of the countless facets of my being. .lL4 I Black Skín. I I sit down at the ff¡e and I become aware of -y r¡niform. eremated. he can sometimes go unnoticed. .AIl this whiteness that br¡¡ns memory. the handsome little boy is tembling because he thinls that the nigger is quivering with rage. the little boy is trembling because he is afraÍd of the nigger.. and tlere is a white song. one waits. his behavior are the finat determinant.S. ^AIl round me the white man. He is not wholly what he is. and. and once mo¡e the nigger was Eembling.l. . "Look how handsome that Negro isl . þe only honorable one. above the sky tears at its navef the earth rasps under my feet. 'What an idei to eat one's fatherl Simple enough. I stop there.A. man was expected to behave like a man. the Jews a¡e ha¡assed-what am I thinking of? They are hunted down. barred me from all participation. . His actions.4.

the Negro doctor. they too reject me. pursued me. Shame and self-contempt Nausea When people like me. for invÍsibility." It was always the Negro teacher. . professors. . Here. but something out of the ordinary still cltrng to such crises. I had been dre¡ming. The time had long since passed when a Negro priest was an occasion for wonder. . brittle as was becoming shivered at the sligþtest pretext I Ìnew. he was praised to the skies. perbaps littie by little. bnrtes. I want you to meet my black füend. statesmen. ." gham6.lI'6 / Black Skin. But in my case everything takes on a neu guise. they inhoduced me to the existence of a certain view that was held by certain 'I I I . He is very gentle. actustomed now to seek no longer for upheaval. . he's exhemeþ sensitive). They will have children faintly tinged wÍth brown Who lnows. dark and unarguable. . I demandetl explanations. . . . and my long antennae pick up the catch-phrases sher¡m over the surface sf things-nigger underwear smells of nigger-nigger teeth are whitenigger feet a¡e big-the nigger's barrel chest-I sIþ into oolfrersi. I hün away from these inspectors of the Ârk before the Flood and I attach myself to my brothers. Whíte Møslcs Frantz Fawn I ln from the moment he is backed dovm. or my lnowledge of literatr¡¡e. He is quite brigþt . . An¿l it tormented me. the ûnest of Nego singers. -\Me have a Senegalese history teacher. f remain silent. Dr. I an fred. but a new kind of man. . ïhey a¡e almost I I f I white. I was walled in: No exception was made for my refined manners. Looh I will accept the lot. Either wa¡ am lockcd into the infernal circle. And already I am being dissected under white eyes. I am the slave not of the 'idea" that others bave of me but of my own aplrefirance. Negroes like myself. ttrey ¡rcint out that it is not because of my color. . or my understanding of the quantum theory. under any conditionsl lbe black physician can never be su¡e how close he is to disgrace. r¡nalterable. .listgrbed me' angered me. Wh¡ itt a Negrot I slip into corners. a black man and a universþ graduate. as long as no one notices mel 'Oh. . progress by crawling. ." The evidence was there. sir. I am one of the best füends the Negro has in Lyon. sÞive for anonyrrity. I am Iaid ba¡Nfeel. lhere was a myth of the Negro that had to be destroyed at all costs.And besides they are about to marry white ìromen. that if the physician made a mistake it would be the end of him and of all those who came after hím. the only real eyes.I see in those white faces that it is not a ne\ñt man who has come in. Negroes are savages. . . a nsw genus. My blac}ness was there. is a Nego. I tell you. Yes. illiterates. Our doctor is colored. move slowly in the world. . . . say hello to my friend from Martinique (be careful. want you to rmderstand. Cobb. Having adjusted their microtomes. I am overdetermined from without. But in my o\rn case I lnew that these statements were false. who invented whÍte blood. for instance. from a Negro physician? Âs long as everything went well. I am given no chance. Aimé Césaire. theyrobjectiveþ cut away slices of my reality. What could one expecÇ after all. . I requested. in the tone tlat one uses with a chitd. Marian Anderson. When they dislike me. To my horror. but look out no nonsense. We had physicians. Gently. they tell me it is in spite of my color. .

But I had to change my tune. against the'r:niversality of the Catholic reli- I set to cataloguing and probing my times changed. 1980). but. from which he is excluded. there is a sort of ímpassioned imperialism of reason: for he wishes not only to cnnvince others that he is rigbt. 16.. his goal is to persuade them that there is an absolute and unconditioned value to rationalism. 4. that tle Negro was a human being. 2. That victory played cat and mouse. But by referring everything to the idea of the dignig of man. Whìte Masþs people. though there may be Jews who have made intuition tle basic category of their philosophy. Antì-semite and. d¿ oítro the Negro had. been proved analogous to the white man: tfre same morphology.p. With enthusiasm 3. Colou¡ Preludiæ (London. pp. the contempt of the shonger and richer peoples for those whom they consider inferior to themselves. I was hated. I put all the parts back together. I would personally say that for a man whose only weapon is reason there is nothing more neurotic than contact with un¡eason. and been made the criterion by which men are iudged' ine' spective of their social or educational attainments. As the other put it when I was present. one had ripped prejudice to sbreds After much reluctance. I intended to rationalize the world and to show the white man that he was mistaken. 115. despised. is itself universal. I felt knife blades open within me. Jean-Paul Sa¡tre says.As religion at füst iostify and then condemn slavery and prejudices. and the bitter resentrnent of those who are kept in subiection and a¡e so frequentþ insulted. . fu for Bergson. fu a good tactician. he asserts the'catholicityof the rationaf an ínsrument by which to attain to the tnrth and establ¡h a spiritual bond among men. and it leads towa¡d the universal. his philosophy offers the curious appearance of an anti-intellectunlist docbine constucted entireþ by the most rational and most critical of intelligences. It was hate. one had seen the Catholic sunoundings. It is through a¡gument that he establishes the existence of pure duration. I resolved to defend myself.E the author adds. it made a fool of me. Ieu (New Yorlç Grove hess. It [colour preiudice] is nothing more than the unreasoning hatred of one race for another. I was always told. fu colour Ís the most obvior:s outwa¡d manifestation of race it has gion. but by an entÍre race.a Kt n"¿ read it rightly. the scientists had conceded. ttre same histology./ Blnck Skìn. since its obiects can be tamed and conceived. Reason was confident of victory on every level. In the Jew. and that very intuition wbich discovers du¡ation or life. 112-r13. detested. has no resemblance to the Pascalian subdety of spirit. The psychoanalysts say that nothing is more baumatizing for the young child than his encounters with what is rational. ín oíoo and. of philosophic intuition. not by the neigþbor across the street or my cousin on my mother's side. it was not. The-lighlskinned races have come to despise all those of a darker color:r.'We must hope that ít 118 F¡ontz Fa¡wn / 119 will very soon disappear. and the da¡k-skinned peoples will no longer accept without protest the inferior ¡nsition to whÍch they have been relegated3 it is this latter-based on a thousand imperceptible perceptiors-which to the Jew seems his worst enemy. Sir AIan Bums. Allen and Unwin. their intuition ^And. p. I was up agaínst something unreasoned." What was it? Color preiudice. He feels himself to be a missionary of the universal. since anyone m y practice it. lbid. 1948).

And then came men who said that it all had gone on fa¡ too long My tenaciorxness 5. II. vol.) did the rest. Too latel But once again I want to understand. I become sensitive. for a definition of myself. . In the füst chapter of the history that the others have compiled for me. We had to wait for Janet to demonstrate tlat the aforesaid. that is invoked when the ]ew is told. Eqenícs in Raæ and Stûe .I was a slave forever.{lf¡ed M¡oen. but. It is tradition to which the anti-semites turn in order to ground the validity of theÍr þoint of view. national union must be made a realÍty. But on certain points the white man remained innactable. one of those gooå Frenchmen said in a bain where I was sitting: Just let the real French virtues keep going and the race is safe. if I were asked. 'llliere is no possibility of your t". I have gone forward." .. My hembling hands take hold of nothing. Now more than ever. p. Ta¡monic and Disharmonic Bace-cmssings. I woultl certainly Ïnow how to reacL ^And in one sense. Until we have a more deffnite lnowledge of the effect of race-crossings we shall certainly do best to avoid crossinç between lvidely different races." Not long ago. cit. I would say that I am one who waits. I interpret everything in terms of what I discover.s What a shameful scÍencel But I understand. demonstrated." It is tradition. the vein has been mined out. dog in conEast to man. In Engüsh in the original (Translator's note. Since the time when someone first mourned the fact that he had a¡rived too late and everything had been oracles or exhausted themselves in attempts to plot the wanderings of Ulyssesl The pan-spiritualists seek to prove the existence of a soul in animals by using this argument: A dog lies down on the grave of his master and starves to death there. that like us he has his heart on the left side. the foundation of cannibelism has been made eminently plain in order that I may not Iose sigþt of it My cbromosomes were supposed to have a few thicker or thinner genes representing cannibalism. the schola¡s had now discovered the ¡acíal Anlccd.s Frantz Fanon I l2l when it was there. this 'þsychological mechanism. 120."6 For my own part. Let's have an end of internal strifel Let's face up to the foreigners (here he tu¡ned toward my cor:ner) no matter who they are. We speak of the glory of Greece. amended the less trmly convinced. made the most of. he adds. That is to say. it is Aeschylus who is to blame. thought out. Too late. for it is a *crossings truism tlat between wideþ different races can Iower the physícal and mental level. Everything is anticipated.In I Black Skin. 6. I was no longer." The Second Intemational Congress of Eugenics (1921). p.li"g a place in society. Whíte Masþ. In the abstract there was agreement: The Negro is a human being. I investigate my surroundings. simply lacked the capacity to liquidate the past. . f was saved from the civilizing deluge. Jon . . if modern man can no longer r¡nderstand the Cløeplwroi of Aeschylus. quoted in Sir Alan Burnq op. Under no conditions did he wish any intimacy between the races. . Artaud says." For it is a matter of common knowledge that the mechanism is only prychological Two centuries ago I was lost to humanity. 60. it is that long historical pasÇ it is that blood relation between Pascal and Descartes. In addition to the ser-knked.

" in Claude Norcle¡ IlHortme fu cuil¿u¡ (Paris. What was it? Rhgthml Listen to ou¡ singer. It is the first It is the thíng that is most perceptible and least material. . An outragel The |ew and I: Since I was not satisfied to be racíalized. And now how my voice vibratesl Those who invented neither gunpowder nor the compæs Those who never learned to conquer steam or elecEicity Those who never explored the seas or the shes But they know the farthest corners of the land of anguish Those who never Ìoew any journey save that of a. . my brother in misery. if he had been capable of it. .fia tnaî race staggered under the burden of a basic element. It is not tbe kind of syrnmetry that gives rÍse to monotony. Plon.? was universally right-by which I meant that I was answer_ man. Little by little. This is how rhythm afrects what is least intellectual in us. . as inhalation is to exhalation.ed. It was up to the white man to be moro irrational than I. I th¡ew myself back toward unreason. this is rhythm in the masterpieces of Negro art.ln I Blnck Skín. but the fact re mained that it \ilas an u¡familiar rüeapon. Out of the necessities of my struggle I had chosen the method of regression. e vital element. puttin-g out pseudopodia here and there. . It is comlnsed of a theme-sanlphrral foml-which is set in opposition to a sister theme. 1939). Since no agreement was possible on the level of reason.s must be said fu his defense that he stank of cheap wine. by l lucþ turn of fate I \ilâs humani. Whíte Masþ. "Ce que l'homme noir apporte. it is understandable that I could have made up my mind to utter my Negro cry. Ân outragel Frantz Fonon I 123 ft pudty. pp. rh¡hn is alive. it is free. I wade in the irrational Up to the neck in the irrational. here I a:n at home. . It is the archety¡re of th. he would have told me that my emancipated-slave blood could not possibly be stirred by the name of Villon or Taine. t¡ralnically. con- 7. especially sculpture. and that cha¡acter of abandon which is or¡¡s is itself rhythmic. I aur made of the irrational. to make us penetrate to the spirituafity of the object. Léopold Senghor: Had I read that tight? I read it again with redoubled attentíon. . I secreted a race. Was this or:r salvation? I had rationalized tle world and the world had rejected me on the basis of color prejudice. Negro sculpturet I began to flush with pride. I joined the Jew. 309-8f0. and that is repeated. From the oplnsite end of the white world a magical Negro cuttu¡Jwas hailing me.bduction Those who lea¡ned to kneel in docility Those who were domesticated and Christia¡i'ed Those who were injected with bastardy. .

Ihìt1. .Afric¿íne 1956). . . carnal marriage of the group and the cesmos.79. my strong heels spurring into the flanls of the world. mother love. Ainé Césaire. Ibìtl. But those without whom the earth wor¡ld not be the earth fruiúul th¡n the empty land still more the lantl Storehowe to guard and ripen all Tr¡mescence all the more spark of the sacred ffre of the World fesh of the flesh of the world. it rry¡ll have a certain magico' social shuctt¡re. He adds: these are the elements that one tnds again on a still greater scale in tbe domain of secret societies.. I sta¡e into the shoulders of the world as the celebrant sta¡es at the midpoint between the eyes of the sacritcíal victim. its deafaess hurled against the clamor of the day My blacloess is no drop of lifeless water on the dead eye of the world My blacloess is neither a tower nor a cathedral It tbrusts into the red flesh of the sun It thrusts into the burning flesh of the rLy It hollows througb the dense dimay of its own and fed me.78.. are bound under penatty of death not to reveal to the uninitiated what they bave All experÍenced" secret society good ground 8.h persons of either sex.p. tbrobbing with the very novement of the worldP on earth that is most ea¡th My bladmess Ís no stone. to whic. White Møsks F¡antz Fa¡øon I l2:i Yes. 77-78.ao píllar of patiencef Egahl the tom-tom chatters out the cosmic message.¡1 things uncaring to subdue but playing the play of the world truIy the eldest sons.. to the essenos of all rhings.of the world sence . futride the world. But they ¿¡bandon themselves. De Pédrals implies that always in -Africa' no matter what ûeld Ís sh¿lied. its import. a work rich in perceptions.p. I went overboard after something else. LO. To the exten! moreover. Pre 9. OnIy the Negro has the capacity to convey it. to decipher i[s ¡¡s¡ning. possessed. 'Bloodt Bloodt All or¡r blood stirred by the male heart of the sun. this mystic. subjected to circr¡mcision durÍng adolescrcnce. pp. Having stated the minor thesis.l2l I Bltck Skín. all those are my brothers-a titter brotherhood" imprisons all of us alike. Cøhb¡ ùun ¡etou¡ au Poys notal (París. I\Laoðet sønele øn Aftíqw ¡aire. howing nothing of externals but possessed by the movement o¡ .

Black magict Orgies.ll I walk on white neils. bringing invisible forces into action. . P. absolute. . I-angston Hugþes.ts of water threaten my soul on füe. 18. 83. Les rítes sectds iles prímítíls ile lOubangut ll3.s F¡antz Fotto¡t I lgl circr¡mcision and the rites that they embellish as constihrtive of rnins¡ secret societies. Coitus is an occasion to call on the gods of the clan. It is a sacred act. Aggression was in the sta¡s. Or. I am doubly atert. amulets. . monies. fr dß sennlle en AltfuTue rcíre (paris. $[s.F. 205. 14. p. primitive mentality. pure. witches' sabbatbs.l2l3 I Black Skín. I had to choose. llhe soil.F. Payol 1951). What is one to think of all these manifestations. Vgrgr$. if one prefers. 15. simplg free in ou¡ behavior. we are-we Negroes-backward. That is because for rx the body is not some- should be kept Ín mind. AII of it is typical of peoples tlat have not kept pace with tle evolution of the human race.. My italics-F. Having reached this point I was long reluctant to commit myself. Yes. all these initiations. (Paris. fue these virgíns. p. these nympho maniacs? Black Magic. begins to ¡evel. What do I mean? I had no choice. it all floods over me. \ M.ces and of words._12: De Pédrals. . cit. Léopoltt Sengþor.'in Norde¡ op. . Abnost at my ea¡ there is a song: First our hearts burned hot Now they are cpld AII we think of now is Love \ühen we retu¡¡ to the village When we see the great phallus Ah how tlen we will make love For our pafts \ilill b" dry and clean. this is humanity at its lowest. -Ce que ltomme noh apporte. animism.u the Âfro-American lnet.16 ll. Face to face with these rites. heathen cere. payot). all these acts? From very direction I am assaulted by the obscenity of da. says: I have lnown rivers ancient da¡k rive¡s mY soul has grown deeP like the deeP rivers. which only a moment ago \ilas still a tamed steed. White Masþ. animal eroticism. My italics-F.

My þeaking hands" tore at the hysterical tb¡oat of the world. He enslaves iL . my black "ighg and shining. He ffnds himself predestined master of this world. breathing in the dista¡ce of the you explain to me what the ancestors are saying in the liquid calm of tle constellations. Whíte Mosþ. turning away with an air of mystery I mu¡srured: Tokowal¡ uncle. swarms of reddish torn out of me. But there exist other values that fft only my forms. I was interrogated. geneticall-y' ã*phioed a f that . Edidons du .lc made myself the ¡net of the world' The whíte man had for¡nd a poetry ín which there was nothing poetic' The soul of the white man \il¿ls comrpted. do you remember the nights gone by When my head weighed heavy on the back of yor. you." forever after lost ¡e him and his.Africa... Somewhere beyond tle obiective world of farms and banana tuees and rubber telsfi had subtþ brougbt the real world into being. He thrust probes into the Ieast circumvolution of my brain. chorts ixornb¡e (Par¡s. We have had earth mystigs zuch 11 b"ão "*htttt"d approacb.-tokowaly. you listen to what cannot be hea¡{ and Digbt. the elephant' and the füh we lnow. he wants ¡¡ fe¡ himself alone. The bull. libility. cy. -6*'u 194õ).Then I bad the feeling I was repeating . the white -* iepresented a stage of dãvebpment: 'You¡ properties have Ëy rx. Everywhere he found only the obvious. I wePt a live again. is in a 'The presence of the N whites $¡ay an ínsurance policy tu¡n to feei that they have become tle men of õIor and ask them for a líttle hr¡r¡an stxtenaîæ. He went tbrough ny pockets.Study our history ancl yo¡r -will vou will never í"" n"* f* tbis tsion has gone. i*gÉ hum. I had discovered tle primeval One. seuil' sengþor. And cpvered tom-tom. The white man wants the world. I robbed the white man of "a certain world. My originality had been I had soon to change my tune' Only momentarily at to me that.128 | Black SHn. sta¡s hang on the bushes. the scorpion.An acquisitive relation is established between the world and him. When tlat happened. .o At last I had been rccognrzed" I was no longer a I 7ßÍO. Between the world and me a relation of coexistence \ras established. . tho leoparil. The white man had the anguished feeling that I was escaping from him and that I was taking sensthing with me. . So it was obvious that I had a secret. as I was told by a friend who was a teacher in the United States. Like a magician. so little used as he is to such reactions. The essence of the world \ilas my forh¡ne. Iors. But I stereotyPes: the N wí gerwrís good nature . the white man must have been rocked bachva¡d by a force that he could not identify..And the whiæ pomp of the Spirits ín the heavenly sbell that has no end" But now comes the radiance of the goddess Moon and the veils of the shadows fall.u patience or Holding my hand your hand led ne by shadows and signs The fields are fowers of glowworms.l". myfical antl brÍgbÇ black Night of . on the trees the crickets sbrill sounds.s F¡øntz Fanon | 12$ Dever understood this magic zubstitutÍon. and.

respect for age. unquestionably zuperior to those who tortu¡ed thenr-that collection of adventu¡ers who slashed and violated and spat on AfrÍca to make the stripping of her the easier. but also. who had been to¡n away from their families. and he is awa¡e. .p. though he nowhere reminds us that when the Porhrguese landed on the banla of the Congo in 1498. The men they took away loew how to build houses. lv¿ls L7. at least he knows that .cities. a Ëee acceptance of discþline. they possessed great myths in which'the most subtle observation and the most daring imagination were balanced and blended. . It was here that I made my most remarkable discovery. L8. And too there was something else. something else that the white man could not understand. lVhat I found there took away my breath. weave @tton. I I nrmmaged frenetically tbrougb all the anHquity of the black man. I iostled him and told him point-blank. lLfué Césaire. thÍs discovery was a rediscovery.. lhe white man \¡¡as wrong. accounts of learned. I ¡ . And. p.i il I I I What sort of men were these. Order-Earnestness-Poetry and Freedom. to protect them from fear. then. AII of thag exhumed from the pas! spread \ilith its insides out. Dienné. Frobenirs. the joy of living.n. Esclnage et cobnisúbn (Paris. is only oneþore cÍvilization among many-and not the most merciful. IbíiL. I tested the limits of my essence. I could see. their countÍes." I shouted my Iaughter to the stars. made it possible for me to ffnd a valid historic place. I am not getting used to anyone. ÌYs5tsrmrnn. no Brown even suspects that such things existed in Africa before the Er:ropeans came. based on mystical cunnections with the founder of the city. but the whites had thrown themselves on me and hamshung me. beyond all doubt there was not much of it left. Their customs were pleasing. In his book Liaboktíon ile lescl¿oage Schoelcher presented us with compelling arguments. not even a half-man. discovered by Caillé.ls I put the white man back into his place. P¡esses Universitaires de France. built on unity. 7. From the untroubled private citizen to the almost fabulous leader there was an unbroken chain of understanding and trust. govern empires. forge steel. growing bolder. the most secret forces of the unÍverse Monuments in the very heart of . Iiving in the very flood of imperialism. Their religion had its own beauty. in which human feeling erupted so un¡estrained yet always followed ttre obsessive laws of rhythm in its organization of the major elements of a materÍal callecl upon to capture. hoperþ speaking. they found a rich and flourishing st¿te tlere and that the courtiers of Ambas were d¡essed Ín robes of silk and brocade. Delafosse-all of them white-had ioined the chorus: Ségou. f948). mine for metals.180 / Black SHn. with a savagery "nparalleled in history? Gentle men. no Smith. that European civilizatior¡ after all. belonged to a race that had already been working in gold and silver two thousand years ago. blacls (doctors of theology who went to Mecca to interpret the Koran). "Get used to me. cities of more than a hund¡ed thousand people.8. Listen: No coercion. I was not a primitive. in order to redisbibute. No a¡t? They had their magnitcent sculpture. . The white ma. ¡nlite. erect. only mutual assistance.Africa had brought itself up to a iuridical concept of the state. Mollier¡ the Cander brothers. But Schoelcher reminds us of their presence. cultivate telds. Intoduction to Victor Schoelcher. . Since then. no Durand. their religions.s Frøntz Fanon / 181 had tried to fee myself tbrougþ my kind.Africa? Schools? Hospitals? Not a single goo'cl burgher of the twentieth century. No science? Indeed yes. kindness. considerate. Whíte Masþ.

PP. poésb aègte øt n. 1948).etaríd. ethnic idea of negrihñe þasses. But 'I"at does not prevent the idea of race from minglíng with that of class: The ffrst is concrete and particular.. and that friend had found no better response than to point out the relativíty of what they were doing. into the objective." Heþ had been sought f¡om a füend of the colored peoples. the only condition to attain to conscious- *u"ti. it is a hansition and not a conclusion. negritude appears as the minor term of a dialectical progression: The theoretical and practical assertion of the supremacy of the white man is its thesis.as Hegel puts it. I said to my. Thus negritude is the ¡oot of its own destuction. . Beyond the black-skinned men of his race it is the battle of the world proletariat that is his song. "The generation of the younger black poets has iust suffered a blow that c¿ur never be forgiven." That is easy to sa¡ but less easy to think out. and the Negroes who employ it lnow this ysry well. the position of negritude as an antithetical value is the moment of negativity. . . In no sense does he wish to rule. the one stems from what Jaspers calls r¡nderstanding and the other from intellection. as we have said. 19. the first is the result of a psychobiological syncretism and the second is a methodical conshuction based on experience. positive. I felt that I had been robbed of my last chance.lgache (Pa¡is. uùerever they come from. th" prol. dz la . .friends. His reaction time lagged interminably. we will turn to you as we do to our children-to the innocent. Ât once the subjectivg existential. . I was iubilant / 133 out by our lives in big buildings.the world: He seelcs the abolition of all ethnic privileges." Sengbor says. exact idea of When f read that page. he asserts hÍs solidarity with the oppressed of all colors. OtPhée Noi¡.lÐ it was snatched au/ay a my effort was only But tbere is something pe¡e ímportant: The Negro.Skía White Masþ* Frarúz Fonon ¡esenú¡I. othe white man is the symbol of capital as the Negro is tbat of labor. the second is universal and abstract. In fact. xl fi. .l 2| Bhck. For once. Jean-Paul Sartre. I had won. the ingen.ro*. a means and not an ultimate end. Presses Universitai¡es de France. creates an anti-racist racisr¡ for himsáf. . that born Hegelian had forgotten ttrat consciousness has to lose itself in the night of tle absolute. iFor Césaíre. preþce to Antlnlagb.And undoubtedly it is no coincidence that the most a¡dent poets of negritude a¡e at the same time militant Marxists. þuf fhis negative moment is insuficient by itself. they Ìnow that it is intended to prepare the synthesis or realization of the human in a society without races.

.. but he forgot that this negativity draws its worth f¡om an almost substantive absoluteness. .lU I Black Skírù. F¡antz Fa¡wn / 185 In opposition to rationalism.p. your statements show a misreading of the processes of history. it rvill all pass. my bad nigger's teeth. . and sometimes they take different @urses. I do not have to look for the universal. waiting for that turn of history. It is not out of my bad niggert misery.Africa you are inside me Like the splinter in the wound Iike a guardian fetÍsh in the center of the village make me the stone in your sling make my mouth the lips of your wound make my Ìnees the broken pillars of your abaserrent .he summoned up the negative side.And so in this \York. I \ilas like that too when I was young .ND YET I want to be of your race alone workers peasants of all lands . color the sea into which Ít pours itself? It does not matter: Every age has its own poetry. It ís its own follower. in spite of everything. fean-Paul Sartre. has to be ignoran! of the essences and the determinations of its being. white worker in Detoit bla& peon ín Alaba¡r¡a uncountable nation in capitalist slavery destiny ranges us shoulder to shoulder repudiatÍng the ancient maledictioDs of blood taboos it 20. my bad nigger's hunger that I will shape a torch with which to bu¡a down the world. a class to take up the torch by creating situations that can be expressed or transcended only tbrougb Poetry. This stnrggle. One da¡ perhaps. . sense to block that sou¡ce: Will the souroe of Poetry be dried up? Or will the great black flood. BuÇ I will be told. .. I needed to lose mysglf comileteþ in negritude. My Negro conscíousness does not hold itself out as a lack. . but it is the torch that was already there. this new deóüne had to take on an aspect of completeness' Nothing is more unwelcome than the commonplace: 'You'll change. -there had always beeï the ubforeseeable. I am not a potentiality of somethin& I am \pholly what I a¡n. as filled with itself. ." Thã dialectic that brings recessity into the foundation of my freedom drives me out of myself. has destroye¿l black zeal. . In opposition to historical becoming. . It ûe. any abolition of the ego by . . a rac€. Ibiil.A' consciousness committed to experience is ignorant. In terms of consciousness. mY boy. waiting for me. No probabiliÇ has any place inside me. sometimes the poetic impulse coincides with the revolutionary impulse. And Sartre's mistake was not only to seek the source of the source but in a certain ness of self. It shatters my un¡eliected position. pre-existing. . Today let us hail the turn of history that will make it possible for tle black men to utter 'the great Negro cry \ñ/ith a force that will shake the pillars of the world" (Césaire)30 is not I who make a meaning for myself. but it is the meaning that was already there. youll see. the black consciousness is held out as an absolute density. a stage precediog *y invasion. Orph"ée Noír is a date in the intellectualization of the experíence of being black. .xliv. black consciousness is immanent in its own eyes. Still in terms of consciousness.å. in every age the circumstances of history choose a nation. in tbe depths of that unhappy romanticism. Listen then: Africa I have kept your memory . Wh¿te Masles desire. In any casãI needeil not to }now.

-ffi-""iduiop.. a basin.. at tYing to grasP mY own Ihe Other' gave me a name ilhxion." in ìbìd. in' fuúlrologíe et malgoclw. a towel. 174.rre to me His hands red with blood Spat his contempt into my black face Out of his tYrant's voice: IIey boy. P. we will repl¡ Negro experience is not a whole. one nrns the risk of ãne's heail to try tõ "rpr"* What is certain is that. water. Or this other one: My brother with teeth that glisten at the compliments of hypocrites My biother with goltl-rimmed spectades that tr¡¡o blue at the sound of the Mastert Oío My poor brother in di¡ner iacket with its silk lapels Ct""ti"g and whispering and strutting througþ the drawing rooûls of Condescension How pathetic You are the sr¡n of yor:r native couûtry is nothing more now than a shadow Onyour comPosed civilized face white bY Years of of lgftf grmn$ wo¡ds But when regrrgitating presses on your shoulders I-ike the baá that You walk again on the rougþ red ea¡th of Africa These **d! of ang¡rish wilt state the rhytbm of yor:r uneasY gait I feel so along so alone herela "yo voÍce ¡ this other lnem: The white man kÍlled my father Because my father was Proud The white man raped my mother Because my mother was beautiful The white man wore out my brother in the hot sun of the roads Because my brother was strong Then the white man ca.% From time to time one would like to stop' To state reality is a wearing task. temps du mart¡/re. 113.s IL7 \ What a difierence.2l Exactly.136 / Black Skin. for instrngs. ¿Ì3 p.s the contradiction among the featt¡¡es creates the ha:rronY of the face we prodaim the oneness of the sufiering and the revolt of all the peoples on all tbe face of the earth a¡d we-mix the mortar of the age of brotherhood out of the dust of idols. Whíte F¡ontrFo¡wn Masþ. there are Negtoes' we roll away the ruins of ou¡ solih¡des If the flood is a frontier we will sEip the gully of its endless covering fow If the Sierra Ís a frontier we will smash the iaws of the volcanoes upholding the Cordilleras and the pl"i" *ill be the paracle grouncl of the dawn where \pe regrot4) ou¡ forces sundered by the deceits of our maste¡s tl.eRonégat'- . fòr there is not mereþ ona Negro. Bu! when one has taken it into existence. While I was saying ¡9 him¡ Io 'Bois-dEbène.helude.T. 'My negrituile is neither a tower nor a cathodral' it tlm¡sts into the red fesh of the sun' it tbrusts Ínto the burning flesh of the sþ.

I'm afraid.. . pp. And when the world knows. g. I am a Negro' And there was my poor brother-living out_his neurosis to the extreme anù finiling himself paralyzed: TrrE NDGBo: ma'a. 4 P-utain iespeAueuse (Paris. 1940). he responds to the world's anticipation. 191.All tlose white men in a goup. He is afrai¿t lest the world know. I canl rrzz¡r.\û th" .. Natioe Son (New Yorþ Harper. but I lnow that I am no good' i ¿oïo. ma'an. Çrllim¿¡{.ffiy ¡otf am a Negro. he is terribty 1fr19' He is aft. That's how it always !. Tlw Respeaful Prostitute. You too? You feel g"íltYt TrrE NEGRO: YeS. Knopf. Jean-Paul Sartre. tfãlr*z So whatÞ wouldnt it? MaÈe they got a right to bleed you like a Pig iust because theY're white? THE NEcRo: But theyie white folks.ã." 'What thing?" *The wanting to kill myself. 1949).1S8 / Bhck Skín." In the end.ã 26.. XMi "ty gtew more violent: I Ia¡naNegro. TrrE NEcRo: Theyte white folks. Bigger Thomas acts. in Three -Plays (New-York.-t lnow of îrru NEGRo: That's how it goes. a tln by Ma¡k Robson. Iiiùa¡d Wright. Originally. he acts.Eãz:IEz goes with white folks. L947).. is Bigger Thomas-he is afraid. rñãEIEi Reallyt Tbat would bother them. A feeling of inferiority? No. 189. but of what is he afraid? Of himself' No one lnows yet who he is. he is afraid of the fear that the world would feel if the world lnew' Like that old woman on her lnees who begged me to It tie her to her bed: 'I ¡ust lnow. or imaginarY 25. Tie me down. cannot be wrong' I "* Stilty' what. To put an end to his tension."rrr" in which the word is used by lean Wahl in Existen¡p lwruhv et tronscetùræø (Neuchâtd La Baconnière' 1e44). Doctor: Âny minute that thing will take hold of me.26 of my hands. ma'am. a feeling of-nonexistence' Sin is N"go as vírtue is white.m.." dense dismay of its oum píllar I cant shoot white folks. but he lnows that fear will fill tbe *otld when the world ûnds out. . Whíte Masþ's TEE NECRO: F¡øntz Fanon / 189 it hollows througþ the ofpatience. 27. ma'an.-t i" their hands. See also Hone of tlw Brooe. the world always expects something o! th9 Negro.

a repetition. a duplication of conflicts that owe their origin to tle essence of the f"*ily constellation. It can never be sufrciently emphasized that psychoanalysis sets as its task the r¡nderstanding of given behavior patterns-within the speciffc group represented by the family. e¡nrnínin$ rrl€. Jacques Lacan. "Resign yourself to your color the way I got used to my shrmp. the evidence is going to be partícularly complicated. in I cannot order to shatter the e. Yesterday. its wings paralyzed. Hort¿ of Chapter Six THE NEGRO AI. 28. I wanted to rise. Le complexe.{dler can be applied to the efiort to understand the man of color's view of the world. l. Without responsibility. My heart makes my head swim. I saw the slsy turn upon itself utterþ and wholly. Milita¡iza$e faniliale. but the disemboweled silence fell back upon me. my chest has the power to expand without limit. Doubleda¡ 1945). awakening to the world.'Whíte is Masþ. so. By Cbester Himes (Ganlen City.L4A So I it Block Skin. L4L tle Braoe. waiting for me. The crippled veteran of ttre Pacitc u¡ar says to my brother. A Negro groom is going to appear. sbaddl. In the go to a frlm without me. When the problem is a neurosÍs experienced by an adult. bess with the cha¡acter in If He HoII'e¡s Løt Hlm GF do' That does op sensual' his mÍs- in the end.s -who big blonde ofiered. There a¡e close connections between the shr¡cture of the family and the structure of the natíon. however. I feel in myself a soul as immense as the world. In response to the requirements of díalectiq one should investigate the extent to which the conclusions of Freud or of . I am a master and I am advÍsed to adopt the humility of the cripple.ng lrJethíngpess and krffniry I began to weEr. truly a soul as deep as the deepest of rivers. 29. the analystt task is to uncover in the new psychic sEuctu¡e an analogy with certain infantile elements. In Europe the family represents in effect a certain fashion in which the world presents itself to the child." Ercgclopéilie frcnçakn. In every case the analyst clings to the concept of the family as a þsychic circu:nstance and objecL'a Here. &40."2e Nevertheless with all my shength I ¡efrxe to accept that amputation. The Nego is a toy in the white man's hancls.ID PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Psychoanalytic schools have studied tle neurotic reactions that a¡ise among certain groups. in certain areàs of civilization. iust before people in the theater are watching me. facteur concret de la psycholo 5- . we're both victims. The interval.

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