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FOURTEEN YEARS A JESUIT

Fourteen Years A Jesuit
A
Record of Personal Experience and a Criticism
'.A\\^^'

BY

COUNT PAUL VON HOENSBROEGH

TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN BY

ALICE ZIMMERN
(Girton College, Cambridge)

VOLUME

II

CASSELL AND COMPANY, LTD. London, New York, Toronto and Melbourne
19U
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ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Blyenbeck and Ditton Hall 21...172 199 20.... . The Attitude of the Order to Learning Jesuit Morality Jesuit Morality and the State ... 469 ..... . ..... ... The Criticism Continued the Constitutions 18. .. 30... 24. 399 412 423 447 .. .. A Criticism of the Inner Constitution of the Some General Characteristics 16..... Exaeten Berlin 27.. 29. . . The Tertiate and the End General Verdict on the Jesuit Order From Then Till Now Index .CONTENTS CHAPTER P\OK 15. 25. 22.. 28.. 227 23. The Scholastic Studies The Philosophical and Theological Studies of the Scholasticate 246 270 286 338 369 ... : : : : Theory and Practice of 49 Theory and Practice of 105 133 The Criticism Continued The Criticism Continued Politics and Confessors 19.. Order : 1 The Criticism Continued the Vows 17.... 26. .. Court Confessors .. Scholastic Years at Wynandsrade.

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can only offered as the " complete " Constitutions in We good faith. even for payment. 1757 ." published in Florence 1893. latest edition of the " Institute. the Jesuit Order. namely. extend to the whole of this domain. being formed by both. By the " inner constitution of the Order " I of mean the in its spirit the Order. Criticism will. and.. Br. 1870 in of the completeness of the Constitutions. cannot be obtained at ordinary booksellers. trusting in the honour of those who issue them. above all. the complete Constitutions of the Order in the extant editions of the "Institute of the Society of Jesus?"* A positive is take what answer cannot be given. When copy from the Order through the Berlin branch of the Herder firm of publishers at Freiburg i. Theoretically. practically. They would not supply me with the latest edition. in activity.itself. to be found * Prague. . therefore. anywhere The —of course I am only etc. Thus the inner and outer are combined. I sought to procure a B . 1. But.Fourteen Years a Jesuit CHAPTER XV A CRITICISM OF THE INNER CONSTITUTION OF THE ORDER SOME GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS *. and. some preliminary questions must be Have we the real. which is closely connected with the Order. Nor is corroboration by another authority Rome. answered. the organism of the Order. it is manifested the Constitutions of the Order. with its actual and its historical life. my request was refused. first.

II. : : * Inst. S." An incoherent mass of matter consisting of fifty-two points lations dealing with is to be found here. We are sensible of gaps. Father Jacob Ratgeb. and involuntarily the thought arises.e. to be mentioned later. those Constitutionum portions of and the Con- which are supposed to contain a summary. I expressed my doubts to the Provincial of the German Province. " These are my constitutions and rules. mental rules for the structure and direction of the Society alternate with what is obviously unimportant and tran- What astonishes us is not so much the lack of arrangement as the lack of coherence. the first drafts and The Order alone tells us. my complete there are no others. . " These rules : are my complete constitutions. rules." But not even the Order itself has ever stated officially and solemnly. and forty-nine Regu- mere externals stand side by side Fundawith others concerned with ascetic discipline.. 70-78. " Leave alone such quibI received the evasive reply sitory. "A sumthe quintessence of the principles and rules mary {summarium) of those statutes which relate to the spiritual direction of our members and which are to be : observed by all." Serious doubts arise as to their completeness when the we peruse Regulae stitutions the Summarium Communes * i. The more often I heard them the " Am I hearing something more strongly I doubted complete or something consciously and intentionally curtailed ? " In important and decisive conversations..J.2 Fourteen Years a Jesuit thinking of an ecclesiastical authority —which has had an insight into the original documents. editions of the Constitutions. " Has not " something been omitted here and here and here ? The Summarium and the Regulae Communes were read once every month during meals from the pulpit of the refectory.

f Decree 45. which seemed opportune. and sanctioned by him and his successors. the Congregation has decided that it mined to amend the Decreet The 58th Decree is the result of the amendment " The substance of the Institute is. surely. and everything in it referring by way of explanation to our Constitutions is and must be looked upon as the substance of our Institute. has not been lacking in its numerous and voluminous works on the inner and outer history of the Order.Criticism of the Inner Constitution bling. But even from these Decrees it can clearly be seen that there is intentional obscurity with regard to the Constitutions." The Congregation consequently deter- Institute. and a question was raised as to whether it would not be advantageous to add some examples of substantial. . * Decree 44. why has the Order never yet published the complete minutes of even a single General Congregation and there have been twenty-five of these up to the present (1593-1594) — time ? Space. We know them only from the Decrees published by the Order itself. 3 Take things as they come . what lies in the future does not concern to-day." The Transactions of the fifth General Congregation afford abundant food for doubt and consideration from this point of view. Incidentally. in the first place." * Directly after this we read that a request was made to explain more clearly what are the substantial [of the Institute]. We Instituti which was Pope Julius III. And although find. so that we have a full right to doubt their completeness when printed and published by the Order. to the sentence^ " There is other matter belonging to the substance of the Institute. in the first place " Everything in the Formula : laid before there is other matter belonging to the substance of our need not be discussed at the present time.

t See Chapter XIV." f * Decree 40. especially as the Generals can confirm them when necessary. (5) all must be prepared to show suitable love and charity to one another." But the seventh General Congregation almost in contradiction to the fifth " The Congregation decided that it of 1616 decrees would be more advisable to abstain from the confirmation of other things pertaining to the substance of the Institute. which was submitted to Pope Julius firmed and was conin the second by him and some of his successors place. or only with difiiculty. the confirmation of which the (3) a Superior Congregation has no time to consider at present. If it is not possible to any doubt. about him. besides those expressed in the formula^ because express everything in summary. .4 Fourteen Years a Jesuit III. if they are not confirmed in other General Congregations. And other similar points." * anybody should feel our worthy Father [the from him what he ought There is here an evident unwillingness to make known the complete " substantialia of the Institute. namely (1) There are some essential impediments to admission. that contained in the formula or regula of the Society. matter besides. that without which the contents of the formula could not hold good at all. should be notified to the Superior ." It is a mere pretext for the seventh General Congregation to and there is an say that they cannot be summarised avowal of the existence of still other substantialia when the fifth General Congregation says that " There is other . for the Formvla Instituti. he can apply to General of the Order] and learn to think in this respect. (2) a judicial form need not be observed on dismissal : statement of conscience must be made to the (4) everyone must be content that anything . . which has been learnt outside confession.

Moralstreitigkeiten. which are especially important for the direction of the Province. 139-461. " He must take care of the separate archives of the Province of the Order. For proofs of this see Dollinger-Eeusch. At the fourteenth General Congregation tion should agree that the past events as to the i. 86. L. How frequently may this summarised procedure have taken effect ? How can history General's attack on probabilism — again be be written when founded on such "official transactions"? In the rules of the Socius of the Provincial also.." Amongst these books are included. only existing in manuscript form. t I. dealing eighteen points with comprehensive reforms of the Jesuit Order. but this important resolution is missing in every official publication of the Decrees. II. S. allusions are made to secret statutes of the Order. " The book which contains the unprinted regulations {ordinationes) by the Generals of the Order binding on the whole Society..J. inasmuch as they contain manuscripts. S. II.e..J. etc. the General. published 5 The doubt concerning the incompleteness of the ediby the Order becomes a certainty through the proceedings of the eighth and fourteenth General Congregations." { * Prague edition of the Inst.Criticism of the Inner Constitution tions of the statutes.. . XInst. The Order carefully conceals in its published collec- tions of the Congregational Decrees* the transactions and in resolutions of the eighth General Congregation (1645-46) as to an important letter by Innocent X.. Thyrsus Gonzalez. The Congregation decided accordingly. 214..! The editions of the Decrees intended for publicity must not contain anything which could throw an unfavourable light on inner transactions. 449-696 . in 1696. Roman edition. proposed that the Congrega- the dispute should not touched upon.. The book which contains another kind of unprinted circulars of the Generals.

Only one who fills the office which I now occupy can even begin to understand it.6 Fourteen Years a Jesuit The latter book especially must be characterised as a secret book. regulations. Ibanez also mentions unprinted " ordinances. to Innocent X.. " Until I came here [Rome]. Its government is a special study.j* The words of Don Juan de Palafox. although they are pledged to observe them. privileges which it conceals. II.. are significant in this connection. Secret statutes must also be inferred from an utterance of the Spanish Jesuit Miranda. privileges. . 458. to later famous which letter I of January must refer again What other Order has Constitutions which are not allowed to be seen. which not even the Provincials understand. appointed as Assistant to the General. and even the rules of the Society. * Le Bret Magazin. II. and letters of the General and Provincials " which doubtless were to be kept secret. But among the Jesuits there are even some of the Professed who do not know the statutes. he must have understood what he was writing about." * Since Miranda was a Provincial before he was nominated Assistant. whom the Jesuits hated with a deadly hatred and persecuted even in the grave. but according to certain . f Ibid. which is contained in a letter written to a friend in 1736. Therefore they are not governed by their Superiors according to the rules of the Church. I did not comprehend what our Society was.. and secret rules " and everything relating to the arrangement of the Order hidden behind a curtain ? The rules of every other Order may be seen by all the world. where I first obtained accurate information about everything. . 373. . Bishop of Los Angeles. 1649. and communicated by the Jesuit Ibanez in his report on the Jesuit state of Paraguay. He says in his 8th.

The editor seems to have been the ex-Jesuit Zahorowski. the General ol the Order. Almost innumerable editions and reprints in all civilised tongues followed one another. Adolf Harnack asked my opinion as to whether the Monita were genuine or not." * 2. 90 seq. Has the Jesuit Order secret instructions. repudiate it. after they had already been circulated in manuscript form. Br. The importance of the publication follows from the fact that. S. The latest edition was published at Bamberg in 1904.Criticism of the Inner Constitution concealed statutes 7 known by the Superiors alone. 1904. to refute recent times Jesuit after and that up to most Jesuit has come forward to it. Letters to Innocent X. edition (Freiburg 116 t See Duhr. Jesuitenfabeln. The Jesuit Order merits the designation " secret society " more than any other association. (Frankfort and Leipzig. twice (in 1616 and 1617) instructed the German Jesuit.). The Monita Cracow privata Societatis Jesu (" Secret Instruc- tions of the Society of Jesus ") first appeared in print at in 1612. 4th et i. and are the oft-quoted " Monita privata " authentic ? From what has been and must still be said I have not the least doubt that the Order has secret statutes.f few years ago. Palafox. The question of as to the authenticity or spuriousness the Monita cannot be answered so easily and simply. and according to certain secret and pernicious denunciations. Mutius Vitelleschi.. 1773).. A Don Juan de et seq. a prominent theologian of the Order.J. p. Gretser. directly after its appearance. . I replied * p. which leads to a large number being driven from the bosom of the Society. which it guards carefully.

e. are prompted by the false and condemn them as without attempting to produce proofs. and I distinction. But such denials only merit the belief or unbelief which the denial of every Only sound proof can turn the defendant deserves. Congrega- tions of the Index. p. Ecclesiastical bishops. And such proofs have not been produced up to now by the Nor has any convincing invalidation of the facts Jesuits. 91 et seq. in an especially superficial manner. the genuineness of the contents that the Monita contain regulations in harmony with the spirit of the Order.e. only remains to the and conscientious examiner opinions (those of to pronounce " Not proven " over the genuineness of the form. whether he wished to write a I am as positive as of the serious or a satirical work — existence of secret instructions of the Order. and recently. by the Jesuit Duhr. whether its author were a Jesuit or an enemy of the Jesuits.* terested In face of the historically it indisputable facts disin- bearing on the Monita. hold to this The genuineness of the form were drawn up by the Order itself Order Of i. scale against the genuineness of the Monita. . that the Monita in the published text as a secret supplement to the official Constitution of the — is hard to prove. etc.) regarding the genuineness are of no value. But even the genuineness of the form cannot be as easily disposed of as has been done by the Jesuits. advanced on behalf of its genuineness been produced. because they are Jesuits themselves. The advocates of their genuineness rely essentially on * J esuitenfahdn. i. It is natural that the Jesuits themselves should deny the genuineness in a flood of refutations. partial.8 that Fourteen Years a Jesuit we had to distinguish between the genuineness of still the form and of the matter.

Ana- tomia Anatomiae Societatis Jesu. {Histoire de la Compagnie de Jisus.§ The saying that those who keep silence when they could and should speak seem to give consent. which was suppressed in 1773. It would be a decisive token of genuineness if it could be proved positively that the Prague copy was is and Paderborn already there in 1611 of 1612. III. 8. Roermond (Holland). The copy in the Jesuit house at Paderborn was found " in a cupboard in the Rector's room" {in scriniis rectoris*). beyond question. § p. intended for his book. * Anatomia. The manuscript copy at Munich. in the Jesuit Colleges of Prague and Paderborn as " a base historical lie " (" un grassier vxensonge historique "). 1844. Munich. pp. 94. was only found in 1870 in a secret recess behind the altar of the old Jesuit Church of St. upon which the printed edition is based. he zealously demonstrated what no one disputed that the copy at Paderborn was only brought to light after the — — is first edition had been published. were to be found in Jesuit colleges.Friedrich. comes to my mind in the case of this ominous silence. II || f J. Paris. belonging to the contents of the library of the Jesuit college of this place.e. Michael at Munich. It is certain. before the first printed edition statementf makes this seem prob- but not certain. What the Jesuit Duhr J writes to is of no value. has indeed the audacity to designate the discovery of the manuscript Monita. On the other hand. Friedrich's i. Forer's silence the more remarkable. considered it advisable to over in silence in his work of repudiation. able. Paris. Friedrich. 49. p. Beitrdge. % Jesuitenfdbdn. who writes in the pay of the Jesuit Order.. Cretineau-Joly. it the Jesuit Forer. 372. 2. treats the Prague discovery as a fact.) .Criticism of the Inner Constitution 9 the fact that the manuscript copies of the Monita. 9 and 65. as a manuscript note. however. p. The discovery of such copies in the colleges of Prague. J. that the discovery in Prague was so disagreeable to the Jesuits the contrary the that pass chief champion of the spuriousness of the Monita.

B) to Part 10 of the Constitutions : " Above all. we should retain the goodwill . " How should the friendship of princes and other Although the means indigreat people be gained ? " cated for ensuring princely favour cannot be verified in detail from the statutes. almsgiving. pp.. from the Braunschweig in a secret drawer belonging to the Rector in the Jesuit college at Paderborn. f ^^^. " What attitude ought the Society of Jesus to take up on re-organisation ? " The directions supplied (attain- ment of the favour of the population through the render- ing of services." f The practice of the Order also in greeting and receiving princes with a display of magnificence and grandiloquent speech harmonises with what is said on this point. 4-32. They arose mostly because the Society of Jesus. " Of their attitude to other religious Orders. Arcana 1635 (without place of publicamanuscript* found by Christian von tion).. The confessors must seem to exercise reserve in political attitude " What matters. adding my own remarks.'^'^' ^' ^^^' . the whole tendency of the pre" cepts given corresponds with the official " explanation (Declar.10 I will Fourteen Years a Jesuit give a few extracts from the edition in the Societatis Jesu. edifying behaviour for the edification of others) are in absolute harmony with the Constitutions and rules. of temporal princes and great men and persons holding prominent positions." rels Quarwith other Orders are recorded on almost every page of Jesuit history. under a pretence of humility {haec minima societas —this most humble society) represented itself * Friedrich. must be taken up by court-chaplains and princely confessors ? " The answer suggests a commentary to General Acqua viva's " Ordinance " of 1602.

days applied herself to good works and gave me an annual sum of 1. p. of written which I shall speak later. 1901). By drawing others that of a widow lady who for the rest of her . Another drift which is to perswade he hath by his exercise of cousinage into his exercise. the tescue. and Mistresse Wiseman. which I myself have observed in my home and in " How may rich many ing of piety other houses of near relations. The activity of the Jesuit Order in England at the end of the sixteenth and beginning of the sevenancient malpractice Jesuit confessors teenth this. Gerard. 1882). widow of Master Edmond For- worth 50 pounds a yere and paid her no rent. relates of himself received " I also many general confessions . incitations to donations and alms-giving. 162. quoted by Taunton. (confession Especially the secur- money from wives and widows under and of the mask of exercises) is a world-wide and and spiritual guides. John Gerard (London. reports more fully "In like manner he (the Jesuit Gerard) dealeth with such gentlewomen as the Ladie Louell.000 florins for the another widow (Mrs. among of high rank (Lady Lovel).Criticism of the Inner Constitution as greater ii other Orders. and correspond to the actual attitude of the Order." * Society The Catholic priest. p. their interference in household regulation and private affairs. he got of her a farme : * The Life of Fr. William Watson. : Mistress Fortescue. 63. and superior in virtue and perfection to all The advice given for making good the is reputation of highest perfection everywhere in the Order's arrogant spirit. of whom he got so much as now shee feeleth the want of it. widows be kept well disposed towards the Society of Jesus ? " The chief directions in this section concern the appointment of Jesuits as confessors and spiritual guides. Mistresse Haywood. century affords very interesting examples of The English Jesuit. History of the Jesuits in England (London. Fortescue) gave 700. .

Our members have also contrived that no one who has not withdrawn for legitimate and conclusive reasons shall be appointed to a parish or any other benefice. relates in a confidential letter (now in the State archives at Munich) from Spain. Every Friday he is brought. with Mary Tremaine. p. " What attitude should be taken up by our followers The in regard to those dismissed from the Order ? " spreading of evil reports. The advice to ill-treat those to be dismissed and to hinder their advancement after disThe missal is confirmed by the practice of the Order. 1602)." "f That this * Decacordon oj Ten Quodlibetical Questions (London. William Wiseman's daughters." is taken from life. Streicher. confessional children are to German Jesuit. from my knowledge of facts. to give the and with Lady Mary Percie. " Of the means by which sons and daughters of our be brought to a spiritual The directions contain nothing which has not state. with Anna Arundell. t Reprinted from Friedrich. et seq. Beitrdge. with chains fastened on both feet. " Half a year before dismissal the person to be dismissed is thrown into a dungeon and there reduced {maceratus) by a diet of bread and water. 89 et seq. The chapter. by a lay brother into the refectory.12 Fourteen Years a Jesuit such gentlewomen. as haue large portions to their marsame to him and his companie. 73 . and he must scourge himself there [before the others]. dating from the eighteenth century. with Dorothy Ruckwood. with Elizabeth Sherly. here recommended. So he preuailed with two of Mr. " Of the choice of young men for our Society and of the manner of keeping a firm hold on them. riage. p. and to become nuns." been practised hundreds of times." * What is said in the " Monita of " careful excitement of the sensuous faculty in women and widows does not correspond with reality. about those who have either been dismissed or have withdrawn is an almost regular practice.

and the Jesuit Order possesses them." It stated in the Constitutions " The Society in the broadest sense of the word com* Pragmatische II. ' others. I shall give at least one staggering case further on. .Criticism of the Inner Constitution 13 inhumane treatment was customary not only in Spain is proved by a saying of the Archbishop of Lemberg. . they were not attached to the Order by the bond of obedience. so that he may not mislead : . Is there a secret class of members existing side in the by side with the grades of the Order mentioned Constitutions ? Are there affiliates of the Jesuit Order ? We saw in Chapter V. and when I asked why. . that the Jesuit Order does not recognise so-called second and third Orders.' " From my own experience regarding the behaviour of the Order towards dismissed persons. 1760). but that the Marian Congregations might be characterised as third or second Orders of the Jesuits. they replied. It is certain that they wished to dissuade me from appointing any persons dismissed from amongst them to positions in my diocese. Deme" It is difficult trius Sulkow. The possibility of affiliates seems to me to be chiefly indicated in two passages in the is official " Institute. Geschichte des Ordens der Jesuiten (Halle-Helmstadt. 3. The person dismissed must vanish into some obscure corner. 965. such as the Franciscans and Dominicans organised among the laity. But however closely the Congreganists may have been connected with the Jesuits. This bond alone constitutes real affiliates.. recorded by Harenberg * for the persons dismissed [by the Jesuits] to attain to any ecclesiastical dignity owing to the antipathy engendered by the Jesuits in the King towards the persons dismissed.

I. places himself in a position of probation for admission into it and to any of the grades which will be discussed. v.e.e. members who might properly be styled all those Jesuits who have become * Constit. in oppovows of the coadjutors but the possibility of understanding it in a general sense i. may — 10 a class of affiliates —namely. The second passage profession. A. S." * And the 129th Decree of the : first General Congre- gation (1558) is as follows " May the laity who take the vows in a military Christian Order be admitted into our Order.. 1 bishops or cardinals. tautology. here also to do with affiliates." f in our Society ? In the first passage reference is made to those who owe obedience to the General.e. although it must be supposed that they will not make their profession Answer They may be admitted.. those mentioned in the second place. are consequently affiliates..14 prises all Fourteen Years a Jesuit who owe obedience to the General.J. including novices. then. the novices.e. We have. with the desire to live and die in the Society. who are to be admitted into the Society without making their " I acknowledge that the word " profession be understood in a restricted sense i. 170. as opposed to those already belonging to the Order. Moreover. and to others : who gross place themselves in a position of probation with the desire to be admitted into the Society. ." but do not (yet ?) Unless we assume drawn between those place and those in the second by is belong to the Society i. the Constitutions openly mention in Part sition to the . also novices and whoever. in the sense of the vows of the Order generally cannot be denied. are " in a position of probation. t Inst. a distinction mentioned in the first the " and " i. Declar. ." clearly speaks of " laity.

but only to the Pope {soli R. who has become —this will " is The Jesuit a prelate has no Superior in the Society not allowed. X. and if he thinks w^hat it . however. but its own interests and extension and is the consolidation of It will also own power. directly opposed to the general canonical definitions. to the glory of him God and our Lord." This regulation or cardinal it is true. 6. or of any person appointed by take his place ferred of . He only chooses " of his own free this someone to obey. but it is for that very reason a particularly striking example of the pertinacity with which the Jesuit Order retains those belonging to it in bondage. and happens to be the General of the Order. for the vow of the professed Jesuits. . according to which a bishop no longer bound by an oath to the superiors of his Order (when he has been a member of an Order). to be desirable. 1. and is the will to content that there should be one to set in it before charity and Christian * is. will perform holds any member of the Superior. disregard what the Constitutions *Ck)natit..Criticism of the Inner Constitution " 15 He must also pelled to accept will at all vow to God that if ever he is comany preferment outside the Society he him to is so recommended not that he who is preSociety in the place times listen to the advice of the General for the time being. Thus all bishops and cardinals chosen from the Jesuit Order are its affiliates according to the Constitutions. ^ See Chapter XIV. but that he desires of his own free be bound in the sight of God to do that which he shall perceive to be best for God's service . Ecclesiastical decisions do not regulate its conduct.! Let us. be observed how skilfully its the words chosen conceal their opposition to the canonical law. Pontifici). in the interests and through the egotism of the Order. liberty.

wished openly to join the Jesuit Order. The Infant Dom Luis of Portugal also joined Ignatius's Order as an affiliate. and the secular priest. Coadjutors.i6 Fourteen Years a Jesuit is say.. cal fact of their existence clear The historiand unmistakable. And when Borgia was canonised in 1724 by Benedict XIII. living outwardly as a duke. made a number of affiliations.. 181. No one knew that he was a Jesuit and that Ignatius himself had admitted him years previously into the Order." lived as whom Ignatius called " the apple of his a man of the world. Domenech. secretly or openly. 1757). Ignatius von Loyola und 359 et seq. t SJ. regarding affiliates. eye. .. reference to his affiliation was even inserted in the bull of canonisation " Whilst still Duke of Gandia he was permitted by our predecessor. nor * Inst. to arrange his affairs. although he had already four years previously made the Jesuit profession with Ignatius's consent. The founder of the Jesuit Order. (Prague. We have even a positive theoretical recognition of affiliation by Ignatius. Ignatius's request. 1895). to take the vows with the knowledge of only a few members He was granted four years by the Pope of the Order. pp. The evidence is given by Gothein. and although they are really not Professed. I. die Gegenreforma- tion (Halle. Miguel Torres." * Ignatius did the same with the rich Spanish abbot. Ex-members of other Orders the open union. at St. and 788. the Jesuit Polanco. Vergara. Paul III. Ignatius Loyola. Ignatius rejected but caused his secretary. Francis Borgia governed his Duchy of Gandia. Thus the Spaniard. to write in general terms " I observe that some are joining the Society and helping it according to the talent given them by God. who nearly became Grand Inquisitor of Spain whilst still a secret Jesuit.

^MoralstTeitigkeiten. " I to be found || * Gotthein. Dykvelt. . 26. says that." * In an Italian record. which is 13th. Ablmndlung der Icgl. *1881)... possess the merit of obedi- ence. Part 1. pp. Class III. 4.euseh. Ibid. C . we are told " That the Jesuits in England had succeeded in : an archpriest. Friedrich: Beitrdge zur Geschichte des Jesuitenordens (Munich.^^ J. p. 388. at the firstjaudience which he obtained soon after his arrival in England. 376-390. said to him. Even had become an affiliate of the Jesuit Order. an intercepted letter from the Jesuits of Liege to the members of their Order in Freiburg-i. \\ II. appointing James IL. on their part.Criticism of the Inner Constitution Scholastics. brought them to extreme distress. 1687. and who had persecuted the priests outside the Jesuit Order like a ravening wolf. they faithfully perform the these..-Br.Tf. dating from 1617. to the Jesuit Pusterla in amongst the Jesuit papers The Jesuit Ruga there in the State Library at Munich.% Prince William of Orange forwarded to his ambassador in London. Cretineau-Joly apocryphal. firmation of the affiliation of the English king here reported. in which it was stated that the King of England. 174. and been so successful that almost all the priests in England were Jesuits by vow " {Giesuiti in voto). § Histoire de la Compagnie de Jesus. t Reprinted in 'D6\VmgeT-B. . J Ibid.. . Codex lat. 17 same duties as and may. 361. Mon. who was a Jesuit by vow {hanno fatto eleggere uno arciprete Giesuita in voto).']Vol.. f regarding the aims of the Society of Jesus and the means of attaining them. in London on March Milan. James II. etre dare to pronounce the letter " Authentique ou controuvee une correspondance dont r original n^a jamais pu represente. bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. in an original letter from the Jesuit Ruga. 30.. p. 78. XVI.. the father-in-law of the Prince of Orange.473. 311. Friedrich supplies a valuable condid not He only says.

and benefices through it. Women especially are led on to renounce the world by the Jesuits. which. daughter of Louis XV. No." A few days after this the Queen repeated my ambition to be a daughter of the Society of the A document seventeenth century. 1853)." to him. fonds italiens. also citizens or very rich merchants. and revenues."}" communicated by " Far Jesuits. who live in the world by the Order and obtain pensions. of France] that not only is she convinced that the suppression will never come to pass. so that they may act as spies and give . The Order makes wonderful use of them for the support of its rule." and the Queen. is mostly composed of gentlemen and ladies of rank. Theiner. " I am daughter. These must solemnly promise to put on the garb of the Order at the General's command they are called Jesuits in voto. an account Order. 986. f Geschichte des Pontifikats Klemens XIV. abbeys. (Leipzig. supported Another class of Jesuits consists of men holding clerical and lay positions. especiwidows. garments. • Manuscript of the Parisian Bibliothique Nationale. They are kept at courts and near the most prominent people in all kingdoms. who then receive from them pearls. " Instruc- tions for Princes as to how the Jesuit Fathers rule. . " It is of Jesus. " There is a class of secular Jesuits of both sexes. This actions in accordance with the advice of all the Jesuits and obeying ally their commands. Carmelite. II. 1773." of all that is transacted to the General of the A tion : despatch of the Paris Nuncio of February 8th. furniture. with blind obedience." * speaks openly of affiliation.. attaches adjusting all its itself to the Society. 321. I coincides with this asser- from acquiescing in the dissolution of the know from her [Madame Louise.i8 Fourteen Years a Jesuit a son of tlie am its Society of Jesus.

to the They are to substitute for the vows of poverty service rendered and protection afforded and especially imlimited submission to the Superiors and confessor.e. the Jesuit i. This is a positive fact. The vow was modelled on one which was previously commonly used. joined to the Jesuit Order in this * Memoirea. in presence of the confessor. Saint. 12. as the Dominicans and Franciscans do only aMiates of the Order can be understood when the expression chosen by the Nuncio is used. and also many others. as the of Jesuits so far as their position allows the vow absolute obedience to the General and the Superiors of the Order. They took the vow to serve the Jesuit Order throughout their whole life wherever their services were required. . These affiliates take the same vows i.Criticism of the Inner Constitution but also that the Pope has not carry it 19 sufificient authority to all out. — " The Jesuits always have lay members in all the Doubtless Noyers. . within their scope through the secret allies. outward ceremony. . belonged to them. with the consent of the Provincial of the French Province. to which Canada belonged." Therefore such a well-informed man as the Papal of " Jesuit tertiaries Since." * certain help of these The Jesuit Lallemant reported in 1642 from Canada that there. professions. It was taken secretly.'s secretary. Nuncio recognises the existence as a matter of course. lay members were attached to the Society of Jesus.t. however.Simon also recognises affiliates. This is also the opinion which Jesuit tertiaries secretly propagate everywhere. manner received the . 164. in the Champagne without Those Province of the Order. with the consent of the General. Politics thus come and chastity the Society. Order does not possess real tertiaries a third Order. Louis XIII.

X Duhr. D. XXI. . though never entering the Society. scholars of the English Jesuits. George. always remained in the service of the English Province [of the Order] and subject to its [the English Province's] Superiors. English Province.. in 1617. the Jesuits still deny the proofs which have brought forward and which are also known to them. therefore. in the In the " Records of the by the Jesuit Foley (a lay brother). 1781 We also meet with the same arrangement English Province of the Order. ordained priest in 1806. . and content themselves with an avowal of the existence of affiliates during the first period of the Order.' "J " The few cases of the first period " (which Duhr carefully suppresses. J esuitenfaheln (4). Burrow Brothers and Company).20 ojfficial Fourteen Years a Jesuit designation. the Jesuit Duhr.falsifier.. born in Newington. t VII. was maintained for nearly two hundred and These fifty years —to 1851. must be admitted as an To be sure. 559." f published . He was the last survivor of a number of Catholic clergy- men.. Rev." In England. suppress them. Miguel Torres. " Donnes.J. p. S.D. writes : A few cases in (sic) the difficulties of the first period do not give anyright to generalise or speak of an 'Institution. . who has already been unmasked frequently and will be I unmasked yet " again. Surrey. on February 9th. who. He died at Exeter a few years after 1851.^'' * This points to a whole class of affiliates... historical events are so convincing that the secret institution of affiliates irrefutable fact. the institution of affiliates. Thus the arch. 293 et seq. . however) affiliations are the above-mentioned of Duke Francis Borgia. already mentioned. 921. the following entry is to be found " Oliver. * The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents (Cleveland. etc.

4. For actual. with their blasphemous tongues.* strove to destroy in the northern regions the ancient religion. But we must not marvel too much when this occurs. the Papacy employs. Ignatius Loyola. to be its chief task. with all its sanctity and * What extraordinary expressions its I (let us take this opportunity of remarking) most authoritative proclamations. and especially Lutheranism.Criticism of the Inner Constitution Moreover.'s Bull of Canonisation of Ignatius Loyola : in 1623 states " God's inexpressible goodness and mercy. . that hor. can scarcely. If they declare that the circumstances have occurred. even in . rible monster {monstrum teterrimum). Urban VIII. It claims as its right not only freedom to abuse. everything that there were is 21 really admitted by the avowal affiliates what was then cumstances. indeed. It is certain. when founding his Order and drawing up his Constitutions. however. and the Jesuit Order itself. We have the strongest evidence of this. Are the Constitutions of the Order. that the Jesuit Order from its very foundation actually considered the combat with heresy. Their occurrence consequently only depends upon the will of the Superiors of the Order. authoritatively directed against Lutheranism and generally against heresy ? A distinction must here be drawn between the form as in the question of the genuineness or and the matter. I certainly do not recommend that the Papal tone should be imitated by the nonultramontane party. ." is possible and during the first period. and the other detestable plagues {aliaeque detestahiles pestes). which provides for every age in wonderful ways. Then the most vulgar abuse is in place. " owing to special cir- always possible. have had Lutheranism and heresy formally in mind. they have occurred. against the Reformation and the Reformers Rome is not bound by scruples or dignity of utterance when heretics are in question. spuriousness of the Monita. but also to anathematise. and will always be actual when the special circumstances again occur. raised up the mind of Ignatius Loyola when Luther.

amongst other works . of the Order itself t Dollinger-Reusch.J. God's inexpressible goodness and mercy raised up Ignatius Loyola. entirely devoted itself. L. " 21st. according to Constitutions.. 336. . SIS. the . . ." f It is explicable. is Order was founded for the conversion of heretics. I. p. . . therefore. Cretineau-Joly. . in the secret consistory in connection with the canonisation of Ignatius Loyola in 1622 " When in the previous century the devil sowed tares in the well-tilled and prepared field of the Church and tried to undermine religion by Luther's blasphemous tongue in Germany and Henry VIIL's unprecedented ferocity in England. The conclusiveness . authority of piety its that after the establishment of the new Order of the Society of Jesus." J Numerous proofs from the sphere *Inst. and love. J Histoire de la Cmnpagnie de Jisus. The chief object is . which he addressed to Pope Gregory XV. battle against heresy in Europe. also lets slip this admission " In the Society of Jesus missions are of secondary importance (accessoires). 1773. 1757). (Prague. ally states in the Brief. S." Papal pronouncement is strengthened greatly by a remark of Cardinal Monte. which.^^ of July by which he suppressed the Jesuit Order certain that the Jesuit "It . . actuof this . to the conversion of the heathen and the leading back of heretics to the true faith. and to degrade the authority of This Loyola surrendered himself so implicitly to the guidance and fashioning of the Divine the apostolic see." ofiicial The historian of the Order. 119 et seq. that Clement XIV. Dominus ac Redemptor. who : wrote his voluminous work with the material and intellec- tual support of the Order.22 its ideal of Fourteen Years a Jesuit a perfect life.* he came to a saintly end. Sdbstbiographie des Kardinals Bdlarmin.

1848). .f is The matter fell through. They guard the inheritance carefully and augment it forcibly by putting themselves forward in their writings. 12 and 38. Thus Ignatius Loyola is the intellectual originator of the Roman Inquisition which exists even to this day. Laurentius (nineteenth and twentieth centuries). in Lisbon. which blazed up in the Inquisition to a bloody persecuting fury. as of definite I supporters of the bloody persecution Castropalao (seven- heretics.. that Pope Paul has decided to set up a Cardinal's Congregation of the Inquisition. S. 1874). in a letter to the Jesuit Miron. however. to begin with the founder of the Order. Ignatius t Genelli. pp. from the commencement of their existence to the present day. 132. of course. . III. Leben des I Cf. The hatred of heretics. Simon Rodriguez. is He writes. is therefore a pious legacy to Jesuits from their founder. 1555. Sohn). of June consent to the request of 20th. refer to the leading theologians of the Jesuit Order —Tanner. so as to keep up appearances. quoted by Druffel von Loyola an der rdmischen Kurie (Munich. Ignatius von Loyola (Innsbruck. de Luca. even though the Constitutions be not actually directed against it. he declares that he prepared to place members of his Order at the head of the Portuguese Inquisition. pp. to his fellow member.J. 256 : et seq. of Portugal and establish the Inquisition there on the same lines as in Spain. p.* and of its bloodshed.. 146 et seqt . I. hi. Laymann.. Thus. at his instigation. in 1542. Schwetscbke u. Wenig. the activity of Ignatius in the interests of the Inquisition especially noteworthy. Granderath. my work. to John III. 23 be produced of the extreme hostility of the Jesuit Order to heresy. Moderntr Staat und rdmische Kirche (Berlin C. teenth century) Perrone. but wishes. that this should be done at the express command of the Pope. 1879). and not only heresy. * Cartas de San Ignacio (Madrid.Criticism of the Inner Constitution can also. Ignatius also tried his hardest to prevail on Paul III. A. Indeed.

degenerate poets. From all sides streamed together the most vicious people persons notorious through infamy. In front marched Luther.. like a storm. too. the ruin of Europe. . . This infamous apostate [Luther] * Imago primi saeculi. — . the Epicurean swine. unchastity was more necessary than food. tried to make all believe that . oppose Luther. led and to . drink. the stigma of Germany. with a hopeless fury. whom God in His eternal wisdom raised up to . condemned by judges. . sleep. and Heaven knows what and other ridiculous objects of philosophers and philologists. In presence of Ignatius does Luther. in the form of an abominable treatise. . insolent he was joined by a mob of petty schoolmasters. bearing visible brands of shame they trampled down everything humane and godly. false to God and religion. while a historical occurrence and a personal experience may supply tration.. The dregs of the population. had forsaken the ancient of faith. the monster who brought disaster on the globe. which afterwards spread quickly. frivolous little Hellenists. 18 e< seq.24 Fourteen Years a Jesuit Some passages from one of the most outstanding works Jesuit literature of the in and from the official Ratio Studi- orum Order may still further illustrate theoretic- ally its hatred of heretics. pp. deserve a centenary jubilee ? * After Luther. . cobblers. grammarians. . Ignatius. . . the outcast . carrying the godless torch which. because hundred years before there appeared the first sparks of the pestilential flame. drunken orators. . practical illus- We read in the Imago " A time ago it was primi saeculi : 1617. The Lutherans reckoned a this as the centenary of their godless religion. . . weavers followed their example. first through Germany and then through some neighbouring provinces. God and man. shall confront him in our work. . butchers. dyers.

we have sworn eternal war at the altars. July 17th. of godless life. 550-552. the reason of our disagreement." brought about Jesuits." This fine injunction remained in force to 1832. Ignatius is for us what fax Hamilcar was for Hannibal. At his command. the Jesuit College at Thorn was destroyed by a section of the students and population. haereticis. Like St. or plays. t Pp. 25 who had sprung from and infamous foul dens and the lowest dregs.Criticism of the Inner Constitution battle ignorant persons. to find edification in executions of heretics heretics cancelled.* Certainly we do not deny that we have entered into a bitter and eternal struggle for the Catholic religion against heresy. each of us says to-day. the seed of hate innate within us {Desperata semina innata sunt). indeed. — The historical event —one of many by the —was the " Mas- sacre of Thorn. As long as there question est. notori- ous through immorality. not If this is Jiaeresi] and do not prove myself a Catholic. boys of tender age. nor to executions of criminals. harpies of the Holy Scripture. except perhaps of heretics. I can die. With what an honourable and well-equipped host really with word and deed did the Society of Jesus oppose him. I cannot agree with you on one point namely. there were no longer executions of was the permission to Jesuit scholars. 843 et seq. bark at the wolves for the defence of the Catholic flock." f In the Ratio Studiorum the thirteenth " rule for the odii external students of the Order " is as follows : " They must not go to public exhibitions. On . Jerome. Only then — when.' It is in vain for heresy to expect to attain friend- ship with the Society of Jesus through silence alone. — ' — that I spare the heretics [not " heresy " . comedies. Peace is out of the is life in us. we is will . but I cannot be silent. A • Pp. 1724.

.' " f The further details of the affair show what was really ' ! . came before the high court of justice and the assessorial court at Warsaw. 51 Stadtisches Archiv zu et seq. 91 and 173. . pp. I do not thirst for blood.. 17.. but the wounds of my brothers [the Jesuits]. 1724. effect of the Congregations on the public t Diarias von dem in Thorn a. are marks of honour in suffering disgrace for Jesus' sake. This terrible sentence was mainly due to an inflammatory speech delivered to the judges on October 31st by one of the Jesuits. 1724 (Halle. the fanatical Jesuit scholar was thrown into prison by the Protestant magistrate. . caused by heretical hands. VIII. were condemned to death. " Oh. thou has fallen amongst See how the godless Tartar heathendom at Thorn. . The honour to be done by my subordinates. I could here speak on behalf of my house. justice The head of the serpent must be bruised. crfolgten Jesuitischen Prozessus. Das Thorner Blutgericht.26 Fourteen Years a Jesuit Protestant had not bared his head whilst a procession was passing by. . Rosner and Zerneke. d. This led to a great disturbance.. Jtdi entstandenen Tumulte . as well as nine citizens of Thorn.' The Jesuit recalled to mind the oaths taken by the judges in the Marian Con' ! . Thou art no Queen in trample thee under foot rather has a godless Poland to the inhabitants of Thorn and most ignominious insult transformed thee into a wench condemned to the p}Te. gregations. 1896). . and because a student of the Jesuit college struck off his hat. thou Mother of God. and the president and vice-president of Thorn. I do not ask for corporal or capital punishment being a priest. and the destruction of the The matter Jesuit establishment on the following day. . . Thorn Jacobi. * A very instructive example of the trenchant life. . ' I will never permit anything against thine .' * crucified God entreats and stretches out the hand hacked Do right and further off by the inhabitants of Thorn. und darau . .

this much the is certain —that of the lives of nine people. who considered that " such an action would The Papal Nuncio. the most furious hate towards " heretics. as is shown by his answer. " A band of people following Jesus offence consisted in the fact that they destruction a and making His principles their and ethical significance of the massacre at Thorn instigated by the Jesuits lies in this question and answer The strongest antithesis to Jesus Christ. He made position. 714. Santini. This oath was taken by a Jesuit at the command of the Jesuit Rector. depended on the oath of the Jesuits." The religious : Jesuits set it in the worst of lights." * be in keeping with the sanctity of their [the Jesuits'] The letter was placed in the Jesuit Superior's hands in good time. Leaving all non-essentials out of the question. To the sentence sentence is of death was added the if rider : The only to be carried out a Jesuit. L. . 1731)." A few events connected with the murderous oath of the in a quite special manner. dated * Text of the entire letter : Leben und Tate Papst Benedihti XIII. so as not to be the cause of a ninefold murder. begged the Rector of the Jesuit College in a letter not to permit the oath to be taken. and the heretics were put to death on December 7th. " Who and what are Jesuits ? They themselves reply. (Frankfort. own. in the cruel manner then customary. whose had not prevented house belonging to the Jesuits. The Jesuits took the oath. this request to the Jesuit Superior by agreement with and at the desire of the Polish Lord High Chancellor. together with six conjurors from the Polish nobility. shall corroborate on oath the guilt of the accused.Criticism of the Inner Constitution 27 intended by this hypocritical expression of gentleness on the part of the Jesuits. " I put the question. 1724. and the lives of the nine were forfeit.

! assumed a real and fitting Inquisitorial hypocrisy. the Jesuits. which the Papacy carried on for centuries so as to be able to justify outwardly the noble expression. directly before the oath was sworn. Das Thorner Bhdgericht. a real piece of Jesuit cunning and Romanultramontane hypocrisy came to light during and after the act of swearing. prohibition. . and the oath to be taken involved such The Jesuit Rector replied that he knew the assistance. but it did not apply here. t Cf. But for all that the Jesuit permitted his subordinates to take the oath. these "Annual Reports" deserve December no credence. When the judicial assembly of Thorn saw the Jesuit with his six conjurors before it.. " The Church does not thirst for blood.e. Das Papsttum. 1724. Moreover. cf. etc. ready to take the oath. state that it came a day too late.28 Fourteen Years a Jesuit 10th. Jacobi. They thereby whom — i. which resulted in torture and death for the nine unfortunate men. Besides. Though the " Annual Reports of the College of Thorn." drawn up by the Jesuits. because the Jesuit he had chosen to take the oath was a lay brother not a priest * After the oath. with tears. my work. attention was drawn to the fact that. as they contain entirely uncontrolled Jesuit statements and are also contradicted by the reply of the Rector to the Nuncio's letter." | After the actual drama had taken place. it is certain that the judges drew the Jesuit Rector's attention. to the fact that the Papal Nuncio had advised him against it. according to the canonical law. the bearing of the Jesuits remained worthy of the beginning and * With reference to tlie infamous Jesuit action at Thorn. implored mercy for the condemned. priests might not assist in a death sentence. in which I have exposed the absolife lutely infamous untruthfulness of this Popish entreaty for the of the heretics condemned by the Popish Inquisition.

as " scrip- heresy tor. the Burgomaster Roesner.''^ Accordingly. advanced this sum to it. to put " a stop to the contemptuous pronunciation " lutherisch * Jacobi. Marianski. The estates remained in the Jesuits' hands till the autumn of 1730.000 florins.400 florins was awarded to the Jesuits. together with interest at 6 per cent.^^ I was of opinion (mistakenly. the excessive compensation of 36. which might doubly be termed blood. In the judgment. however) that the pronunciation " lutherisch " expressed more contempt than the pronunciation " lutherisch. Das Tkorner Blutgericht. pp." may be expressed. only to revert again to the municipality on the payment of 14.money.000 florins after the Jesuits had shown themselves very obstinate in their demands.Criticism of the Inner Constitution continuation. 29 Greed for the possessions of the heretics was associated with bloodthirstiness against the heretics. This was finally reduced to 22. . I requested the Praefectus lectionis ad mensam. When I was stationed the Geschichfe des deutschen Volkes.000 florins they received the municipal The estates were estates of Lonzyn and Wengorzyn. and a writer of juvenile works which were very much read in Germany). 137 et seq. was read aloud at table. Eight thousand florins were to be paid them in cash. this the question arose during recreation as to In connection with whether first syllable we should put the accent on the second or of the word " lutherisch. by Johannes Jansen. and for the remaining 14. taking as security the plate of one of the executed men.000 florins in cash. A merchant. * This is experience unsurpassed hate on a large scale. A personal may show in what a paltry manner hatred of in 1889 at Exaeten. and the Jesuits quietly pocketed this sum. The town found it very difficult to raise the 8. the Jesuit Spiellmann (then chief editor of the magazine Katholische Missione?i.

The opposite is the case. Though not expressly mentioned in the Constitutions. as His own. Whoever reads the Constitutions fully will at once notice of the Order care- how very highly they esteem wealth. the Jesuit Order prides itself on possessing in a quite special manner the spirit of Jesus Christ. THE SPIRIT OF THE ORDER As the Society of Jesus. selections I will and wealth. and here give only a few from the Constitutions in order to illustrate the conflict between the " Society of Jesus " and Jesus. that which is desirable and coveted from a worldly point of view. It was desirable that the contemptuous " lutherisch " should be drummed into the young scholastics (it was they who read aloud). This suggestion was indignantly received . as often as a reader said " lutherisch. the world. rank. should nobiUty of birth. are the position of General Society of Jesus. Noble birth and riches serve likewise as grounds for admission to the profession of the three vows. its craving after honours similar important points.30 Fourteen Years a Jesuit during the reading at table. the insigni- ficant. in short. He designates the lowly. the small. it was considered that the more contemptuously this word was pronounced the better. honours and the considered as desirable qualifications. possessions which he had in the like. the despised. And from that time onwards. whereas Christ's teaching stands in sharpest contrast. prominent position. as the head of the therefore most resemble Jesus. In the choice of a person for the man who. the poor.''^ the ^^repetat^^ of the Jesuit Spiellmann resounded with especial emphasis. I shall deal in separate sections As with the arrogance of the Order. and. both the .

the Jesuit Meschler.Criticism of the Inner Constitution exponents ledge of 31 whom the I have to thank for my intimate know- subject. 1852 " The Jesuits have a splendid church. preference for the nobility and contemptuous treatment of poor scholars. arrogant and selfish spirit influences the conduct of the Order in such things as magnificent buildings and exhibitions. . Nicholas Wiseman. will of the Apostolic See . . B. Finally. next. X. . the Jesuit Oswald."* spirit of Such instructions do not exactly breathe the Jesus Christ. . The Constitutions allow women of rank an exceptional position as compared with those of the middle class. my Novice-Master. it is necessary to retain the good. . depends to a large extent whether the service of way be open or closed for the God and for the salvation of souls. in a confidential letter. have seen already in the description of its educaactivity how this worldly. It tional We who come in close touch with Jesuits. several priests. dated October 27th. Declar. a large house. always quoted them at the appropriate point in their instructions. A remark made by the first Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster. may here be quoted in place of numerous proofs. Frederick William Faber. the all-permeating spirit of worldly wisdom of course expressed in unctuous religious form stands — out in the words " : Above all things. the Oratorian father. the author of is so evident that it strikes all the much-read book Fabiola. and my Instructor during the Tertiate. * Const. Scarcely was I settled in London. that of princes or disfavour and great men (magnatum) and upon whose favour persons holding prominent it positions. . Wiseman writes to his friend. . We shall encounter it in a still more pronounced form in other domains of the extensive Jesuit field of labour.

in 1558. but not to deprive any nation of its individuality. that the Jesuits who occupied the two theological chairs [in Vienna] should also have a mastery of the German language. . had commanded.32 Fourteen Years a Jesuit than I applied to their Superior to establish here a community in due form of some ten or twelve fathers. the Jesuits reply (and I myself believed for a considerable " We are no more time in the validity of the answer) and no less international than Christianity. No doubt Christianity desires to spread amongst all nations. and contributes nothing to the education of the poor at its very door. which by its splendour attracts and absorbs the wealth of two parishes. nor does it aim at reducing all nationalities to a dead level. men from all lands Although the Emperor Fer- I. but maintains no schools. we have under of subjects made it impossible. if only because the teaching : staff of the Order was composed of of Catholic Christendom. I also asked for missionaries to give retreats to congregations. I was answered on both heads. 3. etc. just the aim systematically pursued by the Jesuit Order. but I forbear. I could say more. however. It discourages most severely every national movement and every national peculiarity and that not only in the case of its own members. When this point is discussed." This is false and a lie when spoken by Jesuits. This is. II.."* A second characteristic of the Constitutions is their cosmopolitanism. Lije oj Cardinal ilanning (London. that dearth Hence. The same international levelling effort is brought to bear on the young people entrusted to it for education. It frequently occurred later on that dinand not even one of the Jesuits teaching at the University * Purcell. them only a church. his order was not obeyed. 1895). Eonk tells us that a national colouring could not be given to Jesuit instruction.

This is a very bad fault. When this unity ceases. for the heretics are not worthy of being included under the word Christian [in the rule quoted].. how can we ' ' — — * Oeschichte der kaiserl. This is illustrated in an extremely instructive manner by the secret report Jesuit instruction As — of a Visitatorf of the : Upper German Province of the Order in 1596 " I do not refer to the party divisions between Catholics and heretics. and the old confidential intercourse between the different nations is very desirable and should be revived. I have already quoted the text of the cosmopolitan and unpatriotic rule of the Order the 43rd of the Summarium. they oppose Christ and true Christians. . I will not go further into it here. or forbids us to deplore in our discourses the hostility between Catholics brought about by the heretics.. Formerly there was scarcely a greater ornament of the Society it was almost a miracle than that members of such different nationalities should dwell amongst one another on such friendly terms. and cannot bear that such should be sent into this province. and who occasionally. on account of their faithless life. t A Visitator is a Jesuit commissioned by the General of the Order for the inspection of one or several Provinces of the Order. 410. Nor do I believe that this rule prevents us from rejoicing at the victory of Catholics over heretics. because. unkindly censure their customs and their national failings. To this is due the misfortune that there are some people in our Society who have not a good opinion of the brothers outside our nationality. 1854). UniversUdt Wien (Vienna. and that decrees 33 many government Latin on their ac- had I to be translated into count. I. It is to be shunned like the plague.Criticism of the Inner Constitution could understand German.* have minutely discussed the internationalism of and education in previous chapters. in jest and earnest.. D .

Poles. I have already mentioned that Alsatians (before 1870) and French Swiss were rectors of the German school at Feldkirch. t Mein Austritt aus p. Dutch. Americans. which also desires to all these national dissimilarities with one spirit patriotism. Brazilians."* Cosmopolitanism is particularly noticeable in the mixture of the various nations within the individual Provinces of the Order. J esuitenordens : Zcitschrift fur Kirchen- XV. but it is just in this distinct and characteristic trait that the centre of gravity of patriotism lies. 1894. English and Russians. . 36 et seq. North Americans. Breitkopf und Hartel. Beitrdge zur GeschiclUe dcs geschichte. To quote from my first little book against the Jesuit Order if Even if we merely conceive the Order as a whole and as what it is meant to be an organism animated by the same Hfe. Japanese and Chinese are to be permeated with the same sentiment. in the place and circumstances in which he was born and bred. directed towards the world beyond. and. lOth thonsand. " — — Spaniards. and does not mix * Reiisch.34 Fourteen Years a Jesuit how can Society it speak of a Society. otism. Hungarians. . May who disturb this harmony.). numbered Danes. to which I belonged. Danes. The German Province. the distinct characteristics which each one of these nations possesses must be suppressed. The destruction of national sentiment is inevitably connected with cosmopolitanism. . Swedes. Swiss and Austrians amongst its members. p. 2. the same feelings and the same thoughts it becomes clear that there can be no question of fostering or even maintaining patriIf Germans and French. and those be cut seamless off exist ? . above leaves each Christianity member. Swedes. and rend the mantle of the with their poisonous tongues. Irish. Christianity unites all. the individual Christian. English. Itahans. dem J tsuitenorden (Leipzig.. and yet does not kill In Christianity this one spirit is super- natural. 364 et seq. the nations in an ideal community. "It animate is useless to point to Christianity.

for nobody could seriously assert that the Jesuit Order would persist as an Order in the world to come. Italy and Sweden. however. be otherwise. but not patriots. " In this connection. But Jesuitism. He is made to understand this practically by being despatched to the most dissimilar countries. social and disappear as political diversities must members of the Jesuit The more cosmopolitan the Jesuit.e. though also striving after ideal. He goes from Germany to France. and though also aiming at an ideal community.e. and the ancient and inner life arrangements upon which its rests. therefore. belongs absolutely to this world in its social aims. mountains and traditional rivers. for attaining this i. By native land. India. America.Criticism of the Inner Constitution an 35 up peoples and nations. the more indifferently he views the form of government under which he lives. and in each he has to accommodate himself as exactly as possible to the existing social and political conditions. devotedly. so far as the much Order are concerned. Thus. able uniformity. temporal ideal of unity are also directed towards this world. And this must be so it cannot. The Jesuit should be animated by universal love {universalis amor) towards the Christian nations and princes. " Such a system may produce forces working with irreproachas possible. the less attached to native country and home in his feelings as well as in his actions (this point is important). woods. from his very admission to the Society until the end of his life. and adapt himself to the character and views of the people. "It is impressed upon the Jesuit. too. even in this world. for example. but above the social and political institutions of the land in question. Its methods. if the Jesuit wishes to be what be ought to be. " I have already defined patriotism as self-sacrificing love of our native land. Brazil. the term which almost takes the place of the word patriotism in the Constitutions of the Jesuit Order is very characteristic. I do not only mean the fields. ' ' . that he exists for the world and not for this or that nation. society the adherence of the Germany If within is a members to hereditary and national . the land all. the better he is and the nearer does he approach to the ideal of a Jesuit. real patriotism with regard to necessarily connected with a monarchical sentiment. indeed. national. i. A real patriot must love these.

such as South America and British India. now in Brazil. and Asia. he does so in opposition to the No further exposition level is required to show that the Jesuit system must for the away patriotism. the individual member system. in spite of this. work did educator. when the Grerman Province of the Order sent many of its members into the German military hospitals to nurse there. the German Jesuit has and work. but with the pilgrim's staff in his hand. Now he is in the free North American differences as Europe. patriotism also destroyed. preserves true patriotism. and as they knew very well they would have damaged their reputation very much. " Besides their chief domiciles which are situated abroad. So international a Society." is really no reason to boast mercy as something unusual." Jesuit Order In presence of these and similar developments. however. which is always now he is recalled from any one of monarchical European superior. and gradually assume the universal form of cosmopolitanism. now in monarchical India. consisting of so many heterogeneous national elements must strive abandonment of monarchical or republican preferences. their If. But the patriotic motive for the assistance may well be impugned. America.36 institutions Fourteen Years a Jesuit is is diminished by the system then prevailing. which are both That state of afiairs has nothing to do with their expulsion from Germany. as these lands to teacher. the makes a great boast of its patriotic activity during the campaign of 1870-71. patriotic form of sentiment and perception. the Jesuits have their greatest field of German work in lands across the sea. it would have been simply disgraceful. to live republic. comprising such numerous and such vast national and political republican and monarchical. If the " German " Jesuits had avoided giving assistance. not as a permanent resident. The cosmopolitanism of the In the first of this work of — — . in the old in a state of political ferment. states. " for love of place. Within this great sphere. if preacher and He would the old not be human he not lose little by little national. there the Fatherland.

" patriotism. protest is only raised against the fact that placed to the account of the know no the Jesuit must must be absolutely international. The statistics Luxemburgers and which the Jesuit M. .Criticism of the Inner Constitution Order is 37 also displayed in this patriotic work." including Irish.Germans amongst the " German " Jesuits nursing " from patriotic motives. evidence is afforded of the innate Jesuit untruthfulness. fifty non. Whilst the " German " Jesuits were giving free rein to The German Jesuits. The heart of the Society of Jesus (if we may speak of a heart at all) was with Austria in 1866 and with Order's patriotism.. patriotism. as I have shown in Chapter VI." Now. we cannot speak of German patriotism in the case of these fifty foreigners. There were." book throws at least etc. Rist has added Dutch. " Rist's indirect light on the " patriotic " conduct of the " German " Jesuits in 1866. and when amongst one hundred and sixtynine Jesuits (the number given by Rist) there are fifty non-Germans.* reveal this imposing number of " Germans. Constitutionally. 1904. Austrians. * Freiburg. Let then the truth be honoured by the Jesuits." I This is double-faced do not wish to disparage the nursing activity of the " individual German " it Jesuit is . as an appendix to his vainglorious book. for example. Die deutschen Jesuiten auf den ScMachtfddern und in den Lazaretten 1866 und 1870-71. and let them not adorn themselves with a word which is not to be found in even the most exhaustive index in the voluminous works on the constitutions and rules of the Order. the same " German " Jesuits were simultaneously acting as pro-Prussians in the military hospitals at the seat of war. Swiss. with the best intentions. which extols fifty foreigners in a book entitled. their hate of Prussia in their school at Feldkirch.

I will supple- ment the Prantl. The brutal egotism of the Order. as if he were a mere party to an agreement. of Since." " They placed themselves on the same level as the lord of the land. gives a clear statement. because this vermin creeps through all the same {isti caniculi semper . as manifested in the work of education and it the bringing up of the young.38 Fourteen Years a Jesuit France in 1870-71. is itself in the main root of Jesuit cosmopolitanism. therefore. and my own experiences at Feldkirch and in my home also prove it. but cannot be emphasised enough. this side Jesuit egotism is particularly pernicious because extends into the world outside Jesuitism." "It is of no use even to set precise limits. of the egotistical intrigues of the Order at the Ingolstadt University during a period of more than History University. The University continually complains. particulars in his by further historical facts. of the Ludwig. and.Maximilian based on original documents. however. and which manifests the Order. have already brought forward numerous proofs of this egotism." This is self-evident. which has already everything within frequently been emphasised. he asserts. pretty far removed from " German patriotism. two centuries (1550-1773). which corrodes patriotism.''' into play always and everywhere when Jesuits were concerned. therefore. with the noblest emotions of the natural human heart But an occasional pretence also the poison and — ! of such feelings I is also in the interests of the Order." " The Jesuits did everything in their power to calumniate the professors and vice-chancellor at Munich. It is in the interests of the Order to be international and impatriotic away. because of the strong Jesuit antagonism for everything nonCatholic . " of the greed of the Jesuits in seizing upon everything {cwpido " Ambition and self-interest came occupandi omnia).

Criticism of the Inner Constitution suhrepunt). the University reported to Duke William V. but to the Jesuits. April 8th. no matter . . and whoever failed to submit to them not only attained nothing." At the end of May. the University directed its attacks against the attempt of the Jesuits to seize upon the entire juris" It seemed to be the prediction over the students : meditated plan of the Jesuits to overthrow {evertendi) the University and to seize upon the entire control at the expense of the temporal professors. the Jesuit Heiss openly compared the law-students to swine and oxen. and the Jesuit Mayrhofer. whilst the remainder." On it. and lately some students were expelled because they had attended vespers and a procession at the Franciscan Church. : zealous report of 1597) Professor Giphanius. how able. 1609. 1610 " The Jesuits tried to ruin the legal faculty. and at divisions they supported a particular regulation more in the interests of the Order than in those of the University they immediatel}" followed up every trivial . in a sermon. but had reason to fear that he would be dismissed. the Jesuit professors only came to the sittings of the Senate when their own interests were in question." From a memorial " of maturer students " to the Senate of the University on March 28th.' " " Jesuit craving for rule aims at arrangements such as are to be found in the Jesuit colleges at Dillingen. : called the students of jurisprudence ' sons of corruption They forbade that confession should be made to the Franciscans." less The Jesuits are " a rest- num and domineering race {inquietum et imperiosum Jiomigenus) which seeks to subjugate everything. and : of the devil. Graz and Munich . " The 1610.^^ 39 " They want to share the artistic faculty like the lion in iEsop's fable." That Catholic. declares (in a " For some time the Jesuits alone had the ear of the Government and were alone honoured by were set whoever desired promotion had to aside %vith contempt apply not to the Duke.

the Jesuits also try to obtain the mastery at Ingolstadt over every one." " They [the University] had positive proof that the Jesuits only sought to obtain advantage and glory for themselves. Least would the Society of Jesus benefit the discipline. afterwards second Emperor of that name. but a Jesuit College. As the Jesuits had the bigoted Archduke Ferdinand. because the youths educated by it are particularly inclined to pride. it was easy for them to induce him first of all to As at found a Jesuit College at Freiburg. and our Provincial has already decided about it. . 356." "As at Cologne. stating " That he purposed to foimd in his Austrian borderlands [Breisgau] a college of the Society of Jesus which might be incorporated with the University as had been done at Ingolstadt.Vniversitdt (Munich.Maximilians. . 357 ei seq. 363.. 230. 263. The Uni. Jesuit egotism also caused disturbance at the University of Freiburg in Breisgau. 361. the University complained of "the omnipotence of the Jesuits."* Ingolstadt. entirely in their hands. issued a letter to the University : on August 1577. I. and Padua. 260. Louvain. 248.' In a memorial of February. Paris. Ingolstadt had supplied proof that peace and * Prantl. 258. From this vantage ground the Order would proceed to take possession of the University.40 concession Fourteen Years a Jesuit by seeking for another ." " Ingolstadt " would no longer be an independent University. 1872)." " versity set itself in opposition and replied : . as to the manner in which the fathers of the Society dealt with collegiate afiairs. either because they are set free from control too early. Finally. 370. every remark by the Rector of the University was rejected with the words : ' It is contrary to the Constitutions of the Order. The Archduke 9th. 361.. Gesckichte der Ludwig. 252. 1611. disobedience and malice. or because they of all are not taught how to use their liberty at the Universities wisely and profitably.

1640. 413. however.|| * Schreiber. II. The Jesuits caused 16 measures of wine.Criticism of the Inner Constitution 41 concord amongst the professors had been disturbed by their admission. They is by considerable properties and The amount of means they possessed other means. is shown by a remark in the University records " Attendite Posteri . requiescit enim hie ipsorum of 1665 (Jesuitorum) spiritus. 8. 20 bushels of wheat. The plan was unsuccessful. They even planned to get the whole income of the University into their hands. A memorandum of March 10th. sed non dormitahit " [Beware. posterity The spirit of the Jesuits is reposing. how- and after a hard struggle even obtained the supremacy in the Academic Senate. Ibid. reports " Although a third portion of the contribution is not unjustly assigned to the Jesuits.. from the University records. but it : ! not sleep] f They refused to share in the payment of the war tax imposed on the University. U. 449. 309. t Ibid.* The Order also provided egotistically for its material welfare at Freiburg.. the pro- would be paid by the Order. they could administer fessorial salaries it better." The Jesuits achieved their end... 1| % Ibid." In this case. and the University has made everything And yet they have enough to reimburse themgood. in 1745. 22 bushels of rye. 428. were returned to them by the University. 309. . (Freiburg. 1868). B. How much its revival was dreaded. II. will : selves shown by the fact that. " because ever. 6 bushels of barley and 4 bushels of oats to be supplied yearly for their two members of the Senate... 413. which they had once advanced. and this at a time when the country was suffering under the distress of the Thirty Years' War.. Geschichie der Albert-Ludwigs-Vniversiidt zu Freiburg i."J stipulated that this should be paid in French or Spanish gold. II.000 florins. they have paid none of this up to now.

. to a great extent attained the estab- lishment. Geschichte der kaiserlichen Universitdt Wien (Vienna... where he was graciously received at court and abundantly provided with money. therefore. 1854). but enjoyed other prerogatives besides. to have a University in his new acquisition.42 It is Fourteen Years a Jesuit not surprising that at Freiburg also their egotism should have led them interests . Rosen- t Cf. The 1697). where it was to be re-established. 304 323 et seq. besides the privileges German University at Constance. it was recognised as a corpus opposed themselves to this secretly and openly. however.. of a French one {studium gallicum) at Freiburg. f * Ihid. to Versailles. from the records of the Syndic of the University. II. 434. 1679). Peace of Nimwegen (February 5th. and sent their adroit negotiator. These the Jesuits fathers. and the from the former and their establishments in and Breisgau were transferred to the latter. Freiburg was yielded up to France and remained French till the Peace of Ryswick (October 30th. which they never had and never could have had Alsace-Lorraine formerly.* The state of affairs at the Vienna University presented the same disagreeable picture after the Jesuits set foot there and gradually assumed the power . and the Jesuits In the Although the question as to whether the University was to be an adfertinens of the town of Freiburg had been answered in the negative at willingly offered to help. I. all sides ensued. Father Migazzi. endless conflict and wrangling on zweig. even in the sermons in their Marian Congregations. away from German and is national but the fact so noteworthy in its singularity that it merits special emphasis. Dr. et seq. the Diet of Ratisbon. wished. and independens.. whereby the Jesuits not only predominated entirely over the secular professors. Kink.. University had taken refuge at Constance. Louis XIV.

. . then as professor of medicine. It will be sufficient to put before the reader some passages from a memorial to Maria Theresa : " The Society itself makes a religion its ensure printer to profit at the excuse to expense of . and. .)* I cannot enter into van Swieten' s interesting struggle with the Jesuits. was called to Vienna in 1745 (first as physician. Van Swieten was also a good Catholic. I hope that the examples I have brought forward are sufficient to demonstrate the cleverness of the Society by means of which they blandly rob externals and enrich The Society tries to our own people. and that only a under which it abuses the piety of Your Majesty and your glorious ancestors. and trusted him implicitly. both as woman and Empress.Criticism of the Inner Constitution The Jesuits were only brought within 43 bounds by hard struggles when. who was so favourably inclined towards the Jesuit Order. whatever the Jesuits might say. * for Van Swieten is one of the men best hated and most slandered by the Jesuits." . : the rules of Catholic worship. .in-ordinary. or into all his remarks about them. therefore. acknowledges with regard to " He exercised practical Christianity and also observed his religious attitude . valued van Swieten more and more as time went on.. no other reason than that he was their convinced opponent. owing to Maria Theresa's confidence in him. it is very plain that he deserved her confidence." Even a man like Kink. . his opinion carmot be put aside oflhand with the favourite saying. make even the Jesuits realise how baseless their calumnies are. did not cherish kindly feelings towards van Swieten. who.. " Antagonistic towards Catholicism. . the and the enrich bookseller. therefore. It is inconsistent to praise Maria Theresa and calumniate van Swieten and hatred of the latter can afford the only explanation. and. For if Maria Theresa. which lasted for years. and whose confessors were Jesuits.. Gerhard van Swieten. real evidence to prove that is the I have most ample aim of the Society religion is to itself. the Dutchman.' cloak ' ' ' . . A very little reflection must. however. He had even been forced to resign his position as teacher in Holland owing to his religion. prefect of the Court Library and superintendent of the censors. was overwhelmed with praise by the Jesuits. precisely in van Swieten 's case.

and that in their churches. t Ibid. which belonged to This arrangeschools were the latter alone. the Vienna University. however. In particular." f Kink goes on to relate : " The Franciscans.. which had found this custom in existence at However. . they permitted their scholars to to the times hold pubhc disputations. and refused their opponents [the Dominicans] the personal to apply to their Order. had taken over in 1626. 383 et seq. a term of extreme lowhness which the Jesuits loved and under which immeasurable arrogance is concealed) did not rest until an imperial decree of December 2nd. 1656. Jesuit feud against the Dominicans in Vienna " The pious fathers of the most humble Society of Jesus {minima societas Jesu. Kink gives a full account of the Jesuit egotism envy and lust for power.. found a supporter in the papal legatus a latere. 24. Augustinians and Benedictines in in Vienna gave instruction in Latin and theology in their monasteries exactly the same way as the Universities. 1877. ment dated back when the monastic For this reason. consequently three years after the Jesuits almost the only educational institutions.44 Fourteen Years a Jesuit ' appropriate the profits of of ' the externals ' for the benefit our people. " excluded the Dominicans for ever from the office of dean. its foundation. 337 et seq. . complete French original text in of December 24th. had never raised a protest against it.' "* is of shown most unpleasantly in the form by its attitude towards other Orders and the secular clergy. the Jesuit Order passed a resolution at the consistory to the effect that these pubhc debates were forbidden to the above-named religious orders. religious In the first place. . . I. but without the privileges in the matter of conferring degrees. qualification for academic offices. 1769 Gerhard van Swieten als Zeiisor : SitzungsbericJUe der philosophischhistorischen Klasse der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschajten. the philosophical and theological faculty. Memorandum Fournier. * . p. Vienna. Carmelites. Vol. The religious orders.

This endeavour emanates from the general spirit of arrogance and self-seeking in the Order. I. 415 et seq. In spite of this.. the secular clergy. 1725. 31. a mastery which is very oppressive to the subordinates. the They obeyed. command was specially renewed on August 23rd and October 12th. especially wealthy ones."* So far as the secular clergy are concerned. interfere 45 who. however. directed the University not to any more with persons and places which were exempt from the academic statutes. to obtain a mastery over the secular clergy. which tolerates no other gods but itself. priest is of inferior value in the he requires guidance and supervision. it is a well-known fact that they decline to have the Jesuits as permanent colleagues. on October 20th.. . from the'parish churches f into the churches and tries. gave a decision to the same spiritual. effect as the nuncio: The now succeeded with the aid of temporal power where they had failed with The religious orders were com- manded This to cease holding their debates in public and to omit on the frontispicium of their printed theses the expression suh praeside. J Cf. the remarks of Cardinal WLseman quoted on p. The Order enters into the keenest competition with It attracts congregations. which. the nuncio then theses to commanded that not only were the all be approved. As a punishment for this disobedience. where its feet have become firmly planted. The " ordinary " Jesuit's eyes . in the case of the [Benedictine] Scotsmen. doctors of theology belonging to the Society of Jesus should appear in person at the debates held by the Franciscans. in addition. but appealed to Roman and Jesuits See. the theological faculty soon afterwards refused the printing licence for their theses disputationis requested by the Franciscans. He can only be properly shaped by the Jesuit Exercises. upheld the customs of the religious in 1627 orders. however willingly they make use of them as temporary assistants in the cure of souls. but that. * Ibid. of the Order.Criticism of the Inner Constitution Caraffa.

This characteristic of the Jesuit Order is as old as itself. and are in reality " an illusive representation of spurious facts. 173. and thought discipline it dishonourable to the ancient ecclesiastical Catholic of the Church that secular priests should be governed by Jesuits. Dr. and conWhalley alias Garnet. Christopher Bagshawe. dating from the first century of the Jesuit Order. that disliked of novelties with their adherents. . a strife which is only made public in rare instances. do not alter this state of affairs. 1595. of the Jesuits in Weston. The Jesuits in England."* * C/. Edmunds by tinued since Fr. their brethren and fellow-prisoners. They lived on very friendly terms with The position was changed when some one another. On this account there is generally secret strife between Jesuits and the other Orders and the secular clergy." At heart the secular clergy wishes the Jesuit Order at Jericho. and by Fr. a Jesuit. " resolutions of confidence " which the secular clergy pass on the Jesuit Order. to all The din and fury in the warfare. in the general ecclesiastical interest. Both avoid parties try. book alias be " A true Relation of the Factions begun at Wisbeach by Fr. the Provincial England. Bagshawe It will describes sufiicient their restless to quote the title of his and arrogant activity. In a work by the English Catholic priest.46 I Fourteen Years a Jesuit have heard Jesuits express tMs opinion hundreds of times. especially at times of persecution. Taunton. were interned in Elizabeth's reign in of Catholic priests Wisbeach Castle. p. Jesuits were also interned there. lutions are only passed Such reso- in the general ecclesiastical and hierarchical interest. we possess a very interesting example of its egotisA number tical attempt to subjugate the secular clergy. Parsons in Rome Against us secular priests.

A conversation which we carried on as to the possible return of the Jesuit Order to Germany is still very vivid in my mind. Your Order has never yet agreed with us secular priests anywhere. but he has nothing to do with our return. the Jesuit Ratgeb. a point to which I shall refer later) the characteristic : : reply " My dear Father. and does not utter a slander. which had previously been a " We must get in Jesuit College." Pingsmann replied. made a deep impression on me. not without vehemence " We do not want you back at all. Dr. but no lasting resistance. the secular clergy will submit to us." The Chancellor of the Paris University." This remark. Canon and Vice-President Dr.Criticism of the Inner Constitution 47 My experience also confirms this. On our way back from a walk. as they have done hitherto. I communicated this incident to my Provincial Superior. When we return to Germany. Froment. afterwards became Canon and Vice-President of the seminary for I remained Roman Catholic priests at Cologne. There may be difi&culties also for us in the Catholic camp. it is true. Our Order is a very different power from the loosely connected secular clergy. Pingsmann. is a very worthy man. consequently only states a fact in the history of the Order. I was then in almost complete ignorance of the spirit and history of my own Order. when I said jestingly there again. Pingsmann. and obtained from him (as he placed special confidence in me at that time. though very reluctantly. when he expresses his opinion as to Jesuit egotism . Surprised and startled. on friendly terms with him even during my Jesuit period and always visited him when I had to pass through Cologne. by a man whom I very much esteemed. we were standing at the entrance of the college for Roman Catholic priests. One of the private chaplains in my home.

Us trouvent les moiens d'executer leurs pro jets et de se rendre jormidahles. . Pragmatische Oeschichte. — happiness. q\ioted by Harenberg. at least as a is rule.. and I am far from denying it. enfin par la prudence des enfants du siede. par la faveur des Grands^ dont ont les uns avec Us flattent r ambition.''''^ This egotism of the Order is not incompatible with individual Jesuit unselfishness. dont Us savent faire usage merveilleux. Thus the characteristics of the Society of Jesus the characteristics of Jesus Christ are in the sharpest antithesis conceivable.48 Fourteen Years a Jesuit " Uniquement occwpes de son agrandissement. In his case. the surrender of the personal individuality side or made without backward glances in his own interest. if it is to exist and prosper at all. I. Neither do I reproach the Order for possessing the egotism which every association must have. . which not infrequently The rises to heroism. ! Le Vassor. and must give practical proof of having. there is Jesuitism . with all that he is and has. to the Order. and the fundamental opposition is justified * —Here is Christ. In Jesuit its selfishness it has no consideration for others. 1. egotism is Moloch-egotism it eats away the existence. individual Jesuit sacrifices himself. I. But Jesuit egotism extends infinitely further. Histoire du Eigne de Louis XIII. leur interet regie seul qu''ils Par intime correspondance. les Jesuites ne travaillent que pour eux-memes leur pretendue charite. 350. honour and efiicacy of others for its own and aggrandisement. les autres.. Gl.

CHAPTER XVI THEORY AND PRACTICE OF THE CRITICISM CONTINUED THE VOWS : HAVE already shown. and indeed just those which outwardly appear good. innate all-pervading untruthfulness. in practice. and that really. It manages. I Order The same remark applies to the Constitutions of the fine words and opposite deeds. whilst discussing the Jesuit " Scheme of Studies. be they Jesuits or others. The real reason for this characteristic phenomenon lies — in the fundamental Jesuit failing." that many rules. which in trumpet notes will proclaim the truth about the Jesuit Order to every ear that is willing to listen. that they are not observed. cleverly to increase its fame by means of these very unobserved rules. The deeds. E 49 . the Order acts in opposition to them. pious words and pious deeds. I shall thoroughly destroy the apparent harmony and cause dissonances to resound on that great instrument called history. the most beautiful harmony prevails. are only set down on paper. however. paneg37Tists of the Order. endeavour to conceal the antithesis between its words and According to them. and especially to that part which constitutes the essence of its discipline the — vows. Let us turn first to the conflict between the theory and practice of its ascetic discipline.

tion was favourable. there is. so far as this kind of obedience is in question. He sent the manuscript in 1673 to Rome to the General Paul Oliva.. commanded in no way to permit the fathers of those of the Society of Jesus to write in favour of lesser probable and to oppose the views who maintain . who had just condemned sixty-five lax ethical principles." And in general i. no antithesis between theory and practice. and wrote a work against it.e. and the examinaof the Order. who. very many of which originated in the Jesuit Order. the General of is the Order opinions. originally a probabilist. of But the Order obedience. far from fulfilling their vows. the Society of Jesus loves to designate as the " Flower bodyguard. and possesses a figure-head in the sphere this is the professed Jesuit's vow of obedience to the Pope. recognised the perniciousness of probabilism. he finds in the Jesuits the bitterest and most obstinate adversaries. I will submit only a few examples. But where the Pope interferes with Jesuit egotism. do not even render him the ordinary obedience binding on all Christians. Thyrsus Gonzalez (afterwards General of — the Order). of course.50 Fourteen Years a Jesuit THE VOW OF OBEDIENCE Since the vow of obedience is fiist and foremost concerned with obedience to the Superiors of the Order. 1680 " By order {injungendum) of the Pope. so long as the interests of the Order are not opposed we see that Jesuits do act in accordance with their vow of obedience to the Pope. The Pope caused Gonzalez's book to be examined. An Inquisitorial decree : was there- upon issued on June 26th. The history of the Order is full of such fulfilments of vows. of the Pope's In accordance with itself this. but they are very striking. Gonzalez then applied to Innocent XI. The imprimatur was refused. The Jesuit. for approval.

611. Paul Oliva..J. Once the belief had been brought into existence. however. t Gagna. But it was only in 1693 that Gonzalez heard of the decree issued in 1680. This disobedience in such a weighty matter is especially important. 1st. as regards the Universities of the Society of Jesus. there was no longer any necessity."* and should oppose the opposite The General must command all to The assessor of the Inquisition intimated this decree to the Jesuit General on July 8th. 6. it. * Pietro Ballerini. as Pattuzzi remarks. J Ibid. — — matics [Cathedraticus primarius) at the University of Sala- manca.Theory and Practice of the Vows that it is 51 not permissible to follow a less probable opinion when it is the opposite opinion has been recognised as probable. Riposta alia Lettera del P. p. must have known about it. 218. to make the Inquisition prompt obedience. dated 1702. Ldtere II d' Eugenia. 1680. in a written petition to Clement XI. laid the circular drawn up by himself before the in order. . declared he would forthwith obey in all things. because it was effected with exceptional cunning. Also. and he himself says. Paul Oliva. S. view [probabilism]. Lettere 2. The General of the Order. 1680. Paolo Segneri. the despatch of the circular. 1 1 Inquisitional Cardinals. t For otherwise Gonzalez. from the Jesuit point of view. 1734. 595. and the General The Jesuit General. for that which had believe in his originated namely. submit to the will of the Pope. p. on August drew up a circular which was intended for the whole Order and embodied the Pope's command it is said to be in the archives of the Order but it was not forwarded. as Professor of Dognot obey. Oliva. Oliva did indeed issue a circular on August 10th. the wish of His Holiness that everyone should write in favour of probabiliorism. 349. 1680.. was the very one who did As the Jesuit Gagna reports. that the Inquisitorial decree and Innocent XL's command were not conveyed to the Order.

. only concerns the egotistical disobedience of the Jesuit Order to a cardinal and nuncio " The Jesuits had taken advantage of their position it even though with the Emperor [Ferdinand II. and in Vienna have even recommended it to young people and various other persons who are guided by them." The Archbishop goes on to speak of Jesuit manuals which have been condemned in high places and others recommended in their stead. 280 (1) in Kink. at Innsbrug and Olmiitz. dated August 14th. . the Patres Societatis have recently sent this work to Naples to be published.52 Fourteen Years a Jesuit which dealt with ethical questions. In spite of this. writes " The French bishops only condemned the scandalous book of the notorious [Jesuit] Berruyer after the Papal See had most severely condemned it. in a memorial to the Empress Maria Theresa.] to set aside the historic right of the Bishop of Prague to the Chancellorship. This circular too was doubtless intended to 1680. the professors of the Society have continued to use the prohibited books for reading aloud. * Friedrich. O-rilndung der osterreichischen Volksschtde. p. Cardinal Migazzi.* deceive the Pope."t An occurrence related by Gindely should be quoted here. " But affairs have taken quite a different course since. and the Pope now reigning [Clement XIII. It made it possible to answer in the affirmative the question as to whether a decree regarding disputes on ethical questions had been despatched. 85.] had confirmed and repeated the decision made by his most blessed predecessor. I. and had provisionally attained J esuitenordens. The Archbishop of Vienna. but no mention was made in it of the decree of the Inquisition of June 26th. p. Beitrdge zur Geschichte des f Helfert. 1761. . and request the surrender of the University to their sole authority. their object. complete text 417 et seq.

and especially the clergy. the disputes stirred up by the Jesuits about the rites which the Christianised Indians and Chinese had brought over from heathenism and which were upheld by the Jesuits and condemned by all other missionaries. as well as all other possessions. Cardinal von Harrach who would not agree to the retrenchJesuits. are as nothing compared with the disobedience of the Order. which believed that its standing ity. to the direction of the Jesuits from henceforth. in order to settle. IV. [a pupil of the Jesuits]. Intense hate of the Legate on the part of the Jesuit Order was the result. Tournon was made a Cardinal by Clement XL in But Tournon's elevation in rank seemed to heighten the fury of the Order. ment any of his rights. 1707. struggle between him and the The who would not at on the Cardinal's cost let themselves be driven from their position. in connection with the Malabar and Chinese rites. with the Pope's authority and to the disadvantage of the Jesuits. Clement XL sent the Patriarch of Antioch. extending over many years and accompanied by open opposition and shameful deeds of violence. tested and also communicated his protest to the nuncio. but without avail.Theory and Practice of the Vows 53 The Emperor commanded that the adherents of the Bohemian denomination were to leave the University buildings and surrender the same. but also the Catholics. The Archbishop indeed pro. . 547 et seq. side. His successor. * Oeschichte des drcissigjdkrigen Krieges. It led. to the bitterest accusations and attacks against the but for all that he was not able to displace them. To increase his authorJesuits. . Not only were the Protestants indignant at this measure. lasted for over twenty years."* These facts. as Papal Legate to India and China. distinctive as they are for the Jesuit obedience to the Pope. . felt uneasy at the thought that the Jesuits were to be sole masters at the University. In 1702. resolutely continued the battle. Charles Tournon..

which banished all missionaries who. because they would not obey the decrees of His Holiness the * Wording of the edict in Memorie sloriche della Legazione e morte dell' Eminentiss et seq. opposition to the Papacy which condemned them. 1728. too. in 1707 to Macao. deserves special attention. 1710. and died in prison there on June 8th. .* Cardinal Tournon himself was brought by force.. " For the same reason [because. in the Papal decrees. a mine of authentic and rare documents. Venezia. Canon John Marcell Angelita. VII. dated Canton. 205-232. which had been brought about by themselves. who as Promotor was also the official escort of the Cardinal. 142 t Reprinted in Memorie storiche.. November 22nd. they secured the publication of an imperial edict. following the command of the Pope. Antonio Appiani (one of Cardinal Tournon's companions). with reference to the Jesuits event. On July 24th. wounded to the heart (accuorato) For members of the above-named Order [the Jesuits]. It can no longer reasonably be doubted that the and power attempted to poison the Cardinal during his imprisonment. is in other respects. the more so as the work. Cardinale di Tournon.t bears so much is the stamp of spontaneity and truth that it must be believed. condemned the rites. at the order of the Pope. at the instigation of the Jesuits. Amongst them a letter of the Lazarist priest.54 Fourteen Years a Jesuit in India and China had been compromised by The Jesuits placed themselves. The report {Rdazione) of an eye-witness. under the protection of the pagan Emperor of China and invoked his aid against the Papal Legate and against all the remaining members of the Order who obeyed the Pope. 1708. I. in which the report contained. thus actually making the Jesuits sole owners of the Chinese missions. he condemned the Cliinese and pagan rites approved by the Jesuits] the venerable Cardinal Tournon died in imprisonment.

que la maladie et la mort du cardinal Tournon ont que lui ont fait donner les occasionnees 'par le poison. 10 et seq. placed themselves under the pro- pagan Emperor [of China]." || The Memoires also accept as authentic the whole of the remaining contents of the Memorie storiche. speaks of it as " probable. I.Theory and Practice of the Vows tection of the 55 the Pope. i Ibid." A very important corroboration of the poisoning is to be found in the fact that the Missionary Congregation of the Lazarists. 1865. Jesuites^X J. therefore. il " est Mais four en revenir a notre douloureuse etc certain^ tres certain. Abtl. the stubbornness of the members of and he furthered the above-named Order by to the ill-treating the real Catholics who were obedient Holy See. II. it. 354. (1).. 1872). and caused him to utter sharp words against the " bodyguard of the Pope. and thus a confirmation of the report. and Ahhandlungen der III. certainly a very careful investigator. states the poisoning as a positive fact. In any case. 309.. indubitable. and terms : refers to the poisoning in most positive histoire. XIII.. der K. on the basis of the report and the corroboration of the Memoires. p. which are * Memorie storiche. 772.§ and H. IV. Tournon. 2. one of the most distinguished missionary societies of the Catholic Church. Friedrich.. Clement XI. Tagebuches (Nordlingen. Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschajten. 95.*}" published by in a work officially has dealt with the report as an authentic document. was still alive."* Whether the expression " wounded to the heart " is an allusion to poisoning. • t Memoires de la Congregation de la Mission. II Index.. Kl. the remembrance of the intrigues of the Jesuits against the Papal Cardinal Legate.. Appiani's letter is an eloquent proof of the fact that.. Verteidigung meines § Zur Paris. . even after eighteen years. Eeusch. is a question we cannot decide.

calumnies all and partly of barren abuse of Friedrich and those who doubt is the innocence of the The audacious attempt entirely to explain away The the the evidence of the Memoires Jesuits Cornely especially hollow. indeed. I will for once believe the by way of exception two Jesuits' statement that such an explanation exists.) — ! — opinion as to the truth or falsehood of the contents. Oratorien. especially concerning the poisoning. 1872. 776-786. this is a fresh His silence about endorsement of the truth of the " report. 279 et aeq." It would have been the business of the General Superior to express an in April. But does it then contain even a single word as to the inaccuracy of the contents of the volume published " contumaciously " ? It says nothing at all. .56 Fourteen Years a Jesuit as unfavourable as possible to the Jesuit Order. * Index.. that the (I v.. It is possible to write even the truth " contumaciously. relate and Duhr triumphantly how General Superior of the Missionary Congregation explained volumes in question of the Memoires were " contumaciously " published without the contents having been previously examined by him. they even give in an introduction some information which places the trustworthiness of the Memorie beyond doubt *' Ces faits [the documents incriminating the Jesuits] et ont ete imprimes puhlies en particulier par ' le Cardinal Passionei dans son ouvrage : tissimo Memorie storiche deW EminenMonsignore Cardinale di Tournon^ qui renferme une partie des documents authentiques conserves dans les du Vatican ou de la Propagande et dont la parj'ite conformite nous a ete attestee par le Prefet des archives du Vatican.VIII. •)• Stimmen aua Maria-Loach." III.. and Jeauitenfabdn (4). 126.. IV.^^^ What the Jesuits Comely and Duhrf bring forward archives against the Memoires of the Lazarists consists partly of untenable Jesuits. le Pere Theiner.

which is based throughout on letters and documents from the archives of the Order.Theory and Practice of the Vows It also 57 seems strange that the General Superior of the same Congregation which published the Memoires should have waited seven whole years after the issue of the work before declaring against the genuineness of the docu- ments contained in them." volumes clearly emphasise the official character of the Memoires e. So. Moreover. and is provea to demonstration *^ by the addition to the title-page of every volume. mentioned by the Jesuits Comely and Duhr — if it exists at all —must by have been known to is the author of the Histoire. the greatest stress must be laid on the fact that the Memoires de la Congregation de la Mission. ainsi que d'entr''eux les biographies de deux ou trois fit echappees au desastre qui ^^ disparaitre la plus grande partie de nos archives. . are an official publication of the Lazarist Congregation. founded St. For the Histoire repeatedly refers to the Memoires and even to the part (Vol. which were so incriminating to the Jesuits. The prefaces also of the separate de Sevres 95. the preface to the second volume " Ce Jut four maintenir dans la Compagnie V esprit apostolique de nos Peres. Vincent de Paul. and which contains the report as to Tournon's poisoning. A further proof of their official character and credi- bility is afforded by the Histoire generale de la Societe des Missions Etrangeres (also an official publication of the which was published in 1894.. IV. Societe) And yet the circular of the Superior of the Missionary Congregation (Lazarist).) which is unfavourable to the Jesuit Order. Rue dla maison principale de la Congregation de la Mission. que nous eumes la pensee de — : puhlier des rares fragments de leur correspondance que nous possedons encore.g. the circular does not dispute the contents of the Memoires. but * Congregation de la Mission. in his opinion.* This is evident from the entire character of the work.

Hence it " the Jesuits so loyally attached to the Pope. especially on his and on the *^ documents autJientiques^^ on which it is based." . there are only two copies. For this reason they have attempted to buy up the Memoires^ so that copies have become extremely rare. . according to their unpublished axiom. the Papal Legate Mezzafalce. on his work. p." official who. " look historiographer. both of which are at Munich (only three out of the eight volumes) at the Court and State Library. sailable sources. No. In Germany. and the second (only one volume) at the University Library. and tion. as their own I admit. is also of Jesuit cunning. to already. ^'^ exactitude ^^ ing to the Jesuits.58 Fourteen Years a Jesuit directed solely against the opportuneness of their publica- Weighty evidence is afforded by the fact that the General Superior of the Missionary Society." to choke up a source which is so tainted from their point of view. not one even complete ones. works must have been employed also in * Chap. the Memorie storiche and the Memoires are unasbut sources from which issue coimtless proofs of insubordination. in a himself. The method. and of the open insurrection of the Jesuits against the Pope and his ambassadors (for they persisted in disobeying Tournon's successor. v. in a letter pretion. which I have referred religious associations. Amongst these documents authentiques are included precisely the documents contained in the Memorie and in the Memoires which are most incriminatfixed to the first volume. Delpech. congratulates " his dear colleague. do their very best. Cordara work intended for publication expresses down with contempt upon all the other — —not. as they had disobeyed him). falseness." Launay.. for example. passion for calumnia- and malice attaining the clear why limits of crime. 189. " The end sanctifies the means.* of secretly making away with incriminating this case.

I Ibid.. The noteworthy fact is reported in the Bull that the Cardinal Legate felt himself obliged to place the college seminary and church of the Jesuits in Macao under an interdict. and of all the missionaries who were not on their side in the question of the Chinese rites. 200 et seq. dated Macao. dated Nanking.f Tournon's remarks regarding the above-mentioned imperial edict of banishment which the Jesuits had procured against all missionaries who had obeyed the command of the Pope scathing condemnation of the attitude of the Jesuits. to the Priest.. They had brought about the banishment of the apostolic vicars.. in : opinion against him..^ Bull of Clement XI. they themselves sent numerous letters and messengers to Europe to bias public letter A of Tournon. on the other hand. as to the illegality of the heathen rites. conveyed by Tournon. f Ibid. . Rome The Legate complains in the bitterest words that the Jesuits hindered his communication by writing with Rome in every possible way. at the Jesuits' instigation. I. 1707. December 10th. January 9th. 1707. dated March 15th. had opposed the Cardinal Legate. whereby the Bishop of Macao. VII. 169 et seq. of the The Jesuits sought the protection pagan Emperor against the decisions of the Pope. while. as an illustration of the " absolute submissiveness to the Pope " of the Jesuit Order. — * 2IeTnorie. who. Maigrot and Mezzafalce. et seq..* A letter by Tournon. in addition. Fatinelli.Theory and Practice of the Vows I give.. to the Dominican Croquer The Jesuits had brought about the ruin of the Chinese Mission through their lies (menzogne) and intrigues. Their opposition to the Papal decree was unprecedented throughout Christendom. was excommunicated. 118. 59 some documents printed in the Memorie and in the Memoires. VII. without incurring any of the canonical penalties with which such disobedience is threatened.

The missionary priest. . 296). a'etait separe des autres Jesuites et de Vdbeissance de ses superieurs. The report also contains a remarkable ^passage with reference to Adam Schall. 4. the Pope. 260.. they calumniated his companion. 4. " Ce Pere Schall votdant jouir plus a raise des liberalites et faveurs de ce Prince [the grandfather of the Emperor at the time of this report]. the communication does not soimd very convincing. the Jesuit mathematician. had charged the then Secretary of the Propaganda (apparently Dominico Passion ei. avail pris femme il et s'etait retire dans cette maison privee. did everything possible at Court {faisait tous les to have him driven from China.. he clearly refers to them as the instigators. The Jesuits were 1707. was doublethe Jesuits incited the Christians against him faced : . Sala. 4. who later became Cardinal) to annotate a memorial presented to Innocent XIII. 254 et seq. § From the Secretary of the Propaganda * Memorie. a letter of one of his fellow-members of the Order and a audatory remark by the sinologist..* A letter by Tournon. one of the most influential Jesuits. to Cardinal Paolucci. § Ihid. but. cannot surely serve as counter-evidence. states that since 1705 they had extremely antagonistic to him tried to prejudice the Emperor of China against him Grimaldi. by connecting the Jesuits with the persecutions to which his Legate is exposed. These comments . who became famous at the Chinese Court. vie. 230 seq . Remusat. : ][ efforts possibles) "remarks" by priest. For a confession by Schall regarding other things. with reference to Schall's mathematical merit. by Tournon to the Cardinal-Prefect Appiani. dated December 27th. 67 % Ibid. by the Jesuits. et seq. Apres avoir joui des faveurs imperiales celle iermina tristement sa {Ibid. reports that Cardinal Tournon report : A received information through the Bishop of Pekin that the Superior of the Portuguese Jesuits. Benedict XIII...6o Fourteen Years a Jesuit The Pope not only does not condemn the measure. VII. Schall's portrait has been placed in a of the Cathedral II " quHl avait prise pour femme against 240-244) brings forward window of Cologne Cathedral. But what should the building committee know of the real history of the Jesuit Order 7 In 1726. a monk of Cologne. Pereyra. The Lazarist et f Mimoires. the Lazarist priest.t The hate of the Jesuits of the Propaganda says that against him as the apostolic Visitator extended so far that they caused snares to be laid for him at confession. laissant deux enfants & Wliat Duhr {Jesuitenfabeln (4). 4. 296.

P.. ' Tournon October 27th. For this reason he is no longer to see the light."* : by the Jesuit Superior . He has always been the faithful interpreter of the Patriarch [the Papal Legate Tournon]. Tournon's faithful companion.i * Memoires. " they suffer imprisonment. Antonius Thomas. the Cardinal Legate of the Pope. BaccoUa di scritture summari diversi sopra la causa dei P. who even went so letter of Cardinal : A to Cardinal Paolucci." were imprisoned and punished by the remaining Jesuits . possessed no jurisdiction. sequestration. 6i for that very- persecuted and calumniated by the Jesuits in every possible especially way . reason. Mimoires. . *' who only look with pain upon the rebellion {la rebellion) against him of their Superiors and their fellow-members of the Order. Two or three Jesuits.) e IW. 4. to hide their opposition to the are contained in a manuscript comprising twelve volumes from the bequest of the Cardinal-Prefect of the Propaganda at that time. 4. From this voluminous and authentic collection of documents (at present in the Corsini Library at Rome). Corsini. I will reveal the true cause of the monstrous violation of Christian love and justice [with reference to Appiani]." The Jesuits. {Cf. Papal decree able. munity be it just or unjust. of letter is a denunciation far as to declare openly that he. . 408 et seq. insult and a thousand hardships. The invariable axiom of this good com[the Jesuits] is to do all that is possible.. to conceal the stains on its honour. ' . a pamphlet composed and circulated at Pekin. 1707 The whole of the Jesuits. the Memoires have reprinted the extracts of chief interest. . were the originators of the opposition against the Papal decree. is noteworthy in this connection "A memorial of the unquenchable hate and the rare talent [for calumny] of the Pekin Jesuits. 130 et seq.Theory and Practice of the Vows Appiani. is. especially those in Pekin. at first. discountenancing the Chinese rites " Even if the Jesuits were the Christian churches. proclaimed in by him. Gesuiti intorno alle Missioni della Cina ndla CoTigregazione di Propaganda.

on the soldiers who guard me to deeds of violence against . . " These people [the Jesuits] have no fear of God they have intercepted and opened my letters to Rome as well they arm the as the bulls for the Bishop of Pekin ecclesiastical and temporal power against me and the missionaries they preach by word and example rebellion against the Papal jurisdiction. they dishonour the Papal authority in the eyes of the Christians and cause frightful scandal. . they cannot now any longer conceal the fact that their outrage [on the Papal For they authority] is premeditated and deliberate. publish new books full of teachings which the Holy See has condemned. an expresacting Jesuit Mission. . in their letters they designate the secular clergy as " vulgar persons " [populace). of having intercepted his [the . had also used in presence of the Emperor. Legate's] letters {qui est le frincifol pecheur de mes lettres). . I am sending you a book translated from Chinese into Latin. amongst the heathen. who know what to is taking place. Was it necessary to employ such detestable means of provocation in order maintain their [the Jesuits] damnable manner oi " proclaiming the Divine Law ? The Cardinal then openly accuses the Jesuits of being he accuses the the authors of his imprisonment in Macao Jesuit. Father . .62 Fourteen Years a Jesuit under the deceitful pretence that the existence of the entire mission in China was at stake. . thereby in agreement with the Superior of the Thomas PerejTa the Jesuits hated the secular clergy . Emanuel Ozorio. As a specimen. and the contents of which are more detestable than any published before the condemnation. Through this poisonous seed they destroy the Gospel harvest more than ever. which Father Barelli and other Jesuits triumphantly circulate in the capital of Cheh-chiang and show to the mandarins. they declare my instruction they goad to be invalid because I possess no jurisdiction sion which they . above all.

whilst I am prevented from sending even one to give the Pope and the Holy See the necessary information. et seq."* General Superior of the Lazarist Congregation. 4. I now see that my way is everywhere closed for sending further despatches to Rome. It is really astonishing to see how these fathers send their emissaries Europe with their false ideas and reports. whereby their practice in relation to the Chinese rites was condemned. 63 and advise them to strike me if I should attempt to leave my house. them. troubling about my et prohibition. 1707. dated December 10th.). says taken the greatest pains to report exactly to His Holiness il : concerning the distressing events in the Chinese Mission.. in China by the Jesuits of that place. they appealed with shameless audacity to the [pagan] Emperor without in all directions in order to inundate . The Jesuits make use of the Chinese and Portuguese in Macao. the ecclesiastical censure I threatened f ibid. 520 and the Papal displeasure with which * Mimoires. yes. Tournon. gives a circular A of the description of the cruel persecutions of the Lazarist priest. cruaute dont les paiens chinois furent eux-memes scandalises y'\ A letter. to intercept my letters. even of the heretical English and Dutch. 1711. Appiani. . prive meme des consolations religieuseSy n'eut jamais la permission pendant quatre ans de celebrer une seule fois la messe . Appiani emprisonne pendant quatre ans dans la maison des Jesuites. 484. " Et M. . . 495 et seq. 4. quelles cruautes inouies n'a-t-il pas endurees de la part de ses impitoyahles geoliers ? Prive de tout commerce liumain. dated January 1st. After the Jesuits had been informed last year of the Papal decision. which had been thrown into the greatest excitement through the violent proceedings of the Jesuits.. from the Cardinal Legate. to the Papal Nuncio in Lisbon. Bonnet.Theory and Practice of the Vows my person. Conti *' After I had (afterwards Pope Innocent XIII. 464 seq.

" The Cardinal then describes how one of his missionary priests. 522 et seq. Porquet. . was tortured at the Jesuits' instigation to compel him to give evidence against him [the Cardinal]. Guetty. 4.. so as to oppose Bishop Maigrot. * Memoires. but he took no notice and was supported in this by the " Father Britto [a Jesuit who was remaining Jesuits. the was excommunicated by the Legate. of the Patriarch of Antioch [Tournon. do A 1707 : with sovereign e£frontery. Giampe. aries and destroy the Mission. to his face that they [the Jesuits] did not Jesuit. against myself. He relates how the following dogmas in Canton the Jesuit. concerning Chinese rites the missionthis title] aries are not bound to obey the commands . that they have indeed made use of devilish devices to blacken me and my actions at the pagan Court. .64 Fourteen Years a Jesuit several imperial decrees to be issued against They caused the Holy See. the Papal Legate." When an exhortation to retract proved useless. dated " I assure you that the Jesuits December 11th."f report of the Cardinal Legate. The worst of : . 1707 have not omitted any calumnies or intrigues. indeed. had with regard to the Chinese rites neither the Pope nor the Church can infallibly define whether a thing is an idol. 4.* A letter by the Cardinal Legate to his brother. the Pope cannot infalHbly . it is that it is not the heathen who persecute the missionJesuits. . against them to the Papal decisions and to prevent their publication. and how the Jesuits Pereyra and Barros had been present behind a curtain and directed the procedure. canonised in the nineteenth century] told the missionary priest. 529 d saq. dated November 15th. Porquet. but the it and they. f Ifiid. disseminates " He who asserts that : the souls of the dead rest on the altars of their ancestors does not sin against religion settle the disputes . and. above all.

who take up the decree. jurisdiction invalid. made by the Jesuit Cordara. addressed to his brother. J A peep behind the scenes of the Chinese and Malabar drama. 1883). concerning a new imperial his General Superior. which was unfavourwas published the Jesuits." § The death was of the Pope prevented the publication. Benedict XIII. decree of June 24th. 3. Coscia. bartered 4. Denkwiirdigkeiten des Jesuiten Cordara zur Geschichte von 1740-1773 Dollinger. dated 1708.Theory and Practice of the Vows or as Papal Legate. 5G2 et seq. In a most weighty secret report (to be dealt with more fully later). entirely in the left who. successor.. * Memoires. kirchlichen und Kvltur -Geschichte der sechs leizten Jahrhunderte (Ratisbon. 4. F .. Cordara states that Innocent XL had issued a " very severe decree {atrox decretum) against the Jesuits with reference to their behaviour in the Chinese and Indian Mission. 3. almost all the missionaries who had submitted to the decision of the Pope {en fils soumis de V^glise) were banished from China. et seq. X Ibid. 572. if it had been published. Miillener [a German] to dated December 30th. His ."* 65 recognise the Patriarch either as the legitimate Visitator and they considered his power of Report of the Lazarist priest. 4. which led to the death of the Papal Legate. f A report of the Cardinal Legate.. not intended for publication. 1708 At the Jesuits' instigation. § 538 et seq. 549 simus) everything to his favourite. through the influence of position that they would rather see the Mission destroyed than that it should be reformed in accordance with the Papal decrees. Watel. Tournon. is also afforded by a remark. as Cordara himself says. 1708 : The able to the missionaries obeying the Pope. hands of the Jesuits {societati addictis| Ibid. official histori- ographer of the Order for thirty-five years. Beitrdge zur politischen. would have been very bad {male admodum) for the entire Society. which.

Ibid. and a hostile feeling was thereby aroused against him During this time I heard him in the Jesuit Order.. after the favourite style.* abstained from publishing the decree. in spite contrary. duty of obedience. and the agitations in China connected with it.f have dwelt a long time on the disputes concerning the Chinese rites. — . 230 et seq. attacked most violently by my comrades of the Order. Chinese Rites was published in 1791 at Augsburg. to represent the Tournon case. as insignificant. which reflected disgrace on the Order. : * Cordara. we assertions on the Jesuit side to the miss. tried to make peace with Prussia. with the greatest severity. that the Jesuit Pray was the originator. teeming with calumnies against the very persons who make the best appearance in the light of history Tournon. Submission only followed tardily when Benedict XIV. the absolute submission to the Pope. p. in two bulls quickly succeeding one another (1742 and 1744). J From of all the conduct of the Order also at the time of its suppression by Clement XIV. Maigrot. 4. in 1773. which has been solemnly extolled. Side by side with this misrepresentation must be mentioned the work of another Jesuit. 16. but it was soon known The three volumes form a single spiteful pamphlet. who undertook the whitewashing of the subject more than a century ago. A History to the of the Disputes with reference The author remained anonymous.. But there is no stronger proof than of their I this of the falsity of the Jesuit boast as to the uncondi- tional submission of the Order to Rome and of the unscrupulousness with which the Jesuits work against the Papacy itself when the defence of their interests is in question. I can contribute the following from my own experience In 1880 Leo XIII. 1748). J I have already called attention to the attempts of the Jesuits. and even to-day is looked upon as a great authority. In this connection.66 the Fourteen Years a Jesuit important official positions for money. Appiani.. t Bidlarium Romanum (Edit. and only thought of the enrichment of his family. Luxemb. Comely and Duhr. etc. reminded the Jesuits.

and that the * Coastit. in bringing about the close of the KuUurkampf was at it variance with the egotism of the Order. . with reference to the statutory loyalty to the Pope and to ask him to interpose. 230. it deserves to be emphasised . although the Jesuits. by living in the world and having intercourse with all kinds of persons. Characteristically enough. p. by striving to imitate the angelic holi- ness in the purity both of our mind and body.Theory and Practice of the Vows The Jesuits Pachtler 67 and Cathrein were especially reckless in their speech. and the ostracism of the Pope continued uninterruptedly. and their work leads assertion against them frequently into temptation and danger. which dreaded lest a truce between Church and State should compel to retire into the background. VI. it was asserted that the jubilee (of the priesthood) of such a Pope. THE vow OF CHASTITY " What pertains to the it explanation. namely. 1848). n. For instance. t Das Leben des heiligen Ignatius von Loyola (Innsbruck."* On this regulation in the Constitutions of the Order. . The animosity went so far that I felt myself compelled to write to the General of the Order. 1. "f It must be freely acknowledged that unchastity has never tainted the Jesuit Order permanently.. I . . being clear vow how of chastity requires no perfectly it should be observed. are exposed to the sharpest scrutiny. who watched so badly over the interests of the Church. Summar. Anderledy. The action of Leo XIII. that the Society its that immaculate in this respect opponents have never been able to prove any is so it. Hence the rage against the Pope and the insubordination to the Papal measures. 28. I received no answer. ought not to be celebrated. the Jesuit Genelli makes the " historic " remark " As regards chastity.

e. towards Lang pupils of the Jesuit establishment at Augsburg. Count Oettingen and the two Counts Fugger. which shall deal are now lying in the Imperial Archives at Munich i. Marell. in an extract. Lang gives a complete account of the vicious conduct of the Jesuit. addressed from Augsburg to the Provincial Superior. Genelli. September 22nd. in their capacity of confessors. pp. amores. But it must be stated most distinctly that in this point also Jesuit theory and Jesuit practice are opposed and that the statements of Jesuit writers. with reference to the " angelic purity " of In that very sphere of activity the Order. reports concerning of the members produces original letters of the Jesuits Banholzer. Order which were sent from the Superior of the Province to the General of the Order in Rome. dated July 3rd. and December 26th. Lang gives thirtysix " informations " regarding the immoral behaviour of * Jacohi Mardli. From p. and Osterpeutter. . are reported. Munich.68 Fourteen Years a Jesuit unnatural restraint of celibacy does not work so destructively here as in so many sections of the Roman Catholic clergy.. which the Order regards above all others as its domain of glory the education of the young the Jesuits have to one another. are untrue. f statements by three pupils. 1698. — — paid their I full tribute to sexual humanity. In Chapter VI. but now I with it more fully. f Ibid. Jacob Marell. the director of the Bavarian State Archives. 26 onwards. 1-22. and in which the abominable details of the doings of their fellowLang also prints signed Jesuit. have already touched lightly on this subject.g.J.e. S. who were most frequently misused by the Jesuit Marell. Martin Miiller.. Heinrich von Lang. gives the following information from papers of the Upper German Province of the Jesuit Order. which they. 1815. consultors and rectors. Erhart.* In the first place.

. * Feasting {commessationes) and see I. of Munich. declares that he could easily quote " hundreds and hundreds " of such " informations " from the manuscript material at his disposal in the Mimich archives. or are observed very carelessly. and that the editor. . p. who in 1596 was appointed by General Acquaviva Visitator for the Upper German Province of the Order. Director of the State Archives. in one continuous catalogue of similar abominations.* Paul Hoffaus. Kluckhohn. " For shame. entered into an entanglement with a woman of seventy and seduced two girls. For Kluckhohn's comment. of on seven boys Augsburg. . and gave reports on them before the Royal Bavarian Academy of Science. for misusing a servant girl against Father Michael Baumgartner. against Father Ferdinand. who. : many .. and who was one of the most important Jesuits of that time. what kind of priests are these ? " and so on.Theory and Practice of the Vows as 69 The following are examples Information against Father Werner Ehinger for disgraceful intercourse with a Baron of Ratisbon against Father Haas at Freiburg for illicit intercourse with two youths Jesuits. that the numerous cases happened in the short time between 1650-1723. the Upper German. In considering this list of grave offences we must bear mind that it deals with only one Province of the Order. who corrupted seventeen youths for assaults against Father Franz Schlegl. whilst he was sub-regent at Dillingen. 207. who thoroughly searched through the Jesuit papers at Munich in 1874. Herler. against Father Adam . in Lang. one of w^hom then said. also confirms the data supplied by Lang. of Constance. as the result of his visitation wrote in his Memorial intended for the Jesuit College at Munich " It is to be regretted that so many beneficial precautionary measures [for the preservation of chastity] are not always observed.

formally and directly. 262 . Confessions of sick women in their houses are heard without [as the rule prescribes] the presence of a com- panion who can see the confessor and penitent.. J esuitenordens fiir Kirchengeschichte. Oeschichte des et seq. XV.70 Fourteen Years a Jesuit Rendezvous are given in the frequent visits to single females at their residences take place without necessity. and or been expelled from the Society as evil This Memorial. at a time in which zeal still and the active practice of virtue should have prevailed it is —the Order suffered from grave improprieties.e. the offences of individuals are in question. even who frequently confess. caused by such Must there not be a confessors in a free when and unembarrassed manner. 2."* become entangled through such Satanic examples of vice. very frequently. which lead to apostasy and to expulsions from the Society. yes. and there are scandalously long confessions {confessiones scanddose 'prolixae) of women. as they themselves and their penitents were not in ? any danger from such unrestricted intercourse It is known and has also reached the ears of the princes [referring to the two dukes of Bavaria] that confessors from amongst our Order have have apostatised nuisances. to whicli I shall again refer. Frequently. even in its first youth. sweet and agreeable words are feelings. In these cases very important to notice that is : although. teach us what great strange aberration of intellect and heart evils are transgressions in the case of confessors. intimacy prevails between two persons [confessor and his female penitent] without I fear that any trace of strict repression on the confessor's part. church for long of those conversations with women. afiords the more food for thought because it is a secret report and was drawn up only forty-six years after the founding of the Jesuit Order. — Consequently. dare to before the criticising eyes of many hours joking with if women the world. nevertheless the Order as such * Printed impliZeitschrift by Reusch. which are tinged with carnal lust and carnal Unpleasant occurrences. Beitrdge zur 1894. exchanged. and pass without fear of shame. i.

W.* How exactly the advice was followed shown further by the following facts A Jesuit. who was his penitent." made a woman. it 71 failed to punish the culprits adequately. who is sought out by all as an oracle. 163." He acted here quite in accordance with the ordinance already quoted. •j- Dollinger-Ileusch. under date 1st December. I. 587 . drink. that " he had only been detected {nihil aliud fecisse depreJiensus) observing or touching that belonging to a woman which one ought bashfully to keep away from. 305.(he also does not to the Jesuit Forer at " an exceptionally clever Dillingen that the Jesuit Mena.Theory and Practice of the Vows cated because. reported. the Provincial Superior even recommends that clemency should be shown. clothing and bedding should be * See Chapter VI. "+ He also " died in THE vow OF POVERTY The scope of the vow of poverty (also of the special vow of poverty of the professed Jesuits) is explained : by the following passages in the Constitutions " Whoever wishes to live in the Society must be con- vinced that food. issued by General Acquaviva in 1595. K. Azevedo. from Rome man. . There is no mention of punishment in the abovementioned " information. He subsequently denounced him" died in the Society of Jesus " before the self and close of the lawsuit same letter which followed. mention the year).. " because the offences were not publicly known. that of the Jesuit Theoderich Beck. that immoral actions led should not be punished by dismissal to is when they had : no open scandal." In one of the worst cases. (he is careful not to mention his name).. It is related in the of another Jesuit." the Society of Jesus. believe that she might live with him legitimately. Moralstreitigkeiten. II. in these and in other instances.

"! * whose service Exam. or lessons. is to be maintained in its purity as far All must love poverty as a mother and as possible. 27. neither demanding nor receiving pay. .. ."* with reference to the gratuitous performance of the work of the Order which is connected with poverty. 7 . they must not. 5 . according to a measure nothing is to be used as an individual of holy discretion possession. Can.72 Fourteen Years a Jesuit and that the of such a kind as appertains to poverty. Examen generale. or any other duty of all those which the Society can render according to our Also appear to be remunerated. accept any pay or any alms for masses. .. so those also who follow them must endeavour. . Summar. 23. may . lessons. 24. worst things which are to be found in the house are assigned to him to produce greater self-denial and spiritual development . Congreg. to equal and excel them. or for any other pious in accordance work which the Society may carry out with its Constitutions. by the grace of Poverty is to be God. endure its effects in fitting season. I. or confessions. also in order that a certain equality and a common social measure should be attained. Institute. 26 t Comtit. IV. or alms. or visitations. VI. . and. with the help of Divine grace. who established the Society were specially tried As those by such poverty and a greater want of bodily necessaries. 2. the Constitutions say " All who are under obedience to the Society should remember that they ought to give gratuitously what they have gratuitously received. And by which masses. loved as the strong wall of the Order. although others are allowed to do so. gen. 3 . (for from any other person than from God alone they are to do everything). sermons. . and they must also be ready to beg from door . as recompense for such services. or administration of sacraments. Summar.. or sermons. to door when obedience or necessity requires this. 1.. .

is a cruel mockery. As regards. is We may at once that Jesuit poverty communistic wealth.Theory and Practice of the Vows Only on one point. if not exactly mean in the word. the cleanliness of the undergarments. The clothis true. it which was frequently very hard. strictest sense of the opulence. but not necessarily. the Jesuit Order occupies a supreme and exceptional position through " poverty. A palliasse coarse bed-linen." The already described dormitory and living arrangements during my novitiate. one and the same pair of trousers was worn next to the skin for years. for example. Thus I also experienced the uncleanliness which is frequently. there is any non-religious society which strives so intently and with such considerable success after possessions and riches as the Society of Jesus. which continued throughout the scholasticate. scarcely Apart from actual business associations." I will give its some personal have felt. a name which. I as the Constitutions of the Order " the effects of poverty. generally clean. were only changed once a week. which further on is 73 to be discussed minutely politics — —the interference of the Jesuit Order in opposition between Jesuit is the [say theory and Jesuit of practice so sharp as in the case poverty. connected with poverty. since. in spite of scanty and But two points must be noted in the case of these . in spite of per- washing and rare baths. the so-called spiritual Orders. however. recollections first of all. and a narrow and short nightly couch for years. But amongst the bodies. far from any suggestion of Bedding and clothing were.g. No doubt express it. in just this religious connection. there was none. a small blanket bedstead formed my ing was outwardly. the cleanliness underneath. and shirt spiration and stockings. aiforded full opportunities for the practical experience of poverty. e.

Thus even the meagre " effects of poverty." and they are not the only ones. to Jesus retically ascetic and religious foundation Christ's vow of poverty. from which the enormous sums for maintaining the members. while established abroad (in Holland and England) after its expulsion from Germany. this effect of poverty. his constancy. to which still others were was a poverty brought circumstances. etc. safeguarded by an enormous fortune of millions. about by force of of the Order was obliged. was not the only. it could not immediately have everything in good order. And in the second place. it added according to necessity (threadbare or torn clothing) are the tests imposed on the individual to prove his contempt for the world. They are not phenomena which develop from the attitude and from the spirit of the Order.e. But I came to see other It is obvious that things clearly as well. and even luxury. his obedience. thousands." regarded from religious and ascetic points of view as characteristic of the Order. are fui'ther reduced. to cut its cloak according to its cloth . The material foundation of the Order. houses and churches of the Order are derived. very rich. point to a capital of many millions. still Hence I have a perfect right to dis- regard these things in describing the poverty which I personally endured. In other respects I have learnt to know the poverty Order as easy living. I saw this clearly from the beginning. and in an Order which clothes and feeds many instances lodges them in magnificent and spacious buildings. combined with a spirit of intense eagerness of the Jesuit for money and gain. not even the most marked. We find it in the daily life and . The German Province first place. The revenues.74 Fourteen Years a Jesuit In the " effects of poverty. must be rich. as I shall show. based on wealth. feature of opposition to its theoi.

or even more frequently. the picture of which frequently adorns the refectories of the Society of Jesus. On festival days. The Jesuit Order The daily fare at dinner and supper is knows no trace of poverty in eating and drinking. amounting to five or six. of the same nature ? The " magister meals " constitute a special kind of Every three months. * Such feasts are called Duplicia — . very good and very abundant.* at which neither oysters and champagne. and he drinks good beer with this. and wine is supplied besides the beer. or rather Jesuit dog-Latin. Liverpool and Manchester) I have enjoyed meals which must be characterised as very well cooked. according to their importance. nor pastry. several dishes. From a purely human point of view. incomparably better than that of the secular priests and even most comfortably situated and well-to-do families of the middle class. spiced with ance. nor even the after-dinner cigarette with coffee and liqueurs were lacking. The " poor " Jesuit daily eats a dinner consisting of soup and two meat dishes. and a supper consisting of a meat dish or other hot food. I am quite capable of appreciating such recreation. primae they are divided. . poultry and game. Hall. has been copied from the Liturgy. which classes the feasts of the Church under festa simplicia and duplicia. the feast. In the English Jesuit houses (Ditton London.Theory and Practice of the Vows in the habits of the 75 Order of the Society of Jesus in certain circumstances. Jesuits appointed as magistri in the different colleges have special festivities with a meal at which things are done in great style. Stonyhurst. and these again under duplicia secundae and primae classis. sumptuous dinners. into Duplicia secundae. are served. according to their importand primissimae (sic/) classis a division which. Was the meal of which Christ and His company partook before His passion and death. it is important to notice. The designation duplex primissimae classis for specially sumptuous meals is Jesuit Latin. with suitable additions and stewed fruit.

but was spending his holidays It was just the time for a " magister meal. and in a very cheerful ! frame of mind. and requested to entertain my uncle in the meantime and explain to him that Father Schneider could not be spared just then " owing to urgent business. the Jesuit Joseph Schneider (author of an " ofiicial " work on Indulgences). shows to what serio-comic situations such secret proceedings frequently lead. as he frequently did. One fine summer afternoon my uncle. and such feastings are out of place for the wearers of the soutane and biretta. In their eyes the Jesuit appears as the poor. expressing itself in luxurious meals and feasting. The liberality of the unsuspecting public would receive its deathblow if it got wind of such things. where I studied philosophy as a scholastic from 1881-1883. But the purely human point of view is by no means that which is accepted by the Society of Jesus it takes to itself very emphatically the ideal of Christly perfection and asceticism. A great dilemma occurred I was called to the Rector. He repeated the excuse about important partly owing to the untruth I suffered torture. came over the moor from his estate at Terporten. An event during my stay at the Jesuit college in Holland. It is that the good living. A true Jesuit peculiarity may be added.76 Fourteen Years a Jesuit pleasures of the table." About an hour later. mortified member of an Order which is very much in want of support and alms. situated on the other side of the neighbouring Prussian border. is most carefully kept from the laity. who was stationed in Rome as Consultor of the at Blyenbeck. . Father Schneider appeared with a face rubicund from eating and drinking. to visit his friend." and Father Schneider as a distinguished guest took part in it. Baron Felix von Loe (Centre Deputy and foimder of the Catholic National Union). . in the course of a hard and monotonous professional life. Congregation of Indulgences. business. Blyenbeck.

. bookcase and stove. was accustomed to travel third class as long as I believed ill the Jesuit Order. officially named " villas." are peculiarly characteristic of Jesuit poverty. in the neighbourhood of its colleges. from the knowledge revealed to us in the Gospels of the Christly spirit of poverty. the wealth of the Order was sufficient for the expensive purchase and support of such villas. whether it is in accordance with the spirit of poverty of a Society of Jesus. and partly because I was afraid that Father Schneider's evident cheerfulness might cause the " urgent business " to appear in a some- what curious light. where every Thursday the inmates of the colleges. The Jesuit father (not the brother) has his own spacious room. Notwithstanding the exile in which the German Province of the Order lived in Holland and England. When I went with other comrades. frie-dieu. frequently at great expense. The country-houses of the Order. It may reasonably be doubted. the " poor " Jesuit travels second class. and the college at Wynandsrade had its villa at Aalbeck. chairs. the novitiate house at Exaeten had its villa at Oosen on the banks of the Maas. fathers and scholastics.Theory and Practice of the Vows ^j with which we had regaled my uncle. not luxuriously but comfortably furnished. good food and all kinds of active games. This is certainly an excellent arrangement from the point of view of health and the care of the body. writing-table. The Order seeks to acquire country-houses. with bed. On I journeys. may be recuperated by good air. From newspaper " bread of this may be deduced the value of the con- stantly repeated pitiful complaints articles made by the Order in and elsewhere with reference to the it is exile " which compelled to eat. standing-desk. I found it rather difficult to persuade them to use the lower class. Thus.

Dollinger. become through exterior events the possessors of a large income they incline towards prodigality. the rooms and the clothes which we use. who was also an effect of Jesuit — — made Cardinal. every pen and every sheet of note-paper. I belonged to this number. This " poor " member of the Order wasted over 70. 3. the Jesuit Cienfuegos. I frequently expressed my trouble and doubts to my Superior. " made an enormous display. every piece of paper. have to be asked for. also especially in the fact that the objects we do not call an}'thing our own amongst with which we are surroimded and which we use. the historiographer of the Order. Beitrcige. " Are exterior life when the of there not many amongst the Jesuits who are struck by the antithesis of the Constitutions of the Order and the life.J. Cordara. * Cordara. even luxuriously appointed ? " And. brought up in such comfort. Denktimrdigkeiten ." as his fellow-Jesuit. especi- actual ally during the novitiate.78 Fourteen Years a Jesuit Consequently it is not to be wondered at and this is poverty that when Jesuits. S. our food. but in our aloofness in the midst of possessions .* " Where does poverty come It is a fair question then : in the Jesuit is so comfortably. there are many whose spirit of idealism and aversion from the world takes offence at the " poor things offered for their use and enjoyment by the Jesuit Order. doubt whether they are really in the Society of Jesus. I received the stereotyped reply " Our poverty does not consist in privation.000 gold florins yearly in dissipation as Imperial ambas- sador at Madrid and holder of the rich archbishopric of Monreale. For example. passed through " it in exceeding poverty. 3. . and who. and left it in exceeding poverty ? Of course. every book. Every pencil. as a result of these thoughts. further. that Jesus who entered the world in exceeding poverty. tells us..

and the birds of the air have : nests . During my third probationary year. not Evangelical poverty. When I once." not strike anyone. I repeat that Jesuit poverty is in reality communistic wealth. whilst he lives a very comfortable The individual considers that he and the Order life on the interest of the Order's millions and enjoys in a duly " detached " manner the good things of this world." A my sentence uttered by my Novice-Master. also throws interesting light on this poverty. hearing confessions and saying mass. It does they gradually sleep. which I passed at Portico in England (near the manufacturing town of St. dear brother. I have also had experience in various ways of the famed gratuitousness with which the Jesuit carries out his spiritual work (sermons. and saying mass). we tertiaries were sent on Sundays into the neighbouring parishes to help the priests. expressed my misgivings as to the sumptuous feasts. at their request. of nothing. the Jesuit Mauritius Meschler. are only the wicked to enjoy the good things of this world ? Has not God also created them I for the righteous ? " was not then quick enough at repartee to answer with the saying of Christ. but the Son of man hath not where to lay his head. 79 Hence we are poor. or masters. he said " But. at the Annual Statement of Conscience. indeed. giving of exercises. that such explanations are humbug and devoid of the Evangelical spirit . lull the ascetic and religious conscience to are poor. afterwards Provincial. the tertiate. who believes in the authority and piety of the expositors.Theory and Practice of the Vows we are possessors. Helens). who certainly also belonged him to the " righteous " " The foxes have holes. hearing of confessions. in preaching. .

my mother gave from two to three thousand marks (£100-£150) to the Order for saying masses for missions. fortune agency of the Jesuit Such and of similar occurrences might be multiplied a thousandfold. the highest stage of the Jesuit training. and an idea can be obtained through the them Order productive source of revenue for the . festival sermons the dead. I have already stated how.8o Fourteen Years a Jesuit " gratuitousness " of The such assistance comes very forcibly to light. I received 500 marks (£25) for my exertions. too. The Order charges high fees for Exercises. When I gave Exercises in 1889 to a number of noble ladies at Miinster. popular and masses for souls. I never brought back less than 300 marks (£15) from the castle of Count D. the Jesuit Oswald. accepted the money with pleasure. are rich and noble. in through the all probability. is the belonged to the tertiate period.-V. It prefers to give Exercises to rich and noble people. at least one pound sterling it ! This instance of the application of the principle more noteworthy because i. The Procurator of the Province. in Westphalia. Our rector and tertiate instructor. where I often went to preach. and remarked facetiously that I seemed able to give profitable Exercises. He openly stated that he preferred to decline absolutely requests which did not promise. which only lasted three days..e. and because the very man who was proclaimed appointed by the Order to instruct this us in the Constitutions of the Order and initiate us into its spirit principle with reference to " gratuitous " money-making. besides the allowance for travelling. the Jesuit Cadufi. carefully selected from amongst the requests submitted those which promised to be most lucrative. At the death of my father. because the donations. hear confessions and say mass. of the Order also received a considerable portion my mother's Behrens.

Everything done in grand style. by the Visitator. plentiful. under date 1596: " We from the have swerved aside. Paul HofEaus. Beitrdge. are degenerate already. splendid. first form of poverty. I will now deal with also stress the larger history of the Order's poverty. j. we find. rare. elegant. There is is not the poverty of our fathers. ascetic theory is in sharp antithesis to them. and the high-sounding. indeed. first fruits Jesuit frimitiae spiritus. Here defection from the rules observable even in must be laid on the fact that the drawn up in the Constitutions is The the early youth of the Order. but courtiers and spend- Woe to those who have brought about and devised this damnable and accursed expenditure to the corruption of our religious poverty. diverse. But this did not help matters. precious rious."* It is praiseworthy that the officials in the Order raised their voices in warning. In the already mentioned secret report of the Upper German Province of the Order. when we observe the continually increasing gigantic riches of * Repriated in Reusch. profuse. select. G .Theory and Practice of the Vows which springs from the gratuitousness of aids. but desire that all shall be comfortable. florins and luxu- I can only think with shame and pain of how many thousand have been expended here [in Munich] in latter years for the maintenance and the embellishment of the college. we have fallen away violently. We are not content with necessary things. This is the more to be regretted because the corruption has already become a habit which can no longer be thrifts. its 8i spiritual history of So much regarding Jesuit poverty from the limited my personal experiences. appointed by General Acquaviva. And when the whole is surveyed. exterminated unless the axe a trace left of is placed at the root. gilded. the of the Order of the spirit. The evil spread. 262. as if we were not poor members of an Order.

* Druffel.000 florins. appointed by himself confessor to Duke Cosimo de Medici. 56. in confessionals.000 florins. Amongst these are single sums of 15." at the death-bed.000. 32. As the pseudo-mysticism of the Jesuit Order inheritance ' ' was to be confined shortly. that she should act in the same manner as the Queen of Portugal had acted before her confinement. Ignatius Loyola. who afterwards played an important part at the Council of Trent. p. and thus the Order has heaped up possessions on possessions. Ignatius Loyola instructed the Jesuit Laynez. 1819. von Lang points outf that the Upper German Province of the Jesuit Order received in the years 16201700 alone through " insinuations. an der romischen Kurie (Munich. K. florins make a settlement of 500 gold on the Jesuit College.000 and 117. Ignatius von Loyola et seq. as it were. so its pseudo -poverty and its notable acquisitiveness are characteristics handed down from the founder. 57. . the historical life and behaviour of the is an from its founder. ut aliquid jecisse videantur ? : Be that as it may.000 gold florins obtained from two princesses during childbed travail have themselves. The " insinuation " of the founder of the Order — has remained a model for all later " insinuations. p.82 Fourteen Years a Jesuit the Order and see innumerable examples of its remarkable commercial aptitude for money-making.* These 1.000.000. namely. 1S79). the not unjusti" Are not the warning voices of fiable doubt arises " officials only raised pro forma. become reproductive they have produced a million future generations. and became Ignatius's immediate successor in the generalship of the Order. that " he was to insinuate [this was the expression used by Ignatius] to the Duke's wife. In 1718 a member of the 92. who Order gives the lie to its theoretical warnings. etc." 800. 18 t Geschichte der Jesuiten in Bay em..

etc. with the abbeys of Biburg and Monchsmiinster. f Ibid. with all its revenues and landed property..* The yearly fixed revenue of the Upper German Province.. fees for masses. — —which It was especially the foundation for the Jesuits. of Bavaria who laid wealth of the Upper German sndowed the Jesuit College in Munich with a Duke William yearly income of 2. Baierns Kirclien und V olkszustande (2).000 florins.950 florins. The William's example was imitated. and against Papal decrees.. and contrived. moreover. and should receive a seat and vote in the Diets.Theory and Practice of the Vows College at Ellwangen. p. His princely neighet seq. 1842). IV. ml6. which consisted of 583 persons. and the monastery of Ebersberg. Ibid. 83 Peutinger family bequeathed 100. * f p. Jahrh.} He met their endeavours to get the most popular places of pilgrimages into their hands by building them a college at Altotting. 58. (Giessen. 158 Sugenheim. Briefe und Akten zur Oeschichte des 30 jahrigen Krieges. were frequently gigantic for that period was to remain concealed. The size of the the donations in the Upper German Province were only noted sums down in the secret books. Lang. that the Jesuits connected with the foundations should become members of the Bavarian prelacy. Stieve. He presented them. He V. 414. p.675 tithes florins. according to von Lang'sf minutely verified documents. amounted in 1656 to 185. . in spite of the opposition of the district. 317 § F. § duke for the Jesuit Order was so boundless that there was a general complaint that the avarice of the Jesuits would eventually devour the whole predilection of this of Bavaria. donations. and to this were added the from Ainling and Edenhausen to the amount of 3.000 florins to the Jesuit From about 1700 onwards. To this should be added many thousands through gifts.

the estate of Randeck and Essing. Holzhausen. the manors : of Gieselshausen. manor of Schierling to the to the Seibels- college Landshut the estate of Niederding at Burghausen the tithes of Markel and : . : . Biburg with Leitenbach and Rozenhausen of ninetyone farms. Oberhaunstadt. Prince Bishop of Passau. and Echenbrunn to the college at Augsburg the domain of Eitenhofen. Eugenbach. : . the manors of Kissingen and Mergethau with the laundry at Lechhausen to the theological : . Leimershof. it is explicable that on the suppression of the Order in 1773 the Upper German Province possessed a gigantic landed property which was distributed Thus Jesuit as follows Munich belonged the monastery of Ebersberg with the priory of Erding. : . the manors of Prunn. college Monchsmiinster with fifty-eight farms.000 florins. : dorf . to the college at : . : of St. Wolfshausen and Rannerzbach to the college at : To the . Oberdolling with Hellin Ingolstadt : mansperg Landsberg the manors of Vogach. Hohengiissbach. Gebersdorf to the college at Ratisbon the monastery . the Fourteen Years a Jesuit Archduke Leopold. : . Merkendorf. to the college at Feldkirch (Vorarlberg) : the tithes . Winden. the tithes . endowed the Jesuit College at this place with 30. Hornbach. Garstorf. Stetbach. college at Straubing college at Lengenfeld and Holzheim the to .84 bour. Winkel and Zangenhausen to the college at Amberg the Abbey of Kastell together with the manors of Engenreut. Stockau. a boy of fourteen. Paul. and the dues of Kalmiinz. Sand: . of Frastanz and the pasturage of Streichenfeld to the college at Neuburg the monasteries of Berg. Aham. Heymaden. Knetzgau. Hofdorf. the domain of Pfaffenhausen with Tondorf. seminary at Dillingen Lustenau to the college at Eichstatt Wittenfeld and Landershofen to the college at Bamberg the estates of Sambach. Pestanagger. Neuburg.

1782. The President even learnt the names of the banks at Frankfort which had negotiated the payment of the interest. the it wealth of the Order directly after amounted to 15. 67. 2.939 guldens were converted into ready money.000 guldens have already been collected.000 guldens of " Jesuit gold " had been discovered at Genoa. to sell one of his estates 381. is descended from a member of this banking firm.214. and. Moravia. For the President of the Imperial Exchequer reports. that of the outstanding claims of the Jesuits on private individuals. under date of April 28th. college at Ingolstadt. 17C0-1848 (Vienna. Der osier reichische Staatsrat. 444. From the documents quoted by Lang. pp. But this does not seem to have been nearly all. that more than 120. for Bohemia. and more than eighteen millions were supposed to be lodged in the Order's name in Holland.) considered it " unseemly that the State as an assignee of the Jesuits should have private debtors. Geschichte der Jesuiten in Bayern.654 guldens earnest * p. 1879). Silesia and the remaining German-Austrian hereditary lands. 1781. four millions of which belonged to Austria. in addition to this. 205 t The fifth German Chancellor.} The following facts from the same period throw the Jesuit wealth into bold relief : The Bohemian and Austrian Chancery Court reports. But the further levy arranged by the Bethmannf firm led to no results. von Bethmann-Hollweg.415.674. . " The Emperor (Joseph II. who was placed in sad difficulties through the notice to redeem this outstanding debt. X Hock-Biedermann. 3. under date of August 16th. money would be collected. ei seq.220 guldens.* 85 The Imperial Com- mission found assets of more than three millions in the When the Austrian State officially its estimated suppression.Theory and Practice of the Vows hof and the vineyard of Ziegelang. and privately advised Prince Schwarzenberg.

and is consequently contested by the Jesuits with all manner of culumnies. after the examination of his writings. if * Hock-Biedermann. strange doctrine opposed to the general belief and custom of the Church. so that his beatification wae instituted and almost completed. I have already caught Dulir tripping in regard to many of his quotations. on account of the remonstrance of the Jesuit Order. have tried to discredit his letter directed to the Pope. When. apart from other proofs. Rome: De I'Imprimerie de la Chambre Apostolique. Rome caused an examination to be carried out." he makes an audacious attempt to deceive.86 in the Fourteen Years a Jesuit the into German Empire so that he might pay the proceeds Austrian Government Credit-bank and thus 25th. Therefore the is their wont by means of falsifications and misrepresentations. 1647. the devil's advocate. in which. which is not improved by the fact that Duhr refers to " remarks " {animadversiones) by the Promotor Fidei in the proceedings in regard to Bishop Palafox's beatification. 1760. Thus I am deprived of the possibility of verifying them. Duhr {Jesuitenfabeln. But the authenticity of the letter is guaranteed. and shall do so again. " They contain nothing and it is said of them. 1648. Bishop of Los Angeles. who. therefore. 1760. 640 et seq. Duhr replied that they were private property. For it is the business of the Promotor Fidei to raise difficulties from all available quarters against a beatification. Palafox lived and died in the odour of sanctity. these two letters are also mentioned. as of the remaining writings against religion and good morals. I begged the Intelligence Bureau for German Libraries in Berlin to ask Duhr in which library the remarks could be found. 832). In a collection belonging to the Court and State Library in Munich Jes. by a decree of the Congregation of Rites. amongst the writings of Palafox. November 19th. t The evidence of Bishop Palafox (who died in 1659 when Bishop of Osma. nor do they contain any new. 521." The Congregation announces at the same time that. explained. This official document is of the greatest importance also in connection with the contents of the letters. decided in three briefs (May 14th. These briefs were so embarrassing to the Order that it tried to divert their influence Jesuits. and that is why he is also called the advocatus Moreover. wrote to Pope Innocent X. and May 27th. carefully " A number of his keeps this important decree secret. the beatification of Bishop Palafox could be continued {Decret rendu dans la cause dc Vl^glise d^Osma. supported by the fact that. p. 1652. moreover. moreover. p. p.* On May John Palafox.). And until Duhr produces the work itself. The accuracy of the contents of the letter is. from which the above quotation has been taken. dated December 16th. ibid. liquidate the debt contracted with the Jesuits. 30.. I must place a note of interrogation after his quotation. in Spain) is especially unfavourable. with the result that Innocent X. this quotation by Duhr requires to be diaboli. 1653) in favour of the Cardinal and against the Jesuits. For the Congregation of Rites could not possibly declare that the letters were " not opposed to good morals " if they had not become convinced after minute examination that they contained nothing slanderous and untrue. asserts most positively [Bishop Palafox's] assertions are in disagreement with known facts and are accordingly shown to be untruths. no doubt. As I coiild not find the remarks of the advocatus diaboli at any German library. fighting as : : : .

the letters. ment by the upon the Jesuit Dulu*. publication. . " until it was cleansed from the additions " (donee expurgetiir ah adjectis). at the Pope's command.. the Jesuit Cordara. The proceedings continued. to hinder the case of Palafox. 1656. it increased so it much that the Congregation of the Index was obliged to put an end to by means of a decree. Then. would doubtless have reflected disgrace on the Society [of Jesus] The Jesuits tried. which. as has already been mentioned. of course.). 495 et seq.Theory and Practice of the Vows " Most ables 87 Holy Father. p. Fathers of the Society [of Jesus] from the accompanying brief. : 4 the briefs. Index II. . six of these refineries.. in the usual slow fashion. When. He brings forward.000 thalers yearly. that (ibid. the Jesuits vehemently opposed it. all immov- and treasures of this Province of America.) Nothing is to be found of all these important facts in the " historical " state. 1658). all — I found almost all the wealth. 30. most probably by Jesuits. It 100. in 1765-1770. size. the Society alone has six of the largest. Besides this. smuggled into the bullarium (Lyons edition of 1655. there appeared pseudonymous and anonymous writings. with good reason.. without counting the small flocks all the cathedral churches and all have and whilst almost the Orders together have hardly of their colleges . which the ofiicial historiographer. single Province of the Jesuits." (Reusch. however. intended fcjr The confession. as I have just said. 1771.000 sheep. (ibid. directly after The ruse was and the Congregation of the Index censured this volume of the bullarium by means of a decree of August 3rd.) . In two further decrees (July 27th. and lays stress which has already been proved untrue by Arnauld. possesses. One and of these refineries this is valued at more than half a million thalers. 485. however. who still possess them. Beitrage. which designated as suspect the works declared by the (Congregation of Rites to be blameless in regard to dogma and morals. they have various corn-fields of enormous Also they have and if they continue to increase their power ia a truly Jesuitical way. Bishop Palafox's beatification was proposed. 1657." emphatically designated as such " additions. an unverifiable and unfavourable expression of the advocatus diaboli assertion. the earlier decrees favour of the orthodoxy of Palafox's works and enjoined silence on the Promotor Fidei (advocaius diaboli). each one of which brings in silver mines. dated September 10th. only consists of ten colleges. a document (Processus et finis causae Angela" Decisions in favour of the politanae) of which the essential part is as follows vols. but not perhaps in a very well-considered manner." (Denhwurdigkeiten : beatification of Palafox : . as has already been mentioned. 643). Palafox has described his letters as written ab irato not. makes in a report regarding the intrigues of his is Order against tho "If John Palafox had obtained the heavenly honours [the canonisation].) A second Jesuit trick must also be reported in the Palafox matter. 3. At the in again confirmed. Two three sugar-refineries. and June 10th. 29. however. the resolutions interpolated by the Jesuits were discovered. very interesting Dijllinger.. 495. The nuisance same time. which he is sup^TOsed to have addressed to Innocent X. in the hands of the Jesuits.

000 livres et la rente d^environ 80. dliorloges et d^autres industries. 40. pour nourrir rien onze ' pauvres religieux. cattle fairs. stalls One of Palafox's colleagues. All this property and all these considerable revenues. la valeur de cinquante ou soixante mille taels. 7-9. butchers' and shops. . serve no other purpose than to maintain ten colleges..000 tads pour chaque maison fait pour les trois maisons ensemble un total de 720. deux pour cent par mois. the records of the Missions Etrangeres of Paris (the oldest CathoHc Missionary Society existing to-day) information " Les Jesuites contain interesting ont trois maisons a Pekin. . which might make a sovereign powerful. 1773). p. ou. la Chine est ordinairement de trente four cent. Gregorio de Almeida. They lend out their money for usury and thus cause the greatest loss and injury to others. in 1679. that the Jesuits yearly snatched 40. Les Jesuites U pretendent qu''ils rCen frennent que vingt-quatre. ce qui ne vaut pas mieux.^ profit Mais ce profit n'est compare au du commerce de vin. dans un commerce usuraire.. whilst the other Orders will be forced to collect alms at their doors. the Bishop of Maragnon. Briefe an Papst Innozenz X. Le capital de 60. (Frankfort and Leipzig. complained. To this may be added the extraordinary skill with which they make use of and increase their superabundant They maintain public warehouses. avec lesquelles ces Peres amassent des * Don Juan Pcdafox. Chaque tael vaut au moins quatre inter et de V argent a livres de notre monnaie de France. the secular become their sacristans and the laymen their stewards."* wealth. Le calcul du profit est facile a faire.000 gold ducats from him. pp. t Evidence given by Friedrich.f With reference to the wealth of the Jesuits in China in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.88 and wealth clergy will Fourteen Years a Jesuit as excessively as they have done up to now. They send a part of their goods by way of the Philippine Islands to China. Chaque maison a.000 liv.

§ Histoire de la Compagnie de Jesus (Paris. 239. 1865). had discovered that an item of 500.Theory and Practice of the Vows tresors les 89 immenses. 5. threatening ecclesiastical punishments in case of repetition. The sums with which the Jesuit Order had to do at its suppression are shown by a remark of the Jesuit Cordara. As the Lazarists (founded by reprinted these data in the gregation. 49. 4. knew quite well what they were writing about.* facts official Vincent de Paul) history of their Con- we have evidence as to the truth of these from two of the most distinguished Catholic Missionary who.§ the fanatical defender of the Order. 4. as he mentions specially. in the face of undeniable facts. this gigantic Neither the property of the missions in the colonies nor the alms and gifts were included in sum. 3. 275 . the wealth of the Jesuit Order was and is so the time of notorious. : X Denkunirdigkeiten { Dollinger.. partly with Christian and partly with heathen Chinese. Societies. for the very reason of their usurious character. that Cretineau-Joly. Beiirdge. But experience shows that the alms and gifts amount to a considerable * Memoires de la Congregation de la Mission (Paris. 240 et seq. who was nominated by the Pope as Commissioner of Enquiry of the Jesuit Seminarium Romanmn. In short.{ that Cardinal Marefoschi. Cardinal Tournon. and which the Papal Legate in China. had of several previously declared to be null and void. qui le roi les rendent heaucouf 'plus riches dans Indes que de Portugal. In the same place. 1845).000 scudi had not been entered at all. was obliged to admit that the wealth of the Jesuit in Order in France amounted to fifty-eight millions the middle of the eighteenth century. (1). owing to their activity in China and India.''^ St."}" the Lazarists also publish the text mentioned usurious agreements {contrats usuraires) which the Jesuits had concluded. t Ihid.

The one apparently spiritual and religious. In this connection I give a few further characteristic passages from the history of the Order. 162. Director of Exercises. the interest than four thousand. two paths to reach this goal. have already indicated repeatedly the profitableness first way. enormous. A certain piquancy is added by the is it way in which the Order acquires its millions. * and thereby got him to sell the Manor of Lozell and other lands to the value of 3. Before his departure (the elder). p. and got .90 Fourteen Years a Jesuit and that the property of the missions was many millions must be added to the The number of French Jesuits who enjoyed on these millions was then scarcely more is total yearly."* to the Society eleven to twelve thousand florins. among other almsdeeds. . which bears the official designation " gratuitous service " in spiritual affairs. supplemented by information William Watson. from Taunton. . so that fifty-eight.500 pounds. about 1599-1600 : " Father John Jerard (Jesuit) caused Henry Drurie to enter into this exercise in Suflolke. The Life of Fr. and we encounter on It follows the Jesuit as Preacher. he gave My host (Henry Drury) bestowed nearly one-half of his goods upon the Society. . John Gerard (London. who both came to the resolution of entering the Society. The other path is the usual way of all business people. Confessor and I Spiritual Director. I can also confirm from personal experience how well trodden and of the profitable is this road. 1882). Gerard. The particulars are given by the Catholic priest. The fact of the great wealth of the Jesuits therefore firmly established. says of himself " I also gave a retreat to two fine young men who were brothers. The English Jesuit. .

even the Portuguese. They surpass the English and other nations.000 French livres.* reports the same of other wealthy Abundant details regarding the commercial and busi- ness road are available. and the * Decacordon of Ten Quodlihetical Questions. and I will select a few of at Pondicherry.000 under pretence of the said exercise. du Quhie. These are the fine and good wares which they bring out from Europe to sell in this country. He also received from Edward Huddlestones dealt so in like 1. were distributed among all the ships of the squadron [which Louis XIV. the manager of the French Trading Company "It is an established fact that. given by merchant holding a trustworthy position. had sent to the East Indies under Admiral du Queue] and were not filled with rosaries or Agnus Dei or other weapons which would be characteristic of an apostolic consignment. 543 et seq. 15 dea Ordens der Jesuiten. such an extent that Father Tachard alone owes the Trading more than 160. more You have been able to observe that the 58 bales which belong to these fathers. Pragmatische Oeschichte . manner with Maister lames Linacre. and the smallest of which was as large again as one of those belonging to the French Trading Company."t [at Pondicherry] Company than 450. and they import as much as they can get on the ships at every outward saiUng. i. ' ' a The agreement between this information. . from whom he drew 400 pounds. They have carried on this [the trade] to . : p. . had the exercise giuen at that time by Fr. 89 et seq.. next to the Dutch. He Edward Walpole. t Voyages de Mr.Theory and Practice of the Vows all 91 the money himselfe. . II. says in his Report them M. and he hath drawne Maister William left Wiseman into the said exercise so oft. Jerard Maister Anthony them Rowse and . 1602. as he hath him now very bare also to Hue. the Jesuits carry on the greatest and most successful trade in the East Indies. in this respect.. .. Martin.000 piastres.000 pounds each. III." Watson people.e. Two : others vz. in Harenberg. of whom he got 1.

1762. his zeal in preaching. Lavalette's In 1762 liabilities amounted to 2. his success in the education of the young. was also obliged to acknowledge that Lavalette had been drawn into illicit commercial transactions.000 livres to be paid as partial compensation to the mercantile house by the French Provincial of the Order. The Jesuit Soullier. caused Marseilles. they condemned the Order to pay one and a half million livres. But such artifices had no effect on the Parliaments of Aix and Paris.000 livres in 1761. and which was almost always efficacious in face of the credulous multitude. the Jesuit de Sacy. The commercial transactions mercantile of the Jesuit Lavalette bankruptcy of house of Lioncy and Gouffre at the large The General of the Order. hearing of confessions.92 Fourteen Years a Jesuit statements of above-quoted the missionaries the of the Lazarist priests and Missions Etran^eres is note- worthy. and in August. million. The Jesuit de la Marche. It caused a certificate of good conduct to be drawn up with reference to his spiritual zeal. Les Jesuites a Marseille (Marseilles..J. We also encounter Jesuit trading on a large scale in the Island of Martinique. the Order had recourse to a method which it had frequently made use of. who was sent as Visitator by the Order to Martinique. S.* * Soullier. by the Bishop of in the Island of Martinique resulted in the Marseilles affair and numerous inhabitants of the town (for the had caused the greatest stir in Marseilles).400. was obliged to admit these facts. p. But the half-million could not avert the ruin of Lioncy and Gouffre. . 1899). the Jesuit Order took up eighty-six of the bills put into circulation by Lavalette amounting to more than one By way of counterbalancing the Lavalette case. who tries to cloak Lavalette's offence and that of the Order by every possible means. etc. 500. 179 et seq. Centurione.

. on delivrer. offrit de delivrer sur ses correspondants de France. dans une proportion enorme. et celui . Un Armateur Marseillais (Paris. charges de la vente de ses recoltes. Martinique sur France. charge qui grevait les retours de la Des que les recoltes de la Mission le importantes vit oblige pour trouver acquereur sur place. ce qui permettait de perdre un peu pour realiser tout de suite ce prix. tres considerable avayit que les traites elles du P. 1890). . on les vendait pour le compte de cette Mission. p. . le . Enfin. . Lavalette rCen remit jamais II resta que pour une partie de la valeur de ses envois. Martinique. ii'est revenu annuel. les conditions offertes. au P.'''* * Georges Roux. que ce rdigieux arriva d diminuer. France pas plus de six cent soixante-six. combinant Pavantage de la Mission des colons. Lavalette faisait payer mille livres en France et cependant les mille livres regues a la Martinique n'en valaient en . . P. en premier lieu. que pour de faibles somm£s. .000 livres. qui n'en prirent. a 280. Lavalette.Theory and Practice of the Vows 93 Adrien Artaut gives an excellent description of Lavalette's cunnins methods: " En un quelques annees il [Lavalette] dota la le maison [des Jesuites] de la Martinique d'un fonds dont a estime avec 'peu d'exageration. Les produits coloniaux France a de bons prix. devinrent trop . Lavalette de a peu pres sans perte. des traites au pair de Martinique sur France. en- U semble de ces combinaisons permettait. le voit. . des traites traites a valoir sur le net produit de ces recoltes au pair. Lavalette eussent acquis la vogus dont jouirent par la suite. donnees a des echeances se vendaient en tres eloignees. V intelligent administrateur combina une operation toute contraire qu'il epargnait aux colons: il se fit renvoyer le solde de la valeur de ses envois en especes qui gagnaient aux lies cinquante pour cent. avantageuses mernes auxqudles ces traites etaient inspirerent d'abord de la mefiance aux colons. Le P. En d'autres termes : pour mille le et de delivrer ces livres replies d la . Les traites etaient . mats ressort des discussions qu^dles ont soulevees. oil P. et a qui le P. . La nature de ses il operations pas encore completement connue. peutetre . une partie de le cette valeur a remettre dvrectement de France pour retour de cette partie. done toujours et. 132 et seq. Lavalette se de les envoyer en France . .

94 Fourteen Years a Jesuit Evidently the Jesuit Lavalette would have played a prominent part in any corn exchange.R. was connected with the fondation. Geneva. gifts. for the Superiors to know nothing for years of their subordinate's important and extensive affairs which involved France's largest banking houses ? No.^ A long lawsuit with the relatives. revenues. Paris. than those relating to spiritual and Characteristic " kindnesses " towards other Orders also From 1720 tion. The entries connected with material profit or fuller loss are much religious matters. etc. des furets de succession. X. who were prejudiced to the Jesuits' advantage. the Superiors remained silent so long as all went well and advantageously for the Order. ses heaupere et belle-mere firent en la ditte annee au profit de la Residence. In this. Mossmann in 1872. the perfect system of control.* published by Julien See and M.P. are especially because they afford us interesting glimpses into the business activity and business ability of the Order. contain uncoloured information. : come to light.P. And in this case silence certainly means consent. The " Records of the House " {historia domus) of the Jesuit College at Colmar from 1698-1750. The glimpses are the more interesting because the Records. untrue that the Superiors of the of Lavalette's affairs. Almost every page gives accounts of purchases. Order knew nothing and had not sanctioned them. legacies. Colmar. option business or banking-house. as the defenders of the Order.. des fabricat Mimoires des B. with Duhr at their How could it have been possible. financial law-suits. Jesuites du College de Colmar. . of course. instructive. sales. assert. not being intended for publication. under head. etc. an assertion " que les Jesuites was made by the plaintiffs' lawyer que le ^ : etoient des heredipets. It is. I will give a few instances : " Cette Residence accepta une petite fonda- Sr Benoist Singler de Turgheim et le Sr Medinger et sa femme.

also endeavoured to get the houses. 74. || p. % p. {' p. but on a trouve que nous posse- dons la quantite de vignes. prez.^ The following entry \\ shows how versed the Jesuits were in money-making: La Demoiselle Dupuy. de cette terres labourables. two advantageous purchases of houses were concluded sous un nom emprunte. 72.^^ le dit The lawsuit concluded with an accommodement^ que College {de Colmar) accepta pour il le hien de la paix. nous avons loue le petit jar din et le pre dont elle 'jouissoit. jar dins. il reste encore quatre mille livres et plus a payer au College de Strasbourg. 48. ^ p. contenus dans Facte de la ditte donation. and son bail est pour 9 ans et sera avantageux au College.% annee on a loue les Au mois d'Aoust deux gros tonneaux qui etoient vuides. the sale was effected en secret et au plus tot. etant morte en 1727 apres nous avoir donne 400 livres par son testament * : le Pere Beaujour pris des mesures en arrivant f P. 69 et seq. In July ce qui produit au College une rente de 21 livres. 47.60. and as Monsieur le Stdtmestre Charlepaur. which had never brought in anything previously. Memoires. pp. de maniere que de sept mille francs deubs par le defunt. dont etait plainte et qu'il etoit teinps d'avertir le public d^etre en garde contre ces sortes de gens. en sorte que le loyer de la cave est presentement de 228 livres.^ : From 1729 (If gain Jesuits made short work or loss were in question. au moyen de quoy il en a aquite plus de mille ecus de dettes. the of it. ^""^ un was assez simple to rent marchand lutherien de Strasbourg for sixty livres yearly an unused cellar belonging to the Jesuits. surnommee la Flamande. tant en capitate qu'en interest.) Apres avoir averti la menagere de TurcTiheim que 7ious voulions finir avec elle. un lutherien. .Theory and Practice of the Vows teurs des 95 deux actes. et depuis a vendu du vin provenant de la dite succession. 70.'^ The above-mentioned lawsuit regarding the fondation Sr From 1727 : It is reported with satisfaction that Benoist Singler reappears.

qui a engage les gourmets a nous rendre service en nous faisant vendre notre vin aux Suisses. ^ Memoir cs. although it is reported of the three fields deux etoient en friche et le troisieme cultive a grands frais et peu de profit. in These very favourable terms for letting.\\ Le 6. 81. The tenant was therefore regularly cheated. mats le Sieur du Puy rC eiard fas en etat d^y satisjaire en donnant de I' argent. so that the vineyards of the Jesuit College might be prepared. du mois de May nous avons fait J p. on a tire de luy des toiles et autres question. the Jesuits applied to the town for a consignment of wood. 79. it is reported fields at Vintzenheim had been let on lease.78. { The following is an instance of " Christian ness " The Dominicans had placed carts at the : friendli- Jesuits' disposal free of charge. In return for this friendliness. They received it in the form of 10 cordes de bois. 95. Muller. . 96 et seq. : les Capucins aient 30 cordes nous seulement douze. soit que les terres se reposent ou qu'dles soient ensemencees en orge et avoine. mais enfin nous avons reussi cette annee et nous en sommes redevables a Mr. § A Christian spirit also pervades the following As the winter : was severe. 126. the Jesuits prevented the Dominicans from taking foreign pupils.'j II du vin en gros par From 1730 that three : Under date doit of May 29th. pp. Stdtmestre.^''*' mxirchandises pour la valeur de la somme en is The following remark of Jesus : characteristic of the followers y a longtemps que nous souhaitons de vendre le moyen des gourmets de cette vUle. || p.96 Fourteen Years a Jesuit d Colmar pour etre faye de la ditte somme. were confirmed. 74. But the Capuchins also seem to have received wood : il est surprenant que et de bois chaque annee From * 1731 p. f PP. and the tenant nous donner chaque annee trots sacs de beau froment bien vanne et bien nettoye. which held good all circumstances. ce qui nous a epargne au moins 40 livres.

ainsi. 136. 117. 3. || p. Au mois d'Aoust de annee nous avons appris que Mademoiselle Chauffour avoit fait son testament. Mademoiselle Chauffour. . nous avoit legue 600 livres. pp.135. si ce testament subsiste. . the Jesuits obtained gratis from diiferent communities 460 arbres de sapin non ordinmais extraordinairement longs et gros.'^ From notre fines. 114.** Through the adroitness of their Rector.^ of the Jesuits to a not insignificant Testamentary dispositions in favour amount. quHl y a huif noyers dans les dittes deux schatz. pour orner Saint. the Jesuits sold a part of their vineyards for 1. Pendant le mois de Decembre le P.ff Madame la Dauphine presented aires * Memoires. 108. H . § 840. 2. 1736 : Feu Madame le Marguerine] a legue a Eglise.200 livres. que ces deux schatz sont voisines des 4 autres que nous faisons planter en vigne . . p. ** p. The whole was valued at 1. que ne faisant pas cette acquisition. ce qui auroit coute considerablecette ment* . which brought material advantages with it. lesquels noyers auroient donne beaucoup d^ombrage a la nouvelle vigne . t PP.Theory and Practice of the Vows acquisition 97 terre de deux schatz [a square measure] de labourable au canton dit Logelweg. nant la somme de cent geld)..\\ Purchase of vineyards for Jesuits. § p. . il auroit fallu fair une separation entre Vautre proprietaire et nous. ban d' Ingersheim. livres et trois livres de tringelt moyen{T rink- sont : Les raisons qui nous ont forte a faire cet achapt 1. 115. to take foreign pupils. H pp. ft P.Sacrement. 99. Beaujour a veu la copie du testament de et qu'elle . at the instigation of the Jesuits. 143.600 livres.107. This right. oil elle augmente son leg pieux de 600 livres. was reserved to the Dans un temps auquel les vignes etoient fort recherchees a cause du prix excessif du vin. 132.272 livres pour placer r argent plus utilement ailleurs. J p. 640 124 livres. 114. 29 \perles The Capuchins were also forbidden. 120. nous toucherons apres sa mort la somme de 1. 129 et seq.

000 thalers to the college at tlie request of her confessor.J : : 98 Fourteen Years a Jesuit 1. . Island of Braaaa. and still they have some properties more important ones on the . % * Memoires. who. seize who tried to upon ever5rbhing is " Besides the handsome allowance which settled on them from the public treasury for the maintenance of two missionaries. p.* which did not bring in much. but were taken possession of by the Jesuits who had no legal right to them.000 sequins.142. In addition to this they possess several They have let other houses in the Spalatro district. as well as the Benedictines and Cistercians. they have sei23ed 2. under the how the these sheltered themselves to favour of Emperor. The late Archbishop Biaaa has also provided for them by another legacy of 8. the churches and Church property." of than the Chapter of Spalatro. 188. The Premonstrants.t etc. contrary to the text of the Edict of Restitution. Le Bret Magazin. Consequently things have gone so far that three or four strangers [the Jesuits] are spiritual communities. Favourable letting of vineyards. the Chapter of Spalatro presented a memorial to the Venetian Senate in which it complained bitterly of the " intrigues and violence " of the Jesuits. Jesuits were not returned to the former possessors. 141. the Jesuit Croust. stamp out heresy the all more would have preferred to transform t P.000 ducats which fell to them as a legacy. these very Orders.. 1. etc. much better ofi than many which consists 160 sequins. In 1762. which were refused to the Protestants. p. of from the deeds of violence had had to suffer They saw the Jesuits. sixty persons and has a revenue of not more than and especially The greed and covetousness out in a strong light A of the Jesuits are brought through events in a German town bitter and continuous feud had begun between the and several Orders [shortly after the capture of Magdeburg in the Thirty Years' War] because. in order efiectively. houses.

renewed this prohibition in the Constitution Sollicitudo calling special atten- pastoralis of June 17th. which at : the time agitated the whole world. vol. on account of the Papa] privileges. the Society mentioned and not less of Jesus than nine times. " also those of the Society of Jesus. consequently also from the Society of Jesus. it : After the first few hours of the proceedings. forbids all members of Orders. even if these had to do with all the spiritua Orders. * K. the trial. (1872). of Benedict de Buck. however. Wittig. 319 J mention of the Jesuit Order when he ^vrites (p." stress He lays on the many from the above-mentioned Orders. had. For otherwise. Historische Zeitschrift 1891." Duhr does not see that. 645) that. Magdeburg als katholisches was no longer Marienburg et seq. VII. t Acta Sanciae Sedis. again fact that tion to the " Religious of the Society of Jesus. 1864." to carry on commerce. the remaining is Orders are only mentioned in a general way (Mendicants specially and non-Mendicants). " the Society of Jesus was not understood in certain prohibitions. and Clement IX.Theory and Practice of the Vows seminaries. 1669. according to Papal privileges. 66. special Duhr tries to soften down the . in spite of the ecclesiastical laws. Clement IX. unless specially mentioned. it would not have been mentioned. carried and had evaded the instructions of subterfuges and pretexts. Urban VIII. was held at the Brussels Assizes.. if this is really as he says. the special mention of the " Society of Jesus " by Urban VIII. J Two Jesuits lawsuits of recent times reveal the avarice of the their rapacity in exactly the and the roundabout ways in which they satisfy same hideous forms From May 13th to May 16th. in the Constitution Ex debito of February 22nd.* Jesuit acquisitiveness frequently 99 the old monasteries into Jesuit colleges. 1622. p.f It is of on commerce Urban VIII. is a convincing proof that the Jesuit Order had had an active share in commercial and financial operations. accused of having threatened to kill the Belgian Jesuit Lhoire. academies and assumed such forms that even Popes intervened. 60. by means whilst noteworthy here that.

1890. during my stay at Wynandsrade. Hermann Nix. Der Jesuitenprozess in Briiasd. He rewitness of his hard death-struggle and death. the money " The cry sounded to me money : ! ! so strange made known my uneasiness the Jesuit Hermann Nix. was acquitted. They were convicted of having induced the millionaire. likewise ended disadvantageously for the Jesuits. He had been my " guardian : I therefore angel " during my postulancy at Exaeten. " Mother. . Cologne and Dusseldorf. who died in Antwerp in 1850. de Buck (who had uttered the threat in a rage at his unjust disinheritance brought about by the Jesuits). the * Cf. the Jesuit. unjustly passing over de Boey's poor relations (the de Bucks) and appointing a sham heir. 1864. in which the widowed mother of the late Karl Ebenhoch. Hessels. Bossaert and Franqueville. at Straubing. died there from inflammation of the lungs. Jesuits Lhoire. Brother Karl Ebenhoch. in Bavaria. the lawyer Valentyns. Babette Ebenhoch. the out during his last hours peatedly cried Mother. William de Boey. who was attached to the testator. but the the accused. A lawsuit Personal recollections are connected with this In 1881. Johann Hartmann. I was a obtained permission to help in nursing him. the Catholic priest of Kronimgen. de Buck. to make a will which handed over his estate of millions to the Belgian Jesuits. my fellowscholastic.* left the Assize Court branded as legacy- which took place in July. mind and explained everything away by ascribing the and weird that I cry to " inexplicable hallucinations of delirium. and the accusing Jesuits hunters. unknown to the Jesuits and almost The accused." I only learnt after my departure from the Order that a lawsuit had taken place in 1890 before the jury at Straubing.100 Fourteen Years a Jesuit who stood in the dock. and a sum pamphlet. He eased my to the Rector.

The participation of the Jesuit Nix also follows from the letters of the priest Hartmann. Letters from this Jesuit. President's question as to after her son's death.000 had been given back to her by the Jesuits. and the remittances of the Jesuits to Frau Ebenhoch are mentioned as "the sending of pictures. was acquitted. were found in Frau Ebenhoch's possession. or " Mr. who died in my presence. and Frau Ebenhoch." i.000 marks out of the 66. in England. Finally. the accused declared that 36. where Nix was then the " spiritual father.e. The proceedings disclosed that Frau Ebenhoch had obtained the advice of the Jesuits. as to her action in the case. but " Mr. Dittonhall " (his place of residence in England). The accused woman did not at first reply to the what had become of the money And thus the President ascertained money had not come to the two aunts. The Hartmann was condemned to three years' imprisonment and ten years' loss of civil rights for inciting to perjury. whom Hartmann had incited to commit perjm^y. the Jesuit Ebenhoch. that the the spiritual director of the theological scholastics. It appeared from the documents of the action that Frau Ebenhoch's son. had inherited It was a sum of 66. but had been handed over to the Jesuits in Holland. dated from Ditton Hall. stated in the will that if the heir died without issue. the inheritance should pass to two aunts." presence A legal document drawn up in the Jesuit Nix's was read aloud in which young Ebenhoch . The two aunts sued for the delivering up of the inheritance for which the accused was responsible. but without any signature. Hermann Nix. Widnes " (the Ditton Hall post town). his mother's sistersin-law.Theory and Practice of the Vows of 66.000 marks from his grandmother. Nix is not called by his proper name in these letters. who had induced the accused woman to make false affidavits as to her fortune.000 loi priest marks had played the leading parts. and especially that of the Jesuit.

3."f Cordara therefore acknowledges the wealth of his : * The documentary account of the lawBuit. with its previous history. Hartmann began a reply. admitted finally with tears that he had only lied " because he had believed it to be his sacred duty not to expose the Jesuits. Barmen. but then stopped No doubt this was a reply. Beitrdge. " Mother. especially the Jesuit Nix. Dollinger has brought this important document to light from the dust of the archives at Munich " Many reproach the Society with avarice and an extravagant lust for wealth. the money! sounded in my ears.* When the dying Ebenhoch's cry. that the dying man had spoken in " inexplicable hallucinations of delirium. which was to be unfolded a few years later in the Assize Court of Lower Bavaria. I had no idea of the story behind it. I believed the statement of the Jesuit Nix. the chief culprit in the lawsuit. is to be found in the \vriting Der Jesiuien-Semsationsprozess des Pfarrer Hartmann von Kronungen verhandelt vor dem Schwurgerichte in Straubing." And its historiographer. The priest Hartmann. It caused a stir that the Society should be provided with such large revenues." All that has been said with reference to the wealth and the money-making of the Order and the love of luxury which sprang from it is confirmed by the strictly private Memoirs written by the Jesuit Cordara and so frequently quoted.: " 102 Fourteen Years a Jesuit his wealth to the Jesuits. . who lied at the opening of the case. 1891. were consequently at the and bottom of the matter. 66." bequeathed To the President's question as to whether the Jesuits. and that in a short time its wealth should have reached and even surpassed that of the old Orders. for Cordara was this for thirty-five years. can give no other answer to the accusation than " That which is attributable to the piety of the faithful was imputed to the avarice and cunning of the Jesuits. short. : f Denktvurdigkeiten : Dollinger.

. devoted the time to the care of their bodies or to reading. Cordara's account of a conversation he had with the King of Sardinia is still more plain and incriminating The King told him that two things had been specially harmful to his Order its boundless wealth [divitias immodicas) and its predominance over the other Orders." as he sarcastically calls " life . . after preaching once a week to a pious congregation rest of their noblemen or merchants. . * I myself have known apostles. life lays stress on the poverty and the simplicity of of the individual Jesuits in opposition of the whole Society. who as Inquisitors. as we have seen. but were et seq. Many of of them. . Beitrage. concerned." and abstains from saying that the " piety was. the whole Society might be called rich and opulent {divitem opulentam). largely stimulated by the " insinuations " and the " gratuitous " aid of the Jesuits. of the " apostles. or else spent it in intercourse with friends or unprofitable conversation. For he cannot unwrite the words which he sets down in a spirit of complaint and blame a few pages further on regarding the effeminacy to the admitted wealth and luxury But the results are poor. * Denkwilrdigkeiten Dollinger. traces — I replied : " This may is so far as the wealth And be so {id ita esse fortasse). I have frequently adcolleges suffered mitted that. . 35 the King's reproach with regard to the Jesuit predominance over other Orders.' who not only shunned : all labour and trouble. f To had at their disposal against their antagonists " the dungeon and executioner " {carceres lictoresque). it is true. them rf ' Many of our ' apostles wished for a quiet and inactive .Theory and Practice of the Vows Order.^^* Cordara. p. although et many from want. and luxuriousness of individual Jesuits. but lie 103 back its origin to the " piety of the faithful. . they beheved that they had worked very hard when they had spent the whole morning in of the colleges under the shade hearing the confessions of a few pious women (midierculae). Cordara replies by referring to the tyranny of the Dominicans.

they had from youth upwards received a hard. t Memoires. covered by a The Jesuits were informed of the circumstance but these cunning ' politicians were very careful not to claim this valuable it chocolate. if they were deprived at any time of food or sleep. 434. ."* I will conclude this chapter with an amusing and doubtless true story from the satirical pen of Saint. Their effeminacy was ill-used if . who thought themselves very more effeminate than women they had to forgo their morning chocolate or their afterdinner nap. And yet these were men whom birth and education had not accustomed to luxury on the contrary. Beiircige. the weight of which aroused A ball was broken open. eight large Chocolate for the Most Venerable cases came to hand labelled Father General of the Society of Jesus. 64 e( seq.' They preferred losing to confessing. acquired in the Society of Jesus.' The cases were so exceeda fleet ' " When ingly heavy as to cause curiosity as to their contents. inside. even a harsh training.. and gold was found concealed layer of chocolate of the thickness of a finger. 433.Simon : from India was unloading at Cadiz. balls of chocolate. II.104 Fourteen Years a Jesuit . . p. They proved to be large suspicion."t : * Denkwiirdigkeiten Bollinger.

and work are characterised by Though the Constitutions constantly refer to the Jesuit Order as " our poor little Society " {minima societas). the maximu .CHAPTER XVII THE CKITICISM CONTINUED: THEORY AND PRACTICE OP THE CONSTITUTIONS Vows each. I thank thee that I am not as other men are .. or even as this publican.. tention to It is. Their current societas. in the case of the Jesuit Order." These hard and haughty words of the Pharisee express the real but unwritten motto of the Jesuit Order. And indeed a Society of Jesus should be founded on humility. the glory of the Order nothing. are more or less common to all Orders . the glory of God is everything. in word and deed it assumes whose glory fills the world. 105 the rank of the greatest. too. it is the of in- constitutions which show the special characteristics So. God. Its life a spirit of unlimited arrogance. is My show the great discrepancy between the theoretical excellence of the Jesuit Constitutions and the actual hfe and work of the Order. of course. and in comparison with which all else is *' small and mean. impossible to refer to all the facts in question a few important items must suffice. But it is only on paper that humility is the basis of the Society of Jesus. THE ARROGANCE OF THE ORDER The Constitutions overflow with humility . .

and graven in gold and stone on all their works. Fourteen Years a Jesuit " Everything to the greater glory of God {Omnia ad major em Dei gloriam). up to the suppression of the Order in 1773. The festivals of the saints were celebrated with pomp and splendour. . were splendid.. Hard words these. . in which he raises this among other questions " Why did God permit the suppression of the Jesuit Order ? " Here is his answer : : "It is doubtless true that we had also grown accustomed to fashion. who only see the exterior. After the suppression of the Order.. proclaimed aloud wherever they set foot. and before I attempt to justify them by the acts and declarations of the Order itself. But was it solely for the sake of religion. than presume that it [the Society of Jesus] appeared holier it was. that of historiographer to the Order. condoning numerous crimes according to etimn inter nos admitti consuevisse duhio habendum. which excited the wrath of God against us. and their adornment expensive.. . or rather to show off our power ? This is hidden from men. which gave him official knowledge of everything. who proves hearts and reins. of whom I have spoken before. if its nature more closely. I will make way for a man whose judgment on the Jesuit Order is of the first importance and whose heart was full of love and enthusiasm for it. at least to probable conclusions. .." io6 motto. although the Divine judg- ment be dark and far from human comprehension: The investigation not to positive. Cordara published Memoirs. For thirty-five years. in any case not of such hohness as is required by the Our churches Constitutions and the sacredness of our duties. appears in the light of history to be a mere false pretence under the cloak of religion. even the secret reports. I have often wondered why it was that with us any transgression against chastity was I . he held one of the most important positions. but not from God.) It human {Midta humano more crimina pro non assumed that a special stain may also be attached to the Society. Let us examine will lead us. I refer to the Jesuit Cordara. .

if they had become known. they might have obscured the power and glory of the Society. God resists the proud. the majority do not abandon in later life. . no examples of virtue quoted but such as are represented by Jesuits. It creeps into good actions. And I confess that I myself was thus deluded for a long time. the favours of the populace inspired us with pride. The magnificence of the buildings. Nothing is more hateful to God than pride. Our novicemasters filled us with this spirit when they impressed on our tender minds so great an estimate of the Society. They tell anecdotes of . * C!ordara's words are a valuable testimony to the fact that the Ordinance of General Acquariva. so that these poor youths are easily convinced that the Society of Jesus excels all other Orders in learning and holiness. not to punish breaches of chastity rise to if they have not given public scandal. But if we do not wish to deceive ourselves. eyes. . slanders. so as to be hardly distinguishable from virtue. pride . and it revilings. whereas our Superiors were so mild and indulgent towards other transgressions of a more grievous nature. as no authors are praised except Jesuits. those who preferred the habit of the Society to tiara and purple. Nothing rouses His anger more or provokes Him to vengeance. And some weakminded persons even believe that everjrthing praiseworthy done in the world was done under the auspices of our Society.The Constitutions 107 so severely punished. we must confess that our community has sufiered much from this disease. . adopted in youth. With this same spirit the youths are inspired during their studies. and I know some old men who still continue to live in this delusion.* The sin of pride is secret. a benefit of God. we met with occasions for pride. Wherever we turned our Then there was the . . and gives His grace to the humble. They represented admission to the Society as an incomparable gift. And I believe that was not because the former were worse and more displeasing to God. This opinion. but because. no books prescribed but such as are written by Jesuits. is generally observed. the splendour of the churches. . the pomp of the festivals. It is in vain that they afterwards combat pride after having sown such seeds of it. And all the external circumstances favoured this and arrogance. such as backbitings. . is not deceived. But God. Who seeth in secret. . than which there could be no greater.

coimtry house and Romanum. but not of priests. The entire Society of Jesus. this I account better than members and priests of other may quote here an occurrence. . believed that they The majority of Jesuits had nothing in common with other Orders. . between the Orders. which latter was not seemly. merits of the Dominicans] most of our people either ignored or deprecated. great multitude of our flatterers. even those who were not of the nobility seemed to acquire that rank. was permeated by irrational pride. though almost incredible. He told me that at some festivals he was invited to the banquets of the Franciscans..io8 Fourteen Years a Jesuit who spoke to us almost solely about the superior merits of the Society and the defects of other There were certain differences. Even our lay brothers regarded themselves as noble. and . the nobility. too. and on Orders. To which he replied in irritation {stomachans) : As if lay brothers of our Society were not equal ' to the priests of other Orders. at least in Italy. . and but rarely a Jesuit gave precedence to a member of Jesuits believed that they of other Orders . Society of Jesus and the other Orders.' So much superior our people deemed themselves to those of other Orders. . which happened to health at the country house of the of our lay brothers me when Roman I was staying for my One College at Albano. . and boasted that on such occasions the seat of honour usually occupied by the superintendent of the monastery was given to him.. true. . . and tried to make him understand that he should take precedence of lay brothers. and considered themselves equal or superior to the considered them as greatly inferior to themselves difEerences [between other Orders . I reproved him gently. . . Of these and the Order of the Jesuits] the Jesuits boasted. was there as manager of the the CoUegvum Although himself the son of a peasant. and were regarded outside the Order as aristocrats. he was much Jarolfo named other property belonging to honoured by the villagers as the superintendent of great possessions and treated almost as a prince (dynasta). so that the main body of had nothing in common with members and considered them as greatly inferior. . As all [Jesuits] treated one another as brothers. . Another source of pride within the Society was the noble rank af many Jesuits. and held them as marks of distinction and All this [the deemed themselves above all other monks.

but many who I Another more subtle kind of pride despised and ridiculed seem to have recognised the multitude. . Denkunlrdigkeiten. believed that hardly one other first-class author existed besides those mentioned. more. was revealed to Saint Mary Magdalene of Pazzi God in heaven delighted so greatly in two saints.The Dominicans . I full of emotion and religious need add nothing of my own. . It will suffice to quote a few more facts from the Order's endless record To words. Sirmond. but that nothing of the kind happened among the Jesuits. and I do not by this was highly valued by the immaculate chastity of the members so much extolled by know if God has not been provoked very pride to desire the destruction of the Society. so of arrogance. Chastity Jesuits . I have often heard them say that much that was disgraceful was spread abroad about other Orders. they basked in it its splendour. and boasted the more others. authors]. Dollinger. and to despise these latter as the scum is of humanity. their They were continually bragging Petavius [famous Jesuit insolently of the merits of these Bellarmin. Suarez. and whatever could break the power of this most powerful Dominican Order. of On all other Orders they looked with something approaching contempt. who preferred foreign [non-Jesuit] preachers or scholars to their own. I have known few among my them. S.. in that fellows. having little or no knowledge of the history of literature. Constitutions 109 their opposition they declared to be creditable to themselves. By means of such talk they were not only tempted to secret vainglory. because they themselves."* these worth feeling. Beitrdge. but they took occasion in consequence to lord it over other Orders.. they attri- buted to their own glory. 64-74. they boasted of being distinguished by from other monks.. that it was as if there were no other saints in heaven It that • Cordara. many bad examples were set by them. 3. They those did not consider that the boast of chastity as nothing in Grod's in the Gospel oil eyes if love be not added unto virgins were called foolish and that who had not the it. and They did not consider that before God humility is more excellent. and obscure its reputation. of love in their is lamps. than chastity.J.

no one could distinguish more accurately and safely between true and false doctrine. and perhaps also a warning " from heaven " to his successors not to expose themselves to a similar fate. My and daughter. Tomek. 1849). I. in the Jesuit church at Naples. it in My heart." | The Jesuits Hover and Miller write " The reputation of the comparatively new Society of Jesus Its founder. that as long as I desire that. thereof should suffer . and I constantly and cannot allow that a member from any greater fault.. 54. I require this one thing of its members. 1870). t Ihid. Fourteen Years a Jesuit them . and had said to her " I desire that everyone should love the Society [of Jesus] specially. and Society of Jesus II. . * See Dollinger-Reusch. Moralstreitigkeiten. Hiibner. is — — Comp. John the Evangelist and of the Ignatius Loyola. because it is My Society. should continue to the end of the world. a penitent of his confessional.. II. bear also.. it named with My name. 350.. Provincial Neapolitan Province. Geachiehte der Prager Universttdi (Prague. 1598. and was wholly consecrated to virtue and religion. reports that Christ had appeared to the sainted Johanna ab Alexandro. who. p. . Know . which disregarded all earthly gain or profit. finally no one could better train the young in piety and good conduct. 529. II. The " revelation " on the retaining of the a favour " from Heaven " to Sixtus V. on the seventh of June. began just at that time to spread more and more. 253. Sixte-Quint + (Paris. that they walk in My footsteps.* The Jesuit Ludovicus Mansonius. having resolved to alter the name. name 346. died suddenly in 1590.. being My Society con- tinues. the Order declared " No one could watch more carefully or conscientiously over the maintenance of the Catholic Faith in the kingdom. 55.. than the Society of Jesus.: : : no beside St. these were St."f In the discussion on the surrender of the Carolinian Academy at Prague to the Jesuits. a particularly prominent virgin member of the Order.

Queen of Angels. besides the blessed Father Johannes Rem. following revelation He saw heaven open. Jesuit lay-brother. strange to say. Germany Canisius. and to the Son. but never oould utter the De Profundis. Bellarmin and people of culture. third. but she could not say it either. the Apostle of India by Paul V. Thomas : di Simoni. Parsons. Two princes of heaven carried her on a splendid throne. heretics ' Peter Canisius was considered the . . and the rest of the foreign missions of the splendid successes of Jesuit missionaries. . let us pray for his soul. shining throne of clouds he beheld Mary. to say the De Profundis far the dead. the : ' . descending to him. she said to her two daughters must have died just now come. but said against her Glory be to the Father. From England came reports of and martyrs. and of many other notable preachers and great men. and found an enormous crowd of people in it. News penetrated to Europe from Japan.' They knelt down at the altar of their private chapel. ' : desired. . the Te Deum rose to my lips instead. I tried for a second. and Suarea were quoted by all angels in the flesh ' . .The Saint Ignatius Loyola. and fourth time.' In the afternoon we went to the Church of the College. but. at four o'clock in the morning. India.' We marvelled. canonised by Leo XIIL] had died in the odour of sanctity. Then my daughter Victoria will ' : tried. Garnet. the and Japan. The schools and universities of the others. Aloysius and Stanislaus were venerated as ' examples to the young. China. beads in hand. the humble holy Jesuit Francis Borgia distinguished themselves in the Laynez. When College : Donna in the ' Arsilia Altissimi heard the funeral bell of the Roman of the 13th of August. and (to quote her statements on oath) With Victoria and Anna I morning A Jesuit . a blessed Father Edmund Campian. was favoured with the From a lofty. There we heard that a young Belgian Father [the Jesuit Berchmanns. . and to the Holy Ghost. filled the ' Catholic world. Duke of Gandia. Constitutions beatified . " On August 14th. and said to one another A great saint must have died in the College. iii had recently'been fame of Francis Xavier. 1621. hammer of in Germany Spain was proud of her . and Salmeron had Council of Trent as extremely learned theologians . . of a venerable Jesuits vied with the best establishments of Europe. and so of the glory of their preachers many boasted.

(Jerhard van Swieten als Zensor SifzungsbericMe der philosophisch-historischen Klasse der Kaiserlichen Akademie derWissenschaften^ V. Contributed by Fournier. 190 f. on the Marian Congregations. almost 1." 112 One of Fourteen Years a Jesuit them was robed in a white surplice. but he thought it must have been St. "{ The attempt is thoroughly dishonest. 1759. p. 50 : f. typed and illustrated with obtrusive To this * Leben des heiligen J- Johannes Berchmanns (Diilmen. day the Jesuits try to represent the " Imago " as " essays of young scholastics. are applicable here too.^^f . . 194." appeared in 1640 at Antwerp. Aloysius [also a Jesuit].000 pages. merely " a poetical and rhetorical festival oration.. according to which the Order was trying to buy up all the copies at high prices. 454. a grand prix pour Ce livre fera . A Picture of the First Century of the Society of Jesus. As he was on the other side of the Queen of Heaven. p. as the Jesuit Duhr expresses it. . On account of their unbounded arrogance. p. " Ze saecvlum frimum societatis est td que la Societe ' ' [de Jesus] rachepte tous les exemflaires aneantir la memoire. hnago primi saecuti Societatis Jesu. 560. 24. a literary also the arrogant of pride. s^U jut possible. 1901). The mere outward form of the folio volume published by the then famous Plantin Press (Balthasar Moretus). its contents gradually grew extremely unpleasant to the Order. How much this work was felt to be an incubus by the Order was proved by the communication made by Gerhard van Swieten to Maria Theresa on December 24th. The other was Johannes Berchmanns in the habit of the Jesuits. The work. J Jesuitenfabeln." or. the lay brother could not see his face. toujours la confusion de la Societe. quoted in Chapter V."* The bombastically boastful words of the Jesuit Loffler. " revelations as to the predestination of all Jesuits to salvation above all monument and self-erected by " the Order.

Indeed the title-page states that the Flemish-Belgian Province of the Order Imago had " designed " the " picture " a pro: . But the ship Jesuitical evasion as to the scholastic authoritself. repraesentata. 471. officially drafted by one of its Provinces and presented to the Society on the special occasion of the centenary celebration of the Society of Jesus. . For the very work had been composed and may be refuted from the work preface states that the published by very busy * Histoire de la men {conceptmn. 1640. . In these circumstances it would be absolutely imposto speak of insignificance in connection with the Imago." published in such luxurious garb. .The " le luoce Constitutions is 113 forced to admit luxuriousness.Joly de la typographie et Vart de la gravurej'^^ contradicts the repeated assertion of Jesuits as to " mere exercises in " Mere exercises " are not style of young scholastics. Above all.' drafted by the Flemish. ." The portentous volume is. ." which adopted and published the contents of the work as its intellectual sible property. Provincial Superior of the Flemish-Belgian Province. therefore. says " After three theologians of our Society had revised : the book. even if its authors had been really " young scholastics.Belgian Province of the Order of the same Society. ' A Picture of the First Century of the Society of Jesus. the Jesuit Johannes van ToUenare." For the prestige they lacked would be amply supplied by that of the three theologians who were commissioned by the Provincial to examine the work and who passed it for press. there would be the important prestige of a whole " Province. vincia flandro-bdgica . and in the Imprimatur of January 8th. such that Cretineau. Compagnie de Jesus. compositum ah 3. the description of the life and work of the Society of Jesus.

Duhr was given The Jesuit Bremer conthe lie by one of his own Order. and perform- ance of the other offices of the Society. in his small Church Lexicon. 507. fesses. the Jesuit Bollandus. 506. If rhetorical effusions of the Jesuits young scholastics had really collaborated in the work. t Kirckliches Bandlexikon (Munich. this would render its significance the greater. assume Duhr's gross prevarication to be true. t that the author and designer of the Imago was no less a person than the chief hagiographer of the Order. Jesuit Cordara has so well described Besides. Let us. But such occupations are not for scholastics. and Jesuit students which had been " collected " in the hnago* Through the irony of history. how could a whole Province with head have backed the young students. And its if the spirit of the Imago had not been the genuine the Jesuits. that spirit in which the young scholastics of the Order have themselves been trained. pp. teaching of various branches of knowledge. an expression utterly inapplicable to scholastics. however. For the deduction would be that the contents of the Imago are the genuine embodiment of the true Jesuit spirit. whose name is on the gigantic work Acta Sanctorum. These words of the Imago were naturally known to the Yet he writes untruthfully of " poetical and rhetorical festival orations " and of the " poetical and Jesuit Duhr. and on page 24 it says that the strenuous occupation of the authors consisted of preaching. as the it. and have imprinted on their work the official stamp of its approval ? No the magnificent volume. Jesuitenfaheln." 114 Fourteen Years a Jesuit hominihus occupatissimis). however. 1907). . Imago primi saeculi Societatis spirit of ! * Duhr. the written work of students is submitted to the strictest supervision and examination by their superiors. T. 685.. that spirit which is fostered in them by the Order itself from the first hour of their novitiate.

the name of Jesus Christ. the Society of Jesus enthroned on the back of Chronos. in strongest aversion. and it is.The Jesu. But the essential characteristics of Jesus all self- are humility. On lofty columns . that cardinal sin against which the Scriptures so specially warn Christians. calls " the world. Above it are floating angels. It even professes to be a prominent type of what the Church of Rome calls " the state of an Order. absence of self-aggrandisement. Not the spirit of Christ is expressed in it. the martyr {martyri). or boasting of His own actions. the God of time. which alone indited the composition of the Imago. state of Christian perfection " so prominent as to consider itself justified in taking to itself the name of the Founder of the Christian of which. an estimate of it must be condemnatory. vain arrogance. the virgin (virgini)." Most substantial pride. let us look at the illustrations of the Imago : The title-page displays. not obliged to follow ascetic principles in the description of its actions. The Order of the Jesuits is a religious Order. the ideal of Christian perfection. It is true that the estimate must be based on the point of view of religious asceticism. is Constitutions 115 a Jesuit product. From this point of the Imago and the spirit which produced view of Christ. all vainglory. the excess of self-glorification displayed in it would still be loathsome and revolting. of the first importance in forming an estimate of the Jesuit system. but the anti-Christian spirit of what Catholic asceticism. holding crowns : of victory with the inscriptions To the teacher {doctori). Spiritual pride it was. — religion. so exclusively and so emphatically indeed that. of praise. in the figure of a virgin. therefore. In the first place. even if the work had been the product of a secular society. the genuineness and originality it would be hard to match. immeasurable ambition abound in this centennial volume.

i p. and splitting " He rocks.' " the two hemispheres are represented. t ^. 321. growing famous through persecutions." § Under " Conversion of kingdoms and provinces by the heading the Society of Jesus." is a picture of the sun shining " And below this the verse of the Psalm nothing is hid from the heat thereof. whence issue " Loyola embraces a hundred scrolls with the words " May he encompass the whole world. and a pure offering."* Under the heading " Prophecy for the coming century of the Society of Jesus. : : .: ii6 there are Fourteen Years a Jesuit : two angels blowing trumpets. the Society the Society as benefactress of the world. J " The Society spreads the faith over Under the heading the whole world. represent the birth of the Society of Jesus." Six years." and below a bombastic poem on this gigantic feat of " the descendants of Loyola. : : : * p. My name is great among the Gentiles and in every place incense shall be offered unto My name. Like the frontispiece are the illustrations of the text. + p. the spread of the Society over the whole earth." a picture of four trumpets resounding from clouds. 43. "|| Under the heading " The Society equipped for missions." a picture of lightning darting from clouds. 320. Under the superscription " The Society of Jesus. || P. below this a verse from the book of Job on the globe . : : ' : . with an angel " Give her a foothold and turning the lever below this she will move the earth. borne by angels.51. 318. . " The Society of Jesus spread over Under the heading the whole globe fulfils the prophecy of Malachi For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same." a picture of the globe suspended and floating freely from an elaborate pulley. the Society loved by Belgium (referring to the publication of the Imago by the Belgian-Flemish Province)." a picture of Noah's Arkj floating on the waters. below which is the verse of the Psalm " Their line is gone out through all the earth." and shields.

"!! Under the heading picture of an eagle teaching her young to fly below this the verse of the Scriptures "As the eagle sheweth her young to fly. 464. 565." I Under the head" The Society exhausts itself without remuneration ing in the service of its neighbour." a picture of the IVIilky Way. below this " No arrow hits the sun."JJ Under the heading " The : : : : frequent fastings of Ignatius enduring for several days. below this " One standing between the two hemispheres " The Under the heading sphere does not suffice." a picture of a strong arm. tt P. : : Society's task of a altar : is to act bull standing ." a picture between ploughshare and sacrificial below this. . that they may go. JJ P. proceeding from the clouds. ^ P. " The Society trained ."! : . and suffer strenuously. : to fight during a whole century. : : : to salvation.The Constitutions 117 sendeth lightnings."|l Under the head" The Society by precept and example shows the ing . though lightened for " Education of Boys. § P. .564. + p."* " The Indian Missions of the Under the heading Society. 324."tt Under the heading " The Society is in vain attacked by its enemies." § Under the heading " Congregation of the Blessed Virgin." a others. 455. and returning say unto him."** Under the heading." a picture of three angels holding torches with flames uniting into one below this the words " The light itself enflaming giveth light." a picture of an angel with a bow and arrow. : way : . 453. || P. 470. Here we are. t P. : ." a picture of a fountain below this the words from Isaiah with sevenfold jet *' Ho." a picture of a crowd of men wearing fool's caps aiming arrows at the sun . come ye to the waters buy without money and without price. . holding a flag rent by the storm . 326. 466. " Ready for either. below this the words "It hath beauty greater than its own. everyone that thirsteth. ** P. extending across the nocturnal sky below this " The way to the Heights." * p.

as this is naturally suggested by the universal rejoicing at the centenary jubilee of the Society Still. Setting aside the poetry. we read on " If we take into account the merits of the page 950 Society and the desires of its members. But. afraid of the accusation of vainglory. let us greet it [the Society of Jesus] with the words of most eminent men. the authors seem to have been somewhat of Jesus. and the Order of the Jesuits it also remarks that it is useless to supply the the moon Preface with a date. 715. Those whom God has employed as helpers and labourers work could not be omitted from our pretheir merits are new. When the praise of the Society of Jesus had been continuously proclaimed for 949 folio pages. as though we wished to praise ourselves or our own. divine benefits declared sentment merely as a public thanksgiving. in order to bring it to a conclusion.ii8 Fourteen Years a Jesuit : a picture of a bird of Paradise flying across desert lands. : not of men. . " He lives on little. * p." The conclusion is in harmony with the introduction. much yet remains in so great a . We ? glorify God's work. overwith complacency and self-righteousness. which is composed of poetry and prose. and they therefore " Our work could not be under sussay " modestly " picion of conceit. but recently written or spoken. The Society is wholly the work of God and All these pictures are explained : . Has He not often commanded that His works should be extolled with the highest praises Nor need we keep silence concerning the praise of our forefathers for fear of sounding our own." Then follow laudatory comments by Popes and other persons. : to be said. I The Preface will proceed to give specimens of the prose declares Jesus to be the sun. flowing The poems suggest the text of the work. because he is close to below this heaven."* by long poems.

not measured by the length is better in men than book describes " The Birth of the When that monster of the universe." and was born a beggar in a stable. . ."* " Society. . The first book is preceded by an introduction. After the birth made Himself of of Christ we are told of Him : '" Jesus increased in wisdom and stature. institutes a comparison between the Jesuit Order and a definite period in " Who being in the form of God the life of Christ : . and in favour with God and man. a descendant of the highest nobility. III. not a new order. even the fear and number but wisdom grey hairs. Society of Jesus is " It is evident that the distinguished as to time only from the It is community of the Apostles. They contain this passage : " Those filled who have died in the Society of Jesus have fulis a century.. did not the warrior Ignatius face him in "f As Christ Himself.. The synopsis at the preface gives an excellent general im- pression of the arrogant spirit pervading the whole. we second book the growth of the Society. 65. . community whose The name " Society of § t P. Chap. that fatal plague. . had cast out all religion from his mind. J Pp. but also of all its external forms. so also the Jesuit Order was foretold by the prophets.55. but only a renewal of that first religious one only founder was Jesus. and as a result this " poor little Society " was founded. and had divested himself not only of the garb of religion. no reputation. for age of years. { Jesus Himself is the arena ? the true founder of the Society. Thus the first book will show how Ignatius. based on a passage of Scripture referring to Christ.The The work the end of is Constitutions 119 divided into six books. conshall describe in the sisting of seven dissertations." The first of sin . and took upon Him the form of a servant. 59-64. etc." etc. Martin Luther.' Following in His footsteps. as a short sketch of the contents of each book. p. 35. "§ * p. became a beggar.

of penitents. 11 t P.120 Fourteen Years a Jesuit is Jesus " was revealed to Ignatius by no other means its chastity so God Himself. of the second book is the growth of the In ten chapters. shakes firmness and suddenly precipitates the highest virtue into the abyss. the Jesuit Order is mental qualities. which vie with one another in arrogant expression. . sagacity. "UP. its By means morality and piety have been restored. Through the sagacity resembles the eagle. tinguish truth from falsehood they examine. without any participation of own. eloquently praised. .92. Fifteen pages are filled with funeral orations [dogia sepidcralia) on Ignatius and his first disciples. IV. The successful activity of the Jesuit Order in the confessionals is described and praised " How crowded they are in these frivolous words charity || : everywhere ! How often has the industrious zeal of our confessors been insufficient for the number ."U The chariot of God described by the prophet Ezekiel foreshadows the Jesuit Order. and understand everything. Crimes are now redeemed more cheerfully and eagerly than they were formerly committed. they dis. which often. ** P. "f The subject Society. the Jesuit Order attains the most excellent results. 331-400. Equipped with wisdom. 204-330. 401.* much endangered " as By by the other sex. The majority . . virtue. § Pp."** The noble spirit of the Jesuits (generositas) of its . 280-295. tf members. ft P. describes the actual work In preaching. J Pp. 403. and industry.! with bombastic self-glorification. § The third book of the Society. weakens resolution. Pp. instruction and education. four discourses and eighteen poems. " as any honest critic may easily recognise. wash off their sins almost as soon as they have burdened themselves with them. perceive. . 372. the spread of the Order of the Jesuits over the whole world is traced to the Order's intrinsic merit. nor do they occupy the • Chap. its is unlimited.

** P. all the intricacies of philoall sophy. : came after the example with ordinary food and Behold a glutton. 649. P. 667. among them a bishop privilege of the Society of Jesus that Jesus Himself " sacred Society."§ The fifth book revels in a display of honours gained by the Order of the Jesuits. eSeminate. . luxurious. U J Pp. sceptres. On the slanders directed against the Order " The Son of Man came eating . humanities. though I were to pass them over in This self-praise continues for another seventy- silence. One chapter (the fifth) is filled with miracles wrought by Jesuits. kings and princes. The is eighth chapter proves from special " revelations " that everyone to who dies a Jesuit goes to heaven. 481-580. Pp. a drunkard. cardinal's purple. the difficulties in mathematics.The flourisliing in the Constitutions 121 All that is lowest place in the arena of art and science. f Pp. 581-727. The next chapter and drinking [the Society of Jesus of its leader."* four folio pages of prose and verse. "It the comes meet every dying Jesuit. which great libraries. all the hidden things in Nature. 559. 406 Ill e< seq. formerly not sufficiently known ! or appreciated It is by me. nearly ^ the * p. all the mysteries of the Godhead shining in darkness fill would be proclaimed by their works. their chief cause is the OrderJ hatred of the wicked against the Jesuits.406-480. Pp. mitres. contenting : itself ' |I describes the heroic virtues practised in the Order. which extols the contains honours of the Jesuit Order. thou excellest the pastoral stafi. f The fourth book deals with the tribulations of the these are unmerited . In the tenth chapter the list of honours is continued by quotations from panegyrics on the Jesuits by famous men."Tf The ninth chapter enumerates the honours shown to the Order of the Jesuits by Popes.' raiment] and they say the Society is soft. 648. empires significant that this fifth and crowns "** book.

." Enough Those given are not forced and this folio far-fetched passages. and good works accomplished by the Jesuit Order. 1-5. and Mary. so full hatred for those of different faith. over with the names of Belgian-Flemish entitled Settlements of the Jesuits. displays to the last the spirit same arrogant and hatred all of Luther. Below the picture is a poem. thou shalt not be as the hypocrites are . that they may have glory of men . . . do not sound a trumpet before thee. vi. . that they may be seen of men. Christ... of endless self-praise. as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets. he rejoices to lick his sacred feet. And when thou prayest. streets. holy. but real." of boasts. ordinary samples. perfect. of exploits. while realising at the'same time that it is all meant to be a picture of the essence and history " of the " genuine associates of Jesus : must needs recall the words of Jesus " Take heed that ye do not your alms before men.122 largest Fourteen Years a Jesuit number of pages (147) of » the six books of the glorious Imago. On page 937. the Belgian lion is depicted with the Jesuit inscribed emblem on its breast. Greeting from afar of quotations. . the sign or emblem of the Jesuits] : on the Belgian " lion. poem emblem graven on with bowed neck the : divine [Ignatius]. of pompous prayers to God. . . which con- cludes the work. let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth. to be seen of them Therefore when thou doest thine alms. for they love to pray standing in the synagogues and in the corners of the {genuini Jesu Socii).e. The sixth book. " The sun \i." Here is a verse of this He [the Belgian lion] bears Loyola's his breast. and above all. all to the tune of " We Jesuits are specially favoured. Whoever has struggled through of volume. extolling the achievements of the Flemish-Belgian Province of the Order."* * Matt.

"* : Constitutions all 123 those " So likewise ye. in practice it treats her as a docile creature. whose devotion is of high value to the The theory contained is in the Constitutions of the Order thus expressed * Luke xvii. when ye shall have done commanded you. v. to be surrounded by danger signals and warnings Order. In theory sees in woman the dangerous and intel- lectually inferior sex. nay falsity. easily influenced. . We are unprofit- we have done that which was our duty In the light of these and similar words of Jesus Christ. and innocently admitted them as followers and helpers. "f THE RELATION OF THE ORDER TO WOMEN In the Constitutions and history of the Order there two chapters on this subject which almost contradict are one another. say. " Picture of the " must appear as First Century of the Society of Jesus obvious and clear. and it in practice selfishly exploits them. While Jesus and His disciples stood in simple and natural relationship to women.The things which are able servants to do. who from his orthodox Christian point of view saw in the suppression of the Jesuit Order a judgment of God on their arrogance and pride *' for God resisteth the proud. the hollo wness. f !• Pet. of the The magnificent volume of the Imago supplies overwhelming testimony to the correct opinion of the comparatively honest Jesuit Cordara. 10. the Society of Jesus is takes up a position towards distorted women which in theory and unnatural. 5. .

the priest is remain open.§ The rule. of one confessions of If obliged to women they should be severe rather than famihar. or for some other purpose. who will then consider 11 if such persons can remain members of the Order. especially of women." is J visit He [the Superior] not to allow our priests to women nor to write to them except in an urgent case. 5.124 Fourteen Years a Jesuit women. * Constit. Insi.. if [during the have been in any way disregarded. they ought to know that they are obliged on their return to report to the Superior without being questioned visit] these rules by him. If in a public place any priest be sent to women by his Superior to hear confession. especially to women. women outside the confessional. so far as the place admits of this . but out of to be careful that the door should earshot of any secret conversation. " The cure of individual souls. and even then he is only to allow it to experienced and prudent men. II. the companion assigned to him by his Superior [generally a lay brother] is to be in a place where he can see both parties. that the companion of a priest visiting women if or hearing their confessions should report to the Rule 18 [presence of the companion during the visit or confession] has been observed. it should be and with downcast eyes. J." * In hearing speak to " Jesuits are not to undertake the regular cure of souls for nuns or other of nuns. 8. Besides. X Rtile 72 for the Superior of Professed Houses. that the Superior is to impose on the companion omitting the In report a penance of three scourgings. epistle of General Prom an Acquaviva. and that the meeting should not take place in a dark spot.f When they [lay brothers] accompany our priests on visits.. VI. Nov. 308 . or in the hope of great results. case of repetition. for Lay-brothers. they are to observe carefully what rules are prescribed for priests. § II t I^ules 16-19 for the Priests. is to be maintained so strictly Superior. and Rule 70 for the Rector. 13th. if it does not. Rule 5 et seq. the matter should be reported to the General. besides one in public. 3. 1607. so long as the priest may be engaged with the women. should not be undertaken by our members. but they may on occasion (semd) hear confessions convent for some special reason.

lest people should think there was in and an exchange writing. to remain a secret but that all lay brothers are under this or law. e. 3. whether they themselves visit of our people. should strictly observe Rule 18 on the continual presence of the companion. .J. . in the instance. as I [the General of the Order.The " Constitutions should 125 Our members {tiostri) know that not only priests. it An first of letters. by Exercises. II..g. . doing this great care must be taken that no suspicion or offence may arise. but not hear . If anything has to be given in should be done quite secretly. pro Confessariis Societatis. Acquaviva] should be more inclined to think.* " If the place where the sick woman is lying is so small that the companion of the confessing priest cannot be present. the former must report to the Superior immediately on his return [that the confession of the sick woman had been heard without the companion's presence]. in going to women i. the general ultramontane spirit. J Directorium. Inst. which estimates and judges woman only also mediate occasion for sin.. For this reason it may be well to give the points of meditation to women not in writing but verbally. 215. II. . an " imwe meet with a as 285. women accompany others And the companions should know that they must report to the Superior anything that may have occurred contrary to this rule and ordination without being questioned by him immediately on their return.. or the invalid should be if. that so long as they are engaged with the is women what the companion is to be where he can see them.." * Monita genercUia. But here Ibid. and the Superior should consider if the Father should go to this place a second time. of course. women are placed in a line with uneducated particular people {rudihus). t Instructio III.e. 9. | ugly spirit meets us here. for the purpose of confession or for other reasons. already noted. S. 16 . 435. The meditations (of the Spiritual Exercises) are to be set before women in church."f As regards the advancement of their spiritual life. II. the care of left to the parish priests. It is.

t Instruction of Greneral Acquaviva. to the loss of spiritual advantage. and not young ladies (adolescentulae) should be the com- panions of the lady of rank. 1st.g. however. 250. we read : *' Women of rank. . De Spiritu ad Superiores. the Jesuit Hoffaus. quae sunt infra statum Baronissarum Provincial Superior of the extendenda 7ion est). who must." writes another General of the Order.. Ibid. 5 de castitate. death. and the and a certain discourtesy implied by refusing these. may enter colleges of the Society of Jesus.126 Fourteen Years a Jesuit : striking speciality of the Jesuits to the general sexual its contempt of women the Order adds as a certain social classification. quoted by Dollinger-Reusch* from the Jesuit manuscripts in the State Archives at Munich (confiscated on the suppression of the Order in 1773). 272. The interesting words show how indulgent practice for the skilfully rigid theory may turn into desirable when the transformation seems advantage of the Order: " Since custom has decreed. we deem it necessary to give definite instruction as regards the strict observance of the rule on not visiting Certainly we may but rarely hope for great advantage therefrom {e. visits women should be forbidden to all I. as they are more exposed to suspicion and danger. Jan. c. own specific In a secret instruction by General Mercurian to the Upper German Province. illness.. [with women]. But as the customs to do not permit that * Moraistreitigkeiten." " Most carefully. or some benefits received. " familiarity with women of poor or low estate {familiaritas tenuiorum et ignohilium feminarum) should be avoided. But care should then be taken that steady matrons. 1604. "f An " instruction " of the sixth General Congregation of the year 1608 is still more explicit. of the Society. II. except in cases of necessity religious ceremony). mourning. that visits much time and and greetings should be exchanged women. at least be baronesses {haec facultas ad eas.

person of rank and there is distinction {'persona nobilis et 'primaria) for no need to show special courtesy to all pious women of whatever estate they be. dently.. There we find that Jesuits very soon and very generally break through the wire fencing drawn by their Constitutions round women. and is thus an original characterit. as such may be sufficiently helped and instructed in our churches in confession and pious discourse. but also to those of our are to pay the visit. fro Confessariis Socidatis. the we read : "He [Ignatius] said : accusing testimony of the Jesuit HofTaus. Ignatius Loyola. a certain modification [of the rule] is required. 653* . 1. she must be a . t Ada 3.The Constitutions 127 our members.9. in speaking of the theory and practice of the vows of chastity. first place. the act of courtesy to her regards services rendered the Society. Three conditions are necessary in order that a woman be found worthy In the {ut digna existiinetur) of being visited by our people. and show no prudence at all in their intercourse with them. And now to pass from theory to practice-. Secondly.8. 1605 the : * Instructio III. except with those of very high rank "f {nisi essent admodum Ulustres). Julii 7."* This division of the female sex into aristocratic and non-aristocratic women. the Jesuit Gonzalez. At present we think it most appropriate that regard should be paid members who not only to the persons to be visited. II. 28G. and the different treatment based upon istic be traced back to the founder of the Jesuit Order.. must be welcome husband or her relations. dated December 21st. To this may be added as still more weighty. We must behave pruand have no intercourse with women. complaint of General Acquaviva in a circular epistle to the whole Order. the Visitator of the Upper still German Province. because founded on a more universal knowledge of things pertaining to the Order. the woman in question must have uncommon merit as Thirdly. may of the Jesuits. dictated to his amanuensis. In confidential communications on ' himself. I have already quoted.

1857).J. on the confessionals not being displaced and on the gratings being intact and narrow. they do not observe this . Rich and aristocratic women were and are special life." And furthermore : : we have Lady Anne Vaux. Jesuit Garnet. An enlarged grating seems to have existed between the English. and if the Especially this last remark. 128 Fourteen Years a Jesuit priests] " Lay-brothers [who accompany visiting exhorted that. should be on returning if home in the evening. As regards hearing confessions [of women] in church. 307. and those to be less conscientious in this should who show themselves be treated with severity. reprimand them sharply. . the Superiors are charged to have the confessionals erected in exposed places and in such a manner that confessors may. •j- all Jardine.. in spite of * Inst. and in any case their tone contrasts strongly with that prescribed in the Constitutions of the Order. was carried. " To live without you is not A. especially in England. ! objects of the spiritual care of the Jesuits. to point to an earthly rather than heavenly love.. S. . p. Thus Lady Anne signs on one occasion " Yours and not my own. that I might see you "f but death. I have spoken already of the extent to which the exploitation of rich women. forces us to the conclusion that there were gratings which had been damaged and widened for unmistakable purposes. as it were. be companions one to another and if their confessors should be exhorted to rule. they must which report to the Superior the rule [concerning the manner in women are to be visited] has been neglected by the priest or any other for any reason whatever. and his penitent. Passages from letters of the lady to the Jesuit seem. the Superior should also occasionally investigate if the confessionals have not perchance been moved from their gratings are still intact and narrow. 177 et seq.4 Narrative of the Gunpowder Plot (London. at any rate.. whose acquaintance already made."* position. 308..V.

to be treated in detail in the next chapter. and ordinances of their official though women low degree are neglected in accordance with the Constitutions of Ignatius Loyola. and later on during my own membership of the Order. till her death in directors and 1879). in so many families of relations and friends. My mother. 9 and 36. Wertenberg. and when she demanded back money she had lent he broke with her altogether. was a continual object recall to Order need only experienced in the house of my attitude of the I of Jesuit attention. whose reference to " women of very high rank " has been already quoted. This is historically estabhshed confirmed by my personal experience. in which she was endowed with " all the graces and dispensations of the Order. however. when he began to aim higher. the Jesuit Laynez (his successor as General of the Order) as travelling companion to Genoa. saying with emphasis that the Society had no dealings with women. 1903. as Hausherr.* The activity of Jesuit confessors courts of is princes. Meschler followed one another in uninterrupted succession decades. who upon him during the early times after his conversion.The decrees Constitutions of 129 Constitutions. as a woman of rank. was curtly rebuffed by him. daughter Emperor Charles V. a Spanish lady. pp. which received outward expression in a diploma. memory what I parents. he was in close benefits had bestowed many intercourse with Margaret Duchess of Farnese. * See Druffel's Ignatius von Loyola an der romischen Kurie (Munich. signed by General Anderledy. He became her father confessor. History reports that Elisabeth Roser. when the duchess went of the to greet her imperial father there." for The Jesuits Behrens. At the same time. And he himself baptised at the her twins born in 1541. and assigned to her his most distinguished associate. chiefly directed to princesses. / .

are observed in the case of ladies of rank. Meschler. Galen. Waldburg-Wolfegg. Stolberg. energetic opposition I should have doubtless turned into an " aristocratic ladies' confessor. Fah. When I myself. splendid Erbdroste Manor at Miinster in Westphalia. Many other women." When ladies of I had to give Spiritual Exercises to a I number of found out how little the Constitutions of the Order. as to the way in which Exercises are to be given to women. entered on my work as member of the Order. She obeyed her Jesuit advisers like a child. on completion of my ascetic and scholastic training.German Catholic nobility. good mother ! How com- pletely she surrendered herself to Jesuit influence in the best of faith and with voluntary self-sacrifice. fared similarly. They were not given in either church or chapel as required by the rule.130 Fourteen Years a Jesuit My dear. Brinkmann and Hausherr. father confessors. Loe. and ternich. and South. frequented the castles of the Rhenish Westphalian. Met- and others were and are linked to the Jesuits by their womenkind. and everywhere it was rather the lady than the lord of the manor that submitted to Jesuit Arco-Zinneberg) Loffler. direction. it was the obvious intention of my Superiors to take advantage of my many aristocratic connections. as was that of my aunt Countess Therese von Loe {nee Countess The Jesuits Behrens. Schaffer. but in the ballroom of the rank in 1889 or 1890. Silesian. without my own repeated. by Hausherr. The soul of my sister Antonia was completely enslaved by the Jesuits Behrens. Matuschka. Oberndorf. Geyer. . How trustfully she heaped ! benefits upon them and gave liberally of the goods of this world to her " disinterested " spiritual directors I am bitterness when I remember how filled with anger and Jesuitism inveigled and exploited this remarkable woman. Fiirstenberg. The noble families of Droste-Vischering. relations of mine.

In the summer of 1892. while I was sitting at dinner. accusing me of wishing to give Exercises to the Ursuline nuns in the Lindenstrasse.The Constitutions 131 The avoidance. such as the various orders of Franciscan nuns. The old antipathy between the sons of St. than the Jesuits. or stands in closer connection with them. when I was studying in the Royal Library at Berlin (which sealed my resolution to leave the Roman Catholic Church and the Jesuit Order). Only the Dominican nuns form an exception. decline the pastorate of nuns. The number is of Exercises he gives. Otherwise the Jesuit is the constant guest of nunneries. and Germany. of con- During the short period of my work in the Order I was employed a good deal in the nunneries of England. . the well-known Jesuit Tilmann Pesch. the Gottlieb of the nunnery. which he himself had intended to do. Ignatius is after all too strong. according to their Constitutions. rendered gratuitously. Dominic and the sons of St. There is no Order which exercises a more comprehensive and systematic influence over nuns. Pesch rushed into my room and heaped abuse on me. nay refusal. strasse. was staying with the Grey Sisters in the Nieder WallOne day at noon. on account of real or imaginary poaching on their special preserves in a quote a tragi-comic experience of my own. legion. Violent outbursts of jealousy are not infrequent among the Jesuits who. I may notorious I Hamburg Letters. and he I do not know where. receive their ascetic and pious training from the Jesuit Order. was there at the same time. and show their gratitude abundantly in coin of the realm for the pious services fessions he hears there. As I was absolutely . Holland. the good nuns take This work is much sought after excellent care of the father. of the pastoral care of nuns emphasised in the Constitutions is humbug also. Even those nuns who ought naturally to turn for direction to the monastic orders of their own name and spirit.

it was truly Jesuitical for Ignatius Loyola to ask Paul III. f Grsnelli. they were more comfortable In the light of all these facts. Italy I believe it was either Milan^or Turin—they spent But the French Jesuits did not stay with the night. to find excuses on the score of " peculiar temperament. 262. in the beautiful nunnery of the Sacred Heart.. but for men " But women and nuns exist be more honest to add : ! : for us."f and for the Order to persist in the pretence " It would exist not for women and nuns. — members of their own Order according to the statute. p.132 Fourteen Years a Jesuit my Superior at that time." The following anecdote will show how well these nun- shunning Jesuits fare among them: The Jesuit Meschler was travelling with several French Jesuits from Rome across the Alps. Of course. S. there. as Meschler told me. I wrote to Frink at Exaeten. and complained seriously of this foolish In his answer. . 11." * Regulae peregrinoriun. the Rector tried exhibition of jealousy. the Jesuit innocent. after the General In some town in the north of Congregation of 1883.* but. Leben des heiligen Ignatius von Loyola (Innsbruck.J. to deliver himself and his Order from the spiritual direction of women and " We nuns. 1848).

"* And. In a letter to the Courrier Frangais. in Paris. whoever innocently peruses the Constitutions would be inclined to believe the simple. but devoted excluOrder. joined any party. as plainly as could be desired " As our Society. Johannes Roothaan. Kelle : Die J esuitengymnasien in Oesterreich (Linz. ^25 . Joh. can fulfil purpose under the banner of the Cross for the benefit of the Church and the edifica* Ebner. Beleuchtung der Schrift des Dr.CHAPTER XVIII THE CRITICISM CONTINUED : POLITICS AND CONFESSORS There has been no more constant reproach against the itself Jesuit Order. For they state. sively to the salvation of the soul. in 1847.. S. vocation of the Order is greater and loftier than The purpose and any party: . established by the Lord for the propagation of its the faith and the salvation of souls. than that of political activity. indeed. still declares with an air of most ingenuous sincerity " Politics are absolutely foreign to the Society. 636. and hardly any that the Order has repudiated with greater moral indignation. straightforward-sounding words of Roothaan. . General of the Order. in contravention of the Constitutions and the destination of the emphatically to be not of which is declared the world. have yet to be shown that even a single member of the Order entrusted to my care has offended in this respect against the very definite rules of the Order. . J. 1874). Slander may delight in spreading false assertions accusing Jesuits I of taking part in political intrigues. no matter It has never what its name. p.

the Congregation has decided that even the appearance of evil must be avoided. % I. our people are forbidden emphatically and earnestly by this present decree to engage in these public to do so.J. * Congreg. 485 . especially in these dangerous times. as our Father and its Constitution... The Patres definitores have " also been charged to indicate the most effective remedies for of sacred obedience. or through ambition. or to let themselves be affairs. and with various princes (the maintenance of whose love and favour should be counted as a service to God. 269. U. The superiors are strictly charged not to allow our members to interfere with such things in any way. and in the Monita genercdia. this disease. 47. 254 et seq. I. even those arising from false suspicions. they are to report them as soon as possible to the Provincial. indeed If the Jesuit Order were not permeated by an abysmal insincerity. as I contradictoriness fomided on conscious have akeady so frequently pointed out. or indiscreet of Christ is whereas the odour needful for fruition. is in bad odour in many places. some. or to presume to be charged with things political."* By virtue and under penalty of ineligibility for all offices and and loss of the right to elect and be elected. very wisely ordained that we who serve God should not become involved in things from which our vocation must shrink. Decret. they perceive that some are thus inclined. 18. it Ignatius of sacred memory believed). even if invited or tempted moved by entreaties or persuasions to deviate from the Institute of the Order. ! Yes. .. And as our Order. Inst. so that he may remove them from their posts."t fifth Similar prohibitions are repeated in Canon 12 of the General Congregation. t Congreg. and the accusations repudiated. our people are forbidden to worldly affairs of princes meddle with the public and which concern the State. Therefore. 217. S. dignities. if there is opportunity or danger of their If becoming involved in such aSairs. 79.J 134 Fourteen Years a Jesuit it tion of our neighbour through the spiritual service peculiar to and weapons would injure these and expose itself to great dangers by putting its hand to worldly concerns or That is why our fathers have affairs of politics and the State. 5. perhaps through the fault of zeal. 5... Decret. I.

its active political approached that of it has remained the same. in power has not even distantly former centuries. the circumstances are altered. at the little court of the last reigning Jesuit). the State. in detail as in general. almost from the first year of its establishment. is the purpose of the Jesuit Order its aim always and everywhere. Not the " welfare of the souls " of men. the Jesuit Beckx (afterwards General of the Order). for by Pius VII. and many courts. where Jesuit confessors used to hold their evil sway. Devis. La Chaise or Tellier. the Order cloaked its political activity with religion by establishing from the beginning of its labours the institution of princely confessors. so piously placed in the foreground. not the appeared in the nineteenth century.Politics To the non-political and Confessors of its Constitutions.g. in miniature (as regards the Court. attainment of a definite influence on the current affairs of the world. almost the Jesuit Order intervened decisively and assiduously. France. Though the striving the Bourbon Courts in Italy. And that is why the Order is intensely interested in Until 1773.. with his fellow-member. who. the family. has . the year of its suppression by Clement XIV. in the politics of European countries. Constitutionalism is not suitable soil for royal confessors. though in the sharpest imaginable contrast to the Constitutions of the Order. furnishes almost immeasurable — leverage to Jesuit lust of power. are opposed as weighty accusations the political actions or rather factions of the Order.* * One Jesuit confessor of princes. its 135 programme and the non-political declaration of General. Since the restoration of the Order 1814. And in the genuine ultramontane and Jesuitical spirit. have vanished from the scene {e. played the part of such Jesuits as Lamormaini. the Episcopal Principalities of Germany and Poland). is Government of the individual. but as much as possible in all secret. uttered in the deepest note of conviction. politics.. an institution I emphasise this word as expressing an organisation which.

not the of special value in a characOctober. Neither shall I touch on the question. * The political and general ability of the Jesuit Order has been enormously overrated. indeed. converted to Catholicism at Paris in And possibly. complete description of its political activity. I shall present extracts. which is. and with the irreconcilable contrast between this fact and the assertion laid down by the Order of politics. who are wholly devoted to the Jesuits. have the skilful. us in Austria. but only whether and to what extent they took part in political conflicts in spite of their the question Constitutions and the oft-repeated solemn assurances to the contrary. but rarely. when the Archdukes Francis Ferdinand and. Francis Salvator. In a final estimate I mean to show that the power and danger of the Order result less from ability and superior skill in applying its various means than from other circumstances. snapshots. and as both these failings characFor this contrast contains a terise the essence of Jesuitism is individual —their exposure —the system. naturally evolved from its system.* not writing a history of the Jesuit Order. moreover. with their wives. still more. We are only concerned with the fact. even probably. of its political activity. clever or clumsy politicians. 1825. ascend the throne of the Habsburgs. from the course of the Order's existence. still By no means politics of the Jesuits been failure less successful. extending over nearly four centuries. another confessor of princes in the grand old style drawn from the Jesuit Order. whether and the Order.136 Fourteen Years a Jesuit always. until at last Still a victim to own not whether the Jesuits were politics. could have avoided political activity. terisation of the Order. but in such abundance that a complete estimate I As am may how be formed. in its vastness and intricacies. itself as a principle regarding its avoidance huge amount of untruthfulness and hypocrisy. Duke of Anhalt-Kothen. the twentieth century may show always greatly blessed with Jesuits. I shall give no connected. . Failure upon must have been entered it fell is in the political its loff-book of the Order.

. seeing that even in a confidential letter of June 6th.* This caution is easily understood. In his treatise on " Eemedies for the Cure of Diseases of the Soul " {Industriae ad curandos animae morbos). Acquaviva says. or to persons outside that it may it. members of the Order occupying such positions at temporal courts] are to be exhorted to a wise reserve they are to suggest {suggerant) that in some things princes should apply to other members of our Order. 358. had said to him Your and it would be much to the : ' • Inst. although they are contrary to the Constitutions of the Order. from a part of where facts were accurately known. according to circumstances. But there is this to it was not sincere. The General does not straightway forbid the acceptance of such positions. so not appear as though our members directed everything " (ne videantur nostri omnia movere). : from the Order incorporated in the " Institute " of the Order. II. with inimitable cunning and equivocation " They {i... the confessor of Duke William of Bavaria : " The other day a father wrote to me that a man of great distinction people would do well. : . It was meant to save appearances only. but after some general ascetic counsels as to how the danger of the worldly spirit of the court might be obviated. General Mercurian writes to the Jesuit Mengin.e. moreover. as the counsellors of princes.J.Politics and Confessors and documents is 137 prefaced My long list the Order of political facts political by a caution against activity proceeding itself and. General Acquaviva speaks of " the worldly and insinuating spirit the courtier seeking the familiarity and favour of strangers " (saecularitas et aulicismus insinuans in famiof liaritates et gratiam externorum). 1579. This paragraph was addressed to the numerous Jesuits who. obviously had influence on political affairs. as I shall be said about the caution prove. S.

1578. in particular.. * Duhr.' Fourteen Years a Jesuit credit.J. Jahrhunderta Freiburg. the Kings of Poland and of Spain. if only because they were not inspired by a public. more like a courtier or the ambassador of a prince than the member of an Order. to shield him from internal and external attacks by Protestant princes. S. . These concerned partly family and partly public afiairs. p. Die Jesuiten an den deutachen Furstenhofen des 16. to give instances of the political activity of In the latter part of the sixteenth century we meet the Stanislaus Warsewicz and Anton Possevin as political agents at the court of John III. of Sweden. 62. as we shall see. no avail. and at the same time to inspire him in this way with courage and confidence in the fulfilment of his sacred enterprise [the Catholicising of Sweden]. played a double part." Having received the King into the Catholic Church. its interference in politics had assumed such dimenobliged to protect the sions that responsible men felt religious prestige of the Order. if they kept within their [pastoral] "* Thus. at least in the eyes of the from the unconstitutional and worldly political These cautions were of activity of numerous members.138 Society's limits. in order. General Acquaviva. and were addressed to the Emperor. and to the Pope. 1901). he returned to Austria and Rome in May. by the protection of these powerful rulers. serious desire to check the abuse. but a few decades after the institution of the Order. Possevin had tried in every possible way to bring about friendly and peaceful relations between King John and the Emperor and the Kings of Poland and Spain. Jesuits Possevin went about in Stockholm in splendid clothes and wore " costly headgear with a black silk veil. with many commissions for the Emperor and the Pope. And now the Jesuits.

."f The Father active political Viller here mentioned was one of the most Austria. But because the cause Germany parties. Nach geheimen JStaatspapteren (Augsburg. Vienna. Rector of the Jesuit College at Graz. is obviously much concerned influence of councillors is in the union of the two members well of the Society of Jesus it and the great on princes and their known. from a letter of Archduke Charles to und seine Stellung I. to General Acquaviva. 498. I doubt they are quenching this with the requisite love and wisdom. Possevin was also to urge it again. and if possible to achieve to its success with the assistance of the above-mentioned Powers. . especially with the if Emperor. t Duhr. and thus add fresh fuel to the quarrel. . p.. . Even the affair of the Neapolitan inheritance had taken a happy turn. and with every at its means disposal..]. Both have their adherents.Politics and Confessors 139 Nor had John failed to supply Possevin with the requisite documents for the establishment and confirmation of these friendly relations with the above-mentioned courts. people. especially at Prague. fire As regards our . Schtveden zum heiligen StuM. letter addressed by Father Haller. June 11th. dated * A. his mother. 497.. who report from their party point of view. owing to the endeavours of Possevin and the Bishop of Mondevi. 46. . Papal Nuncio in Poland. Theiner. Die Jesuiten an den deutschen Fiiratenhofen. treat in Of the name of Pope and the had the King with the Emperor many things Possevin [Rudolph II. Munich and Graa. to bring about this reconcihation. the advice to test the truth of the reports be not given. parties Father Viller acts to the contrary. 1838). would be well worth the Society's while to try with greater zeal than before.* A 1598. Jesuits letters in passages from help to characterise The following two him one . is literally a political report " For many years there have been disputes between Bavaria and Austria. As the matter is submitted to our people by these reports. . there of Christianity in is a danger that .

of April. For in a note to the Jesuit Viller. "f The Jesuit Blyssem. As regards the Turkish question. who was eligible in every respect.. j Ibid.. we must not lose sight of the fact that these points were eminently political. 582. 3. the tutor and confessor [the Jesuit Viller] my father have given him a piece of their mind. he reports " Before Christinas I was On the 16th : from Vienna to General Mercurian summoned to Graa by Archduke and had various discussions with him regarding his person. p. but the Reverent Nuncio. 1580. § * Hurter. General Acquaviva characterises " Proceedings against the Turks " as not pertaining to politics."* The second passage " As the Archduchess Maximiliana was dead. it is obviously of a political character. so that what he had begun so successfully should be confirmed. was also one of : the political councillors of the Styrian Court. Then he begged me to stay till Easter.140 Fourteen Years a Jesuit Eome. and the general position of things. 1598. 51. § Ibid." Charles.. p. . Ferdinand II. The " few points " concern the difficult position of the Archduke respecting " the Turk and his obdurate heretical subjects. p. and the other from a letter by Viller to the Spanish Ambassador de San Clemente. sent by Archduke Ferdinand on a political embassy to Rome. + Duhr. though perhaps not for the Jesuits. The first passage " To Sper [Bavarian Agent in Rome] I have not said : a word. the 29th of May. he [Viller] recommended for marriage with the son of the King of Spain her younger sister of thirteen. 58. 47. Margaret. Your Reverence may see from a few points quoted here that my stay was not in vain. Die JeaiUten an den deutschen FUrstenhofen. Austrian Provincial."! Regarding the interference of the Jesuits with respect to the Protestants and the Augsburg Confession of Faith.

" This conclusion read as follows : " Affairs of war are to be discussed with warriors. Blyssem repudiates interference with military or political questions.Politics and Confessors 141 We shall see how the Jesuit Caussin. conscience and holy rehgion " ^ In the end everjTthing was ranged under the heading of " God. GO. 1582. General Acquaviva " simplifies matters still more by indicating " conscience can be ranged under it. the councillors who so I shall. but that " the document was written in the third person and without the name of the author " . The profession of the Jesuits does not Duhr. " he had." as indeed everything In his " Instruction to Confessors of Princes. father confessor Acquaviva's to justify his position. as the only limit to their actions. p. render assistance. as I did last but only in things referring to God. holy religion. if and how the fort of Graz could be manned against the Protestants." to be discussed later. Die Jesuiten an den deutschen FilrstenJidfen. actually written by him. as a final conclusion. given his own opinion. at the end of this in the eyes of the public document. but apparently and anonymous. The equivocations of the Jesuit Blyssem are distinctly and hideously evident in a confidential report to the General Acquaviva. as subjects unsuitable for a confessor. while in the same breath he tells of having worked out a report on the military and political question. and princes. utilises this principle of XIV. the dangers dread. . and men members of the world who are versed in such things. therefore. yet I cannot disappoint the pious greatly desire year. In the winter of 1581-82 Blyssem returned to Graz in order to assist the Archduke of Louis of France. during the sessions of the Diet " Although I which I much dislike travelling because of know from former experience and therefore prince or it. dated February 28th. and not with of the Order. conscience.

63.f sermons Duhr. 65. reporting these " non-political " practices of his fellow member of the sixteenth century. J Ibid. the Estates of the Realm. But " These counsels of Father Blyssem when Duhr adds are quite in harmony with the valedictory decree of the : Reichstag of 1555. Eruditi. . On the 20th of March. favours to Catholics expulsion of preachers heretical with Catholic princes . and. 1580.. towns prohibition and schools in Graz. the Pope Promotor. pp. 63. of etc. Blyssem reported to the General of his Order on his intervention in the negotiations reports of the Jesuit * Duhr. 64. on the contrary absolutely forbids them. p. In the second part of his report Blyssem gives the means to be employed by the Archduke in order to save the Catholic religion. f Ibid. the Archduke Bedellus. ence to his profession as a Jesuit. Further Blyssem to Rome grew so " nonpolitical" that the author found it advisable to employ pseudonyms. For him also all this was regulated by conscience. . Surrender of the arsenal and artillery to the Catholics gradual and imobtrusive increase of soldiers in the fort . from the pastorates. These means are anything but religious. the Provincial (Blyssem himself) Examinator. 62. 142 Fourteen Years a Jesuit it extend to such discussions. appointment treaties of Catholic officials . is not in the least offended by them. ."* sides. the General of the Order Rector Academiae. the Jesuit of the twentieth century.. moreover. he repudiates his own document by referreport. Die Jesuiten an den deutsclien Furstenhofen. p.. The Nuncio is called Suhstitutus. Thus the Jesuit who meddles in politics is safe on all He himself has composed a military and political but so that the authorship is not to be identified."J he makes it plain to everyone not trained as a Jesuit that there is absolutely no domain to which " pastoral " counsels might not extend.

allows this admission to a What escape him " The Jesuits might expect at the court of : Graz a measures greater interest in the real field of their activity."{ * Duhr. This report also ends with the typical assurance : "I refrain from to all political advice. as indeed only susfecti qui non longe respiciunt (suspicious or shortsighted people) will say. and only discuss what belongs my ! what concerns conscience. of the see Stieve. the other the Cardinal [HosiusJ. The letter. 931. the moral and religious life of the court. is so political that Mairhofer himself thinks it well to emphasise " I beg that this letter may be kept secret. wrote to Duke Maximilian of Bavaria on the re-election of a prince-abbot of Fulda. from an original MS. concerning the separation of the other Estates from the cities. 71. t Published from the original deposited in the archives of the Cologne Parish Assumption of the Virgin Mary. . X For the whole letter.e.f In May. office. Die Jesuiten an den deuischen Furstenhofen." i. contain the following " In February there began in the presence of the King the session of the Comitia of the Kingdom of Poland. the Jesuit M. founded on a secret report of the Jesuit Rector of Fulda. in which two of our priests took part."* The quarterly reports of the Jesuit College at Brauns- berg. Rector of the Jesuit College at Munich. than in the political against the refractory Protestants. in Ermeland. one accompanying the Nuncio of the Pope. for it would be taken very ill of me and of us all [the Jesuits]. at the end of his description of the " pastorate " of Blyssem at the court of Graz. if : we vet interfered in political affairs. of March. 1606. 68. by Karl Benrath. Mairhofer. Briefe und Akten zur Geschichte des dreissigjdhrigen Krieges^ V.Politics and Confessors 143 with the Estates. p. in the State Archives at Munich. 1565. Even the Jesuit very elastic conscience Duhr. p. Die Ansiedelung der Jesuiten in Braunsherg.

Beitrdge. 3.* Under Henry III. of Spain. became the also political every Province were centre of far-reaching political intrigues. of France. with commissions and instructions in order to induce Pope Innocent X. . to promote a separation of France from Sweden. Innocent was so unpleasantly impressed by this Jesuit importunity that he addressed a serious warning to the General Congregation to beware lest anyone should interfere in worldly matters. 18. 1635-1650 (Freiburg. 1906). He was active in Rome. J DoUinger.J. to the Rome. and Anselm Kasimir of Mayence charged the Jesuits Lorenz Forer and Nithard Biber. t Gregoire. whose murder by Jaques Clement was glorified by the Jesuit Mariana. At eighth General Congregation in * Die Jesuiten und die Friedensfrage his zur Niimherger Friedensexehutions- hauptrezess. The heads of the League employed him repeatedly as political ambassador. p. Litterae annuae S. especially in treaties with Philip 11.J From the manuscripts deposited in the Court Library at Vienna. the Jesuit Matthieu was a chief promoter of the League of the Guises. p. Paris. the Jesuit Cabrallius was the ambassador of King Joseph I. of Portugal to the Pope. delegated by the South German Province of the Order in 1645. Steinberger reports that of Bavaria the Electors Maximilian I.f As the Jesuit Cordara reports. 301. and Madrid. 100 et seq. of 1615-1771. Krones quotes some interesting details of the political activity of the Order in Hungary before and after the Peace of Tyrnau-Linz in the year 1647. a purely religious institution according to the Constitutions of the Order. Provinciae austriacae (Annual Reports of the Austrian Province of the Society of Jesus). and to support Germany with money and troops.: 144 It is Fourteen Years a Jesuit a very remarkable fact that the Jesuits delegated for the General Congregation of the Order by to Rome agents. Thus the General Congregation.

But the most effective measure was the influence brought to bear on the delegates of the Diet and above all on the so-called mixed Compilation Committee. * The only German General besides the present General of the Order. .' it says..' for the compilation of objects of treaty. It is too significant not to find a place here. K . and received from him the most welcome assurances. . is . and from speaking in that sense during the Diet.Politics and Confessors 145 the Hungarian Election and Coronation Diet in 1655 the Jesuits sought with all their might peal of the decrees of able to " and cunning the re1606 and 1608. The Secretary of State of the Crown of Sweden. a wise and not unlearned man. Pope Alexander VII.* did not spare petitions to the royal councillors and the Catholic magnates of Hungary. Francis Xavier Wemz. : ' . The Provincial undertook to do the latter. In the printed annual report of the Order of 1651 there a remark actually expatiating on the jDrofit to be derived from the Order for government purposes. Father Geyer painted to the monarch the dangers of heresy. . it took good care to divulge this equivocal ' ' . The General of the Order. . his Nuncio to Pressburg for the furtherance of the desires of the of Jesuits [settlements and the possession landed property for the friendly the Order] to explain to the monarch there how Church of Rome was to the Order and the interests of Catholicism. which were unfavour- them : The Austrian Provincial Bernhard Geyer consulted with the means of carrying out this difficult enterprise First. On the other hand. Goswin Nickel. sent Catholic leaders on the . did not hesitate in the presence of twenty selected magnates to make the assertion that the Austrian dynasty had nothing more excellent or useful in its realms and provinces than the Society of Jesus. ways and this was the secret plan of campaign means must be found in order to prevent the delegates of the counties from letting directions hostile to Jesuits prevail.' The Report inserts the ' ' remark that the Order did not learn this without a blush of modesty in any case. For with its help the Emperor could keep the nations conquered by him in faithful obedience with a mere sign. and direct them at his wiU. it was important to guide the decisions of the monarch in the proper direction..

the end of which was in the hands of the central administration the generalship.146 praise. . Rector of the Jesuit College at Munich. the Jesuit Job. Bodler wrote on the 14th of January. 1669. 11. interests."* ambition was pre-eminence in When the Polish throne had become vacant through the abdication of King John Casimir of Poland. The Polish Jesuits worked for the latter." it states. Michael to his fellow Wisniowiecki. for the former in particular his A few months before confessor. as and supporters of monarchical rise with which the Order was determined to or fall. 18 Zur et seq. which resulted eventually in the choice of neither the Duke nor the Prince. Geschichte des Jesuitenordens in Ungarn (Vienna. member Servilian Veihelin. The fathers of the Austrian Province also served the one common purpose the authority and power of the Order in the denominaThus it would be much more tional life of the Catholic world. Bodler. but the Pole. Imperial Prime Minister for the Duke of Neuburg. 8. one link in the mighty chain. the election. Duke Philip Wilhelm of Neuburg and Jiilich-Burg and Prince Charles of Lorraine applied for it. Fourteen Years a Jesuit But it would be a mistake to consider the Jesuits grateful tools in the State of Austria in the light of disguised agents of the Viennese Government. His strictly confidential letter affords a profound insight into the political activity of the Jesuits and their cunning and duplicity : " Recently. And no unprejudiced person following the activity of the Society of Jesus its history of the development and could deny that the chief aim of the world of Catholic Orders. 9. 1893). As Auersperg could have no inkling that his letter would be sub* Krones. " a letter from Prince Auersperg. the Austrian Province (including Hungary) formed only a part. which extended over all parts of the world. In the great structure of the ruling Order. itself It served the dynasty as far as it benefited by doing so. had come to Neuburg. pp. justifiable to make the assertion that the Order of the Jesuits had used the Austrian and every other dynasty as a means for its — : comprehensive purposes.

their way —^how long they may succeed in in all promotionibus. but eagerly trying to find out for his rival. He [the Jesuit Bodler] sending him [the Jesuit VeiheHn] a copy perg's letter." what reason induced our fatres to work . but in toto non esset remedium. and might easily it have caused the rumour that your Excellency was not in favour here [in Vienna]. the worse they come off. lest our prince [the Duke of of a passage ' Neuburg] or the other [the Prince of Lorraine] should learn that matters which at their urgent request were to have been kept " secret have been read by and made known to us. so that they should earn thanks and If your Excellency now. Duke Wilhelm. that some work for one some for the other. for you we [Jesuits] must be. Spain. benefit." The " So Order]. no matter how it may turn out.Politics and Confessors 147 mitted to the Jesuits he had spoken freely and bitterly about them. Your Excellency has not deserved it of them [the Jesuits]. for dismissing Isola's [Baron L'Isola] secretary. am These and other this people are serving the Duke of Lorraine. the first century. our is prince continues in kindness to us. and the more they interferewith worldly affairs. On account of Auersperg's bad handwriting. which did so much good in it God knows — party.' The important passage from Auersperg's as follows : letter was I " The dilatio dectionis would not benefit Lorraine either. when there is perhaps still time. Your Excellency need not think that would be in his Majesty the Emperor's power to prevent the It P aires Societatis from working in a different direction. was had given the letter to the Jesuits. and I am sorry for the Society. Father Gabriel [Eiddler] has trans- lated this into Latin and thinks of sending it to the General [of the Having read these and other similar communications. Jesuit Bodler continues : much for Auersperg. would complain of it to the General [of the Jesuits] it may have the effect of recommending all cautda^ ne sic 'pateat. which only the Jesuit Carlius [the English Jesuit Carly] could decipher. as can be seen in. is partly as Polish Jesuits. partly as confessors. but it see how careful from Auerswas exclusively meant for him alone.

sent by the Papal Agent at Brussels. 268. I may more possibly be reproached carefully I for not having written to the General and in detail.. cannot be recovered in any other way. A report on affairs in Scotland. to the Secretary of State of the Papal Cardinal Aldobrandini.148 Fourteen Years a Jesuit G-eneral Polish Jesuits their machinations. which have in the meantime been distributed among heretics and have passed through many hands already.. The Duke seems to require of what he now condemns in Father Richard. says " The {assioma Jesuits stahilito). but now. Indeed. Vol. as she wishes to keep Father Riddler here own sake {sui solatii causa). especially as the of him. but also that you have hitherto kept silence on the matter as one that does not concern me. Of this we have a striking testimony. but thought afterwards that further reports could be of no use. and in the Polish Fathers. : consider as one of their established axioms confirmed by the authority of Father Parsons [one of the leading English Jesuits]. not only that you should know what is going on. p. I am writing this. II. which is sure to be the case if help may me with your advice. have written to him once. They * Eeusch. For the property and revenues of the Church. these violent religious fundamental principle of the Jesuits. Monsignore Malvasia."* It cannot be denied that those who try to promote religion by force of arms and political revolution are taking part in politics are a politics. or at least that the Duchess for her may do so. Beitrdge: Zeitschrift fiir Kirchengeschichte (1894). I hope Father Gabriel will speak to the Duke about this journey. I the Duke's hopes are not fulfilled. . that the Catholic rehgion [in England and Scotland] can only be restored by force of arms. . in 1596.. seeing I was familiar with the course of events. : might perhaps be induced to forbid the The Duke wanted to send Father Riddler to Prague " None of us approve of this plan. neither do we see what he could accomplish there. the confessor the Duke of Lorraine. if the matter ends less favourably for the Society.

and the Catholic priest. the " aim and end. no matter whether from come to these parts with this idea. which indeede is the scope and white whereto practise dothe level. and also published literally by Knox. as chief promoters of the " religious scheme. and the Duke of Guise are mentioned. and tried to throw the pieces into the sea. are very plainly expressed. On his capture Creighton he tore up a document.. and thus a secret instructions. GeschicJde der Kathol. II."* else." and the means to attain them. 466. p."t In the confessions made by Creightoi? in the Tower. Records 0/ English Catholics. the vessel in which the earlier. of Spain. Thomas Francis Knox. 1584.Politics and Confessors arms of Spain 149 be used to [the Jesuits] believe that only the may bring about this event. II. and taken to the Tower of London. furnished with was captured by the English. with the number of troops to be " furnished by each. It is sufficient to quote the following from a number of things enumerated which Creighton is to accomplish : " Lastehe and especially to depose her Matie [Queen Elizabeth] and set up the Scottish Queene p\Iary all this Stuart]. Kirche in Schotiland (Mayence. Perhaps Malvasia was thinking of an event which caused this Jesuit principle to be made known a decade In September. Philip II. close touch 1581 or 1582 the Jesuit Parsons had been in * Bellesheim. 1883). t Thomas Francis Knox. Pope Gregory XIIL. Jesuit Creighton was going to Scotland. . Philip Neri. There was even an exact estimate among the papers of the " non-political " Jesuit as to the number Since of soldiers required for the conquest of England. which impressed upon them by their Superiors. published this interesting document for the first time a few years ago in his Records of English Catholics. Rome or anywhere has been firmly They [the Jesuits]. member of the Oratorian Congregation founded by St. trustworthy witness. 426 et seq. They were collected again..

Especially Parsons pursued Philip II. 255. p. dated Kouen. and tried to promote in every way the deposition of Queen Elizabeth of England and the raising of Mary Stuart to the English In this endeavour. the An indirect and Papal Nuncio in Paris. etc. 97.S. Taunton.^^1[ convincing proof of Parsons' knowledge approval of the murder-plot is the fact that its chief and promoters. gives the most important part of this interesting and wholly political letter. of Spain. the ambassador of : Philip II. September the 26th. of Spain. my t Taunton work. 89. the Duke of Guise. A sidelight on the political activity of the Jesuits is thrown by the report of Mendoza. pp. No. J Mendoza adds.P. were Parsons' confidants. one of the worst political intriguers of his time. (Simancas). III. Acquaviva..: 150 Fourteen Years a Jesuit with the Duke of Guise."* Guise was eagerly helped by the of the odious two above-mentioned Jesuits. 201-204. speaking she of Elizabeth. Philip II.000 men for the war in Scotland. X S. and the Cardinal Secretary of State in Rome. whose confidence he had gained. who in his turn was completely Guise was in the hands of the French Jesuit Matthieu.. to the King. supported above all by throne. aimed at the assassination " heretic. saying that The Jesuit Creighton had promised the Duke of Lennox 15. There is no direct proof that Parsons and his French brother-member Matthieu promoted the murder-plot. uses the words : " When who now reigns destroyed Extincta ista quae nunc regnat.. however. so that it would have been a matter of impossibility for the Jesuit going to and fro and mediating between these persons to have remained ignorant of a plot which had been hatching for years. which also the cause most zealously with Philip II. Das Papsttiim. in which he strongly advocates rights to the throne Mary is Stuart's and then. 1581. . 90. that Creighton * Cf. But there is a very suspicious passage in a letter of Parsons to his General.

48 . and the Jesuit became one of the most earnest workers. the Jesuit Rome in 1583. Perino. Mercante. John Howlett. demand the dethronement of Elizabeth "An Admonition to the Nobility and : the People of England and Ireland concerning the present wars made for the execution of his Holiness' sentence [Deposition by the Pope of Elizabeth] by the high and mighty Catholic King of Spain. 1587.Politics and Confessors 151 might have made the promise " entirely on his own initiative. themselves wholly to furthering the Spanish King's schemes. History of the Jesuits in England. pseudonyms Richard Melino. Stefano Cornelio. 308. the Usurper of England. (2). Eusebius. in order to induce the Pope to give money for the enterprise against England troops were to land in several ports. with secret instructions by the Duke of Guise. Rowland Cabel. (Taunton." and Pretended Queen Parsons tries to Like a true Jesuit. The Catholic priest Taunton sums up Parsons' highly : treasonable plots in these words " The party to which Parsons attached himself had given Fortunately. 1901). pretend that his friend. Relations politiques avec la France et VEspagne. among the Spanish State papers of the period there has been pre- served a document which puts Parsons' position in a perfectly clear light. Under the pseudonym Parsons was sent to of Richard Melino. unite with them. was the author of these pamphlets.* Parsonsf is also the author of two political pamphlets which. Ottaviano Inghelberto. Marco. V. and the English Catholics were to . Ralph." and " A Declaration of the Sentence of Deposition of Elizabeth. he produced a paper entitled Considerations why it is desirable to carry through the enterprise of that of England before discussing the succession to the Throne * Teulet. under the cloak of religion. ' On 18th of March. the subsequent Cardinal Allen.. p. Redman : Giacomo Creletto. London. Signer Hamiano." which is all the more suggestive of the vast " religious " activity of the Jesuits. f So as not to be disturbed in his political activity Parsons used the following Robert.

one of the many pseudonyms under which he concealed his political activity."he says English Enterprise. the great point which ought to be considered is is first to obtain very good information from England .: 152 Fourteen Years a Jesuit ' . . and there continued his intrigues with great zeal.. undoubtedly his work. after proposing that " the English exiles in Flanders should make constant raids. summer and winter. Jesuit Order tried to mere possession was declared For a long time the but deny the authorship of Parsons. writes that trustworthy men may London who Council. of everything that being done or said by the enemy. calmly takes the death of Mary Stuart into his political and military calculations. engaged in deceiving both him and the imfortunate English cient value to be quoted in extenso. 138. The Jesuit and he coolly discusses Philip II. again without his name " Conference on the next Succession to the Crown. as Father Henry Garnet. Provincial of the Jesuits. 1594. p. will get their information at the fountain-head in the will and they themselves provide correspondents in the * Taunton. . by the Jesuit Jouvency. t Compare Historia Societatis Jesu. Of himself Parsons speaks in the document only as Eichard Melino." which was so — — hostile to Elizabeth that its high treason by Act of Parliament. appeared the worst of his political writings of course. In 1593 Parsons went to Spain to the court of Philip II." . country. claimed by His Majesty and the document it is of suffi- shows Parsons. on the English coast . who as a Jesuit was supposed to be particularly devoted to the Pope's interest.f During his residence in Spain Parsons issued another it is political treatise : " Principal Points to facilitate the In this. p. 116. An attempt may now be obtained in be made to amend matters."* Taunton copies the document in of extenso. 's prospects after the strongholds England and Scotland had fallen into his hands. . " Finally. . for Catholics in the interests of the King of Spain. In the following year.

the Jesuit Edward Petre. so that it may be published at the proper time. Council of State to King dated July 1600: " The Queen of England will not live long. 449. and Confessors 153 who will keep advising as to the warlike prepara- tions. for the King seems determined to push forward in matters of rehgion as far as he can.S. and the English Catholics beg the succession.. in your Majesty to declare yourself in the matter of Your Majesty's decision may be conveyed . answer to be given to Father Parsons may also be left to the Duke We here are of opinion that [of Sessa. the Jesuit Warner. . would nominate a Catholic sovereign as the successor Eh2abeth. Among the tools of the Order were the King's confessor. he bore perhaps the largest : share in the ruin of the House of Stuart. was before resolved. He says t Ihid. 665.. . quoted by Taunton from MSS."t of Queen Under James II. ambassador in Rome]. S. "Of all the evil counsellors who Of him Macaulay says had access to the Eoyal ear. and above all James's favourite. of England (1685-88) the Jesuit Order exercised an almost unlimited influence. is the man to force him to extremes without a thought as to the consequences. who governs him. as . from Cal. pp.Politics principal ports.P. confidence to the Arch-priest and General of the Jesuits in . 448. IV. ." To avoid entering into too great detail about the some extracts from the reports of the Tuscan Ambassador in London. 276. The England. who was also Provincial of the Jesuits in England.."* Parsons' political Philip and warlike 11. I will only quote " Writing to the Grand Duke (22nd July. (Simancas). in the British Museum Jesuit Petre. * Taunton. p. 1686) he says of this ' : Let your Highness prepare to hear continually fresh news both as to its country temporal and spiritual affairs . that your Majesty Parsons may be told. And the Jesuit Petre. intrigues are also evident in a report of the Spanish II. Terriesi. .

most Yet I believe it in a great measure to be a calumny it . if there had cluded that it * Taunton.f But that is where the use of the Jesuit maxim. 1687. et Innocent XI. 118. 2. Terriesi says : ' The report they [the people] circulate. the Jesuit Keynes. This conclusion is all the more justified as. undisturbed even after this consultation. 448. 1687.' Petre rules His Majesty's mind more than ever. Father Petre "* . which would naturally suggest some scruples from a Catholic point of view. and with the silent consent at any rate of General Gonzalez himself. dated January 8th. . . The Jesuit Petre attained to the height of his political on November the 11th. is by which they say His Majesty intolerable to the King. t Of. alone a command to relinquish the office. Louis XIV. he s&js The Jesuit Father . pp. when James II. which will be worse it is becomes Cardinal. Historie de la Compagnie de Jems. causes suspicions. as said the King certainly wishes. A letter. " Writing 15th August. 4. J The letter ends with an assurance that the General would consult his As Petre retained his office assistants on the matter. 1686. (Paris. as His Majesty has the Jesuits so constantly if with him. Michaud (>etineau-Joly.' " : ' " Writing 30th December. J : . Petre accepted his political office by express permission activity of the Provincial of the English Province. ascribing all the trouble to the Jesuits' is counsel.' .154 Fourteen Years a Jesuit ' plainly that Protestants believe that the Jesuits are at present the primum mobile of the government. 3rd edition." would come in. " The end sanctifies the means. still. 449. As Privy Comicillor Petre took an oath of allegiance. from the General to the English Provincial does certainly express " surprise " that Petre should have been allowed by the Provincial to accept an office " implying interference with matters forbidden by the statutes of the let Order. 1688. made him a member of the Privy Comicil. 148. completely governed. it may be con- ended in approval of Petre's political office." but it does not contain a word of blame. . 1882). 113.

while Petre has borne the opprobrium. and to accuse him of ambition. knew all about the man. the Provincial had."* all personal ambition and makes the Society his The historians of the Order do not speak of Petre and so. Petre (p. If he were free from ambition. who'then were understood the full position of the case.Politics and Confessors 155 been the slightest sign of disapproval. I think historians have not. allowed Petre to accept the Councillor. They and they alone are primarily guilty of the fall of the Stuarts. prefer to ignore the existence of a Jesuit is him over in absolute silence. is 674). pp. that to say. and yet sidering that they allowed left him in this position conhim to take the oath and become a Privy Councillor. 1688. still office of Privy the General tolerated it. and more easily where the individual gives up all in all. the scapegoat for others. . who can now say that they were not the ambitious men ? The libido dominandi eats into a Society as well as into persons. as a rule. only mentioned once in a superficial remark though thirty pages are devoted to the court * Taunton. without the ambitious 1 men Petre. published in a fourth edition in 1904. Considering that they . the leave of the General. like a good Jesuit. In modern times the Jesuit Duhr is conspicuoiis for such silence. Taunton concludes his account of the Jesuit Petre with these trenchant words : " It is the custom to speak sternly of Petre's foolhardy conduct. The General. was in the hands was therefore the superiors of the Society who were the ambitious men. If. Petre has been made do not wish to extenuate his responsibility for the catastrophe but I do think the chief blame rests on other shoulders. the Jesuit authors would certainly have pointed it out. they pass Jesuitenfaheln. It of his superiors perinde ac cadaver. I . as we know. But they have maintained a profound silence. from a letter dated 3rd March. his political doings unless absolutely obliged to do They mostly Petre . 461. 460. Hitherto they have escaped. In his voluminous work of 975 pages. the Provincial and the Confessor are the real culprits.

is Duhr all over."* That facts. since Petre. Theologie. truth must prevail. 232. p. Duhr must have had a feeling that it would be best not to reopen the topic of Petre. confessors of the Order but Petre does striking. as a professed member had taken a vow not to aspire after such dignities. The that for years Petre exercised unlimited political influence. there it. that he officially held a political post involving work contrary to the statutes of the Order. as even the General was obliged to confess these facts. Duhr ignores almost completely the far more serious reproach of political activity. irrefutable conclusions drawn from them. also forbidden by the Constitutions of the Order. and authentic. this was impossible. not And in 1904 not a word even a reference to it. But if incontestable proof should be brought against Father Petre. Jahrgang. and seals his very extensive defence of his fellow-Jesuit Petre with this assertion " There are no facts nor authentic. * Zeitschrift fur Kathol. or rather the Jesuit spirit. . not exist for him. of such defence. And yet . he attempted the defence of Petre in long articles. In any case. in the Zeitschrift fur Katholische Theologie. irrefutable conclusions to justify the accusation brought against the Jesuit Petre. From Duhr's curiously restricted defence of characteristic that the to refuting 1886-87 we may report as it is almost exclusively reproach of Petre's having . This silence of Duhr's is all the more considering that eighteen years before (1886-87). 1887. he asserts. would be absolutely no reason why we should hesitate to recognise for it would be no more reasonable to reproach an Order of the Catholic Church for having one wicked member than the company of the Apostles on account of one Judas.: 156 Fourteen Years a Jesuit and their doings. aspired ambitiously to the dignity of a cardinal of the Society of Jesus. exist.

up to his death in 1699. Cretineau-Joly is more honest than the This is what he says about Petre and Jesuit Duhr. as Duhr himself reports * In this way the likeness to Judas ! " Judas " part in extends really to the Superiors of the Order. 1886. his : — "In any case the truth emphatic word in conclusion must prevail." need hardly be discussed. But then there is a suggestion of confession and resignation in after all. The company of there = Well. even after he had played . with the most important offices. p. the Apostles had also There we have. first of all. and the above. 172. the document was lost. but they tried to make up for this in another way. then. or else. Jesuit and ultramontane authors in general know their public. . 682. which is very improbable. The comparison between the Order of the Jesuits and the company of the Apostles.quoted opinion of Taunton is thus confirmed. Theologie. his political. that possibly have been a Judas. among whom : been a Judas. f Cretineau-Joly. when * Zeitschrift fiir Kathol. and the rest of the Jesuits raised no objection. the genuine Jesuit arrogance the Order of the Jesuits. Jahrgang. the Order's toleration of the latter's position of political power : " Petre took a position contrary to the statutes of Saint Ignatius.Politics and Confessors 157 he clamours for facts to justify the accusations. is also characteristic."t is It true that the Jesuits raised no objections. the Superiors of the Order always gave this Judas the highest praise and entrusted him. Their sixteenth Petre's political General Congregation in 1730. Histoire de la Compagnie de Jesus. the Jesuit Petre may the reference to Judas How strange. his England. Seeing the numerous ways still —in and there will be more which Duhr's truth has been unmasked. why not ? The Order of the Jesuits is the Society of Jesus. After all. p.

t Historisch-politische Blatter."* Thus the Order had saved its principles in the case of and had officially disapproved of a practice it had known and tolerated. Petre. p. Inquisitor. longer a question of merely winning a few provinces by cunning. by any they must declare that their Constitutions forbid their interference in such matters.J. if necessary. that Nidhard " ruled the Spanish Monarchy. had. ibid. 397. of April. the biography of the Austrian Jesuit Eberhard Nidhard. states in a report to the Signoria. as were. Professor of Philosophy.''^ The fact that the Jesuits took an active part and were a moving force in the political and military troubles of the Thirty Years' Gfrorer says : War hardly requires to be proved. I From the Reports of the Embassy. but of subjugating by force of arms the whole of Germany and. Father Confessor to the Queen of Spain.158 activity : Fourteen Years a Jesuit was at an end. The Order would. A pendant to the Jesuit Petre is found in the seventeenth century in the Minister of State and Jesuit. 98. I. and House [of Austria]. two childishly it weak successors of the . vol. Spanish Spanish Minister of in Ambassador Rome. "f The Venetian Ambassador at the Court of Madrid. characterised tersely by the Ultramontane Historisch-politische Blatter (surely an unimpeachable source) as : " Soldier.. which says " If Jesuits are claimed for political work sovereign.. S. issued a decree. in brief. 1667. in Spain.General. Marino Zorzi. State. the 26th. they It was no carried forward openly their great political schemes. . 139. Eberhard Nidhard. Jesuit. Confessor and Preceptor at the Viennese Court. Archbishop. become masters of the * Inst. Cardinal —that is. " After the Jesuits had fully established themselves under the Emperor Maximilian 11. p. 143. save appearances..

to imprint on the Thirty Years' Wallenstein's gigantic genius tore this fabric to pieces. . and tried War a purely imperial character. p. the Jesuit Rumer. may * Gfrorer. was not merely a natural result. . which gives proof positive of the activity of the Jesuits in urging on the war " I hear that an army is being raised for your Imperial Majesty against the Bohemians. If the Jesuits themselves and their ambitions are not merely to be taken as products of the period. wrote a letter to the Jesuit Lamormaini. The most important part in this far-seeing plan satisfaction of their lust of was reserved for the Imperial House. . first the Jesuits had to procure an emperor suitable to their plans. under the command of the Duke of Bavaria. Protestant Europe. far-seeing policy.). On the 19th of June. . to be done with men like the Emperor Rudolf Hke Matthias II. 1618. Rector of the Jesuit College at Passau. the Thirty Years' "War is the work of their Order. princes and kings who fought for the Catholic cause in this terrible struggle played the parts assigned to them by the Jesuits. for what was ? . Rector of the Jesuit College at Graz (who soon after became Father Confessor to the Emperor Ferdinand II. They intended to bring about an enormous revolution. 1837). These princes were led to imagine Germany at their feet and were flattered in the ancient claims of this dynasty to rule the universe. The .Politics and Confessors 159 through Germany.. . I (Stuttgart. and of suppressing the Reformation. he was bound to fall. but rather the work of a profound."* This general opinion is confirmed by many a fact taken from the history of the Order. 339. Because alongside of the imperial sovereign. But II. Unconditional power was the bait thrown by the Jesuits of to the House Habsburg. That artful calling into the ranks of the Bavarians and the fall of the Duke of Friedland were the work of the Jesuits. Geschichte Chistav Addfs . . They found him in the person of Ferdinand The establishment of a military force inde- pendent of the Emperor. . If this matter should lead to war. which had been revived since the union of the Spanish and Austrian inheritance in one House.

During guished his sojourn in Miinster.. as we were at Venice. pp. t Steinberger. Jesuits of Miinster were also eagerly devoted to Fathers Schiicking. 81. : . J One of the most interesting proofs § of the active share of the Jesuit Order in the Thirty Years' War is the following fact.: i6o Fourteen Years a Jesuit results soon.Catholic statesmen also " suaviter in modo. § I shall bring forward other proofs later. p. made by the Provincial Procurator of the Upper German Province Bissel. The Estates . in discussing the activity of Jesuit confessors of princes. Gaspar de Bracamonte y Guzman. built for himself in the neighbourhood of the college a house which he presented to the Fathers on his departure Count of Penaranda. the famous Jesuit composer of odes. drawn from the depth of the State Archives of Munich after a hundred and sixty years From an official estimate of January. at Miinster. will certainly it by force. These he immortalised by dedicating the Ninth Book of his in 1648. the principal In spite of their rigid principles the Fathers managed to get on very well with the non. J Ibid. 48 et seq. I fear we shall be left out. 394. SUvae Lyricae to the representative of France.. . Spanish ambassador. p. entered at the same time from Munich into political relations with the French ambassador Avaux. fortiter in re.. In the garden belonging to the House of the Order the Catholic ambassadors held their preliminary meetings. 54."* The politics. Father appears that at the * Apologia oder Entschvldigungsschrift auss was fiir unvermeidlichen Ursachen alle drey Stdnde des loblichen Konigreichs Boehaimb sitb utraque ein Defensionwerk anstellen mussen (Prague 1618). . hope for good But if it leads to concord. one of the most distin- among them. 1729. it of the Order of the Jesuits."f Jacob Balde. There has never been a better opportunity for depriving the Bohemians of all privi- not accept us unless obliged to leges injurious to religion and the Royal charter than now. . Corler and Mulmann were specially pronainent.

a admits " The Society of Jesus supplied it [the League] at first with few eager partisans.271 guldens 18 kreuzers . pp. characterises the League as a revolutionary who movement. they kept in the background.. the interest on which in 1729 amounted to 302. Here is also the documentary evidence from the Jesuit Papers in the State Archives of Munich. should openly range themselves on the Royal of his Order Being informed and wishes of the King.208 guldens. demanded the presence of legal side. . so that our people may not tell strangers. . 16L L . 16." for the Superiors. .000 guldens. .562 guldens 27 kreuzers.250 guldens for which . To his estimate the Jesuit Bissel adds this remark the interest in 1729 amounted to 30. * J.Politics and Confessors War i6i time of the Thirty Years' the Order advanced large sums to the Catholic League :* The German Province had lent 262. t Jesuitenfabdn. . of course says nothing of the Order's great money loans to the League. while other members were on the royal and But eventually. : " I shall not reveal this to others [of the Order]. For this might bring mischief and ruin on our establishments. Henry III. p. Beitrage. led by the directions of their General [Acquaviva] and by the example of Sixtus V.000 guldens. .833 guldens 9 kreuzers was due the Cologne College 29. for which in 1729 interest of 130. j" On the relations of the Jesuits to the French League at the end of the sixteenth century the Jesuit Prat. though referring to the Catholic League. and that of the complaints first all the members side. 151. Thus the estimate was strictly private and only meant The Jesuit Duhr. The sum total of capital advanced plus interest amounted accordingly to 954. trying to hide the fact that the Jesuits had anything to do with the Thirty Years' War. Claudius Acquaviva at proceeded to treat with the French ambassador in Rome. Father Auger at his court. the College at Liege 200. Friedrich.

. ."^ So the amusing anecdote which Saint. I. et quelque chose de plus. of the House of Braganza came to the throne..^^ The participation of the Jesuits in the revolution in Portugal in the middle of the seventeenth century. De V Existence et de Vlnstitut des Jesuites (Paris. on la voulut faire chez les Jesuites.: X i62 Fourteen Years a Jesuit Then he entrusted Father Maggio with the task of explaining to Henry III. Colon. Lavallee does not dream of discrediting Saint-Simon's Memoirs as a whole indeed he constantly refers to the Memoirs in explanation of passages in Madame de Maintenon's Letters. 65 et seq. on trouva leurs souterrains pleins de poudre dont ils s'etoient bien gardes de parler : ce qu'ils pretendoient faire est demeure incertain. f Saint-Simon is very inconvenient to the Jesuits as a witness. ils ouvrirent. In the passage quoted (inaccurately. . Memoires (Paris. and Madame de Maintenon. . 238. apres sa prise. ils ne s^attendaient pas. fouillant partout ou. which have been exploited in an anti-Jesuit manner." || Ravignan tries to extenuate the awkwardness of the * Becherches historiques et critiques sur la Compagnie de Jesus en France du temps du P. The Jesuit Duhr disposes of him for his readers with the following words " Lavallee [editor of Madame de Maintenon's Letters] charges the Memoii-s of the Due de Saint-Simon. . . 1876).f " II arriva une chose a Namur. Lavallee speaks exclusively of Saint-Simon's antipathy for Louis XIV. 1873). that the Religious of the Society took part in a political revolution that overthrew one throne in order to put another in its place. Mais en de ce qu'on ne s'en fioit pas a leur temoignage. so far as I know. qui fit du bruit. dans une derniere visite apres la prise du chateau.Simon tells of the 1692 campaign is probably no mere invention. Memoirs. Lorsque. 1564-1626 (Lyon. too) by Duhr." This is a piece of genuine Jesuitical misrepresentation. 12. 1855). :j: II p. has been so clearly proved that even the Jesuit Eavignan could not but admit it " It was the only time. through which John IV. toute en marquant toutefois leur surprise. with blind hatred and deliberate untruthfulness. I. without saying a word against the general trustworthiness of the : .. the reasons for the measures [taken by the Order] of which the King had complained. On visita tout avec exactitude .

the December 5th. so that the high clergy. written during his second stay in Rome (after his secession to the Church of following passage. 1847. have mentioned already the fact and the reason why less prominent politically since the But even during restoration of their Order than formerly. tells us how great was the by saying that the Portuguese general influence of the Jesuits in Portugal " At court they were not only directors of conscience to the Princes and Princesses of the Royal Family. 176. the French Embassy in Vienna.t and Cretineau-Joly is bound to ! confirm him. and the people vied with each other for their mediation and favour. the comparatively short period of not quite a hundred years numerous political intrigues and actions were set on I the Jesuits have been foot by the Order. 108. Secretary of Jesuits live and support thrones. In the diary of Manning (afterwards Cardinal). Thus reports Marechal de Belle-Isle. At one time he seems to have planned marrying the Princess de Beira to the Duke of Cumberland. 5. but that their politics are * most mischievous . 1848. occurs : me servir that the Jesuits are able and excellent in their duties as priests. and thus uniting Portugal to England."''^ Even Pombal had to bow at least once to the prepon- derant influence of the Jesuits. the aristocracy.Politics fact and Confessors Jesuits 163 had acted here rather as Portuguese than as Jesuits. November. a VHistoire des ^venemenls de la Fin du 18 Steele Paris. 1847. dated " Broechi told Rome). and Cretineau-Joly. p. 16. to May. but the King and his Ministers consulted them on aifairs of office importance. Memoires pour 1. t Testament politique. In the governtheir ment of State or Church no was bestowed without approval or influence. 1817). Surely a political enterprise Who was it that thwarted this plan successfully ? The Jesuit Order. . an evasion which might serve in similar cases for all countries in which Georgel.

I. I should have thought them stranger still if I had known who and what le brave General was (but I never caught sight of a newspaper)."* In 1866 and 1870-71 I was too young to be able to judge of the political activity of the Order in those stirring times. was completely under Jesuit dominion. which. of the Order justify The extensive anti. . come with the people the e. or in any was old enough to judge of subsequent events. and that the qualifying . These words sounded strange in my ears from the lips of so responsible a person. . Frenchwoman that no day passes but they The people call them Oscuri. He treated me with great candour. 1895). . whom God (!) had elected. p. led to actions. some of the Jesuits The Rector was the * Purcell. 364.i64 that if Fourteen Years a Jesuit a collision should . I was sent But I several times for a short stay to the Continent for various purposes of no journeys exiled (I special interest.g. in England. prove the strong political partisanship of the Order for Austria and France. as I have already shown. to the Dorias.Prussian influence and its traditional habit of political intrigue its the conclusion that and anti- German sentiments may have case to desires. Lije oj Cardinal Manning (London.. Oscurantisti. and told me with many details. and " le drapeau hlanc royal " hoisted once more. where from France had settled. how zealously he had been working in France that he had collected large sums for General Boulanger " Deliverer of France " from the Legitimist of money for the " la sale et impie Republique " would have to be nobility overthrown by Boulanger. which I have forgotten. effect would be terrible that they stick to the aristocracy. the Princess being a are there. renowned Jesuit du Lac. when I was studying theology as a Jesuit scholastic at Ditton Hall. but the events at Feldkirch and in my family circle. In 1883-87. During one of these I spent the night in the forget in what year) Jesuit College at Canterbury.

In the lobby of the (old) parliamentary buildings I had a long conversation with Windthorst. Lieber. The General of the Order. Anderledy matters too were dealt with in this letter. in which he said emphatic- . and under the pretext of study and pastorate. in connection with politics. Wynandsrade. There was a significant epilogue to this conversation In a letter to General Anderledy. at Windthorst's desire. was a frequent guest in the German Jesuit Colleges on the Dutch frontier (Exaeten. I felt bound to report to him the political activity of the Jesuit du Lac . of great annoyance. did not wish to interfere with du Lac*s political doings. formerly Rector of Feldkirch. replied to all. by parliamentary members of the Centre. and in his vexation at Windthorst' " If " prudence " he allowed these words to escape him Windthorst is not willing. I can only say that Windthorst and the other Centre leaders made us very welcome. who may also have omission. other at Canterbury." I never learnt to what the cunning Guelph's unwillingness may have referred. two Jesuits were sent to Berlin for permanent residence. In 1889. Blyenbeck). we shall go ahead without him. and the other was Jacob Fah. used to go to Hanover for important conOnce he returned in a state sultations with Windthorst. placed his hopes on Boulanger. I was one of the two. and chief editor of Stimmen aus Mariaoften consulted : Laach. well known to me from my youth. I shall recur again to my stay in Berlin. The leader of the Centre. Jacob Ratgeb. omitting only what concerned du Lac and Later I understood the reason for this Boulanger. Here. Ever since the establishment of the Centre Party in Germany it has always been closely connected with the Theologians of the German Province were Jesuit Order. The Provincial.Politics epithets " sale " and Confessors of 165 the and " impie " used by du Lac Republic applied particularly well to Boulanger.

After the expulsion of the Jesuit Order from Germany. made a speech air picnic was held. civil In the discussions on the new code {Burgerliches Gesetzhuch) the celebrated Jesuit Lehmkuhl played a great part as an irspirer of the Centre Party. : ! The faces of the surrounding fathers (for we scholastics stood apart) grew long and aghast at this candour." the Jesuit College at Blyenbeck. . almost literally as deeply as the Jesuit Order must put up with the Tableau occasional political consequences of the plunge. In the summer of 1882 August Reichensperger visited In his honour an openPiitz. and a little youthful infection was still in him. and that was why but the he repeated things he had heard in former days Jesuits had never interfered in politics. another Jesuit. but also in Denmark. but with reference to the exile " Those who plimge into politics said. on the guest of the day. and the hope of their speedy return with the aid of the Centre Party and its August Reichensperger glorious leader Reichensperger. the territorial independence of the Pope (the Papal States) must always remain in the foreground. in which he mentioned the exile of the Jesuits from Germany. the German Province of the Order settled not only in Holland and England. up to Windthorst's death. His name recalls to me a serious yet diverting " political " occurrence. the Rector. and tried to blot out the impression made by Reichensperger's words. He said Reichensperger had been brought up on Gallo-Josephinian ideas. Victor Frins. Very soon the Jesuits succeeded in converting the widow of the Danish multi-millionaire and press magnate. answered very pleasantly.i66 Fourteen Years a Jesuit and of ally that the question of the return of the Jesuits. was his constant adviser in Berlin. proprietor . Later on. August Reichensperger also held lively intercourse with the German Jesuits. On the very same evening the Rector joined us young Jesuits during recreation. Berling.

comprising in their motley but systematic variety the whole of Europe. being in the North what Feldkirch is in the South. With this lady's the Jesuit College at Ordrupshoj. That road For centuries the Jesuit Order supplied is confession.Politics of and Confessors money 167 the great Copenhagen paper Berlingshe Tidende. manipulated matters so as to place the forged documents against Bismarck in the hands of the Tsar Alexander III. was built. which almost caused a war. Considering the simultaneous political activity of the French Jesuit du Lac. It is naturally impossible to ascertain how far the Jesuit influence extended to the Berlingshe Tidende. mark the striking contrast between Jesuit words and deeds in this important point also. in 1887. An interesting of and instructive medley Jesuit of the political proceedings sufficient to the Order is spread before us. with the Jesuit Order. daughter of the Duke of Chartres. was also in the hands of the German Jesuits of Copenhagen and Ordrupshoj. the least conspicuous manner. Their pastoral work presents vistas of quite enormous activity. well It is known that it was Princess Waldemar of Denmark who. The Catholic Princess Waldemar of Denmark. and the influence of the " German " Jesuits in Copenhagen on the French Princess Waldemar of Denmark. to Catholicism. near Copenhagen. In the beginning of the eighteenth century the Duke of Saint. and through it to politics.Simon writes : . nearly all Catholic princes and politically influential men with confessors. it is not a very romantic supposition to connect the origin of the forged anti- Bismarck documents. apart from her French descent. Her intense hatred of Germans may doubtless be ascribed to Jesuit influence. It only remains to show the road by which the Order is enabled to enter the political arena in the most efiective and. at the same time.

Beitrdge. theologian. 1873). t Dollinger.: i68 Fourteen Years a Jesuit . les degres. terribles far la folitique la flus rafflnee. . 132 et seq. soutenue far les vues. Habemus confitentem reum. The Jesuit Cordara admits in his Memoirs " Nearly all Idngs and sovereigns of Europe had only Jesuits as directors of their conscience. the Congregation has decided not to appoint any of our people either to a sovereign or any other lord of the Church or State. S. a few decades later it was borne out by a man Well whom they could hardly set aside as a Jesuit-hater or misinformed.J. la flus suferieure a toute autre consideration que leur domination.. the official Constitutions forbid the acceptance of the office of confessor The fortieth decree of the second General Congregation of 1565 runs thus " Since it was proposed to appoint for the illustrious Cardinal Augsburg [Otto von Truchsess] a theologian of our Society to be his father confessor and also join his court. 7. 72. le secret. I.. ! : : ac frincifes frofe omnes Eurofae solis Jesuitis utebantur conscientiae arhitris. Vuniformite dans dans les moyens en sont rdme.^''* But the Jesuits do not admit Saint-Simon's testimony. to refer back to the Memoires (Paris.^^f Therefore. la flus frofonde. so that the whole of Europe appeared to be governed by Jesuits only reges Vautorite. . to attend his court or reside there in order of to fulfil the office of confessor. ut soli jam Jesuitae tota dominari of viderentur Eurofa. its The Order : the Jesuits governing Europe through confessors of sovereigns stands here convicted before us of a sovereign."J Is this strict prohibition * meant 3. t Inst. les ressorts. or any other office. except for the very short period of one or two months. 188. " Les Jesuites maitres des cours far le confessional de presque tous les rois et de tous les souverains catholiques . et la multiflicite un gouvernement dont la Monarchie.

then care should be taken as to the choice of in and the manner which they carry out their duties. and passes over the previous " strict prohibition " with the truly " The greater glory of God... * Cartas de S. Pollanco and Pelletier as confessors to the Dukes Hercules of Ferrara and Cosimo de Medici. after apparently strict injunctions (in Notes 4-7) that the father confessor should not engage " in exterior or political affairs. en virtud de santa ohediencia. to be shown in case of necessity and soothe the minds of the public. the Neapolitan Claudius Acquaviva. 225. II. Ignatius Loyola. Acquaviva drew up an Ordinance in which he gives precise instructions for confessors of sovereigns. 326 II. by virtue of holy obedience...J. who. for various reasons.Politics founder and Confessors 169 of the Order himself. . 8. whatever his father confessor should fit to suggest {sugge. Ignacio de Loyola (Madrid. the greater glory of our Lord office God seems to require suitable persons. so that the sovereign should derive benefit." all this is again made " possible in another way in Note 8 in the shape of an exhortation to the sovereign The sovereign should listen with equanimity and patience to think I." Jesuitical phrase of : " If the Society [of Jesus] can no longer escape such an because. 1874).. 173. t Inst. in 1602. is nothing but a paper to save appearances prudently produced by the Order. and had placed Fathers Gonzalez and Miron as confessors at the disposal of the Eang of Portugal ? * Hardly This decree." and not let himself be employed as " censor of ministers and courtiers. Not very long after the decree was issued. appointed Fathers Le Jay."t Then. twenty years before. too. and the Society sustain no injury thereby. 65 . the people be edified. The calculated deceit of the strict prohibition is almost proved by the action of the scarcely ! fifth General of the Order. III. it.

Tuba Magna. S.J.: : 170 Fourteen Years a Jesuit rendum) to him daily according to the voice of his conscience. 1648.As regards my encyclical that our people should not I meddle with affairs of war or peace. it would not be interfering with politics for the question whether an alliance with the Turks should be permitted was not a political . for the removal of oppression. of May 23rd. For as a prominent person and a sovereign is concerned. but also with regard to those which he might hear elsewhere {quae hinc inde audiuntur). to the Rector of the Jesuit College at Miinster. II."t A letter from General Carafla. Thus we see. wrote to General Mutius Vitelleschi " If he dissuaded the king from an alliance with the Turks. the lessening of annoyances frequently arising from the actions of the ministers. of France. Gottfried Corler. publiehed politics by himself. for instance. 310. cunnirgly points to " conscience " as the road by which the ofi&cial prohibition regarding interference with politics might be evaded. contrary to the wish and will of the sovereign.. and not only with regard to such things as he might know from him [the prince] in the character of penitent. Father Confessor to Louis XIII."* harm done. is thus provided for the most pronounced political influence. against interference with " . that the Jesuit Caussin. whose conscience may be oppressed by the against it. but a matter of conscience. t II.. . requiring a remedy.. did not mean thereby to * Inst. one. 226. it is fitting that the priest should be allowed to suggest what he considers good for the greater service of God and the sovereign. This confidential letter is all the more interesting because Caraffa refers in it to an encyclical. . and the duty of making provision So the confessor is to suggest [suggerere] to the sovereign whatever his conscience may dictate to him [quidquid It is obvious that an opening dictante sihi conscientia]. .

Caraffa's duplicity (for his letter is the essence of duplicity) is of particular significance. 199. introduced by the Generals Acquaviva and Caraffa. p. and shall see more clearly still. was just then a chief hotbed of political activity. * See Steinberger. to which the letter was addressed. ."* As the Jesuit House at Miinster. played in the political doings of the Order.Politics and Confessors 171 prevent our people in the confessional from directing the consciences of those turning to them with doubts. and was probably particularly effective. We how of it is applied again and desire again when Jesuit confessors sovereigns to represent their political influence as unpolitical. but only from dealing with such affairs outside the confessional. what a great part the "conscience" formula. have seen already. for Latin text.

11. an Innocent.CHAPTER XIX THE CRITICISM CONTINUED: COURT CONFESSORS AcQUAViVA. their expenditure. as Dudik expresses it. t I^IS. himself a strict Catholic. 234. p. whether he had discreet and able men at hand through whom. by searching the lives of citizens : {explorans)y he could inquire into [inquirat) the source of their income. not satisfied with an equivocal official " Ordinance " destined to be enrolled in the Constitutions of the Order. into forbidden contracts .. and wise men. 234. namely. such as a Gregory. how the ministers. when called on to % Vol. " the purpose at which the Jesuits aimed through their father confessors may be clearly perceived. that Machiavelli in Jesuit garb." " From the questions. in his Oesterreichische GeschicJite* Arcliiv fur from the manuscripts of the Court Library at Vienna. hampered the Inquisition * Vol. also issued a secret Instruction for the Confessors of Sovereigns. magistrates and judges discharged their offices ." says Dudik. . or through trustworthy.f It is composed throughout in the form of questions. Chart. p. zealous. " as a Confession Mirror for Sovereigns.821. the supremacy of the Catholic Church. 54. or a Boniface aspired to obtain. Sign. 54."^ Here are some questions from the " Instruction " Whether he [the father confessor] tried skilfully to find out himself. This secret Instruction was published by the Benedictine Dudik. and if they had entered whether he [the prince] had whether. 172 .

. General Vitelleschi. could only have the result just the it was most important matters (those that required a second opinion) which were not kept secret between doubtless intended by the Generals. p. I. both addressed to the Provincial of the Upper German Province any : " "WTien sovereigns require a Jesuit's opinion on subject. 1641.. p.. Moralstreitigkeiten. more than in designating the Confession of Sovereigns as an institution of the Order. 650. f From the manuscript papers of the Jesuits published by Dollinger-Reusch. he quotes from Dudik a passage from a letter of Lamormaini. who to lay it before several Jesuits for discussion. from the Archives at Munich. 1910. whether he had carried on an unrighteous war whether whether he had dishe had broken his princely oaths obeyed the Pope and Prelates of the Church ?* The Jesuit Order it should be here noted is the only one of all the monastic Orders which has official and . passes over this significant document and just Freiburg. where he ought to have discussed it he misleads (Die Jesuiten an den deutschen Ftlrstenhofen des 16 Jahrhunderts. that • The publication of the secret Instruction is exceedingly inconvenient to the Jesuit Duhr. Very is characteristic and significant for the fundamental attitude of the Order towards the confession of sovereigns this circumstance : The Generals Goswin Nickel (a German) and Mutius Vitelleschi issued the following orders in official letters of February 23rd. therefore.) In the Jesuitenfabeln (4 Ed. he had refused to do so . up. the Jesuit passes over the is referred to Acquaviva's official Ordinatio. and November 28th. in which the Imperial Father Confessor in Vienna. but secret Instruction in silence. 6. 100) Duhr also displays the same disingenuousness . justified I was. He mentioning by hushing it it casually. 1654.Court Confessors execute . — — secret Instructions for the Confessors of Sovereigns."! This Ordinance. which is in the first instance concerned with the confessors of sovereigns. 173 its sentences on heretics. in a mere footnote. this consultation is The resolution formed after supplied to the Jesuit who has been consulted by the sovereign. the Jesuit in question is is to report the matter to his Superior. .

is set aside on principle of by the Jesuit Order for the furtherance own political ends. " I am reproached for not seeking advice of . * The letter is published in extenso in Liberius Candidus. to General Caussin. 329 and in part in Dollinger-Reusch. behaved difierently. . that the Ordinance of his Superiors contained an invitation to \aolate the secret of the confessional. my I Superiors on the matters I discuss with the King. objects to being expected to report to the Superiors of the Order the confidences made to him by the King. human and divine What law .174 Fourteen Years a Jesuit sovereign and confessor. (Strassburg. Father Confessor of Louis XIII. Tuba Magna. 1760). know from . what constitution ? of the Society [of Jesus] is there that bids the Father Confessor report to his Superiors on the affairs of his penitents . and he must surely have known. which according to general theological doctrine every priest is We bound to its preserve even at risk of death. according to natural. Is the King's conscience to be revealed to as ? many persons as there are Consultors in our Houses "* Thus Caussin was of the opinion.. of France. The Jesuit Caussin opposed the demand Other Jesuit confessors of sovereigns For instance. But .. 651. right.. I. 4 et seq.. Edit. . II. and the discussions he held with him. matters of confession are to be kept secret. Thomas [Aquinas] or that.. . who appears to have been an inVitelleschi. but came to the knowledge of the General of the Order. and could thus be utilised by him in his general calculations and measures. But it appears to be an established fact that either a genuine confession or a of his Superiors. genuous man. a great deal has been written in controversy about the betrayal of the confession of the Empress Maria Theresa. This is clearly expressed in letters by the Jesuit Caussin. But here the secrecy of the confessional. have already seen that the Order disregards the secrecy of the confessional in the case of its own members.

that in " his researches in the Archives " he had learnt nothing about the matter. Royal and Imperial Court Chaplain at the time of Maria Theresa. near Vienna. . told the author (in 1830) as follows The urgent representations made by the Bourbon Courts to Theresa on account of the suppression of the Jesuits had not remained entirely without effect on her. and a statement made by him in answer to a letter from Duhr. Father Confessor. in order to contradict it. that Rome. But even fact? if nothing were to be found in Vienna and Simancas. Dr. No con- made by the Jesuit Duhr* can affect the gist of the matter. Dorothea (his name I have forgotten) came to Theresa and handed her a paper written by her ' : . what proof could that be in contradiction of the The vincing. Its * main contents are said to have been her (4). . It is positively absurd that Duhr. reports " On this affair. Maria Theresa's biographer. 40-GS. Jacob Stern. containing one of her recent confessions. Canon Ginzel. of Leitmeritz : Cathedral. who had a very extensive knowledge of current events. rest of Duhr's counterproofs are just as uncon- They may be summed up in the silence preserved on this matter by Arneth. a strictly orthodox Churchman. was reported by the Jesuit Campmliller to his Superiors in tradiction such as. J tsidtenfaheln pp. and states that there he had found nothing about a " betrayal of confession. for instance. ." From what we know of Duhr's researches. refers to his own researches in the Archives at Vienna and Simancas. These assertions and purely negative proofs are opposed by positive and permanent testimonies. the Jesuit Campmiiller.Court Confessors strictly confidential 175 communication made by the Empress to him. living in retirement as titular provost of Ivanzia at Hetzendorf. Then one day the Abbot of St. as her spiritual director. we are positively compelled to disbelieve him.

he did not violate the seal of confession." by Duhr's Another remark added by Ginzel in clearing still further assists up the point felt in question : " On the other hand. 1872). But it was a breach of confidence of the meanest kind if Campmiiller passed on what the Empress had put before him as her spiritual director. still in the enjoyment of his mental faculties. in order to obtain his * Kirchenhistoriache Schrijten (Vienna. . as a reason for not allowing the Jesuits to remain in her dominion. t Ibid.176 Fourteen Years a Jesuit Theresa scruples as to the recent partition of Poland. told to Ginzel himself." Thus Campmiiller seems to have acted strictly accordliterally ing to the decree of Mutius Vitelleschi. who did not speak of genuine " confessions " either. with regard to the partition of Poland her counsellors. are doubtless of great significance. 2. 231. we must note that the all scruples which the august lady . as the latter points out> " had a very extensive knowledge of current events " and was. . in the shape of questions and doubts. and if were very openly expressed before the Father Confessor wrote down such scruples."f What about the Jesuit Campmiiller had reported to Rome need not have been a confession in the strictest sense of the word.' "* These recollections of a Court Chaplain of Maria Theresa. . who. inasmuch as they had not been uttered in confession only. no matter whether she communicated similar questions and doubts his Imperial penitent to her " counsellors. therefore. not lessened derisive remarks about " the old gentleman. for the suppression of the Society now voted and is supposed to have reported to Ganganelli this violation of the seal of confession." The partition of Poland may surely have been a point that might cause Maria Theresa to turn to her spiritual director opinion. but of " points requiring another opinion.

whom I venerated of all. a " betrayed confession. M . and had charged him to clear up the rectory and A picture had then attracted his attention to have it cleaned. Ignatius Fessler."* Ministers of high rank.Court Confessors An of tlie 177 equally strong proof is furnislied by the testimony St. the Archdukes. pp. Imperial Russian Professor and General SuperPetersburg. : ' Confessions of the Empress. and who loved me like a father. Reminis- cences of a Seventy Years' Pilgrimage. a Jesuit formerly tertiae and consequently initiated in the secrets of the Order. was Josephus Julianus Monsperger. Still. and that the journal of that House did not mention a journey of the Rector's in the year 1764. 166In consequence of this discovery. auf eine siebzigjdhrige Pilgerschaft (Breslau. Meanwhile he had noticed in the place where the picture had been hanging a small closet which appeared to him suspicious he noticed and pressed a spring. and nineteenth and adventures are not experiences In his interesting book." and by " proving " talking of The Jesuit Dulir that Monsperger had held no position in the Professed House at Vienna. Voltaire also reports in a letter to the Due de Richelieu. a hale old projessionis. Among a mass of papers his glance fell on a case with the superscription Confessions of the Great and Powerful. and the door flew open. one of the most remarkable and sincere personalities of the eighteenth centuries. he does not dare to attack Fessler's trustworthiness. Monsperger left the Order of the Jesuits of Oriental and became Professor Languages at Vienna University. 1824). he had taken it off the wall.' He opened it. and found . man of seventy-nine." and says that the Jesuit * Fessler... . Fessler is intendent of the Lutheran Congregations at Dr. several and other persons frequently informed me. Archduchesses. sufficiently whose known. So Monsperger by tries to get the better of this testimony " romantic embroidery. The Rector of the Professed House in Vienna had been obliged to go on a journey. . he says " most The Professor at the University of Vienna. Ruclcblicke 168. in order to look at it in a better light.

Sacchini. in accordance with General Acquaviva's Instruction.* Unfortunately Voltaire does not give these proofs. Father Confessor of the Emperor Rudolf II. 18. Die Jesuiten an den deutschen Furstenhofen des 16. Jesu ad ann. It is obvious that. Societ. S. neither does Maggio himself. Hist. 1571.. and that the Count Fuentes and the Duke of Villa Hermosa held proofs of this. assumed officially a few years later by the Jesuit confessor of sovereigns. 1571 * (Euvres. It is evident that the double face and even double conscience. Jahrhunderts. p.J. t Duhr. 139. this was strong and decisive interference in politics. of Spain. But the We will now turn our attention to the work of individual few extracts will have to suffice. Confessor to Philip V. { Only a few months of the 21st of later this duplicity appears distinctly in a report to Rome of the Jesuit Emerich Forsler May."j" who takes good care not communicate Maggio's documentary memoranda which are at his disposal in the Secret Archives of the Order. began to manifest itself even then in its main features..: 17S Fourteen Years a Jesuit d'Aubanton. of course. sought to induce the Emperor to proceed with the utmost severity against the Protestants. by means of a memorandum and by verbal representations. see anything touching politics in his fel- low Jesuit's action. 1571. also a Here Years' War. . 79. nr. who is naive enough to utter a strong warning against interference in politics when writing to General Borgia in March. The Jesuit Maggio. shortly before the outbreak of the Thirty Jesuit confessors of sovereigns. to The Jesuit Duhr. Edit. fact corresponds with the sketch of d'Aubanton made on the strength of long acquaintance by SaintSimon. X Cf. had told the contents of a confession of the King's to the Duke of Orleans. 6. considering the conditions of the time. does not. Beaumarchais.

.Court Confessors 179 " The relations of our Father Stephan to Archduke Charles [Governor of Graz. 1636. et seq. Die Jesuiten an den deutschen Fiirstenhofen. . 244. 25. 1634. was the originator Still of the Decree of Restitution of March 6th." writes the Emperor to the Jesuit. p. more interesting is his proof. in August 7th. when the Duke of Friedland's fate was decided. Emperor Lamormaini had Under the also a considerable share in Wallenstein's fate. " will communicate to your Reverence a matter of the greatest importance and that under the strictest seal of conscience Schachtin. 1630. 1629. secretly at who was As principal adviser of the or confession. " The Vienna Bishop. in a prudent and discreet manner. on the most important matters the Archduke asks and receives and thinks so highly of him that he wished to admit him I to the public Council {publicum consilium). the confessor of the Emperor Ferdinand II. in Prince von Eggenberg's house. Lamormaini wisely declined for himself.'s work in Hamburg. presidency of the Emperor a " secret council " was held on January 24th."* Dudik showsf that the Jesuit Lamormaini. in order to inform him of the resolutions and to get his opinion. at Ratisbon. This have forbidden he is only to help privately as much as possible. at which Wallenstein's first deposition was discussed This is : * t P. The Senate of Hamburg wished to reward the merits of the Jesuit in this indubitably political affair by a present of 1. 243 Duhr. son of King Ferdinand] are quite confidential his advice. ."! in agreement with Gindely's report about the meeting of the College at Ratisbon. As the Jesuit Lamormaini could not be present the Emperor sent Bishop Anton Wolfrath to him. that the election of Ferdinand son as king.000 thalers. can be traced back to the Jesuit Lamormaini. p. when religious matters would be discussed with the Estates of the Realm. in July-August. J Dudik. but induced the Senate to turn over the sum to the Jesuit Heinrich II.

Besides this the report deals with stationing of troops in Pomerania and conclude Silesia. 1630. Three years later and. p. Philip IV. who in his turn was only The Spanish Cabinet held carrying out the directions of the Pope.' says the is letter of the Spanish King to Castaneda. several months before the murder at Eger. 1886). of his prestige into the balance against Waldstein. ' the cause of the present dangerous situation he advised and brought about the dismissal of the Duke of Mecklenburg [Wallenstein]. who is strongly et * The older and more correct spelling. the opinion that the Confessor alone had clinched the matter and that without him the Emperor would have retained his general. I For wording of the report. and filling the posts in the highest law-courts in Speyer and Vienna. the Marquis of Castaneda. ' Lamormaini. on the proposals which the Elector of Bavaria had made to him (Lamormaini) on his attitude to the Winter-King. you are to all tell him that he himself the cause of the trouble. dated 19th September. which are reproached with dilatoriness. J Even the Catholic historian. see Dudik. forbade his ambassador to interfere in any way. 291 seq.* It cannot be doubted that he did this. 1633. Electors . to the Emperor's attention to the danger threatening him. Steinberger. Waldstein wdhrend seines ersten Generalats (Leipzig. to Philip IV. on September 18th. to Ferdinand II. For the le:.' "f very telling document in proof of the Jesuit Lamoris the report written with his own hand. Castaneda. not on his instructions of the General of the own initiative. . moreover. .ter of the Spanish King Gindely quotes the Archive of Simancas. but by the Jesuits. 2. et seq. t Gindely. and is if he speaks to you again. 337 . namely the Empress and Lamormaini threw the whole weight [the Jesuit] Lamormaini. when Lamormaini warned call against Waldstein's plots and requested the Spanish Ambassador at Vienna.i8o " It Fourteen Years a Jesuit now depended only on the opinion of two persons [for the had already decided against Wallenstein] who had the greatest weight with the Emperor [Ferdinand II. " This matter also concerns conscience and religion " these words maini's political activity : A Lamormaini's expositions.] and whom he considered almost more than Eggenberg. .

Archduke * Die Jcsuiten xind die Friedensfrage in der Zeit vo7n Prager Frieden bis zum NUrnberger FriedeTisexekutionshauptrezess. t Dudik. published by Dudik.j: show in how many directions the confessors were occupied. addressed to the King of Spain with the object of diverting the suspicion." Even on the apj^ointment of court-marshals and on lawsuits their opinion was taken. J Pp. . Bohemia and Silesia. and in order to safeguard his conscience in every direction he initiated him into everything. The Emperor followed the advice and judgment of his Father Confessor. his position concerning the Mantuan succession and in the discussions preceding the Treaty of Prague. Ferdinand II. added to his semi-French descent [Lamormaini came from Luxemburg].. 256-278. seem to justify the supposition of the Spanish statesman that he favoured France. For Tilly also the Jesuit received imperial For the Emperor's brother. 1635-1650 (Freiburg. t Forty-one confidential letters from the Emperor to the Jesuits Becanus and Lamormaini. to treat the documents sent for perusal as strictly con: fidential. as the sheep follows the shepherd."* It was universally said that Lamormaini had caused the so-called letter Mantuan War of Succession. 15 et seq. the well-known Father William Germain Lamormaini exercised a pretty extensive influence on his Imperial penitent {filius spiritualis). and within what vast limits matters were considered " questions of conscience. But mostly it is questions of high politics which the Emperor places before them the state of affairs in Hungary. political views. the influence on certain There are frequent cautions from the Emperor Electors. pp. 1906). : i8i says of Lamormaini and his relation to politics " At the Imperial Castle at Vienna. p. 245-248. even As regards Father Lamormaini's the most insignificant trifles. A very tortuous from Lamormaini. failed in its endeavour. commissions.Court Confessors in favour of the Jesuits.

etc. he sent the Prince of Eggenberg to him and begged for his opinion. instance. But. In Rome it was desired that the Emperor should satisfy the French claims Pope Urban VIII. Princes. To the Emperor Ferdinand the Jesuit's advice was so indispensable that when Lamormaini was ill.. treat with Saxony or to surrender Lusatia to that Power. from the Gindely describes this dependence in detail.: i82 Fourteen Years a Jesuit transactions. 14 et scq. although it was brought to bear at high pressure. by purchasing this favour with the surrender of If he decided on this sacrifice he would have no need to Alsace. 595. the influence of the Jesuits failed. * Gindely. and to represent to him the recovery and reconversion to Catholicism of Lusatia as a work pleasing to God. This was creditable to the Emperor and a disgrace to the Jesuit politicians. p. etc. Thus Khevenhiller's Annals proclaim the truth in saying that " Lamormaini tyrannised over the Emperor and the and the Emperor was so completely in his power that not the Emperor but the Jesuits reigned supreme. foreign Jesuits were also set to work for the Emperor. wanted in this way to make France more powerful. At that time Lamormaini received an Instruction from Rome to influence the Emperor in this sense. " At that time [1635] it might have been possible for the Emperor to prevent France from taking any further part in the German disputes."* .. . for which Alsace might be sacrificed. OeschicMe des dreissigjahrigen Krieg&s. however much Lamormaini might try. In one however. f II. the Imperial Confessors undertook considerable money A truly servile dependence on the Jesuits in private letters and public affairs is revealed by these Emperor and the Archduke. Leopold. this time all his exhortations availed him nothing. and to snatch Lusatia from the hands of the Protestants. 'H Through Lamormaini's influence.

. etc. III. but he shuns and only loves worldly and licentious people. . Christmas he put it to the King as a duty to assist the Emperor. Fenelon attacks the Jesuit La Chaise. 1876).. ' ' : On the part of mediator between Spain and France played by the Jesuit Coton. III. sent Count Wratislaw von Fiirstenberg to Louis XIII.. 24th. and the Jesuit Laurentius Forer. 248. Your Father Confessor sterling virtue jealous of his is not vicious. Coton si longtemps ennemies. in Paris in order to induce the King to help. . He is prestige. . p."f nand's interest. * Gindely. Coton's fellow-Jesuit Prat writes : " Persuade qu'une alliance entre la France aurait de grands avantages four VEglise. which you have raised to an unlimited height. . il avait toujours eu soin de menager un rapprochement entre ces deux couronnes. quotes an original report of Fiirstenberg's to the Emperor dated Dec. .Court Confessors 183 In December. avec Anne . . 199. . . t Dudik. d'Autriclie^'X In a letter to Louis XIV. 1619.. . Finally he [Count Fiirstenberg] succeeded in winning over the Royal Confessor. the Jesuit Laymann.. 6. Le projet du P. Ferdinand II. % EccJierches. the Jesuit Arnoux . . abouti enfin au mariage de Louis XIII. 1619. Father Confessor to Henry IV. At first all attempts were in vain. the all-powerful confessor of the King : ". of France. et FEspagne imposerait et qu'elle aux puissances Jieretiques de VEurope. the latter had probably received directions from Rome to act in FerdiAt in any case he undertook the task. (Lyons. . who was oppressed for the sake of religion In the evening of the same day the Royal Private Secretary repaired to Fiirstenberg's house and brought him word that not only the King but also the Ministers had been won over to active support of the Emperor. 200.* This explains the remark of Gustavus Adolphus " There are three L's I should like to see hanged the Jesuit Lamormaini.

Histoire des Confesseurs (Paris. scattered in numerous letters. brought the sovereigns under their rule. but suppresses the following intervening phrases Father Arnoux was disnaissed from his office as confessor to the King.) : . he appeared to take his dismissal as a disgrace. de Maintenon (Paris. despise him and family. So hard is it (as a historian In says) for monks who have been employed at court to shake off its chains. as on their o\s'n confession they are like a lion to those who fear them. but instead of congratulating himself on being exempt from an ofiice which must always be a burden in the eyes of Details told by Gramond piety. are the onlyperson in France who does not know that he [La Chaise] is ignorant. . . Duhr quotes a use of Gregoire. too. Maintenon had undeniable powers of observation. Arnoux engaged in intrigues in which the true spirit of the Society [of Jesus] was revealed. At first he looked and spoke with resignation. and who in several countries. Duhr is careful also not to tell his readers the general opinion expressed by " The Jesuit confessor at court was in a sense Gregoire on Jesuit confessors. 45 et seq. prove that the confessor's bitter grief was to be seen in his behaviour. the Jesuit Duhr is particiilarly great at this double-faced For instance (in the Jesuitenfabeln (4). few words of praise by Gregoire on the Jesuit Arnoux. 69). like a hare to the courageous " (pp. 363 . 1824). or that of the Yet no one could dispute that Madame Jesuits in general.. especially in France. order to return to his position. 332-334). and that he still strove ambitiously to recover his lost position. Lavallee. 1866). something in favour of a Jesuit princely confessor he is quoted in full if he reports anything unfavourable it is suppressed. the tactics of the Jesuits are very clear."* Especially interesting are the remarks of Madame de Maintenon." Of course. so as to work in its interest. p. and particularly in Portugal. Correspondance gmerale de Mme. . on this Father Confessor of her Royal lover.184 Fourteen Years a Jesuit Never before did a King's Father Confessor alone appoint bishops and decide all questions of conscience. "In the year 1621 of France. 336. 426 et seq. that his mind is narrow and uncultured. The Jesuits. or Gregoire is called " Gregoire the undiscerning. pp. he knows neither people nor things.. Sire. p. and thus governed the people for the benefit of their Society. Spain. As regards Wherever Gregoire reports Gregoire. fessors of princes some are justly to be praised." (Gregoire. You. . 4. the Agent of the Order. and a ready victim any who him and him presents. to slander and ruin those who Among the Jesuit conthwarted or appeared to thwart its ambition. are indignant at his giving in to the ambitions of his You have turned flatter a member give of an Order into a Minister of falls State to . Confessor of Louis XIII. But the virtue of the individual does not represent the spirit of the community into whose secrets the confessors were initiated. and de an interest in the Jesuits in general and La Chaise in * Gr^goire. . They do not throw a particularly favourable light on his character.

. Perhaps you will . he was gay and free in his manner. although head is in a sad state to-day. . . brated preacher in Paris]. Do and {Sa his visit was more hke an insult than an act of civility.. which the King spoke to me this evening. on accoimt between me and Father La Chaise. : are some specimens " Do not attempt to cure Pere La Chaise.. .. .) Jesuits make war on us openly on all sides. and that your consideration spare them. . . bitter against you . and the . It is cause of the Church and the Bishop Father La Chaise attacked in speaking to the King. wants to set right the harm he has done in the matter of Father Poisson. ation on the principle that the pious are of no use this principle of the good Father's [Madame de Maintenon is frequently universally speaks sarcastically of La Chaise as " bon pere "] honour Imown. . or to teach him moder. The and those who wish for peace are to be pitied. Chaise has been to see me . instead of saying that we are all of no use. On Smiday I saw Father Bourdaloue [a Jesuit and cele. my reason to the is that his intentions are not honest.. of your place to defend the Meaux [Bossuet]. . I cannot help relieving my feehngs to you about all the mischief that the good Father Father La Chaise [La Chaise] has achieved with the King. visite avail plus fair (Tune insulte que cfune honnetete. . . I want you to make the Jesuits feel that you have given them up. 185 The letters are addressed to the Archbishop Here and belong to the period of 1695-1700. just because Father de la I love good people and he cannot bear them. Such speeches remove the impression of kindness I was malicious enough to tell him straight out that he need not be the enemy of the bishops. Society [of Jesus] at of the estrangement who expressed to me the sorrow of the my appearing not to love them. of Paris. they will grow for still them is more forced. but he has more talent for evil than for good.. because he was not of their number. be the protector bound to tell him that he in particular ought to of piety. I doubt less than ever that you should speak to Father La Chaise about Confessors.Court Confessors particular. not feel in . which By the way in . I answered . He complains greatly King of not being included among the [newly to be appointed] and bishops.. you may openly discuss it with him.

Jesuit Bourdaloue In the pulpit he played the part of the stern penitential in the boudoir of the former . he sued for her favour towards his Order. 1866).: f i86 that it Fourteen Years a Jesuit was not my fault. 451. and tliat I was ready to meet any advance on their part. who was personally acquainted with the Jesuit Tellier."* I have dwelt so long on Madame de Maintenon and her relations to the Jesuit to of La Chaise. He says the question whether any reproaches can be brought against this Jesuit and of what nature our only object is to clear away some of the fabulous deposit (sic) t Jesuit fellow-Jesuit : . He had been commissioned [during the dispute be suited to succeed him. 154. to justify La Chaise's conduct as the confessor of " We cannot here discuss a king who was mastered by his passions. which. 674). 674-681 ). 89. * Lavallee. mistress and future wife of Louis XIV. Rector and Provincial Scriptor. Madame The Jesuit La Chaise was followed by the (or Letellier) in the post of Confessor to Louis XIV. 151. (p. was on a about the Chinese rites] to defend the creed of Confucius. Theologian. 4. . . . The seven pages he devotes to him are filled with timid elusion of the subject. draws a vivid picture of him (dominait) Louis " Till only knew then Father Tellier was quite unknown to the King. who attacks the loose morals of the court Duhr deals in truly Jesuitical fashion with the doings of his La Chaise ( Jesuitenfabeln (4). list drawn up by Father La Chaise of those who would Tellier had passed through every grade of the Society. Jesuit Tellier La Beaumelle. an attempt to discredit sources that are unfavourable to La Chaise. He his name. His influence on the King and his policy was so great that even Cretineau-Joly admits that " Letellier dominated XIV. The which has accumulated about this confessor in such masses that his person has become almost mythical " which were in question. . 179 is also et seq. 4.. "{ Saint-Simon. But Duhr evades the real task which he should have attempted. 161. We should imagine it was just these reproaches J Cretineau-Joly. preacher worthy of note. The statement about the de Maintenon (Paris. Correspondance generale de 52. pp. having been Professor. Madame 310. because the Jesuits try make the public believe that her unfavourable opinion him was mainly based on " forgeries " by the Calvinist The testimony of the genuine letters of de Maintenon is suppressed by the Jesuits. with five or six other Jesuit names.

. . secretly. ever since entering it. and the Order had been compelled to send him back to France on account of the sensation caused by his book [on the Chinese rites] which had been placed on the Index. That such a man. where my father was a farmer. because of the genius which the Order the which derived its name from the of his Order to erect the new dogmas discovered in him. If else. He was a terrible man. who knew no other nourishment than its deepest secrets. ignorant and insolent. The King asked him whether he were related to the Le Telliers (a family of the old nobility). The Father bowed. he had. . . I. believing that for the attainment of this end everything was permissible. related to the lords of Le Tellier ? Far from it. concealing scoffing at the himself by a thousand folds and windings most formal agreements if it no longer suited him to abide by them.. secrets of the Order. whom nothing escaped. turned to Blois and said.. Of severe pleasures. His outward appearance promised nothing promises. who had dedicated his body ana soul to the Order. and desired on the ruins of the antagoEducated in such principles and initiated into all nistic opinions. always on the alert.Court Confessors He was of grace 187 a zealous partisan of Molinism. or with the prospect of thus more surely attaining his goal. [system of the Jesuit doctrine Jesuit Molina]. and no other God but the Society was in all other respects coarse. . . present. pointing to the Jesuit What a villain {Qud sacre /). . Fagon. . He had completed his training in the principles of the Order at Rome. Sire. knowing neither courtesy nor moderation. All moderation . and passionately pursuing those with whom they had been made. met in a forest. deceitful and malicious. aiming at revolution both openly and . closely watched his expression and movements.' Fagon. . I am a poor peasant's son. Formed by the principles and policy of the Society of Jesus . he would have inspired his eyes were wicked. Nor was he mis' ' ! : ' . . When he visited the King in his cabinet for the first time after his introduction. . lived only for the realisation of the principles of the Order. Bloin and Fagon were it and kept its . a foe to all frivolity and social was hateful to him. leaning on his stick. intellect. . His life was a hard one from inclination and habit. . from Normandy. terror his face was sombre and false penetrating and crooked. is not surprising. he only tolerated it under compulsion. . . . . he was thoroughly false.

p. because he was the originator of those amazing storms under which even to this dayState and Church."* also tells us with what perseverance sought his society. in France. he doubtless remembered the legacy of Father La Chaise. etc. 431. 9. education and doctrine. Pp. . and to the * Memoires. Confessor at the Court of Madrid. . 240. who played the same important political part in Spain as his co. and so many good people are sufiering. man who was and only accepted it out of obedience to his Order.i88 Fourteen Years a Jesuit This Tellier had afraid of his taken in this strange judgment on a confessor. "J Saint-Simon also gives a character sketch of the Jesuit Bermudez. Caussin.Jesuits. childhood. La Chaise..Jesuit d'Aubanton. 231. in connection with which we may note that Saint-Simon. " Bermudez. . Tellier. I mean He preferred to leave the strange counsel which he gave him. 19." § The predecessor of Bermudez in the office of Confessor Kjng was his fellow. I have dwelt in such detail on this new confessor. a Spaniard to the core. Co ton. t Pp. for everything to the Jesuits rather than irritate them and expose himself to the chance of a dagger. 240 and § 9. had a good deal of intercourse with Bermudez. hated France and the French. because he knew of the great influence which Saint. during his stay at Madrid as French ambassador. f He concludes his account of Tellier with the words Saint -Simon Tellier : " first He (Tellier) saw the King an old man and a Dauphin His task with the King was an easy one in his . 133. and because I have a more immediate and exact knowledge of this terrible personality than anyone else at court. put on the manners and gestures of a position.Simon possessed with the King and the Dukes of Berry and Orleans. and was secretly devoted to the House of Austria and connected with the whole Italian cabal. J Pp.

Histoire des Confesseurs. Raimond. to arrange that Philip V. Her husband. which caused so disturbance.* changement et says fut un grand long malheur pour les deux couronnes Saint-Simon. Cardinal Monod. and succeeded in bringing about the banishment of both Jesuits from court. 102. And the regular appointment of a Jesuit as the King's confessor in Madrid was laid down. first Victor Amadeo I. owing to the influence of the Jesuits. of Savoy. 10. and the value set by the Order on the appointment of one of its members. the Confessor of Louis XIII. as an essential condition of a good imderstanding between France and Spain. 110. daughter of Henry IV. His biographer. % CJ. often made use of Monod for diplomatic missions. in a secret article in the Treaty of Peace of 1720. of Spain should take a Jesuit confessor. Dollinger-Reusch.''' King's Confessor.f D'Aubanton had induced Louis XIV. and.Jesuit Caussin. may be gathered from an interesting communication of d'Alembert's. " (France and Spain). § Gregoire. Madrid.. 193. at Vienna. the etc. 57. 11. pp.Court Confessors Becan. says of : him " in the Biographie universelle Rome and Turin. (Euvres (Paris. as Saint- Lamormaini. of Monod Richeheu recognised the danger * Mhnoires.." ruled over Paris. asserts. " Ce ^^ much trouble and had succeeded the Jesuit Eobinet as the de confesseur. Confessor of the Duchess Christine of Savoy. who had combined with his fellow. formerly Assistant to the General in Rome Simon author of the bull unigenitus directed against the Jansenists. . 194. I. of France. in the instance d'Aubanton himself. f D'Alembert.J One of the most adroit political agents of his day was the Jesuit Monod. The importance which d'Aubanton attached to himself and his position as the King's Confessor. 1805).. 189 D'Aubanton.

Die Jesuiten Friedensfrage. by Maximilian to Paris to pave the way for an understanding between France and Bavaria. On April 5th and 11th Clorans-Vervaux had interviews with Mazarin which. hostility to ical activity of Germany characterises the politthe Jesuit Vervaux. und die . Nicasius Widmanns. " Stein- be regarded as the type of an accommodating court theologian.f Two an it years later Vervaux composed a report for his penitent Maximilian alliance with Bavaria was lawful. without having accomplished his purpose. pp. see Steinberger.iQo Fourteen Years a Jesuit tlie confessor Charles IV. Vervaux set out on this distinctly political embassy under the alias and with the outward appearance of Chevalier Baptiste de Clorans. as Vervaux was Maximilian's confessor and. on the ground that honourable. however. led to no result. p. which he once more advocated and France. with the cognisance and approval of his Superiors (as is shown by a letter addressed by the Provincial of the may Upper German Province. berger admits. and the Chevalier Jesuit returned to Munich on May 22nd."* ! A marked of Bavaria. the Jesuit Cheminet. to He whom also confessor to the Duchess Rome decided in 1664 against the amorous Duke and the accommodating Jesuit. to the Head of the Jesuit Professed-House in Paris). f For details and documentary proofs. in order to marry a Mademoiselle de Cantecroix. on March 3rd. and necessary. Very discreditable was the part played by of Duke " Duke in his desire for a separation from he had been married for twelve years. 181. Histoire des Gonfesseurs. of Lorraine." In the spring of 1645 he was sent.. 1645. the Austrians and : * Gregoire. And this though he was supported the his wife. under Maximilian I. The document I. 41-75. in ends with the words " If the matter turns out well.

* Steiaberger. 97 ct seq. and on that account implored the King to accede to his request the Society was very widely disseminated and composed of the most various it . had urged upon him (the King) shortly before his death to choose his next confessor also from the Jesuit Order. . to favour the Jesuits. in making this request only by his desire for the King's interests. whom it was not possible always to be responhe besought the King not to drive the Society of it : Jesus to extremities." This clearly shows that it was not with a view to conquering the Protestant Powers that the Jesuit Vervaux desired the alliance between France and Bavaria. and take up a more suitable attitude. . he said. this Jesuit was intervening in actual politics . and that this was not a question of religious denominationalism. which would have made the opinion of a confessor seem No. and although the many slanders spread abroad physician-in-ordinary to Louis : about were untrue. for so many years his confessor.'' was easy to play him a nasty " It was Saint-Simon adds the consideration of this power of the Order which induced Henri IV. and the Jesuit proposal was even directed against Spain and Austria.Court Confessors 191 Spaniards will show honour to those whom they used to despise. of France. Dis Jesuiten und die Friedensfrage. Catholic Powers. . is evident from a communication made by Marechal. for sible . p. yet he could only repeat that " he knew his Order well.* That the princes did not always select Jesuit confessors of their own free will. XIV. he was careful to bear in mind . He (La Chaise) knew his Order well. Marechal informed the Duke and Duchess of SaintSimon that the King had told him the following The Jesuit La Chaise. persons. but were often driven by threats to surrender these influential posts to this powerful Order. . for trick {un mauvais coup). He was influenced. natural. Louis was not superior to Henri IV.

f would not have been What action was taken by advice of the Jesuit ? " Le roi se rendit a Saint-Cyr. so that Lignieres able to absolve the King. In order that a priest."* Not infrequently the Order encountered instituting the difficulties. •j- 238 et seq. qui etait alors du diocese de Rouen. Cardinal de the refused jurisdiction of the King to Jesuit de Lignieres. who were not always in agreement with the morale aisee of the Jesuit set directors. 3. en repute d^aucun diocese par * Memoires.192 Fourteen Years a Jesuit La Chaise. pour soustraire celui-ci a la jurisdiction du Cardinal de Noailles. The priestly consecration alone (potestas ordinis) does not entitle him to hear confessions authorities. p. even if a member of an Order. But the Jesuits managed skilfully to aside the difficulties. He therefore commissioned the Dukes of Chevreuse and Beauvillier to inquire with all due precautions which of the Jesuits he had better take as his confessor. . on V envoy a a Pontoise. J . qui dependoit du diocese de Chartres. was in special need of a legitimised The Archbishop the of Paris. 153.'''% roi ne devoit etre V ordinaire. 1737). the revelations of Father his confessors himself to the revenge of the Society of Jesus and avoided exposing by choosing live from outside their ranks. from the bishops. of France. 6. A par- ticularly striking instance of this occurred in the case of one of the numerous Jesuit confessors of Louis morale aisee. may hear confessions he must be " approved " by his diocesan bishop and equipped with jurisdiction. ou il fut confess e par le pere de Lignieres. On ohtint ensuite un href du Pape qui permettoit au roi de cJioisir pour confesseur tel ecclesiastique quHl voudroit. in appointment of princely confessors. doubtless. XV. pourvu le qu'il fut approuve declarant que particulier. Noailles. et. He wished to and to live in security. who. Gregoire. 119. to it must be added the la Regence (La potestas jurisdictionis of the ecclesiastical Memoires de Haye.

in the on earth. 47. True. should be more leniently judged in this respect. The Jesuit confessor of the which takes name. 1593-94] has bidden us by the strictest decrees { to keep aloof from such matters. 16. p. drew a salary of 4. A very interesting insight into the views of the Order its as to the spiritual direction of princes secret report of the Visitator of the is afforded by a Upper German Province of the year 1596. of which 300 went in the an upkeep of a carriage. p. who are the spiritual counsellors of princes. the Jesuit La Chaise. Yet they * Journal historique de Trevovx (Verdun. from the Royal Confessor. had presented to his confessor. The Jesuit d'Aubanton. it is to be feared that we may some states. That is why the last General Congregation [the fifth.]. Memoircs.000 livres. King of France received annual salary of 6. speaking. said that our confessors. partly from Jesuits themselves. Pere La Chaise. And if we do not at last become wise. words of God. the Jesuit Paul Hoffaus " The present Pope too [Clement VIH. Whenever the confessor dined at court a banquet of six courses had to be served him. has publicly reproached us with interfering in the affairs of princes and and trying in a measure to rule the world according to our views. % Decret. 1709). what would He have said to such confession and absolution on the part of His Society ? And now a word as to the material position of the Jesuits who acted as princely confessors. partly from other persons.854 livres. regarding Jesuit politics and the confessors of princes.* Louis XIV. 133. Royal Confessor at Madrid. to our far greater injury.Court Confessors If 193 we assume that Jesus Christ did really institute confession. day it is feel the avenging hand of God. 205. t Saint-Simon. April. 79. whose Vicar he is as is piously believed. It stood on the spot where is now the celebrated cemetery. r/. a beautiful country-house as a place of retirement.t I may conclude this section with a few quotations. 247. 134. frightened by so many evil consequences. N .

265 documents original Reusch rests his statements on unpublished the State Archives at Munich. to which he had access in the . so that no consequences may of ensue for the Society and. But such a dispensation must only evil be moderately and prudently used. in Beitrdge zur Geschichte des et seq. which greater spiritual benefits. while it is possible that the wish of our General [Acquaviva] is that our people should take no part at is if all in purely political matters. but rather to warn them not to enter too securely and freely into temporal discussions. where it is not sufficiently certain whether the matter touches the conlittle science but or not at all. most importance. which would be wounding to them and also injurious to us.194 Fourteen Years a Jesuit ought to know that it is a question here of a prohibition in the Constitutions and in the decrees of the above-mentioned Congregations. and that they were only consulted fro Jorma without any result. and also consider that the permission is only accorded to them by a dispensation. and rather avoid such matters. J esuitenordens : Zeitschrift fiir Kirchengeschichie (1894). that which should be undertaken to the honour is of God and the salvation of our neighbour. p."* * From Reusch. Would that the confessors might carefully observe the words of the dispensation. I do not say this in order to entangle the confessors and lay snares for them. but with a certain wholesome fear and moderation. it seems advisable possible. may not be hindered. or his would be greatly distressed or offended case. assuming that both parties receive the dispensation and not one only. and that they should rather urge to seek advice from his to give their advice. therefore direct the prince to the His aid that the confessors. as far as is and our counsel might wrong road. as intervention in worldly affairs much opposed will refuse to our Institute that we cannot but fear that God to our deliberations on these matters. or only in cases when a prince in grievous sorrow. him first own counsellors before he invites our members were conducted according to the views Else the prince's counsellors might be justified in imagining that poUtics of the Jesuits. which perhaps refers only to doubtful cases. as far as this can be done in seemly fashion and without giving oSence. is confessor were to refuse his services in a particular so Further. should refrain from lightly urging the prince to this or that course without the advice of the Superior of the Order.

it . Viller. on April 30th. Confessor to the Empress Maria."* the end of winning the favour of princes. there ill little spiritual advantage to be gained by : it leads to reports about the Society. great favour he enjoyed at court. On June 8th. which httle in harmony with our Finally. appears in a fashion to be reopened in this way. we read who would not the door [to the princely not a bishop. ambassador. For there is no lack of those who seek after such posts with princes. describes as a somewhat one-sided exposition. Under the pretence of virtue they show zeal for the discipline of the Society and are filled with envy. which throw a strong light on the attitude of the Jesuit Order towards the office of princely confessor. of the was one most filled influential Jesuits of Austria . who denounced him secretly to the General. he had Because of the many envious enemies. who gives an extract from des IGien Jahrhunderts."! * Duhr. and our are angry efforts were directed towards Now there are some who and envious if any one is in favour and labours with good result. only because they desire to enjoy this liberty and honour.Court Confessors Tlic Jesuit Viller also speaks 195 some plain words. 1576.. In the is first place they grow accustomed to a certain rules. " There desire to is II. He defended himself in several long and outspoken letters. In a letter addressed by the Jesuit Francisco Antonio. 16). or lord . p. 1901. liberty. Its p. and this leads to many is abuses." contents would probably appear even . this letter (in die Jcsiiiten t " Duhr. German Assistant to General Acquaviva : " In the early days of our Society we all rejoiced if one of us found favour with a prince. 1598. an den devtschen it Furstenhofen Freiburg. . wife of Maximilian to the General Mercurian. as people notice that our members tolerate considerable abuses at the courts or else refuse to see them. . Father Confessor of Archduke Charles of Styria. he wrote to the Jesuit Duras. for many Order years he the most important posts in the —those of Rector and Provincial. 45. have some Jesuits in attendance is courts] which closed by the vows after profession.

Die werke von Fonds italiens. Bret. 169 et acq. a laquelle veuillent sacrifier le evident que ces hons peres trone imperial. contains a number of valuable and rare documents on the history of the Jesuit Order. up against us Venice. 1773-78). qui sont aujourd'^liuy de pancJier la balance et il puissans. 3. i. quails croyent est forte aise le du plus a leur hienseance. No. and not in an extract.e. Leibniz (Hanover. . 986. principalment Jesuites. en quoy peutestre Us les consulter et reussiront. inclinations and intentions of the various princes. pursuit of the office of confessor at princely courts. of March 27th.e.196 Fourteen Years a Jesuit : In a letter to Leschasser. 1682. 542. '' The Magazine for the use and ecclesiastical history as well as of ecclesiastical law of Catholic princes in respect of their clergy. if Duhr had published the was garbled. of political * Le t J Onno IQopp. V. ou nous verrons combien les il est feu a si apropos que les Eccleet siastiques se melent des affaires d^Estat." by Johann Friedrich Le Bret (Frankfort and Leipzig. si on continue a is a les croire a la cour de Vienne. of August 28th.^^'f The following from an Italian manuscript preserved in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris to princes as to the " As manner Instruction J in which the Jesuits rule " : : " the reports which the Provincials send in there some which deal with the character. : contains this passage " Dans quelques jours nous reprendrons cette matiere. they would throw an even stronger light on the Jesuit letter in full. from which territory the Jesuits had been expelled]. they cannot be compared with those which they have set on foot in Constantinople.. 1612. which doubtless Magazin (Frankfort. the General and his Assistants in Rome are placed in a position to survey and judge of the political are also among more one-sided . 1866)."* A manuscript report by Leibnitz. 10 vols. For there they are doing all in their power to stir up the Turks against us. Paolo Sarpi reports " Many as were the intrigues which they [the Jesuits] stirred [i. forbidden by the Constitutions. 1773). quHl leur coste. ce coste est est apparamment celuy de la France.

political * The Jesuits were. writes in the " In the intention of Loyola pohtics were certainly excluded who from his institution . . nobihty and many Catholic means of procuring for the Order a knowledge of important matters. ambassadors and occurs is prelates.Court Confessors Btate of the world 197 of the Order in and to regulate the attitude accordance with princes its own interests. . t Macaulay's History. p. had a religious basis. are a . In particular. Cretineau-Joly. but in the sixteenth century all matters of the court and diplomacy. legates . In Rome or the Jesuits constantly swarm around the cardinals. as gay Cavaliers. therefore. in From Huber. Cliap. to take Jesuits as their companions and confidants. and nuncios . as simple preachers. and try to turn it to their own advantage. . takes uj) a peculiar position. the confessions. . but which now only costs the Jesuits the money for postage. 175. Jesuits who are taken into the confidence of a prince seek advice diately of the General about matters of importance directions. He cannot deny the enormous influence of the Jesuit Order on the political conditions But he discovers a theory of justification. . 101 \ Cretineau-Joly. 1873). VI. "t rustics. compelled to intervene and social movements. . of Europe. et seq. an object for which prmces have to pay large sums to ambassadors and spies. In the same manner they also learn the disposition of the subjects and know which of them are well-disposed to the princes and which are not."* immeand follow his Macaulay sums up his judgment in these words " They glided from one Protestant country to another. as Puritan pay of the Order. and even the wars. under innumerable disguises." X Geschichfe des Jesuitenord-eiis (Munich. which a great many of the Catholic make to the Jesuits. to order all They prevailed on Gregory XIII. . so that events of importance often have an entirely different issue part of the business of from that which the princes desire. and inquire about everything that about to occur. The greater Christendom passes through their hands. 2.

did not wish to be the only one deprived of the illumination of the Jesuits [lumieres]. were encompassed And Father Antoine Verjus [a Jesuit] . Seignelai. He besought Louis XIV. Baron von Schwerin. 468 el scq. he boldly bears testimony to the gigantic political power of the Order. the Hanoverian matic helper Order. the French ambassador at the German Reichstag. . to obtain for him this diplo- {cet auxiliaire diplomatique) from the Superiors of the and accordingly Father Verjus was instructed [by his Superiors] to repair to Germany. Pontchartrain. ambassador.. Grote. . were among his best friends. . Louvois. .igS Fourteen Years a Jesuit feeling that lie has thus cleared the way. and Croissy." * * Ibid. both zealous Lutherans. There the breadth of his intellect and the moderation of his character soon won for him the regard of Cathohc and even Protestant princes. the Marshal of by the counsels of Luxemburg and . " Colbert. The most celebrated parhamentarians [of France] followed the pious counsels of [the Jesuit] Jean Crasset. 4. the Ministers of Louis XIV. Villars sought his opinion in affairs of importance the Count of Crecy.. ambassador of the Elector of Brandenburg.

recreation. time and space are available for individual activity and for freedom. not even that of a soldier. 1880-87. is as regular determined to transform the whole 199 man into the whole . studies. there is nothing but uniformity to record about the external I was surrounded everywhere by the part of the life. the training of members of every profession. the scholastic the days from four in the morning to nine at night are identical —religious exercises. {i. studies always follow each other at exactly the same intervals. same daily routine and customs. goes on like absolutely regular and even clockwork. especially during the training Life in the Jesuit Order. and at Ditton Hall. if they are no other and uneventIn all other professions some ful as that of the Jesuits. the scholastic period). as I have shown. BLYENBECK AND DITTON HALL I PASSED my time as a scholastic of the Society of Jesus (a name. Blyenbeck I will (in Holland). deal shortly with this period of seven years. since no other calling aims at destroying the But the Jesuit Order is personality of the individual.e. recreation and religious exercises . but little suited to the Jesuit Order) in the colleges at AVynandsrade. Still calling. Notwithstanding the variety of times and places. to be qualified for prominent positions. To .CHAPTER XX SCHOLASTIC YEARS AT WYNANDSRADE. I do not wish to find fault with this rather the conUniformity and regularity are desirable during trary. in England.

doubt and opposition. Minutely regulated activity overrides obscurity. may grow . They are also strictly forbidden to abstain from recreation. Consequently opposition to the Jesuit system cannot develop. Anything of the kind must be prevented. even in which would seem to be necessarily connected with liberty and individuality.200 Jesuit . Even recreation. of the personality which is is The set up polishing in and planing the novitiate with intensive force. gentle yet irresistible. Hence the perpetual motion of the evenly working machine of exterior Jesuit life. The scholastics are freedom in choosing their companions. although real recreation might frequently be found in doing so. the absolute lack of really free time in which individuality may realise and assert itself. since the balls are living. They were the Humanities and Rhetoric at Wynandsrade (1880-81). Philosophy at out again. and which divides the scholastic's year 365 times into mathematically equal parts and particles. is used for compulsion and restraint. human it is beings into easily and possible that angles also active in the scholasticate. not allowed any Here also the system of turmae prevails. is a means. Fourteen Years a Jesuit hence the suppression of all freedom. Another result of this system which is advantageous to the Order must be mentioned. essentially restrict free thought. which knows hardly any exception. of external matters. The studies which I had to pursue also belong to the exterior life of this period. There is no time for pondering over doubts and difficulties w^hich the life of the Order may suggest. This inflexible uniformity of the external life. transforming noiselessly rolling balls. killing personal individuality. or the two weekly walks. The continual occupation under constant and strict supervision. For. For the Superior arranges exactly with whom every one is to associate either during the two daily recreation hours after dinner and supper.

and from the chains to fetter my own religious idealism he forged me to the Jesuit idol. My enough. just because of its strength. it exposed me to the severest pain. but Nix took . I laid bare my soul to him and unreservedly submitted myself to his guidance. this typical Jesuit —warm-hearted and cold. I had not become a " ball novitiate. In reality. passionate and coldly calculating. How I hate him. Again and again he pointed out the great and shining goal the glory of God when I wished to forsake the — — holy calling. fastened the burden of the prosaic. conand utterly unscrupulous. at least so far as we scholastics and especially I myself were concerned. though in the end it led to the joy of freedom after long and hard years of struggle. I shall deal life and Theology with them separately. I had retained my individuality ground against all the levelling discipline. who was neither a Master of the Novices nor even a spiritual Father.Scholastic Blyenbeck (1883-87). by day and by night this I night. upon himself this function. the same who played so ugly a part behind the scenes during it my had maintained its in the Hartmann-Ebenhoch trial. Years at 201 Ditton Hall (1881-83). inner within this rigid frame was stirring In spite of everything. pious and godless. Again and again. And it is due to the Jesuit Nix — — that I did not even then leave the Order. idealistic and scientious gentle and harsh. My Rector at Wynandsrade was the Jesuit Hermann Nix. with unflinching constancy — and untiring patience willingly grant — he strove to bring my self-asserting for the struggle continued even at ego under the yoke of a delusive belief in Church and Order. it is not the duty of a Jesuit Rector to the be the regular spiritual guide of his subordinates Jesuit spiritual father (who at Wynandsrade was the Eberschweiler) was there for that purpose. but rather pursued the thorny path with greater firmness. He. But. .

Catholic who devoutly. forces The Ultramontane Jesuit point of view which had ! . changed at Wynandsrade. and thereby performing a work of enlightenment for mankind. which throws light and truth on the Jesuit Order. chaste and obedient. and that there were dark abysses under my feet. I tant of all —should — I have been capable of fighting against Ultramontane Rome and Jesuitism with thorough knowledge. almost suddenly. now began a hard conflict within me. there was indeed considerable uneasiness within me. notwithstanding my hatred. almost in one night. upon me that the knot held for fourteen must thank him on two scores. This was soon. A profound change took place on November 13th. although perhaps not without inner difficulties. Above this book. To his teaching I owe the skill and strength. but on the whole I stood with firm feet on the trodden path of the Order.202 Jesuit life Fourteen Years a Jesuit so firmly years. And most imporNevertheless. All the energy latent within me was awakened and guided by him to definite action. would have remained unwritten had it not been for the Jesuit Nix. 1880. with the taking of the vow. if I had left the Order at Wynandsrade after I should again have a novitiate of two years ? Never become what I was previously. from the novitiate at Exaeten into the scholasticate at Wynandsrade. that the Jesuit Order was not what it appeared to be. It 1880. the uneasy feeling which had already frequently troubled me. was not that I objected to the wording of the vow. to overcome apparently insurmountable difficulties. and what millions are ! to-day —a all. which I have been obliged to draw upon so frequently up to the present day. When I passed in July. Far But from it I wished to be poor. took Two possession of me with a power previously unknown. Consequently I thank him. jogs along on the appointed path.

and . The life of the spirit and the nervous system suffered severely. having passed my matriculation and law examinations and done some practical legal work. belief and tradition. in spite of clearness of thought. But of what kind were they ? I.Scholastic Years 203 been fostered in me by inheritance and training gave verdict. My bed became a rack of indescribable misery. but I could not. The cries and the bitter weeping of my tortured soul had to be suppressed. Nobody must notice anything of my inner suffering I had to be equable. raised no living echo in my innermost soul. . a man of twenty-eight. even cheerful. in favour of the it. and all the time I was obliged to fulfil my duties under constraint. Doubt and oppression lived there because they were natural. indeed I did not sleep. there arose in me an agonising tumult which caused every chord of my soul and every fibre of my body to tremble. I wanted to and to maintain undisturbed the ideal picture formed of it from the first years of my childhood. in which I was defencelessly exposed to seek relief to the inner conflict without possibility of outer diversion other things the word. Certainly I found some help in the prescribed occupations. did Latin and Greek exercises. For weeks for months. confused in thought or neurasthenic. But. wrote compositions. —were hours of torture for I was strictly forbidden by getting up and occupying myself with — in the worst sense of And then the long day lasted from four in the morning to nine at night. sat on the form with boys of eighteen. The hours from — — nine at night to four or five in the morning. strength of will and outward peace. beliefs. The voices sounding from Church and family. Not that I became Nature rose in opposition to believe in the goodness of the Jesuit Order. which was powerfully strengthened by its family tradition and religious Order. Such tormenting conditions arose for soul and body that words may not even suggest them.

and thus in the Church itself. learnt grammatical rules second this was not all. naturally the Jesuit erection founded on it also collapsed. have followed in the path of the Order to the end. But when the rock of the Church crumbled under my feet. which years before had vaguely troubled me. through belief in the Church and the support of her judgment that the Order was good. and years later And was the real cause of my leaving the Order. extinguished . my belief in the doctrine of the Church regarding the Virgin Mary and her adoration also received a rude shock. Only those who know from personal and practical I difiiculties connection of these particular doctrines concerning Christ and the Virgin Mary with Catholic feeling. had not given way previously. Along with my doubts about the Order arose doubts That in connection with my religion and my Church. then appeared for the j&rst time in clear form. and by trampling my individuality under foot. have mentioned in the first part of this book the and terror which the dogma of the Real Presence of Christ in the Sacrament had caused me even in childhood. to sacrifice my judgment and my desires. later. not even the worst. no exaggeration to say that the sun seems to be when these religious stars begin to fade.204 Fourteen Years a Jesuit and poems like a pupil of the class. These two dark clouds again appeared on my religious horizon at Wynandsrade simultaneously with the doubts about the Order. I should never have left the Jesuit Order. For if my belief in certain dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church. but should have sought and found strength. and how. and the manner in which they form the experience the intimate pivot of the Catholic faith. can estimate the awfulness for a Catholic heart It is when they begin to totter and fall.

Scholastic I shall deal Years of 205 with the difficulties concerning the sacra- ment of the altar when speaking my I stay at the Ditton will Hall Theological College. a pseudo-religious and pseudo -mystical to the present is And even day the Jesuit ture dealing with the Virgin a collection of the most extravagant doctrines and assertions. but have also become so unlovely in themselves and so unreligious that their continuance tinually increasing grotesque developments —indeed. scholarly theology has abandoned doctrines. of the wildest devotional practices and miraculous stories. The following dates from the time when the Order was in its prime. For. them more completely than other religious They have really passed over into the popular ness. Now this adoration of the Virgin and the work of its further development lie in the peculiar domain of the explained Jesuit Order. but say at once Mary and her adoration. above all. and are consequently also concepwhat is necessary about the Virgin tions of formal theology. so to speak. although the Virgin Mary and her adoration are also connected with dogma. their con— can only be by the general suppression of intellect and judgment which broods like darkness over the high and low Ultramontane Catholic world. into conscious- everyday Catholic sentiment. shortly before its suppression : In the middle of the eighteenth century the Jesuits held a service at Munich in honour of the Virgin Mary's . in previous chapters. In the course of time of it has led to a fearful litera- development nature. because they are closely con- nected with formal theology. cited examples of the ascetic practices of the Marian Congregations in honour of the Virgin. I have already. and. the Catholic Church the adoration of the Virgin In has assumed forms which not only directly and manifestly contradict the position occupied by Mary in the Scriptures.

Ich befiehl mich deinen Haaren. Er sdbst 1st ja gilt hei mir sehr weing. Hat ihm diese auserwdhlet. Schonste Jungjrau. therefore. Deck uns zu mit deinen Haaren. Ahsolons goldgelbe LocJcen. Mich. Come. if thou wilt be bulletproof. : living in Constantinople. Die dem Gespons so angenehm war en. Fuhre uns an deinen LocJcen In die Stadt. Fourteen Years a Jesuit : A poem and a portion from a sermon regarding the Vimin's hair will illustrate the service Gott der alle Hddrlein zdhlet. Mir seynd diese wenig Hddrlein Werther drum als alle Perlein. Seynd der Brauthaar Pfeil gewesen. had such thick hair that no bullet was able to injure him. Steh uns bei in alien Gefahren. The hair of our dear Lady resembles this janizary's hair. zu deiner Lieb anlocken. nur ein Eichelhonig. From the sermon "A janizary. Hide behind the miraculous hair of the Mother of God and the bullets of thine enemies will not harm thee. wo alle frohlochen. Wie im Hohenlied zu lesen.— 2o6 comb. als die FlocJcen. Schdtz ich mehr nicht. here into the Hair Chapel of our dear Lady. dear Christian. deine Strehnen Pfleg ich allzeit anzuflehnen. Thou wilt . Dock Maria deine LocTcen.

Ursula [which eleven thousand virgins are still honoured in Cologne] . in remembrance of the eleven thousand Mary.. desire rather to be out of the world or in hell Mary had not . Matrem Mariam^'' in which. 88. kiss Mary's name whenever gentle and chaste ' . Bucher. ' : make us scourge ourselves or box our ears blows to God through Mary's hands .. if not with a knife . amongst other things. D."* The Jesuit Pemble published a booklet of the Virgin Mary. because of eating as vassals of the blessed Virgin Mary remained . as though encased in a woollen bag. and offer the cover ourselves over modestly at night so that Mary's chaste eyes may not be ofiended lie between Christ's wounds and Mary's breast and draw it occurs in reading . which are even now expressed in hundreds and thousands of " pious " Jesuit monstrosities. he recommends the following devotional exercises in her honour r " We should say at all hours Holy Mary. v. In From Ibid." f Such " religious " aberrations. t 144 et seq. had always been the collected works of A. keep our eyes so in check as not even to see a bare calf or toe on lying down or getting up eleven thousand would be more devout virgins. thence as much grace as possible if . notwithstanding * my Catholic belief in the Virgin Mary. to digest. I.Scholastic Years 207 stand in the middle of the storm of bullets. always carry a picture of the Mother of God on our breast write or grave Mary's holy name on the breast with our fingers. . worshippers of the Virgin beat the breast eleven times possibly with a — stone in the hand.. hang a rope round the neck free and recognise ourselves eat no apples. " Pietas quotidiana erga S. if thou art a servant of Mary's hair. difficult for me 87. who followed in the train of St. for Mary's hair shields her janizaries. I. lived . from the sin an apple [in Paradise] pray to Mary that she may give us a pleasant dream of herself.

and had become distinguished through a specially intimate relation with Mary. What attitude did spiritual guide. again arose before me.2o8 Fourteen Years a Jesuit set before the Jesuit Order this food was various shapes. the Jesuit Nix. conflicts ? take towards these said that he helped Firstly. for example myself. special reverence for He frequently said that this was de- rived from his patron saint." Consequently Satan was conjured up. inward I have already difficulties. But since the Jesuit Order indeed. Wynandsrade was extremely rich in pictures and statues of Mary. monk who lived in the Middle Ages. Mary in every possible way. who was " All these things are temptaready for any emergency tions of the devil he grudges you your happiness and the certainty of Heaven. Difficulties and misgivings concerning Faith and the Jesuit Order. which originate in the creed and organisation of the Order. and severe conflicts ensued. poems had also to be composed. They all appeared to me impious and unwholesome. which has been resurrected and developed by the Jesuits. Lourdes. Orations were made in her honour. But how ? and simple pacifying method. the blessed Hermann Joseph. had no trace of a directed to poetic gift. Einsiedeln. The wickedness of our me over these the ancient : . . I appeared of to myself wrong-headed and wicked on account my contrary feelings. me again in The Jesuit Hermann Nix had a the Virgin Mary. and turbulent piety which I such places of pilgrimage as Kevelaer. even by such as. do not exist and may not exist. This superfluity of cant regarding the Virgin re-awakened of distorted my old contradictory spirit. sickly sweet productions of no artistic value. Our thoughts and senses were a of Cologne. the Church herself The pictures had observed at —defended my — these things. which he himself has lost. was employed with masterly skill by this man.

which ensued the gold of holiness must suffering. by indicating the glory of God. old Father Beckx. A single effort of the will sufficed to quell my strongest resistance. by the Nix. be extracted in the crucible of no more was required.Scholastic own nature and have already said its Years I repeat 209 the promptings of a personal devil are the sole sources of : all religious revolt. yearly increasing. for towards the end of my stay at Wynandsrade I received a letter from the General. ascetic pride under the disguise through dwelling on the thought that only those chosen for high and great purposes are exposed to such attacks : which was made and the goading on of of religion. I marched forward over a field strewn with the corpses of natural feelings and judgments. like a well-trained dog. who was so clever in religious and psychological matters. so overcome) from the battle that my nature. I issued so triumphantly (really. with all its absurd superstitions. combined two other influences with the infernal one : the appeal to my idealistic nature. obeyed for In state of my mind at that time years. what I What do not the Eoman Church and Orders owe to the devil. ultramontane Catholic devil-literature. Hence the enormous. the more so as Nix deepened it by all kinds of hints and tales of his own activity and that of other Jesuits in succouring souls obviously attacked evil one. that great ultramontane sheepdog ? The keeping alive of the belief in the Prince of Darkness is literally a vital matter for ultramontane Rome." The year at Wynandsrade was given over to ascetic o . Naturally the fear of the devil also took effect in my case. in which he expressed himself as greatly pleased with my " progress in virtue. Nix must have informed the General of the Order of my victory.

A lay brother suffered from consumption. and frequently removed with my finger the clogging mucous masses from the patient's mouth and pharyngeal cavity. the Jesuit Kreiten. and that the victim grace. The ancestral seat of my family. having heard of this. was seriously and. Hoensbroech Castle. was My fearful spiritual troubles caused . denial of personal inclinations and humiliations. during my stay at Wynandsrade. hopelessly ill. I inten- tionally avoided going even into its vicinity during our walks until the Jesuit Nix.e. combined with a tormenting cough. as said. Strangely I had an ardent desire to see the fine structure. recognises life sacrificing the individual's for that of another in peril when it is more precious than his own i. I begged frequently for permission to perform kitchen-service. I had never been there. The of Jesuit asceticism (in asceticism) common with the general ultramontane and commends the . i. etc. which was particularly exhausting because tasks more zealously than it shortened considerably the already scanty recreation time. carried out his schoolboy although I was twenty-eight years old. The school routine. But no real pupil of the second or first class I.. was an abomination to me. Wynandsrade. a literary light of the German it province. " the Lord of life and death. the cradle of my race. do enough in the way of self-conquest. with its tasks. A sacrifice of my life which I attempted at Wynandsrade also deserves to be mentioned. and he had not the strength to expectorate the mucus.210 Fourteen Years a Jesuit I could not practices owing to the struggle just described. commanded me to go there." is begged to take the offered life and permit the other to continue. I asked permission to be with him a good deal. Now. is then in a condition of not burdened with grievous sins. God. is situated quite close to enough. The conditions for this heroic act are that the sacrifice takes place with the spiritual guide's permission.e.

When such an attitude seemed to me insincere. *' All that you are experiencing of despair and disgust is not due to yourself. The sensations are due to the discipline I The most severe — — devil. Letters to my mother and others had to speak of happiness and contentment with my calling. But I am still alive. the prohibition to give underwent was due to any outward hint of my inner suffering. and the earnestness with which I begged God. I underwent bodily discipline also . Your better self recognises I rejoices in it. I scourged myself my spiritual guide. I received the necessary permission and an injunction to offer my life to God at the next Benediction (an evening service at which the monstrance with the consecrated host is exposed). I consequently begged the Jesuit Nix for permission to offer myself as a sacrifice for the patient. although my body endured enough mortification owing to the and. spare me superhuman struggles. with the permission of continual sleeplessness arising from inner struggles. and permit me (as I thought) to enter into the certainty of eternal life. wore a penitential girdle more often during my time at Wynandsrade than at any other period of my Jesuit life. owing to the nearness of some relations my mother also visited me there had to hide the tumult of my soul and its torment under a cheerful aspect and calm manner. During visits which I received a few times. Nix's stereotyped reply was. Who was present (as I believed) in the host." Even to-day its happiness and shudder with horror when . I will return to this event belief cussing my present relation to in when disGod and His providence. to take my poor life. Words sannot express the ardour with which I offered myself. as I had learnt during the novitiate period might be done.Scholastic Years 211 me to think of death as a deliverance. whilst the feeling of despair inwardly tormented me. Nix.

But for that very reason I propose to write a word about the irreligion of the system of pilgrimages and relics. and sat for hours with the other scholastics in the burning sun amongst thousands of pilgrims gazing." I knelt. . I shed tears of the bitterest misery in face of the relics. the pilgrimage would draw down God's most bountiful blessing upon me ! am not carrying on any religious controversy in this book. the already-mentioned pilgrimage to the relics at Aix-la-Chapelle. a vest belonging to the Virgin Mary. Rome. Such disorder and deception should be whipped with lashes and scorpions out of every society calling itself Christian. Fool that I was My remedies did not lie in the legendary rags. stood. with prayer and song. up at the gallery of the Cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle. What Rome teaches her believers in this respect is no better than what draws the Tibetans to their Loretto. my body and in a state of collapse. which occurred during my stay at Wynandsrade. allow me to remain at home. " No. etc. Verily " out of the depths " in the fear and distress of my soul have I cried to the Master and His saints. then On account of its ascetic religious aspect. called the sacred relics of Aix. certainly not the relics will help you. Dalai-Lama and Taschi-Lama. But how could I make such a resolution at that time when my understanding was still in bondage ? The Jesuit Nix — ! praised I me after my return . I must here briefly touch on an event. My remedy would have lain in the determination to free myself from the yoke which inherited and cultivated superstition had placed upon me. Treves. I supplicated the Jesuit Nix to . I passed a dreadful night before the day on which the soul were almost pilgrimage was made .212 Fourteen Years a Jesuit and the " joy " which and I I think of the " happiness " felt. where the relics were shown by turns Christ's swaddling clothes.

Taschi-Lumpo. and received the answer. — — : that you may employ these gifts in the service of the . understanding and feelings unreservedly. It fed. with their relics and miraaberration culous pictures.Scholastic Years human 213 Aix-la-Chapelle. threw open to us the doors of the highest circles of society. Who has called you and the others for all eternity to the Jesuit Order. and the Buddhist temples of the Indo-Chinese. Nix wished to show what thankfulness and. indeed our whole being will. it occurred to me that. An instruction connected with them may be mentioned. apart from the fact that I the consideration was not inspired by pride should have been respected in the worshippers shall worship the Father in : . — — world without the Jesuit Order. clothing and lodging which the Order gave us. supported and taught us. I expressed my thoughts to Nix. etc. what self-sacrifice we owed the Order. you forget one thing God. For. The theory seemed to me very disputable. Lourdes. Christ once said. for a Jesuit was held in honour everywhere in short. in return for the nourishment. God is a spirit and they that worship Him must worship Him in spirit and in truth. It invested us with respect. what we should be to the Order consequently it was our duty. has only given you body and soul. understanding and will. consequently. I and the others sacrificed our body and soul." When will this time come which was foretold two thousand years ago ? The Jesuit Nix gave the annual eight days' Exercises just before I and the remaining scholastics of my year left Wynandsrade. " But the hour cometh when the spirit true and in truth. etc. are on the same level of and religious degradation as Lhasa. " Dear brother. which strongly exposes the arrogant and egotistical Moloch spirit of the Order. and that what the Order gave us was amply counterbalanced by this sacrifice.. clothed. still more. we owed what we were and.

therefore. which my had placed at the disposal of the Jesuit Order after its banishment from Germany. six. and even more to share rooms which. and here roebuck." much your was satisfied My mind property as that with this answer. This is a striking proof of my spiritual narrow-mindedness at that time. father was with a strange sensation that I crossed the threshold and court of the ancient castle where in my childhood and youth I had stayed so frequently. stucco ceilings and baroque chimney-pieces. I consistently and resolutely showed the earnest desire. there : . I did not find it easy to accustom myself to so comof the Society of Jesus. And I can also testify to the fact that. was full of memories for me here I had amused myself with my brothers and " sisters on horse and foot. But this was done. as at Exaeten. In the summer of 1881 I went to Blyenbeck. in the best rooms. even through their outer decorations. your body and soul are. Fourteen Years a Jesuit Through God's predestination. but as a brother one amongst thirty or forty. not so of the Order. who had renounced the world. here snipe. high up imder the roof. pletely altered a situation and to live as a member of the Order. Every walk in the vicinity. I was to live there no longer It as the son of the house.214 Order. I was to study philosophy there for two years. in the face of these difficult relations. which abounded in woods and heaths. reminded me of other things than the life of the Order and of a scholastic. rabbits. in the same place where I had previously ruled as the son of the house and given myself up to pleasure. It required considerable deter- mination to banish the pictures which arose and to let bygones be bygones. and whence I had gone for happy rides and taken part in many delightful hunting parties. exposed to summer heat and winter cold. . had played " robbers and police with them there I had shot foxes. and with five.

I also took my first step on the way to the priesthood at Blyenbeck. the tonsure on the back of the head. Constit. after leaving of the last vows. . secret informed me that he had told the General.. . at least in the German Province of the Order. the so-called four minor ordinations {ordines minores). as I received. a man aiming at spirituality. with the remaining scholastics of first my year. to receive back at least a portion of my property it from my eldest brother. Fortunately.. in whose possession had remained. only resignation of the right of enjoying and disposing of property is connected with this first act of renunciation complete renunciation of property is only connected with the taking I was consequently able." " that I had made good progress in virtue and was a Jiomo spiritualis. Exam. § 25.. 1. III. step to the sacrament and impose no obligations on the can pass over the consecration I did not even receive the outer sign of the four ordinations. the Order." During the second year of my stay at Blyenbeck I renunciation of had to make the ahdicatio honorum. 2 . had made it usual for this act to be performed in the fourth year.Scholastic combined with still Years 215 self-sacrifice life to follow the ideal which I perceived in the of the Order and the Society the Jesuit of Jesus. property. I had already had a natural tonsure there * for years. from an Indian bishop staying there on a visit. IV. and only custom. I ceremony. I renounced my fortune for religious poverty with complete resignation. Miller.* the renunciation of property should really be made during the second year of the novitiate. for consecrated person. 7. in the " second catalogue. Since the " minores " are only a of priestly consecration. also At Blyenbeck my Superior. gen. According to the statutes of the Order.

2i6 Fourteen Years a Jesuit my philosophical studies at Blyenbeck in Hall. etc. in England. When we saw hardly anything but factory squalor. from almost chronic hoarseness. to I finished July. the house was filled with an unwholesome odour mingled with soot. black and dirty through smoke and and externally a hell to thick vapour. surrounded by large chemical factories (Widnes. St. we were informed that infectious diseases and harmful Headbacilli and bacteria could not get a hold there. Through these the heart-blood of my inherited and acquired Catholic life gradually flowed until there was no longer any left. On our walks the sun. I there fought the dreadful which inflicted lasting wounds (in the Jesuit ultramontane sense) on my soul. fight difficulties. aches and throat troubles occurred frequently. trees stretch out their withered branches like ghosts into the murky air which. which destroy all vegetation for miles around with In summer and winter the dead their poisonous fumes. and I had to search out the way I to new life. 1883. It me. Wynandsrade and Ditton Hall. have only unhappy recollections internally of Ditton Hall. Ditton Hall the old arose with greater violence. were of decisive importance for my inner life. the beginning and end of my scholastic period. is but rarely illuminated and warmed by the west wind was blowing from the factories (as was usually the case).). increased by new ones. Helens. By way of comfort for the prevailing depression and repulsiveness. however. and was sent to Ditton study scholastic theology for four years. was The ugly house is situated in a hideous neighbourhood. inner one I suffered ! But the . At Wynandsrade false asceticism succeeded at in strengthening me in my wavering religious views . The outer hell might have been endurable. and the paths we trod were black with slag and coal.

furnished in addition with tioned. and that anyI . the " Superior placed over me by A arrival at Ditton Hall. that my course of development would have been retarded lastingly through any influence whatever. and continued to studies with indefatigable ness. One must know the absolute dependence of the Jesuit subordinates upon the Jesuit Superior to estimate what a jealous Superior. change of Rectors occurred a few weeks after my The former Rector. God. and when I laid bare the almost indescribable pain within me. was chosen as assistant to the General of the Order in 1883 at the General Congregation sitting at Rome. and tried to . for he made the hell as hot as possible for me." he gave free rein to his aversion. Gossiping. mutual but whilst I endeavoured honestly to recognise and respect in this person. to be obliged to make a Statement of Conscience to such a man. With his miserable paltriness and do so at Ditton Hall. . vain. he had every characteristic which enables a Head to render The antipathy was life miserable to his subordinates. I must recall time. and the Jesuit Wiedemann took his place as Rector of Ditton Hall. he deserves contempt. hollo wness. I met with nothing but disparaging words of contempt from this Jesuit when I conscientiously opened my soul to him. the Jesuit Hovel. do not believe.Scholastic In the first Years my 217 Superior at that place. I was conscious I had always pursued my of his mistrust everywhere. I hate the Jesuit Nix the Jesuit Wiedemann does not deserve as much. for example. repugnant to me from the very bottom of my soul. application. Wiedemann accused me of idlemake others share his opinion of me. and spoke of the waters of affliction and despair which had crept up and threatened to to his subordinates it means — what engulf my reason and my will. revengeful. all the idiosyncrasies just men- means. crafty and thoroughly false. mean. suspicious. indeed.

I was to write the letter quite on my own initiative. the cannon was then offered to the English War Office with the same negative results. and with my theological studies came the duty of allowing myself to be submerged in the . He retained a liking for artillery problems. in spite dogmatics and moral theology. but it did not seem to be practical. so that there should be no suspicion that the Order as such had any interest in the invention of the cannon. had been an English artillery officer in India before he Jesuit interests entered the of Order. Possibly further details regarding the Jesuit cannon are to be found in the records of the office of the commanding General at Coblence. the severance effected from the Order and Church would perhaps have taken place more quietly and with less bitterness. In spite of his aversion to myself.2i8 Fourteen Years a Jesuit . Perhaps. General von Loe. and. Wiedemann said. which would be very advantageous to the Order. Unless I am mistaken. who was then the General in command of the 8th Army Corps at Coblence. prevented me from standing where but if a better man than the Jesuit Wiedemann had had the guidance of my soul during the thing would have I stand to-day four years of later my theological training. he was particularly interested in the construction of a new cannon on the wire system. the Jesuit Wiedemann exploited me and my worldly connections when came into question. One of my fellow-scholastics. Brother Cecil Longridge. My theology course brought the priesthood within appreciable distance. and beg him to have them tested by experts. send him Brother Longridge's constructional drawings. there might be something in the idea. Wiedemann sent for me one day and charged me to write to my cousin. such as the science of projectiles. Some months later I received a friendly answer from Walter Loe saying that he had had the matter looked into.

which he pronounces in and. " This is My . And. which is. there gaped abyss. is millions life loses much of its weight. as follows 1. but takes the presence for granted without making difficulties of which I speak here. feet Years 219 Then. into my which my back the the sinister darkness eyes had already glanced fugitively. the person of Christ over bread wine (generally only during Mass). this belief life —which — rests a transfiguring gleam over the of the Catholic Christian. however. and can give no why or wherefore concerning the presence of Christ in the host. for the individual who believes that he may have intercourse and conversation with the all-good and all-powerful God as with a friend present in the body. and the After the priest's words." The belief in the lasting presence of Christ in the consecrated host preserved in the tabernacles of Catholic piety one of the most potent sources of Catholic derive from it daily vital energy and strength in bodily and spiritual troubles. forming bread and wine into Christ. The dogmatic teaching ever. The essence of the Roman lies Catholic priesthood. and real presence of Christ in the altar sacrament. howis unknown : in its details to the mass of believers. on a sudden. indeed. though hitherto kept from closer observation by my its well-disciplined will. The dogma which terrified me was that which sought a foundation in theological scholarship for the belief in the real presence of Christ. actual. like It is not. of the Church.Scholastic dogmas beneath of of the Church." the nature and substance of bread and wine disappear. the sorrow of churches . as it were. in the mystically religious climax. power of transthe body and blood of Jesus Through this power the priest is the originator of " the true. the name and body " and " This is the cup of My blood.

to the natural laws of decomposition. {jper 3. because a fresh body of Christ occurs simultaneously at every division. for example. receiver Mastication of Christ's body in the mouth of the is consequently also impossible. although in reality there is no more bread and wine present. The senses only perceive bread and wine as before. nails. all . but only through the physical process of division. and consequently concomitantiam) also the whole body of Christ. so that the human senses can perceive no change. the whole body and all the blood of Christ are present in every particle and every little drop. the limbs and also the genitals) is present in the consecrated host. like other food. colour. and that without fresh words of consecration. hair. however. The substance of the flesh and blood of Christ . is present in the consecrated wine. but also in each separate part of the bread and wine. The whole body and all the blood of Christ are not only in the entire host and the whole amount of wine. so that. and consequently {per concomitantiam) also the blood and the whole amount of Christ's blood 2. since the substances of bread and wine are no longer present. The entire body of Christ (skin. smell. 4. The " accidents " of the bread and wine (form. whether it occurs through the teeth or by other means.220 Fourteen Years a Jesuit nature and substance of Ckrist's flesh and blood take their place (transubstantiation). the decomposition of the swallowed host and the swallowed wine takes place in exactly the same manner. and weight) remain. the consecrated host and consecrated wine are nevertheless also subject. Although a natural decomposition of the consecrated bread and the consecrated wine is impossible. in the recipient's stomach. so that when consecrated bread and consecrated wine are divided into thousands of particles and small drops. 5. taste. bones.

as with The priest retains the power of consecration per- manently. he changed the bread of all the bakers' shops which he passed in the Parisian streets on his way to the scaffold into current during the body of Christ. 7. and that the words of consecration be spoken in or immediately outside the shop or store. the priest is not this miraculous power. so as to be able to drink out of it before Mass without breaking . provided that the bread-shops and wine-stores contain natural bread and natural wine. This miraculous sacerdotal power is also illustrated by " facts. although the substances of bread and wine are no longer present. with Christ's blood. it cannot be alienated from him. with Christ's flesh. A priest addicted to wine. other bread and wine. it is also at his priest command when desired outside can consequently transform all the Mass. in spite of this. and No sin. not even apostasy. consequently not at any considerable distance from either. fettered by time and place in exercising his extraordinary power ." I will only relate two stories. During the French Revolution a priest apostasised. the substances of bread and wine again take place. same action Consecrated bread and consecrated wine have the as ordinary bread and mne. i. which were my theological term of study. and become intoxicated with consecrated wine.e. Every supply of bread in every baker's shop. so that we may satisfy our hunger with consecrated bread. who could not forgo his early morning drink. and with blasphemous design.Scholastic Years disappears at the 221 commencement of the decomposition its and 6. i. transformed an entire cask in his wine-cellar into the blood of Christ. so that I still retain In addition. and all the supply of wine in every wine-store.e. but was beheaded In his rage. can take it away. into Christ's flesh and blood.

and I allowed the ceremonies of the consecration to be enacted over me already seized the best part of whilst in a condition impossible to describe. in the Ditton Hall church. and whom I then ! I . told the trouble of In vain I It my " It soul to is my spiritual guide. need not dwell on the seven points named above to it make and clear why fear —indeed. I read my first Mass in the old castle of my ancestors. 1886. owing to the fact that it is no longer wine but Christ's blood. and other relations) had even hastened to old Father Oswald." " This is an hard saying . Blyenbeck. who happened to be at Blyenbeck. 222 Fourteen Years a Jesuit the strict rule not to partake of anything before Mass. For the consecrated wine. which Christ instituted at the last meal He took with His disciples ? Was that breaking of bread and proffering of the wine cup supposed to have such a brutal meaning ? and that horror. scepticism my soul.. sisters." How I suffered when. This is the essential purport of the dogma of the " real presence of Christ in the altar sacrament. whither my superiors had sent me. finally unbelief supplanted fear supposed to be the meaning of that sweet memorial feast. the more violent be- came crated my opposition and the more dreadful my spiritual anguish. a few days after my ordination. before the whole of my family (mother. brothers. was always the same : the devil who is tempting you you must disregard all this. horror —seized me as to their contents. does not belong to the things which may not be taken before Mass or Com- munion. Is this The nearer the day approached on which I was to be equipped with this priestly power. When the Bishop of Liverpool really conseme and twelve fellow-scholastics to the priesthood had in July. who can hear it ? " has seemed to me to apply to this doctrine ever since I I came to know it.

I tried to carry out even the hardest duties of a priest connected with the dogma of Christ's real presence. it. woman to leave the prayer-book with the host behind when she went from the confessional." and " transformed " bread and wine into the also could only lay the I He So. and pressed into a pulpy mass. it is the duty of the priest to swallow the consecrated host when he observes that it is getting decomposed possibly owing to dampness in the tabernacles. Nevertheless. in reality. or for other reasons if he is not positive that it is already quite decomposed. For six whole years I bore the burden of this priesthood with continually increasing anguish. as I so often did. conscience with bitter tears —truly tragic blame on the devil. I then took the host. because the thought of also swallowing Christ's genitals into her prayer-book had been too dreadful it was . and consequently that Christ is no longer present in it. a woman confessed she had not swallowed the host on receiving the Communion just before. and described my of anguish tears. body and blood of Christ. According to the doctrine of the Church. When I was hearing confessions before reading Mass one morning in a parish where I was assisting in the priestly — — duties. she had spat the host there.Scholastic trusted. saturated as it was with saliva. Years 223 on the previous evening and in the morning just before the commencement of Mass. . approached the altar driven by the " devil. still After I had it tried in vain to persuade her to swallow seemed to me that I could do nothing else but swallow the expectorI told the half-distracted ated host myself. together with that which I consecrated at the Mass I read directly after. This incident also illustrates the troubles caused amongst believers when the pious but vague belief in the . from the prayer-book and swallowed it. I will only give one very striking example.

fundamental presence of by a knowledge Two other doctrines of the Roman of Catholic belief troubled me during my theological course —the with doctrine of the Holy Trinity and the doctrine original sin. and of the whole Jesuit existence in general. is shown . and must not know. the Trinity is an absurdity tinged and Hellenism. . that great abuses have occurred within the Jesuit Order. But once I had done so. do not intend to discuss religious polemics. On the contrary. He does not know.* It is outside the scope of this book to go into these " thoroughly Christian " dogmas and expose their absurdity. owing to the wilderness of absurdities surrounding their dogmas and customs .224 Fourteen Years a Jesuit Christ in the host begins to be supplanted of dogma. He only hears praise and glorification only light. the Catholic religion is by no means the only culprit in this respect. and the dogma of original sin caused by the fall of Adam and Eve is also an absurdity combined with anthropomorphic and crude The doctrine Buddhism of conceptions. it became. and no shade. * I have been obliged to write this word of renunciation of Catholic I dogma so as to explain the breaking down of my belief. incomprehensible to me why every clear and religiously disposed It person does not discard both these doctrines. it is necessary that I should explain that I condemn wrangling of the kind when it occurs in an unlovely and wounding form. and is still. There is still one peculiarity of the scholasticate in particular. was a long time before I attained to such recognition. to be mentioned. The Jesuit scholastic is kept in complete ignorance regarding the history and mission of his Order. Every religion and every Christian belief has cause to utter a mea maxima cidpa in face of reason and humanity. as it does only too frequently. It is sujB&cient for me to afiBrm that the doc- trines of the Trinity and original sin became the outlets through which I passed from ultramontane Jesuit night and bondage to light and liberty.

the Jesuit Kurte. vincial. tion on the Pope's part. and took back the ill-omened book. as we know. I was called to the Provincial's Socius. Cordara had. would be concealed if it were possible. must not reach his ear. Years 225 He lives in complete ignorance of facts. before I had found time to contained. Scarcely half an hour later. but canthat Cordara's p . when performing the duty the of of reader in the Rector. He hears only the bombastic. by order of the Pro- Memoirs were not to be read. although such concealment does may not point to honourable dealing and confidence. gave Bollinger's me the third in Memoirs of the Jesuit Cordara were with the observation that the Memoirs were to be read at dinner. I can give a striking example from : my own experience of wilful exclusion of historical truth in regard to the Suppression Once. He has entered with the firm belief in the supermundane character of the Order and in the almost divine nature of its foundation . the Jesuit Miller. i. murmured something about a "mistake" having occurred. official stories of the Order. and I was to return Dollinger's book to the Rector.e. The Rector received me with visible embarrassment. it is put down as an aberra- history. who informed me. familiarise myself with the contents. refectory. which we have found and shall still find making themselves audible at every period. We excuse the fact that attacks by adversaries are not given him to read. and this delusion is kept alive in him. and I was consequently to study them.Scholastic him. written with great love for his Order. As it is impossible. which are stories but not I am positive that even the suppression of the Order by Clement XIV. But even admonishing and warning voices from within the Order itself. vainglorious. volume which the Beitrdge just published. glance at the book.

I must speak of the accidents which tore the veil from my own eyes. so do innumerable Jesuits spread the same glory Fawning flattery. It is generally only an accident that opens his eyes a little and later him see facts in their true light. seems incomprehensible to me that I could have lived for years in such implicit faith.226 Fourteen Years a Jesuit its didly on the causes of suppression. One of the worst of the its many is the Order against members its crimes committed by that it not only conceals the truth regarding * own history. The same thing happens with Jesuits as with most As they hear nothing of the ultramontane Catholics. as far removed around their Order. but deceives them with " historical " untruths. etc. which has become incorporated into his body and blood. indeed thousands. So long as the Jesuit looks upon corrupt if this artificial light as the real light of history. social and intellectual life of the Papal system. Das Papsttum.* so in like manner the Jesuits do not hear of the great faults and deficiencies of their Order. and he applies to himself pitilessly and effectually the theory of the temptation of the devil. from truth as the poles from one another. as soon as his own reason and lets natural understanding raise their voices. infamous actions and grave offences against religious. We scholastics must remain in ignorance of the frank recognition of abuses by such a prominent Jesuit as Cordara. he considers himself wicked and he doubts the excellence of his Order. . political. my work. (7f. forms the daily food of Loyola's disciples. At that time implicit faith and blind and naive belief constituted the very air which I and my fellow-scholastics At the present time it breathed. of books and writings radiate the undimmed glory of " godliness " over and around the Papacy. And as hundreds.

* criticism of this given in Chapters IV.J. based on a Scheme of Study which has continued unaltered from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century I have also shown that the " improvements (1832). and Philology. judged by U. times. and V. 1870). as its name indicates. of Study has already been There I showed how backward and unmindful of the requirements of the times are the school instruction and education of the Jesuit Order. which still holds good in 1910. its tion of the Scheme of Study. and was for the first time after two hundred and thirty-three years subjected to a few additional and trivial alterations. introduced in 1832 cannot be described as a real advance or suitable adaptation to the requirements of modern How can a Scheme of Study dating from 1599. 227 . (Pvomse. however. forget that its value to be appraised according to its efiect world or in the sphere of knowledge. S. Philosophy. Order has only one criterion for its institutions This " gauge " is the interests of the Order. and. is the young Jesuit's period of study. also the foundathis.CHAPTER XXI THE SCHOLASTIC STUDIES The scholasticate. All studies are based tutio on the official studiorum Societatis Jesu. divided under the headings of Ratio atque Insti- the Humanities. pretend to the very slightest value ? is by no on the outThe Jesuit : One Scheme We means side must not. value * Inst. -i69-549.

this most primary requirement of humanistic demand became a matter of life or death They made a virtue of necessity. after an absolutely inadequate training. that the Order does not of its own initiative give a thorough professional training in scholarship to the pupils intended to teach humanistic subjects. fact characterising the " humanism " of the Jesuits. to be appointed at their insti- tutions to teach the young pupils entrusted to the care Attention was also called to the important of the Order.228 is Fourteen Years a Jesuit For in its Scheme of Study the Jesuit inestimable. and only the untruthful Jesuit boastfulness could speak : of " achievements. and contrives that it shall reach them only in such measure as is necessary and useful for the purposes of the Order. —THE HUMANISTIC STUDIES My personal experiences in the college at Wynandsrade and at the Jesuit educational institution at Feldkirch show the methods adopted in the humanistic studies of the Order. Order possesses a powerful implement with which to guard its members from enlightenment. and how the pupils are allowed. Is it.e. have also dwelt briefly on the fruits of Jesuit scholarship. but it still remains to answer the general question What has the Jesuit Order accomplished in scholarship since its beginning ? The result is an absolute blank. the hateful command under compulsion. State interference the Order would have continued to adhere to I its own " philological " methods. indeed. the imperative decree of in the State that teachers shall have undergone a professional and passed examinations it) to comply with training. and sent their This scholastics to university lectures But for on philology. swallowed to the Order. but only when compelled by external circumstances training in philology {i. I." and even brag of them. .

reformers are to be found among them they are but average scholars. 12. is the result of this four hundred years' activity ? The list of those Jesuits and their works worthy of mention in the history of scholarship would not fill more than No great men. IV. with this difference only. which lays special stress on the humanities. Involuntarily the Jesuits emphasise this discreditable fact by their ceaseless boasting. well as average scholars. and Hebrew. Greek. Does not this throw a strong light on the miserable poverty of these storehouses ? The primary cause of the whole worthlessness of Jesuit scholarship is revealed by the fact that the Constitutions of the Order expressly define humanistic studies as mere auxiliaries *' to theology. then. no pioneers. no half an octavo page. and a few others. are the stock pieces continually produced from the " philological " Jesuit storehouses which have been four hundred years in filling. such as may be met with by the hundred at universities and colleges. .. . the requisite number of competent professors in these subjects are to be appointed. 2. any time or place any domain of scholar- The Jesuit Balde with his Latin Odes." * * Const. that universities and colleges produce many eminent as . Latin. the Jesuit Fox with his Commentary on Demosthenes' de Corona. if at Jesuit does achieve something in the ship. What.The an achievement writing if Scholastic Studies 229 here and there a Jesuit succeeds in if a serviceable book on philology. is a Greek or Latin classic annotations ? edited by a Jesuit with not unserviceable The Jesuit Order has existed for nearly four hundred years for nearly four hundred years it has frequently had excellent human material to mould by its curriculum. not as independent pursuits Because theoretical and practical theology requires a knowledge of the Humanities.

though in for different reasons.: 230 Fourteen Years a Jesuit I. These few remarks. and amounts to blind hatred. so characteristic of must once more discuss the Jesuit spirit and of its I influence on its young pupils. not because and practical training in eloquence offers any this I it peculiar features. and the attitude of the Order towards the vernacular classics there finds expression. Goethe claims the is place among them. education. its preaching labours. of is included among the humanistic This name is given to the highest the classes for the humanistic training of the schol- astics. And what is the ideal that held up to the youth of . since corresponds to that principal branch of Jesuit activity. both of whom. enthusiasm is naturally centred on the German classics and on the first intellectual sphere in which they move. with the criticisms in Part suffice to place in their true light will the methods and results of the philological studies of the Jesuit Order. But " Rhetoric " too studies of the Jesuits. displayed in brutal fashion. On theoretical must make a few comments. " In illustration I quote the utterances of two " German Jesuits.. one of the most prolific and widely read popular authors of Catholic Germany. says. but because in the " Rhetoric " class classics too are read. exercise a profound influence on those many The Jesuit Baron Ludwig von Hammerstein. in his work Das Preussische Schulmono'pol mit besonderer Rucksiclit auf die Gymnasien — " In modern schools. In consequence of is its interall national character the Jesuit Order holds aloof from national literature. That is why this point. This fact quite obvious from the all wording of the Ratio and from Jesuit writings on Jesuits to But the aversion of " German " German classics is especially keen. and who millions. as has been said before. en- joy considerable reputation German Catholic circles.

. Was nicht geniigte Hess ich fahren. I prize this excellence. after his marriage. but as a teacher of This. then. that unbelief and immorality prevail at those schools. Die nicht alles ndhtne gar zu genau. Falk. n. nothing of further from my mind than to depreciate the excellence some of Goethe's poems. girls. Friederike. On is the contrary. ! boys nowadays. Of course. Minister of language recommends. This is the man whom Dr. Charlotte etc. holds ' schools to accomplish. Lotte. then. Corona Schroter. von Gossler. ' may be seen which he pursued as a boy. of Public Instruction. this the poet whose most valuable poems it should be a national duty for every man of culture to retain in his memory as an imperishable treasure. von Stein. Minna Herzlieb. the man who occupies the post of honour among the heroes of our literature. Dock aber zugleich am besten verstdnde.- but I maintain that what beautiful and fascinating in Goethe * Faust. then. Christiane Vulpius. Was mir entwiscJUe Hess ich ziehen* " So this is Goethe ! How he ' seized every pleasure loves. is true Christian. supply a whole catalogue. with married and unmarried women.' a duty which lies on the of Public Instruction. " Such is Goethe . barmaids. pastors' daughters. .' of the the man who is to inspire the hearts young Prussian scholars with enthusiasm. Such is the ideal brought before our schoolThe best known only of his love adventures Gretchen.. as a youth. is No wonder. is Such. Goethe. not only as a model ' and style. this the hero whom the Minister up to the reverent admiration of the young. and as an old man of over eighty years. national and humane education. Act V. Ein jed'Gdust er griff ich hei den Haaren .The Scholastic Studies 231 Germany in Goethe ? Goethe himself shows it us in the description which he gives of himself and his doings in the character of Faust Icli bin nur durch die Wdt gerannt. choosing his of his by the catalogue wanton victims among factory etc. In this sense he wrote in his Zahme Xenien Ich wunsche mir eine hubsche Frau. Wie ich mich selbst am besten befdnde. : noble spinsters. actresses. .

' Wallenstein. but he ideal to set before the young. with its atmosphere of libertinage. . instil conservative principles into the youthful mind. Gotter and Christian morality Griechenlands. " This. Youth will hardly be fired with enthusiasm for also passed Christianity and pure morals by hearing : Gotter Griechenlands — Schiller exclaim in his Da ihr noch die schdne Wdt regieret. not . I cannot regard even him before the young than Goethe as suitable. gejiihret. da euer Wonnedienst noch gldnzte. but poison in a beaker of wine of Cyprus or Muscatel dangerous. its glorification of with tyrannicide. and such hke. Wie ganz anders. with its love dalliance. and all if the wine is offered by a comis petent judge as an ideal potion. Certainly Schiller could strike other chords in is the human ' heart. and Minna von Barnhelm. . I observe that Emilia Galotti. Schiller is at any rate a less unsuitable ideal to set still. filled makes him more dangerous and pernicious No is one will drink poison ofEered in a basin the more so with dish-water or soap-suds. " With regard to Lessing. nor yet TeU. sounds rather more alluring than the precepts of the Cross Christian moral law versed in Thus Schiller viewed the and the Crucified. indeed. Those who are and Christian monotheism German literature know well enough that such utterances . It is well known that Schiller through a phase of laxity in regard to the seventh commandment. An der Freude leichtem Gdngelhand.' This the case with Goethe. anders war es da ! etc.' faith will seduce them too his easily from the paths of by Rduher^ Kahde und Liebe. the principal ideal of the modern school. " I will also devote a few short remarks to his colleagues Schiller and Lessing. on that account no less dangerous an The man who won their hearts or ' by the all Song of the Bell. ! Sdige GescMechter noch Schdne Wesen aus dem Fabelland Ach.232 Fourteen Years a Jesuit as an ideal for youth. the partaking of which to be the ' supposed is national duty of every person of culture. are more suited for the training of novel-heroes. His Rduher and his Fiesco will. to say the least. . ! are not isolated.

. or that of the modern secularising schools of the State ? Schiller and Goethe are valuable supporters of Lessing in his active attempts to imdermine ' all Christianity. and valued to its efiect is it . that of the ancient schools of the Church. of whatever denomina- estranged from Christianity. Protestant and Jewish pupils of a Don Carlos. his History Lessing. rather. and even in relation to morality he held it to be a mere substitute for general virtue. ideal. all faith. 233 and than serious and high-principled youths. Die du mir nennst. a St. Religion fur- nished him with neither results nor convictions concerning supersensual matters. Und warum Aus Religion/" . Schiller says none tion. any special it obloquy to be heaped on Catholicism. And Goethe ? Goethe anything we please as occasion arises — is or. who in his Nathan. to overcome the temptations of the flesh inflicted sufiering. with his So too famous dialogue between the Patriarch and the Templar. he is really devoid of all rehgious convictions whatever. as his epicurean humour suggests If i. And why ? From love of religion. a St. sets the a flattering portrait of the Catholic priesthood and Catholic moraUty before the Catholic. Schiller and Lessing are the three most brilstars held up liant stars in the modern German classical firmament — * "Welche Religion ich bekenne? Keine von keine? alien. What religion I follow ? Not one of those that you name. Whilst Goethe welds his hfe into a chain of excesses. he was completely objective religions. Which of these two ideals by selfwas chosen with truer pedagogic discrimination. . Nor an his is Lessing's passion for gambling exactly a qualification for .The blase worldlings Scholastic Studies idlers.'* Schiller thus renounces all existing Before he had reached the age of thirty. a St. in proportion and not for its intrinsic worth. Schiller can supply of the Thirty Years' War. Francis Xavier. and had familiarised himself with the pantheistic doctrines of the Jew. wins whole kingdoms for Christ and Christian morality.e. . How ! utterly opposed to such ideals appear those of the old school Whilst Lessing hungers after gold to gratify gambling propensity. " Thus Goethe. Benedict throws himself among thorns. by his apostolic preaching. Whilst Lessing endeavours by his writings to undermine Christianity. in German gymnasium. Francis of Assisi elects extreme poverty. Christianity in particular. . Baruch Spinoza.

but rather him as personal reminiscences. * In Bauerbach he Das Preussische Schulmonopol. itself which publishes the periodical. If the Jesuit Hammerstein is a popular writer who shouts his tirades against the German the Jesuit Baumgartner. in whose or to some other similar muse. In Mannheim.— 234 Fourteen Years a Jesuit The heroes of the to the grateful veneration of the pupils. " supplementary pamphlets " the Jesuit Stimmen aus Maria-Loach. a Swiss. ." Thus Ms opinion special significance the attitude on the classics marks with of the Jesuit Order towards the heroes of our literature. relations with Charlotte von Kalb in love with Margaretha. Schiller drifted into the immoral life of the actors there. essayist. presupposes a fairly wild and dissolute life. critic. Schiller. whether to the house Schiller widow of Captain Vischer.To whomsoever lived. daughter of the bookseller and entered into such passionate that finally he even urged her to a divorce. . periode. so that subsequently the experiences of stage life in Goethe's came home he fell to Wilhdm Meister were no novelty to him. the Jesuit Baum- gartner (according to the Jesuits and German Catholics) is the " sestheticising. the Odes on Laura may have been addressed. and Goethe. 56-59. Goethe und Schiller. combined with other circumstances. : Thus the Jesuit has identified Order. pp. such poetry. 73-81." * To the same category as the Jesuit Hammerstein belongs Baumgartner. At the same time Schwan. Weimars GlanzBoth appeared as to so-called periodical. subtle critic who lays before the reader the clarified results of his researches in his mono- graphs on Lessing. and Der Alte von Weimar. is considered the great literary authority of the Order poet. class second mostly resemble them. I quote specimens of Baumgartner's criticisms from two of his works. " . : classics into the ears of the masses. closely with these writings . especially appointed by the Order to carry on classical research.

not to mention that of the Middle Ages. and his double love for the sisters Lengenfeld was not exactly straightforward. Voltaire. No more than Goethe. Franziska von Hohenheim. just as he happened to require matter for his dramatic projects or for essays on other subjects. Whilst young Goethe was inclined towards softness and effeminacy. plays of a literature which was still entirely under the influence of Rousseau. novels. while a student at the Karlsschule. procured for him entirely absorbed his necessary leisure. won Lotte for his wife. of Descartes. he did not squander so much time in endless sentimental correspondence with women. . did Schiller religious and philosophical culture. in . was a sufficient number of adventures for a space " One of these attachments Schiller himself later called ' a wretched passion. At Bauerbach he had to make the best of the books which the librarian. Bacon. . He was a freethinker. he repeatedly extolled the Duke's mistress. whilst simultaneously he thought of marrying a daughter of Wieland. His literary store of ideas dated no further back than the shallow literature of the illuminati of those Leibnitz. Reinhold. and never lavished such boundless thoughts and energy on the female sex as the spoilt darling of Frau Aja. The Catholic Church was yet more of an unknown country to him than Spinoza.' Schiller certainly studied history in an eclectic spirit. young Schiller appears wilder. or The religious impressions and the pious faith of his childhood were almost entirely lost in the whirl of his stage life. as the ' ideal of virtue. his brother-in-law. . In Weimar he openly renewed his liaison with Frau von Kalb.. Still. . in the most extravagant manner. .' and thereby stigmatised the character of his youth as a succession of errors. He had possess any deep never thoroughly studied the philosophy of Aristotle and Plato. the von Wolzogen .. Diderot and the rest of the ' philosophers. and Leipzig did his studies Mannheim his theatrical worries Not until he was in Dresden somewhat gain in breadth and depth. days : the periodicals. more passionate and impetuous. until at last he Certainly this of ten years. Not much weight is to be given to still the virtuous tirades in his early dramas when. Scholastic Studies daughter in 235 of his foolish passion another Charlotte.The wooed with benefactress. Dresden a Fraulein Arnim cap- tivated him.' though the young man knew who that Fran- ziska was.

Weimars Glanzperiode. Not so with Goethe. as the and important. a fragment. it was Schiller who recalled him to the realm of poetry. his physical strength life.236 Fourteen Years a Jesuit to Then he began Netherlands. and the other poets of the Storm and disciples. read Kant seriously. but rather of a literary hack. The establishment and moulding of modern classical literature is not his v/ork. influence a stimulating on his extent he owes his second prime to this stimulating intercourse. may betray the hand of a master. and to a great Stress gave him considerable impetus. difl&cult pioneering w^as accomplished by others." * real merits is order to fill review ' and earn " However much Goethe's demand acknowledgment. he had almost entirely devoted himself to the writing of prose. 36-38. can only be manifested in the perfected. calmly investigating truth. When. like Lavater and Merck. influenced him powerfully. * Goethe und Schiller. Lessing and Herder. or else squandered them on unimportant matters. Even talents of a lower order. Even full if a torso. absorbed in Court and State affairs at Weimar. In the case of Calderon and Shakespeare. finished masterpiece. these are the four novels : Werther's Leiden. in the first instance by Klopstock and his bestowal. who rummages about his ' for spicy historical matter in his fee. for own He had years allowed Goethe himself received and momentous impulses from Herder. . His his they must not be exaggerated. Wieland. Die WaMverwandschaften and Wilhdm Wanderjahre. . . at times even more. as his favourable surroundings only too often done. '' . WUhdm Meister's Meister's Lehrjahre. and — his length of all these were gifts not of them practically or almost entirely to lie fallow. and investigated more the revolt of detailed works on the Thirty Years' War and the But even there his studies were not those of a scholar. brilliant intellectual gifts. Lenz. Klinger. fruitful his most Wieland and Knebel had work up to the last. it is not necessary to collect fragments their rounded and perfected works of art occupy many volumes. The arduous. " In reality Goethe produced but few really classical prose works . the genius and industry of the artist. With him the small and : fragmentary occupies as great much space. pp. yet the productive power.

it is one continuous phases. The Divan again is more than half love poetry. . is influence which it exercised on the history an unsuccessful imitation of Shakespeare. Goethe produced only three genuine. not much remains in fact. his During the eighty-two years of his life. " There can hardly be a doubt about this in respect to Goethe's lyrical work. despite genius. History ideal is —receive but scant treatment. Tasso. If on the one hand we set aside the didactic : poems. far more than a third love poems. on the other hand the erotic. " Of the longer epics. epigrams and aphorisms. the dreary disillusionment it leaves in the human heart after a brief delight. but the mighty Eros of pagan antiquity. . not Goethe's. a love dreamer like Faust and Werther. . The elegies carry the theme to the boundary-line. a historical tragedy swamped by a love story of Gotz. woes the atmosphere of a woman's man. AchUleis a feeble mere compilation fragment. Ardent love yearnings. is perfect : Hermann und Doro. . for all on Gretchen and Helen only that Tasso is Faust's thoughts and desires are concentrated.The " Nor the are Scholastic Studies and Clavigo works of 237 Egmont in is Stdla genius. Vischer ness. the Westostlicher Divan. as magic well as in the gloomy storm. in love song. the Fatherland. — ' to quote Fr. : . great works : intellectually great. a lust for enjoyment. not inspiration emanating from above. Of these last more is Reinecke Fuchs a than a third are occasional poems. Mahomet and Tancred are Voltaire's property. Faust. is all his brilliant . There still remain the elegies. that takes no thought of love. Apart from a small fraction.' . Art. superb. where realism ceases to be attractive his diary and the Walpurgisnacht go far beyond. the World. The four novels deal with the same theme in a wider frame. The prevailing fundamental principle of this poet. Even the three versions of the latter show the intrinsic weakness of the tragedy. the ballads and lyrics. key and modulation. one only thea. with gifts. nor aspiring thither ideal. portrayed in its full vernal God and eternity a sensual and youthful charm. chanting the bliss and rose of love in all its every harmony and melody. joys. all that God. artistically perfect dramatic I'phigenie. is — pervades the whole with sultry oppressiveit Faust is heavily charged with the same atmosphere. not the Christian a love of life. spite far-reaching of literature.

such as egotistical demigod no longer stands before us alone. Gotz finally becomes a drama Egmont a love tragedy .. if it is if he reads Spinoza.' his unpardonable moral aberrations as ideals of of his errors as the highest who recommend of the very essence development all. 238 Fourteen Years a Jesuit is Even Hermann und Dorothea atmosphere. egotistic self -admiration and sensual love of enjoyment abhorred not only . appears a mere glorifying of the most commonplace material existence. of the sublimity and of the Church. His poetry. in his Marienbad elegy it and at the end of Faust into heaven. Goethe made just as much fun of Kant's Categorical Imperative as of Fichte's Ego and Non-Ego and Schelling's httle book on the Kabirs was more interesting to him than his natural philosophy. in his musical plays lates imdu- gracefully in charming duets. . petty vanity. of civilisation its way If he happens to be reading Rousseau. . . Monads everywhere and if it is Aristotle. In the Grosskophta seduction. who have long ago rent the diplomatic cobwebs of mystery in which the old himself. of adultery. he obtains an intuition of God which enables him to see in each if he hears of Leibnitz. He was of . and in Stella bigamy. ' Christianity. are . but whatever. sees . . seen in the light reflected upon it shows no comprehension of the Hfe of nations. God. presented in detail in love is in Pandora the foolish ecstasy of an old man extolled. but surrounded of divine revelation by a whole swarm asimder all of adoring followers. foolish stage adventures and love affairs. the Monads become But nowhere do we meet with a clear. matter-of-fact Entelechies. our national culture to be studied and copied by . In his youthful carnival's jests the poet's it passion finds vent in coarse ribaldry. man life. not exempt from that is erotic In Goethe's hands. knowledge and God. He all philosophical idealism. even endeavours yearningly to dally Voltaire. his realism as the loftiest outlook on paganism as purified life. no more a consistent follower of Spinoza than of Schelling or Hegel. about nature . definition of Nature. intuitive apprehension God and the real meaning of Monads and Entelechies. Achilles himself a love-sick enthusiast. . he separate existence the universal whole . he raves . no trace of fear or love of This inspired the minstrels of the Middle Ages. any system it by his Hfe. draped his who deify his sensual love songs as the highest and truest poetry.

his dramas acted. Surely the Scholastic Studies danger to religion 239 and morals lurking Goethe's poetry and life therein needs no further exposition. it is evident that the reading and study of Goethe must again be Christian restricted in accordance with the principles of truly which lays more stress on religious and moral training than on beauty of form. as his works are in universal cheap classical circulation. The school cannot and must not take part in the modern hero-worship pedagogics. Wieland or the modern French realists. insinuatingly. there are numerous commentaries at hand which enlarge upon his love affairs under pretence of philological erudition. he himself and the whole galaxy of his loves are to be met with in every shop-window. but always veiled. this offers but slight protection. It is not necessary to learn a new or an old language in order to understand his poems. etc.The ". It must. are obtainable editions. influence on the education of the young should take forces to check danger seriously to heart. alluringly. always with an admixture of what is good and true. especially those of unbelief hearts women and youth. and should this be the case. if it is to retain its Christianity. in an apparently innocent form. He never preaches and immorality as boldly. it is indeed time that all those who have any this it. what is partly good. like the Pied Piper of Hamelin.. of Goethe. His ideas and ideals seldom go beyond the comprehension of the most comimonplace public. and unite their " Above all. His songs are sung. as audaciously as Voltaire. all expurgated school- that cult. principles is the venom of his pagan not to penetrate further and further. in the most splendid editions de luxe. everywhere in and popular in elegant drawing-room volumes elaborately bound. he draws to him. and regarded as the benefactor and glory of the nation. all anthologies. on the contrary. is over- .. partly true. he makes his way into all circles . rectify the erroneous ideas which are necessarily engendered by All precautions. style and language. editions are of no avail if the author of lyhigenie. his heroes and heroines. He undermines the faith and morality of the young If without their realising the seduction.. Invested with the authority of the greatest classical poet. with his all bewitching charm. Even if conscientious teachers expound but a very limited selection of his works. gently. speak for themselves.

There is hardly a quotation from Goethe that could classics not be replaced by one from the ancient best Cathohc writers. Shakespeare. given to understand that as a poet he has far behind of left all the former poets him . let us tell the young plainly how low Goethe stands as a man. consort of a dance-loving Christiane Vulpius. And yet Goethe did not know enough scholastic theology and philosophy for the mere comprehension of Dante's Divine Comedy . the man most universal knowledge. life about the Bible. the zenith of all civilisation. . fragmentary labours of young Goethe. as contrasted with that of the ancients. . Let us show them the weaknesses and defects of Goethe's poetry. considered beautiful. about rehgion. . he has not written a single tragedy which as a stage play can stand comparison with the masterpieces of Shakespeare and Calderon.* " all. Instead of incessant eulogy. he turned to Aristotle's Poetics. without beUeving in this Privy Councillor them " What ? avail his sketches of the Flight into Egypt if they only serve to introduce our youth into the unclean society of Wilhelm Meister What good sayings has he ever uttered about the ancients. how hollow and superficial was his outlook on life. . even Gesprdche and if all aesthetic and all poetic for the most commonplace occasions if he is continually compared theory is to be based on Goethe with Dante. . at last studied those rules on art which have for centuries constituted the basis of Poetics at all Catholic educational establishments. from a misunderstood patriotism or aesthetic a better authority Eckermann's lines from Goethe are everlastingly quoted. Goethe —nothing them ? but Goethe if ? After of what does it profit the Seven Sacraments Weimar. how immoral and pernicious were his principles. See Chapter V. and the young are solemnly whelmed with over-estimation if instead of . Calderon. after thirty years of fooHsh wanderings.240 Fourteen Years a Jesuit praise . literature and * that cannot Probably from the Poets of the Society of Jesus. art. Let us tell the young how. of Shakespeare or from and the Calderon. Why always Goethe. that ' our Goethe ' is the greatest poet. the enormous harm done to him by the frittering away of his energies. to the greatest benefit of his poetic development. and as a man of fifty. Let us lay before the young the restless. how small his importance as a naturalist or art critic.

they are thoroughly leavened with the most dangerous by which our modern times are affected. but as the They will then compare the spurious universality of Goethe with the real universality of Catholic learning. has been eternally branded by the Church herself. a Faust as types of the true German spirit. or nearly so. poets. pantheism and religious indifference in which all its roots. though they appear but rarely in outspoken form .. to the exercise works of polite literature with that severity against strictly theological conscience of the individual. Apart from numerous passages which errors sin grievously against the requirements of Christian discipline and morals. unity of natural forces. a Raphael Garruci and a de Rossi Q . artists and writers ? Why do we refuse credence to the most conscientious Cathohc scholars and scientific inquirers till Goethe and Eckermann have given The Church has never proceeded against their blessing ? . Goethe's works have never been placed expressly and distinctly on the Roman Index. Vatican Council has expressly repudiated in Goethe's poetry has That rationalism. however. Valla. and which is clearly enough displayed in his prose writings.. its and which the binding decrees. The clear vision. This. very often better and more beauti- by Catholic thinkers." ". and will be easily convinced that an Angelo Secchi [a Jesuit] understood more of the property of light and of the poetical forms of a morally decadent period. as the Popes of the Renaissance once left the works of Boccaccio. sensible and just appreciation of his life and works. the great majority of his writings are steeped in tive them in a most attrac- and alluring fashion. It will be a great gain for real Christian education when we revert from an almost idolatrous cult of the great poet to a sober. They were left to its general regulations. faith. wiU modify this influence in . by these errors. Beccadelli and Poggio. and obscure religious ideas. and are thus fully calculated to triviaUse and to weaken and midermine Christian faith and steadfastness of every individual very different ways.. purely. and do not esteem him beyond his deserts. But few of his works are untouched. does not amount to a free passport for Goethe's works. Youths and men will no longer accept a Werther. when we know him as he actually was. . a Wilhelm Meister.The fully stated Scholastic Studies 241 be found more correctly. .. which she is wont to and philosophical works of erroneous and hurtful tendency.

the same calumniating malice. Whenever we open Baumgart^ner's bulky Goethemonograph. nor in the passionate and powerful male characters. Cf. Heinrich Meyer. but especially in the two affecting scenes with . together with the comet-like tail of philologists and critics. my work. by Shakespeare. wisdom and knowledge. the same passion for disparagement. a Joseph von Gorres more about Mysticismf and German folklore. or at the hatred which they illumine humanity with their light. 281-284. a Friedxich von SchJegel more about universal Calderon. a literature. and a Peter Cornelius and Eduard von Steinle more about Raphael and Italian painting. pp. . nor in the pathetic characters of Queen Eleanor and Constance. The whole play now hung upon ' She The notorious Ultramontane fabricator of history. Gorres wrote a half-crazy book on Mysticism. a Reichsperger and Pugin more of the laws Gothic architecture. and Goethe. Schiller. are manifested. I quote a few casts forth poison against great minds because examples " It : peare's is most characteristic of Goethe that in this play [ShakesKing John] he was but little interested in its great poUtical. ecclesiastic and patriotic motives. a Lorinser more about Cardinal Wiseman more about Shakespeare than Johann Wolfgang Goethe. Prince Arthur as conceived Christiane * •j- not in the hght of a harmless. clothes her. I. Peter Eckermann and all the rest. unfortunate prince. we shall once more be able to recognise and show honour to other constellations in the firmament of German literature. 271-278. and thus remove it from Jesuit influence. history and national spirit. Das Papsttnm in eeiner sozicUktUturdlen Wirkaamheit." | It is inferior hard to know whether to marvel most at the imderstanding revealed in these Jesuit appre- ciations of Lessing. Wilhelm Riemer. a Jannsen* more of German character. X 235-245. but as a girl in boy's Neumann.— 242 more of — Fourteen Years a Jesuit of Christian art. " When this glittering Goethe meteor is no longer considered a universal lodestar of real world-philosophy. Dor Alte von Weim<ir.

the manager. Goethe. and when she recovered consciousness gave her a kiss. tore the tongs from Hubert's hands. out the prince's eyes. with a view to the speedy occupation of Europe with Greek repubHcs. at Christiane. the Jesuit says : "And Goethe ? Goethe felt embarrassed.' This is the chief scene during nearly forty years of stage management described in a glorified light in all literature. the abolition of honour and the other remnants of the Seven Sacraments. sculptors. who was more interested in the caress than in King John and aU the Kings of England. the guillotining of kings. rushed and made such terrible eyes at her that she fainted. hetaerae. Olympic games able military rule of were not held. but according to the uncomfortRoman agitators. philosophers and poets. he could not in common consistency but approve of the thorough and complete abolition of the old order of things. triumvirs and tjTannicides. she did not show enough terror. he wanted at the same time to eat and sleep in peace as a Weimar Privy Councillor he desired an increase rather than a decrease . the old nobility. Now. even in histories of It is a striking proof of the profound contrast between the and universal genius of a true dramatist like WilUam Shakespeare and the lyrical adorer of maidens. Scholastic Studies On 243 But when Hubert approached with the tongs to put this.The acted well." virile Of Goethe's attitude towards the French Revolution. Not poems. Ireland and Scotland put together. as the friend of a Duke. were issued. the priests. but proscription Hsts. intellectual enjoyment and artistic dehghts. him crowned The French Republic was not organised on the model of Periclean Athens. and having her httle boys christened by a gentleman who . the secularisation of the whole of Hfe. Goethe himself was frightened. painters. books on Goethe. he preferred seeing to seeing him decapitated. but heads were cut off. As a true disciple of Rousseau and Voltaire. knelt down before her. This was his religion and the view he took of hfe. But. The freethinkers in Paris were not content with taking an unwedded Vulpius into their houses. as an ordinary Frankfort citiaen. as a decided non-Christian and pagan. Wolfgang Goethe. of salary . with the greatest possible number of gods.

These ugly judgments are not altogether his innermost convictions. and to remodel the world. In 1887. but was compelled to publish a different version. simply to throw dust in people's eyes they preferred to guillotine people who objected to such That things.— 244 Fourteen Years a Jesuit . Even Goethe's affecting lines to Schiller's memory : serve Bamngartner to asperse the object of his hatred " The contrast which Schiller offered to the prevailing tendency in Weimar was certainly indicated in a subsequent verse. his publications in disparagement of Goethe and the other classics."* I must." and he had put this conception into writing. but it was amiably neutraUsed by a cunning stroke of policy^ the reflection : ' He was was ours For thus Schiller for it was ever bound ' — to the triumphal car of his former rival. my theological studies was transferred. * Ooethe. where the editorial staff of the scriptor. to Stimmen aus Maria-Laach was quartered at the time. 118-119. . the one prescribed by the censorship I of the Order. to pocket their money. however. according to the censor's verdict. 82-83. say a word in defence of the Jesuit Baumgartner against himself. after the conclusion of at Ditton Hall. All violence was odious to the Privy Who would read his Tasso. Baumgartner's undeniable poetical talent had led him to a considerably higher estimate of the " Old Man of Weimar. in the capacity of Exaeten. scarcely believed in Christ himself. und Schiller. would not do at Weimar. if there were no more Who would shed tears over his duchesses and Court ladies ? " Werther. day that. i. Baumgartner Lad concluded his monograph on Goethe with a too favourable general estimate that the manuscript had been returned to him (Baumgartner was at the time at the . if the world became so callous and unfeeUng ? Councillor.e. The Jesuit Joseph Fah was editor-in-chief and also Vice- Fah told me one Rector of the whole establishment. pp.

ThuB hie mental powers were broken. while inwardly yearning after it. But the trimmed him. I asked. castrated him in mind. in surprise. He would have distinguished himself. Not in vain do the Constitutions of the Order prescribe blind obedience. he entered the novitiate of the Order. " But will Baumgartner do it ? " Fah answered. Poor fellow Jesuit machine : ! . and worse he became a zealot." And he did. I was with him at Eiaeten for a long time. in epite of his invectives. will and disposition. had he been able to develop freely in accordance with his individuality.* This occurrence shows two things the hatred of the Jesuits for Goethe and the power of Jesuit censorship and Jesuit obedience. of criticism Blyenbeck) on : * I know Baumgartner well.The college Scholastic Studies 245 with the intimation that the Goethe must be considerably altered in an unfavourable direction. " Of course he will. He is the typical example of the transformation Jesuit training can effect in a man of real ability. WTien quite yoimg. on leaving the Jesuit College of Feldkirch. a man who directed his rancour against all that is beautiful and true in nature and humanity.

are sepaindependent branches of knowledge (Wissenschajten). The philosophy course generally lasts for three years. and at the end of the third year a final examination of an hour's duration on the whole of philosophy. known as the " Minor Dogma. ancillari et suhservire facianC "* Therefore I shall treat in the same section of Jesuit philosophy and theology. S. : Philosophy and theology. though there are some exceptions." Every * Inst. in the Jesuit sense. 477. Only those who " surpass medi" in this examination [mediocritatem superaverint) ocrity " enter on the four years' course of " scholastic theology known as the " Major Dogma. is altogether dependent on theology. a few words as to the outward form of these studies. Every year there is an examination of half an hour. First. becomes the handmaid and servant which is commended to us by Ut verae theologiae scholasticae.J. is even its " handmaid " and " servant " " The professors of philosophy [says the eighth canon of the third General Congregation] are to teach philosophy in rate.. L.CHAPTER XXII THE PHILOSOPHICAL AND THEOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE SCHOLASTICATE rightly understood. 46 . But philosophy. quam commendant Constitutiones." Those who do not pass the final examination must content themselves with the three years' course. such a manner that our Constitutions nobis ' : it of true scholastic theology.

Also " excellent knowledge of classical and Indian lan- guages " may. The examination of the fourth year (eocamen rigorosum) lasts This examination decides whether those " virtue surpassing mediocrity " are afterwards who possess to take the degree of " professed " or only that of " spiritual " coadjutor. its connection with the * Rules 17 and 19 for the Provincial. and psychology (simplicity. . 12 for the Provincial X Rule 19. logic and ontology (the science of being) are studied. 12.Studies of the Scholasticate 247 year of theological study also ends with an examination. ledge." If the candidate is to become a *' professed the examination must show that he has attained " that two hours. to teach both subjects satisfactorily. spirituality. 15. This decision is exclusively in the hands of the General of the Order. decked out with philosophy and styled cosmology. . If anyone possesses " conspicuous gifts for ruling or preaching " {illustria guhernandi concionandive talenta) the " insufficient knowledge " {doctrina impar) shown in the examination may be overlooked. scientiously who must swear and to disclose their duty con- their verdict only to the General of the Order and the Provincial. a medley of miscellaneous matter belonging to the domain of natural science.f for entrance into the books designated for the purpose. The second year's course includes natural philosophy {i. Congreg. Decret. 10 for the Provincial . Congreg.e. Decret. J if the General consider it advisable."* All examinations are oral they are conducted by to fulfil four examiners under the presidency of the Rector or the Provincial. including miracles with their criteria). 6. t Rule 19. degree of thorough philosophical and theological knowledge which will qualify him . immortality of the soul. 22. atone for the deficiencies in philosophy and theological know- In the philosophy year.

Every Saturday a more important sabbatina debate. " Sabbatina " short for The " dis'putationes men- — . of one hour's duration. and profited accordingly. botany. When I studied philosophy at Blyenbeck. What has been imparted in the lectures is elaborated and impressed upon the mind by regular disputations. and especially for his work in the confessional. where the Theologia moralis of the Jesuit Lehmkuhl is the text-book in use. The ordinary disputation. by which the young Jesuit is trained for practical life.e. of the lectures in the No notes are taken Neither are text-books used except for moral theology. — —the— The pupils receive the summary form of hectographed " codices. year's its I Fourteen Years a Jesuit difierence from the animal ethics soul). comrse comprises (natural morality) The third and natural theology (theodicy)." during lectures. physics.— 248 body. how the theological subject matter shall be distributed over four or. In the last two years there are also a few lessons on chemistry. We laughed a good deal. In the case of theological studies the system is not quite so hard and fast. is called a " Circle " {Cir cuius). " lectures " delivered by the Jesuit Epping on astronomy were anything rather than scientific. and astronomy. three years. held several times a week. slept not a little (the lessons were early in the afternoon). Instruction and achievement in these branches of science hardly correspond to the work done in the middle and higher forms of a gymnasium. — — Together with the scholastic i. is disputatio — held. as the case may be. with the permission of the Principal and the Prefect of Studies. The two professors of theology generally there are no more arrange among themselves. might almost say all-important branch of Jesuit study. speculative ology a two-years' course on moral theology {casus conThis is an extremely important scientiae) is given. Great importance is attached to these.

" in the sack " {in sacco). it. 1. {ex s. in the " Menstruae " the proposers are only nominated by the Prefect of Studies at the outset of the debate (everyone is expected to be prepared). and only a few theses (mostly those gone special solemnities. and so does the Provincial. kinds. Thesis. as the scholastic slang has If he fails. and arguments are *' committed to memory Codices. At the " Menstruae " the debate. explains what the thesis asserts and what it does not assert and states the arguments for its correctness in syllogistic form." as literally as possible from the When the defender has concluded his final argument. public performances one person supports a number of theological and philosophical theses against opposers from among the secular clergy or the priests of .e. The form of all disputations is the same. the opposer attacks the thesis. From pronouncements Patribus). and the theses to be defended extend over a wider field. In theological theses the proofs are generally of three — — 2. And now begins a verbal dispute in strictly scholastic-syllogistic form between defender and in the attempt.e. defines the status questionis i. and the professor presiding at the disputation to intervenes save the the invited threatened thesis. publici) are organised. scriptura). opposer. until the defender either succeeds in solving the difficulties or breaks down he is. s. are attended with The Rector of the House appears at the head of the other Fathers. The defender announces the thesis.Studies of the Scholasticate strua€y'^ 249 held five or six times a year. Fathers '* also take part in Sometimes. i. From the Holy Scriptures 3. {actus though rarely. s. Whereas in the " Circle " and " Sabbatina " the defenders and opposers are chosen in advance. of the Fathers of the Church {ex status questionis. if he happens to be in residence. From reason {ex ratione). through immediately before) are selected for debate.

As regards philosophy. In all lectures and disputations the use of Latin compulsory."* it is more From neglected. The argument characteristic : adherence to Aristotle very " That philosophy must be followed because useful to theology. after some the four years' course. or pass through a hiennium in one of the kindred branches of knowledge (Exegesis.. 23 of the year 188S . Fichte. this Aristotelian standpoint. Church Law. Decret. and from decrees of the Greneral Congregation as to the fundamental standpoint adopted by the Jesuit Order in philosophy. Fourteen Years a Jesuit No such ceremony took place during my period of study.250 the Order. Spinoza. is And now as to the spirit of the studies. Schopenhauer. and a re-endorsement Congregations of of resolutions passed by the General century is the Order in the eighteenth for this (1706 and 1751) in favour of the Aristotelian system. from the Scheme of Studies. Church History). gisms. E. Some. etc. theology. philosophy. for whom special the Order wishes to train more fully service. Unswerving adherence to the peripatetic system of Aristotle (who died 322 B. Hegel. Schelling. fall to the ground. it is self-evident that the whole of modern philosophy must be sorely Minds like Descartes.C. Leibnitz. von Hartmann. by inadequate theses. let me first refer to what I have already quoted from the Constitutions of the Order. 15.) —again solemnly declared in 1883 ! — with partial appli- cation of this system even to questions of natural science. etc. Here once again I keenly regret that when I left the are disposed of Order I left behind all my manuscript notes. a Descartes.. A few sylloand a Kant. From the " Codices " of my period of Jesuit study a clear and * Ck)ngr^. . Kant.

in his of July 15th. 1854. Kant especially was treated with a I superficiality this that surpassed everything. The works of modern philosophers were not placed in our hands. our days. both pertinent and vested with supreme authority. I plunged deeply into the study of his works. General of the Order. and opened a new and unknown horizon to my ideas. of the Jesuit attitude towards any development of philosophy later than that of the ancients or the Middle Ages * " How it can \re place reliance in philosophy as it has shown itself in from how can we with any confidence expect to gain knowledge and a basis for truth. Jesuits. from police supervision. who enlarged my innermost thoughts. It is the and asceticism of the Order Jesuits.Scholastic But the He became my chief liberator. draws a picture. Fichte. finally melted away into pure {sic) atheism. The reference libraries at our disposal contained exclusively the works of Jesuit writers. free man's on a mission for the Jesuit Order. Schelling and Hegel by turns subjugated the whole of Germany. Jesuits. which under Kant. The few details concerning them in our " Codices " represented for us the sum total of their publications. to official letter Count Leo Thun. How I apologised to him for having thought so poorly of him when I was a Jesuit. when its four great schools.Studies of the Scholasticate instructive 251 description might have been given of the treatment allotted to the study of modern philosophy by the " modern " Jesuit. Austrian Minister of Public Instruction. ! fault was not mine ! Peter Beckx. and nothing but Jesuits I feel ashamed and indignant when I remember that when I was thirty years old I used to be content with the ill-concocted dilution which the Order served up to me same here as with the piety ! as the quintessence of the labours of these great thinkers. great acquaintance when was staying in Berlin in 1888. . I only made There.

causes. Johann EcUe in Oesterreich.'\ speak for themselves Piccolomini. The truly Catholic Universities were always agreed and clear as to the basis of philosophy [the Aristotelian system].: — 252 Fourteen Years a Jesuit and at the same time have left doubt. Pp. in which to say nothing of religious and political degeneration — men continue their contention."* And twenty in an official years later the Jesuit Ebner characterises controversial treatise against Joh. too. 1874. Christianity. the whole of modem philosophy by the scornful words " Futile vagaries. in the absurdities and blasphemies of that monstrous abortion. and were abandoned one behind them a state of confusion. either not imderstanding the real cause of the evil or not wishing to admit it. Professor at the University of Prague. empty phrases in a repulsive. Unterrichte. and that natural philosophy * Monatsblatt fiir Kathol. confused ideas. and which perhaps have recently reached their climax and. and men. : Die Jemitengymnasien . are accurately explained. uncertainty and almost universal after the other. the ' * Philosophy of the Unconscious " [Philosophie des UnheKmssten). but without appearing to understand one another's meaning ? " What has caused this state of things ? Simply this : The afore- ground which was wrested from true philosophy by the mentioned four schools has not been recovered. all systems as hostile to sound sense as to God and of which really tend towards materialism and pantheism. thus falling from one error into another. 12Jahrg. t BdeucMung der Schrijt des Herm Dr. 294. Miinster. and the continuum. : in the official edition of the Constitutions of the Order. for " the higher studies. nature. Kelle. unintelligible jargon . Erziehungs-weeen. In it is stated : "The Prefect of Studies is to see to it that the Aristotehan definitions of origins. foolish arrogance and charlatanism clothed in boastful.u. seek it ever along fresh paths. P. the infinite. Linz." which to this day is found unaltered The following facts. their conclusion. issued a decree in 1661. 595-596. General of the Order. it is to be hoped. the motion.

16. General of the Order. who died in 1274. prevails in theology ? That of the medieval scholastics. then. t Ibid." To an inquiry sent by the Province of the Upper of Rhine. . considers * it advisable to give an Monum. 9. having a few years ago the studies commanded through an of encyclical Aeterni Patris how Christian schools under the guidance of the Angelic Doctor is [Doctor Angdicus the official designation of Thomas Aquinas] assem- are to be brought back to the wisdom of ancient times. prohibited thirty propositions from the works of Descartes and Leibnitz.third General Congregation of the Order " Our most holy master. Gonzalez. by the twenty.Studies of the Scholasticate is 253 thoroughly discussed according to the Aristotelian arrangementj In Aristotle's de Cado. under threats of a heavy penalty. 464. pronounced against the introduction " new philosophical ideas " into the schools of the Order. dating from the year 1599. the Aristotelian doctrine on generais and corruption to be thoroughly studied. Leo XIII. Tamburini. are not to be omitted. as stated in the Ratio Studiorum. X Ibid. properties and influence of the heavens on the sublunary bodies.. and do their utmost to inspire the students with enthusiasm for his teaching. 122. The Second Rule for the Teacher in Theology." This order. is " In Scholastic Theology our people are to follow strictly {omnino sequantur) the teaching of St. the nature. is even surpassed : by the 15th Decree. the Society of Jesus. paed. prince of scholastics.. Oerm. for the first time since the issue of the encyclical bled at a General Congregation. | Up to the year 1832 Aristotle was the text-book used for the entire three years' course in philosophy. in particular the spirit of Thomas Aquinas.* His successor. issued in 1883.. { What spirit. Thomas they are to regard him as their own teacher {eumque ut doctorem proprium habeant). the tion first In book on generation.

. 1879. both in overcoming aU Monum. There is no department philosophy which he has not treated with perspicuity and thoroughness. Thomas in all respects as their own teacher and are to be bound in duty (teneantur) to follow him in One point here is specially noteworthy Whilst the Ratio of the year 1599.. . t Rule_2 for^the Professor of Theology. on which the decree of that of August 4th. . is by far the greatest. therefore. which Leo XIII. Germ.. . commands the revival of philosophy and theology in the spirit of the Scholastic School. 118. prince and master of of all. One word about the the Congregation in is encyclical It is based.In tbe conviction. Thomas Aquinas. in the same rulef which sets up Thomas Aquinas as a prominent authority. 14."* St. and by the fifth General Congregation the 4l8t and 56th Decrees. 1). and changes the more lenient expression of the Ratio into a binding law ** : They [the Jesuits] are to be bound to follow him [Thomas Aquinas] in Scholastic Theology " eumque in : scholastica theologia sequi teneantur.. and designates Thomas Aquinas as the leader they are to follow " Among scholastic teachers. : — our people are to regard Scholastic Theology.: : 254 Fourteen Years a Jesuit its filial obedience and consent by a public and solemn declaration. in what was ordered by our holy Father Ignatius in his Conn. the Congregation decides by the motion of the Very Venerable Greneral nnequivocal token of that stitutions {IV. that it could do nothing more agreeable or more conducive to the fulfilment of the wishes of his Holiness than to estabhsh anew what has long ago been confirmed to the same effect by our ancestors. . the decree of the Congregation of the year 1883 drops this reservation. is to remain in full force namely. 2. He * was successful fxied. makes this reservation " It is not to be understood from this that we may never deviate from him in any single : point " .

. when the Fathers of the Council of Trent." quoting the eulogies of earlier Popes. Aquinas. This I was told by the Jesuit Meschler when he was Provincial of the German Province. exhort you ledge.Studies of the Scholasticate errors in the past. more in harmony much in peace and security if a with the orthodox faith as set forth in the works of St. Thomas's principal work. Thomas . . . knowThomas. not only of the fact that Jesuit theology is firmly rooted in the Summa of the Monk of the Middle Ages. for the promotion of reintroduce the golden it wisdom of St. This declaration. healthier doctrine. is the author of the encyclical Aeterni Patris. so that coimsel. he continues thus After : Thomas Aquinas by " A crowning glory which no other Catholic theologian shares with him was conferred on him. proofs and solutions Civil society also would gain might be drawn therefrom. in more stringent form. Archbishops and Bishops of the Catholic world who live in grace and unison with the Apostolic Chair " [invariable heading of all Papal Encyclicals] it points out the path to be St. For the " German Jesuit. It writes to all the " Patriarchs. Thomas's spirit in is yet more ! . and to propagate as far as possible. But there Papal encyclicals and decrees of the Conthey have one and gregations of the Order are identical " the same origin the Society of Jesus. This is a significant proof. — . 255 all and in providing victorious weapons against errors that may arise in ages to come. the old decree of the Order concerning the preservation of philosophy and theology. Primates. . to all. in the very hall where they were assembled. as we have gave the Jesuits a pretext for promulgating anew. Joseph Kleutgen. but also of the unobtrusive but mighty power which the Jesuit Order exercises on the Papacy. the theologica] Summa [St." seen. were taught at their academies and schools. We earnestly all reverend brethren. entitled Summa should be laid on the altar. commanded that. together with the Holy Scriptures and Papal decrees...

with diplomatic cunning. like the Jesuit theology. and thus kept up the appearance of large-mindedness. Naumann. to are admirable. Both doctrines are unworthy of an ideal conception of God. however. Both are conspicuously eminent the heathen Greek even more than the Christian Monk among the intelBoth were creative geniuses. blame the Order for their rigid adherence to Aristotelian philosophy and Thomistic theology* I would in no way underrate the great intellects of Aristotle and I Thomas Aquinas. Friedrich Naumann at the Protestant Congress Soto. i. And however narrow was the field for which Aquinas worked. his commentators (Cajetan. the interpreters. From this estimate Naumann can of Thomas (I heard it myself) it seems to ever have looked into a single one of the . be impossible that Dr. honoured as her own.e. 1909. the Jesuits have "Doctrine of Grace. f In this field he has dug shafts and piled up heights which. 256 followed Fourteen Years a Jesuit by Catholic is theological studies in all countries thus the Order the greatest obstacle to modern evolution of Catholic thought. the Roman Church of to-day. I observe that the expression not used here in the sense of " Thomism. But we are not guard against quibbling. considered from the standpoint of metaphysical-ultramontane * In — — speculation. who stimulated and deepened the human mind. Ultramontane theologian is shown by a speech of the well-known Dr. narrowest sense. By " Thomism " is understood the interorder " Thomistic " is pretation put upon the words of Thomas Aquinas by etc. And doubtless the encyclical con- cerning the revival of philosophy and theology according to the principles the only one signed If and precepts of Thomas Aquinas is not by the Pope which was composed by the Society of Jesus. which also refers its " Conception of Grace " to Thomas Aquinas. he was an Ultramontane Catholic in the narrowest sense.." but as the definition of a form of theology which. Melchior Canus.). represented Thomas Aquinas as a theologian of liberal opinions. while the Protestant Church repudiated many evangelical liberal theologians with hurtful shortsightedness. lectual heroes of all ages. Dominican's works. its To " Thomism " in Thomas by his at Bremen in September. speaking on liberalism in religion and politics. t The ignorance prevailing even in highly cultured non-Catholic circles with regard to Thomas Aquinas as a narrow. whom." attributed to opposed Molinism (so called after the Jesuit Molina). acknowledges Thomas Aquinas as its leader and chief teacher.

as for the whole ultramontanised Catholic Church of which it forms a part. nay thousands. The 13th Eule for the Teacher of Philosophy in the Ratio. it is the outward rightly and visible sign of the spirit prevailing in Jesuit studies. if est ut est aut non est explains and excuses everything from the Jesuit's point of view. but in themselves they are retrograde and contain the negation . But. the world which is neither Jesuit nor Ultramontane cannot accept this excuse in passing an objective judgment on the Order it is compelled to say Your principles are indeed necessary to yourself and your own existence. even the " new " one of 1832. 1893). but with the circumstance that an organisa^ tion with pretensions to intellectual and scholarly its vitality.Studies of the Scholasticate 257 concerned with the individual greatness of the Stagirite and Aquinas. runs thus "At the very outset of their studies in logic. of years ago. have already pointed out the great importance its theological and philosophical school work to the scholastic-syllogistic method. the I attached by the Order in ! : young people [scholastics] must be trained to feel that nothing is more disgraceful in the disputations than any deviation from the syllogistic form. And For this form is more than a form. : of living scholarship. it is ultraCertainly the Order has one good excuse montane." insist From R the Manual on Logic usum for the Use of Schools ^^^ p. and the teacher must with special force on the strict observance of the laws of the disputation and the prescribed alternation of attack and defence. 96. therefore progress in knowledge is impossible for it. by * Logica in Scliolarum (Freiburg. the Jesuit Order. and that by this retrograde direction of mind it shows itself hostile to progress and : uncompromisingly refuses to tread new paths. . continues to ledge draw supplies of know- and learning from sources which flowed hundreds.

meretur. ut doctrina non Probatur: Qui saepe fallitur. First. 2. ratio saepe fallitur : : contradistinguo : minorem : ratio fallitur per se et in evidentihus nego minorem per et in non evidentihus : transeat minor. nullam fldem meretur : distinguo consequens Ergo non meretur fldem in evidentihus : nego consequens in non : . the Defendens proposes the thesis. Objiciens distinctio. stating the arguments in favour " Scepticismus universalis. Probatur : I. I quote a specimen of a disputation. qui fallitur per accidens subdistinguo majorem non meretur fldem." and thus the disputation is set going Qui saepe fallitur nullam fldem meretur: distinguo : major em : qui fallitur : per se : concedo majorem : .. ut doctrina Defendens ' : ' ' : repugnat. for this sort of thing cannot be translated without almost destroying its effect. evidentihus : subdistinguo consequens : : nisi : constet de ratiocinii legitimitate transeat consequens si constet nego consequens." : " Atqui ratio fallitur per se : ergo nulla The " Defendens " repeats the suhsumptio of the " Ohjiciens " Defendens " Atqui ratio fallitur per se : nego minorem ." . nullam fldem Ergo nullam fldem The " Defendens " repeats the Syllogism of the " Ohjiciens.^^ : " Scepticismus universalis. Atqui ratio saepe fallitur. The " Defendens " having explained the : arguments. nisi majorem Atqui accidens : quando error ille accidentalis excludatur : concedo quando exclusus est : nego majorem. ' : : 258 Fourteen Years a Jesuit the Jesuit Frick.• : subsumptam. the " Ohjiciens " begins his work Objiciens repugnat. meretur.'" and follows it up with his " distinctions. in Latin however. ex ipsa assertione scepticismi ex principio contradictionis.

or even five or six " distinctions.''^ " Ratio humana essentialiter est. the inconsistency of absolute scepticism. minorem . year after we shall understand how these mechanical ossified forms gradually produce a similar rigidity of the intellect. fer se semper convenit ergo ratio fer se et semfer fallibilis. With the aid of three." the number does not matter. I have purposely given an instance of a disputation in which the distinctions and the syllogistic form really lead to a clear and correct result. i. distinguo. est fallibilis : distinguo majorem sel : ex essentia rationis ut possitfalli per accidens. . sub conditione requisita evidentiae rationi essentiale est. ratio rationi est essentiale est. In order not to seem unjust. different type.Studies of the Scholasticate Objiciens : 259 : " Probo est et minorem fallibilis . ergo ratio : nego majorem at qui quod illi per se et semper convenit : concedo est per se et semper fallibilis : distinguo per se et semper convenit rationi ut actu errare consequens possit : nego consequens .e. ex essentia rationis ut possit etiam falli per se.e. quae per accidens errare possit : concedo consequens. per se et semper convenit rationi. concedo majorem i. ex defectu evidentiae alicujus est." The syllogistic-formalistic characteristics of the dis- putation. four. humana essentialiter illi subsceptam atqui quod . by sway year.'''' After again repeating the words of the " the " Defendens " continues : Objiciens. ut sit talis. a Jesuit ready at a moment's notice to dispose of the most problems. transeat. objecti. If we realise that this I have marked formalism holds in the Jesuit schools evening after evening. concedo and the like. have been attained just as quickly and clearly without the scholastic pupil is difficult paraphernalia. which could. conspicuous in the terms atqui. however. The apparent gain in clearness and certainty from the numerous short distinctions is acquired at the cost of a deeper and more living comprehension of the questions debated. subdistinguo. : .

or other similar distinctions. entitative transeat. absolute. actualiter. abstracter concrete^ terminative. and the This barrenness and lack of progressive spirit which have characterised scholasticism from its first origin to the present day are due not so much to the rigidity of ecclesiastical dogma since the dogmas that have been defined during the last thousand years might be counted on the fingers of one hand as in the rigid. Nietzsche. virtualiter. in which scholasticism abounds. reduplicative. potentialiter. hermetically sealed and reeking with the musty smell of centuries. syllogistic treatment which ecclesiastical philosophy and theology have received in the scholastic schools. entitative. In this form.26o Fourteen Years a Jesuit But if we now imagine this method applied to dark and abstruse questions of philosophy and theology. essentialiter. relative. actualiter concedo. formalistic. Such expressions as potentialiter nego. of distinctions is mere wordy warfare and dreary verbosity. accidentaliter. materialiter. disposes of the best equipped arsenal The combatant who ticism is —and in this respect the wealth of scholasamazing — comes victorious he " resolves " off . alone sufficing to condemn this formalism. terminative concedo. the result. the first conditions of life air and — — light —are lacking. — remarkable circumstance. instead of enlarging our comprehension. and to refute all the works of Spinoza. which professors and students have at their disposal. Kant. But neither the solution nor the defence advances our comprehension by a single hair. Formaliter. Schopenhauer. suffice to solve every problem of theoretical knowledge of theology in heaven and earth. and " defends " the thesis. simpliciter. that all further development in Is it not a . virtualiter subdistinguo. the difficulties. and on the skilful choice of which depend a successful solution and defence. rest. secundum quid : these are but a few of the literally endless terms on the disputation list.

mechanically set in motion by syllogisms. i. The theological thought and stream of life flows past this structure. Free. i.e. nego. the ancient. They castrate it at birth.e. even thousands. petrified distinctions on the pointed axis of a concedo. of years ago (I refer to Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas) and they abide by it because. they make use of a dead language. because they abide motionless by the standpoint of hundreds. However much and structure of the it we may value the strictly Latin language. Perhaps we might apply the words of Mephistopheles to the scholastic syllogistic disputations " For just : A language for logical when the ideas are lacking word may prove most opportune. Those who use a dead language to express their innermost and deepest must at once renounce the possibility of any and complete development. The free development of cognition requires a living pliant form capable of development. . true incapable of development. still exclusive use of Latin for philosophical and theological speculation must have the effect of hindering and benumbing the spirit of research. I. and however cannot be doubted that the justly we may find in a suitable aid for scholarly interit national intercourse. and the same applies to the expression of the thought. in a form that is most easily and naturally handled. among other reasons. subdistinguo.Studies of the Scholasticate philosopliical 261 was and is accomplished outside the syllogistic form ? Within this brazen tower of scholasticism revolve. * Goethe. Faust. Scholastic philosophy and theology make use of a dead language because they cognition. transeat. living and fructifying thought is only possible in the mother tongue."* is Then there all another point rightly : the use of the Latin lectures and disputations. themselves are dead. It .

is to be avoided. the Jesuit Order has a considerable number of Special Regulations.: 262 is Fourteen Years a Jesuit life impossible to express philosophical and theological in Latin."* " Without consulting the Superiors no new questions (in philosophy) are to be proposed. not only hinder to the greater the very aim which the Society has set before * itself Summ. to say nothing of the moderns. added or taken from the doctrine. 5. nor yet any opinion which is not at any rate based on some good authority is .. also use the same utterance. as is the case in the language of inscriptions on monumental tombstones. The production of " silently revolving and smoothly rounded balls " is also the main aim of Jesuit scholarship. III. .J. we should be of one mind. as far as possible. of opinion in practical matters. and. in public pleadings. nor should anything be defended which principles contrary to the traditional philosophical of the schools. To translate Kant or Fichte. even difference is apt to prove the mother and foe to the union of will. Besides these fundamental limitations to philosophical and theological research and systematic checks on the mobility of the intellect.. But imion and mutual conformity are to be most sedulously cultivated. into Latin Only where nothing can be is a contradiction in terms. Decret. n. is Latin a suitable mode of expression. . 42. 18. Yes. t Cong. Schleiermacher or Biedermann. Const. "f " Since novelty or difference of opinion may 1. 51. and nothing opposed to these must be tolerated. Const. S. or in written works. I. only where the stream of time has not forced the Middle Ages aside.. Differences of doctrine are not to be allowed either in word. and the general opinion Those who are disposed to innovation or to free thought must be removed from the teaching office without hesitation. The most important of the regulations are these to fetter intellectual freedom. same knowledge in all : " In accordance with the teaching of the Apostle. Inst. which of discord . . so far as is possible. all with the same aim and cultivate exactly the members of the Order. 253.

. but also cause the very existence of the Society to check by definite legislation in all possible ways intellectual licence (licentiam ingeniorum) in the introduction and pursuit of such opinions.. S. 12 § Instruction of General Acquaviva : et seq. . which might lead to difficulties between the Prefect of Studies [who has the chief direction of the studies] and the Professors. In the case which have already been treated by others.Studies of the Scholasticate totter. nor yet should introduced concerning matters in any or of any great importance. "§ this canon of the third General Congregation 4 it end will be of great assistance if ."f " No one should teach anything which spirit of is not in conformity with the the Church and tradition. . O. I. No one should defend an opinion which the majority of the learned judge to be lessen the faith contrary to the accepted doctrines of the philosophers or theologians or the general opinion of the schools.J. or which could in any . and that all who are not so disposed . " Since is it is not infrequently doubtful whether or not any doctrine differs must not be taught].. 1. to whom the matter must be submitted. . X P.. . have given their decision.. 4. way and zeal of true piety. of questions . and whether anything from the usual school interpretation. no one new questions be way connected with religion taking counsel with the should follow new opinions. the Professor follow the view of the Prefect and may neither teach nor defend the doctrine in question.. until the Superiors. 43. hist S. •\ Const. faed. be removed from the teaching ofl&ce and utilised in other occupations. . 246."* " Even in the case of opinions about which Catholic Doctors (Professors) are not agreed among themselves [where there is freedom of opinion] care must be taken that there should be con- formity [lack of freedom] in the Society itself. III. If the must * Rule 54 for the Provincial: Inst. Germ.J. . this rule is laid down therefore : new [and If the Prefect of Studies opposes a doctrine . it is necessary to 263 glory of God.. . first Care should be taken that the philosophy professors take to heart the directions in the eighth For the attainment of by means of careful selection only those are admitted to teach philosophy and theology whose obedience and submissiveness are evident. Monnm. 43.... Declar. I. without Prefect of Studies or the Superiors.

264

Fourteen Years a Jesuit
by
his opinion the

Professor abides

Rector should secretly take the
;

opinion of three or four learned fathers
decide that the Prefect
is

if

these, or the majority,
is

in the right, the Rector

to see to

it

that the Professor submits absolutely (omnino), and similarly in
the opposite case.

But that no
addicted to

suspicion

may

rest

on the decision

of the fathers, only such fathers are to be chosen for this purpose

who

are in no

way

well disposed to the Prefect

new doctrine, and who are equally and the Professor. If the Rector has
he should apply to the Provincial

no such fathers at

his disposition,

Superior, so that he

may
If

in the

some such

fathers.

even this

is

manner described ask counsel of of no avail, and if the difierences
!]

of opinion [in a

matter of scholarship

cannot be reconciled,

it

rests

with the Superior to punish those

who

are at fault in the matter."*

Finally, the panacea for preventing in scholarsliip,

any step on a new path,

any individuality is the strict and

comprehensive literary censorship at the disposal of the
Order.
" The eleventh General Congregation in
laid
its

18th decree already
office, forfeiture of

down

the severest penalties (deprivation of

the right to vote and stand for election) for those

who
'

published
'

books without permission.
included pamphlets, single
attains publicity in print."t

Under the heading sheets and anything

of

books

are

{quidquid) which

For works on dogma fom: censors are requisite
exegesis, church history
;

;

for

for all and philosophy, three other books, pamphlets, or articles, two. Not only the text, but also the preface and title of a work must be submitted to the censor. Besides the general censors in Rome, special

censors are
realise

appointed for every Province ; they are to to the full the great importance of their office. {
General Peter Beckx, on

Finally,

May

11th,

1862,

issued a comprehensive Instruction, which presents the

present theory and practice of the Jesuit literary censor*

Ordinance as to the Higher Studies

:

Inst. S.J., II., 557.

t l7ist. S.J., I., 350; cf. Const. VII., 4, 11. { Begulae Revisorum gen. reg., 1, 2, 15. Inst. S.J.,

II.,

71

et seq.

Studies of the Scholasticate
ship, without,

265
rules.

however, modif}^g the above-quoted
points in this Ordinatio are
:

The most important 1. Every one who
submit
is

desires to publish anything

must

first

it

to the Provincial that he

may
3.

judge whether
2.

its

publication would be advantageous.
to report to the General about
it
it.

The

Provincial

If the Provincial

on to the censors. 4. The they are censors are to be appointed by the Provincial to be anonymous to the author of the work and he to them. 5. The censors must carefully observe the rules 6. Books on the Conof the Roman general revisionists. stitution of the Society of Jesus, its rights and privileges,
approves

he

is

to

hand

it

;

as well as those which the General

may

reserve for his

own

censorship,

may

by

special censors appointed

only be published after being approved by the General. 7. If the

censors are unanimous in their opinion that a work may be published, " because in their opinion it surpasses

mediocrity appreciably in

its

own

particular kind " {quod

mediocritatem in suo genere non mediocriter superare censeant), the Provincial must at once give his consent to the publication.
If the censors fail to agree,
8.

the Provincial

is

to

refer the matter to the General.

report
9.

their

decisions

to

the

General

The and Provincial.

censors are to

The censors should note anything which, in their opinion, should be altered, and should emphasise what in their opinion are essential and what unessential alterations. 10. The comments of the censors may be communicated 11. Anything to the author (without giving their names). which any member of the Society of Jesus writes, whether anonymously or under his own name, whether a thesis,
preface, letter or dedicatory epistle, title, superscription,

must be submitted
articles in

to the censorship.

12.
13.

Similarly with
If

newspapers or periodicals.

a grievous

calumny

is

circulated against the Society of Jesus the

local Superior

may,

if

the Provincial cannot be consulted,

266

Fourteen Years a Jesuit
its

give permission for

refutation, but this

must

first

be

read through by two suitable fathers. 14. The Provincial may entrust to the Local Superiors the examination of the

announcements,
editions

etc.,

published

and

also translations

by schools. 15. New must be submitted to the

until the

16. No publishing contract may be concluded whole work has been submitted to the censor.* Nearly all books published by Jesuits bear the imprimatur of the Order in the form of a special permit signed by the Provincial. For special reasons this may be omitted. The wording of the Jesuit imprimatur, at

censorship.

any

rate in the

German

Province,

is

invariable,

e.g.

:

third edition,

work with the title Biology and Theory of Evolution, composed by Erich Wasmann, Priest of the Society of Jesus, has been examined by some revisers of the same Society, commissioned for the purpose, who approved its publication, we accordingly give our permission that, provided it seem good to For purposes of the persons concerned, it should be printed. authentication this document, signed by us and provided with
our
official seal,

" Since the

may serve.

Exaeten, July 29th, 1906.

Father Karl

Schaifer, S.J., President of the

German Province

of the Order."

My

reason for reproducing

the imprimatur of

this

particular

not theological but scientific, and that its author, the Jesuit Erich Wasmann, on the strength of this work claims a place in the ranks of scientists who pursue free research. But the very first
is

work

that

it is

page of his book shows plainly the extent of his "
research
i.e.
;

free

"

it is

the censors and the Provincial of the Order,

theologians,

who have

to decide whether the biological

investigations are to be published or not.

As with this book so with all others, no matter whether they treat of history, art, mathematics, astronomy, botany, Before they can zoology, physics, or any other subject.
appear, the red or blue pencil of the theological censor
* Inst. S.J., II., 253
et

seq.

Studies of the Scholasticate
does
its

267

work, and the Provincial, who usually knows next to nothing of secular learning, decides whether the manuscript is to be published or not. Indeed, my own Provincial Superiors, the Jesuits Hovel, Meschler,

E-atgeb,

had only received the philosophical

Lohmann, and theo-

logical training of the Order.

In answer to the objection that the Society is bound to act thus in order to maintain its internal solidarity, since liberty of thought and teaching would be centrifugal forces tending to its destruction, I say True, but unity and uniformity in thought and teacliing brought about by
:

law and the threat of punishment combined with a
censorship, are the grave of all true striving after
ledge,

strict

knowserve

and admit
cognition.

of

no

free,

continuous development of
is

human

Where
outside

learning
its

made

to

purposes which
thing
is

lie

scope, its exercise cannot
in the Jesuit

Order everyabove all the learning which, regarded from without, seems to be cultivated with such zeal. And one of the chief ends is

produce true knowledge.

But

made

to subserve the ends of the Order,

the strengthening of
its

its

own

inner
its

life,

the extension of

power, the deepening of
its

influence over men,

and

eventually the strengthening of the
all

Roman

Church, with

claims to temporal and political dominion.
is

But

crudely biased learning
I

must show

later)

not learning at all, even if (as individual achievements of individual

Jesuits

may and

do have scholarly value.
;

But these are
is

exceptions to the rule
accidents in the

their scholarship

good, not

because, but in spite of their being Jesuits; they are but

domain of learning. But the Order knows no mercy when the scholarly achievements of members do not fit into its own framework of learning. Then the censorship and punishment
do their worst. In the years 1890 and 1891
I

was myself book-censor

268
{censor

Fourteen Years a Jesuit
lihrorum)
for

the

German

Province,

a position

which
Order.

may
I

testify to

my

reputation for learning in the

am

therefore exactly informed of the

methods

of Jesuit censorship.

not the freedom, nor to the established results of
opposed,

the interest of the Order is smallest regard is paid to personal
scientific investi-

When

gation or individual ability. The censorship deletes and the author submits ; the punitive authority punishes and

the culprit remains dumb.

In the last year of
fellow-scholastics, a

my

theological studies one of

my

man of superior gifts, who was specially

interested in natural science, the Jesuit Breitung, wrote

an

article for the Jesuit organ, Zeitschrift fur Katholische

Theologie

(published

at

Innsbruck)

about the Deluge.

flood,

Breitung maintained the ethnographic universality of the perished i.e. that all persons then in the world family, but in accordance with the except Noah and his
of

results

geological
its

and

palaeontological
i.e.

abandoned

geographic universality,

research, he he admitted

earth was flooded.

that not the whole earth but only the whole of the inhabited The article had passed the Provincial

censorship, but found no favour at Eome with the head censor of the Order ; it was a " new doctrine subversive
of the

Scriptures."

(Galileo's

teaching was also "

new

and subversive of the Scriptures.") The General Anderledy issued a decree which condemned the theory of the

When Breitung he was not allowed to devote himself had ended his studies to natural science, as had been universally expected on account of his special gifts and preliminary studies, but
geographical limitation of the Deluge.

was appointed teacher in the lowest classes in the College There he was " harmless." of Ordrupshoj, in Denmark. What scientific work he now carries on I do not know. A few years later the Belgian Jesuit Hahn, Professor of Natural Science at the College at Arlon, had published

Studies of the Scholasticate

269

a book on the Spanish Saint Teresa a Jesu, and had come to the conclusion that some remarkable phenomena in the
life

of this nun, which had hitherto been regarded as miraculous and tokens of divine grace, were of a hysterical character. His book had actually been " crowned " by

a Spanish Catholic academy. But Rome here again thought differently. The book was censored, and the Order removed its author from his scientific professorship. One of the most celebrated theologians of the Order
at the present

day

is

the Jesuit Domenico Palmieri.

He

too came into conflict with the censorship in his theological
researches

I

forget

what was the point

in

question,

certainly not
i.e.

one which was established dogmatically,
highest ecclesiastical teaching
chair.

" infallibly " by the

authority

—and in consequence he had to resign his
a word as to

And now

crowned with success. All sophy and theology were passed satisfactorily, even the last examen rigorosum of two hours' duration. In theory we were not supposed to know anything about the results of examinations, but usually something leaks out, and besides, the Provincial Superior, Jacob Ratgeb, informed me that I had passed the last examination, accordingly all the previous ones also, " very well," and that I was in via ad Professionem, on the road to the grade of proI had therefore " attained that degree of philofessed. sophical and theological culture which suffices for teaching both subjects satisfactorily."
I allude to

my own studies which were my examinations in philo-

my

scholarly qualification within the Order
it,

because, very soon after I left

doubts on the subject were

publicly strewn about, originating in Ultramontane Jesuit
sources,

For what

which, of course, found the readiest credence. tales are not told and believed of an " apostate " ?
Volkszeitung, doubtless inspired

The Kolnische

by

Jesuits,
!

even went so far as to hint at insanity.

Ecrasez Vinfame

:

CHAPTER XXIII
THE ATTITUDE OF THE ORDER TO LEARNING
This attitude has really been
the previous section.
special claims to
sufficiently characterised in

But as the Jesuit Order makes learning, and as even in the non-Ultraview
is

montane world
of

this

widely spread, a further con-

sideration of the subject

from other, more general points

view seems justified. Of course the principles which the Roman Church sets up in regard to its conception of knowledge and freedom

of research are also the principles of the Jesuit Order.

These principles are expressed in innumerable official Papal utterances, of which I shall only quote a few of the

more modern

ones.

1. Provincial Council of Cologne (tit. 1, c. 6) (especially confirmed by the Pope). 2. A letter of Pius IX. to the Archbishop of Munich of December 21st, 1863. 3. Sylla-

bus

of

Pius

IX.,

of

December
5.

8th, 1864.

4.

Vatican
6.

Council of the year 1870.
Offlciorum ac

Constitution of Leo XIII.,
25th, 1897.
1903.
7.

munerum

propria of Pius X. of

of January December 18th,

Motu

Syllabus of

Pius X. (against Modernism) of September 8th, 1907.*
All these manifestoes are included, so far as their contents are concerned, in the " infallible " pronounce-

ment

of the Vatican Council

* For the wording, see my book, Die Katholisch-theologischen Fakvltaten im Organismus dcr preussischen Staatsuniversitdten (Leipzig, Breitkopf u. Hartel),

pp. 22-38.

270

The Order and Learning
" If

271
should

anyone

asserts

that

human knowledge

its assertions, even when they are opposed to revealed doctrine, are to be regarded as true and cannot be condemned by the Church, he shall be excommunicated."* These Eoman principles as to learning find their practical application in the Index, the rules of which were remodelled in 1900 by Leo XIII. and suspended as a Damocles' sword over the whole output of Catholic learning. To this must be added Rome's final right of decision in dogmatic facts {facta dogmatica) and dogmatic so-called texts {textus dogmatici), by which vast domains of historical knowledge are withdrawn from free research, f But even the silent recognition of the bondage of all

develop so freely that

knowledge assumed by the authoritative Roman doctrine did not suffice the Jesuit Order. It therefore declared, in the 12th decree of the 23rd General Congregation of 1883
:

" Since in such a mass of errors, which steal in everywhere and
in our
See,

own day have

frequently been

condemned by the Roman

it is

to be feared that

some

of our

own members,

too,

may

be

attacked by this plague, the General Congregation declares that

by the doctrine contained in the encyclical December 8th, 1864, of Pius IX., and reject, as it always has rejected, all errors rejected by the Syllabus of this same Pope. But since some Provinces [of the Order] have demanded
our Society
is

to abide

Quanta cura

of

the particular condemnation of so-called Liberal Catholicism, the

General Congregation gladly accedes to this request, and earnestly
entreats the Venerable Father General to have a care that this

plague

is

by

all

means averted from our Society."!

Thus the Order solemnly gave its consent to the destruction, initiated by Rome, of teaching and learning. Thus from its very inception Modernism (under the name
* Sess. 3,
c.

4, de fid.

et.

rat.

can.

2.

t Cf. my work Die Katholisch-theologischen FakuUdten im Organismua der preussischen Staatsuniversitdten, pp. 39-46.
f

Monum. Germ,

paed., 2, 117.

272

Fourteen Years a Jesuit
was outlawed, and how
this sentence

of Liberal Catholicism)
of outlawry

was carried out has been seen in our own day by the tragic fate of the Jesuits Tyrrell and Bartoli. The attitude of the Order to learning furnishes the
a book, published at Innsbruck with the imprimatur of the Order and the ecclesiastical authorities by the Jesuit Dr. Josef Donat, Royal and Imperial Pro-

contents of

fessor at the University of Innsbruck, in the year 1910,

Die Freiheit der WissenscJiaft, ein Gang durch das moderne Geistesleben. There is nothing of any novelty in the book, nor is it singular of its kind, but it contains the old
opposition to free research, the old submission to the

Roman

censorship in the newest forms

:

" Those

who acknowledge

the Christian

[i.e.

CathoHc] con-

ception of the world, cannot accept this freedom of thought and

knowledge
Index].

[just characterised as
[in opposition to

freedom from the Syllabus and
is

Here

the Church]

the true reason

why

thousands, in

whom

Kant's autonomy in thought has become the

veritable sinew of their intellectual hfe, will not hear of

by

revelation

and the Church.

any guidance They can no longer endure the

idea of letting their reason unhesitatingly accept the truth from

an external authority [the Papacy]. It is not knowledge which the Church attacks, but error not truth, but the emancipation of the human intellect from submission to the authority of God, which comes forward under the disguise of scientific truth. If it is an infallible dogma, which is opposed [to a scientific
.

.

.

;

.

.

.

result],

the believer soon finds the conflict springing from his

investigations at an end.

hypothesis, that

For he knows then the value of his no true progress, but error. Thus the philosophical errors of the present day are almost invariably opposed
it is
.
.

.

to infallible dogmas, for the most part fundamental doctrines of

the Christian religion.

These are the title deeds, on the strength of which revelation and the Church impress on the investigator the duty
not to set his

own

opinions in opposition to religious doctrines,
, .

because no opposition can continue between faith and reason.

.

If the Catholic investigator finds his scientific opinion in opposition

The Order and Learning
to a not infallible declaration
[e.g.

273
Cardinals'

the decision of a

Roman

Congregation, as in the case of Galileo] he will maintain an impartial
attitude
is

and once more

test his views in the sight of

God.

If

he

compelled to admit calmly to himself that his views are not so

convincing as to hold their
directed

own
he

in face of so high

an authority,

by the Holy
is

Spirit,

will

humbly renounce the natural
remembering
fallibility of

satisfaction at being allowed to retain his opinion,

that true wisdom

convinced of the

human

reason

and

is

ready and willing to accept instruction from a God-directed
. .
.

authority. Everything that is good and profitable in modern it only attacks knowledge remains untouched by the Syllabus what is anti-Christian in our time and our leading ideas. It is not
;

the freedom of knowledge which

is

condemned, but that

liberal

freedom which shakes

the yoke of belief. The ecclesiastical firstly, book-legislation [the Index] consists mainly of two factors
ofi
: ;

the preventive censorship

certain books
:

must be subjected
scholars

to

examination before publication
that have already appeared.
.

secondly, the prohibition of books
. .

Catholic

who have
will

any knowledge

of the supernatural mission of their
its

Church

surrender themselves with humble confidence to

direction [in

matters of knowledge].
in

.

.

.

Those who are convinced that even
is

our generation the Christian faith

the noblest inheritance

handed down from the past, and one which it is essential to maintain, will raise no objection if the Church does not withdraw even
before

men

like

Kant, Spinoza, Schopenhauer, Strauss
.
.

[in

the

application of the power of the Index].
the

.

Ranke's History of
it

Popes has been placed on the Index, because

disparages the
it

constitution

and doctrines

of the Catholic Church, not because

speaks the truth about the Popes."*

This exposition

is

prefaced by the Jesuit author, in

unconscious irony and absolute failure to grasp its meaning, by Goethe's saying and after all, why should not Goethe be quoted on behalf of Syllabus and Index ?

*

Donat.

leben (Innsbruck), pp. 63, 88 et seq, 123, 128 et seq., 193, 207, 209, 213. last passage, then, the Church claims dominion even over history.

Die Freiheit der Wissenachaft, ein Gang durch das moderne OeistesIn this

This ecclesiastical measure manifests itself not only as the love of a mother for the faithful. . the severest penalties even to offer dynamite for severity if sale. surely assert that men of learning such as professors of theology [philologists * have already been mentioned] are as of Goethe's sonnets. faithfully All Catholics of all lands will feel in conscience bound to observe these laws. therefore. . the Church. In der Beschrdnkung zeigt sich erst der Meister Vnd das Gesetz erst kann uns Freiheit geben."* of the Austrian Jesuit is A pendant to the teaching supplied by the an extensive work. muss sich zusamnienraffen. demand them and history for a lawful purpose We may. pro- to the whole world. published in 1904. gregation of the Index still and a further decree of the Conmore expressly commands. large octavo. in German who the Index. . who It is forbidden under are by it prevented from sowing tares. Hilgers writes " : By the republication of the Index in the year 1900 the Church its has not only opportunely adapted claimed of legislation to the needs of its the age. Jesuit Hilgers. in the consciousness of it right it and duty.274 Fourteen Years a Jesuit " Vergehens werden ungehundene Geister Nach der Vollendung reiner Hohe strehen : Wer Grosses will. and persons of may ? . . 638 pages. much From one . as the tenor of this constitution distinctly requires. On the compelling power of especially in our own day. but also. but also as paternal precaution in face of authors and writers. The justification and utility of the preventive censorship is to be office of sought in the divine teaching and pastoral like that of the prohibitive censorship. sets forth the necessity and utility of this Roman censorship and its supervision of learning. Is it excessive all the laws of the Church admonish booksellers that forbidden books may only be offered for sale after seeking the easily granted ecclesiastical permission. . only be sold to those whom the sellers may reasonably assume that they . on The Index of Forbidden Books. . and impressed afresh on Catholics every nation. .

Pesch. which speaks more eloquently than any arguments. for these are the views demanded by the Ultramontane clerical point of view. the utterances of Donat and Hilgers. a Tongiorgi. creative thought.The Order and Learning bound books from the ecclesiastical authority. Kleutgen. 51. Index der verbotcnen Biicker (Freiburg). but Jesuit practice on her side. philosophy. Sanchez. has produced a single new idea or even opened out a single fresh vista ? In spite of w^hole libraries of folio volumes on philosophy written by Jesuits. 43. Palmieri. Lehmen. But no further proof is needed to show that they are incompatible with free research and it was for this reason that I quoted . The answer to this objection brings out in even sharper light the innate constitutional ignorance of the Order. pp. No Jesuit has ever gone beyond scholasticism and Thomas Aquinas. 42. . Becanus. Molina. But the is not all this in opposition to the great activity Jesuit Order actually displays in the domain of knowledge ? There is no other Order of the Eoman Church which effects so much in the sphere of learning. and many Jesuits have achieved notable success in various subjects. The bulky works of a Suarez. de Lugo and. which more than any other is the test of free. Liberatore. Jesuit theory may therefore be directed against is knowledge."* 275 as others to seek a dispensation from the prohibition of As already shown there is nothing either new or remarkable in the utterances of these two Jesuits. it would be new and remarkable if Jesuits did not speak thus. to mention the most recent. are nothing but endless repetitions and variations on the philosophical is * Hilgers. On the contrary. Frick. 25. Where among the innumerable Jesuit Sommervogel fills Jesuit writers (the names and works) several quarto volumes with their one to be found who in that domain of knowledge. we find here a vacuum.

For how should or could the handmaid rise above the mistress how could she go along a road of her own. : There too we may see books of enormous but the smallest actual achievement. For theology matters are even simpler. There too the Jesuit revolves in a circle. in Germany. by the position which the Order in Constitutions it is its assigns to philosophy. It goes along " fixed highroads " towards goals unchangeably set up at the beginning. in the best case in a new dress. the contents. nineteenth. usually without even this. the servant of theology and Jesuit-Ultramontane theology is essentially stationary and incapable of development. Belgium. is enforced with iron necessity. are everj^where the same. Paris or Lisbon. whether it dates from the sixteenth. Here certainly neither freedom nor learning is to be found. Tried by this test. either actually or by the fiat of Rome. sociology. The same may be said of all branches of knowledge. : tion its it) attitude to philosophy is (if it is at all concerned with the test. size . since it is the branch of knowledge which depends most on the original activity of the intellect. This sterility. 276 Fourteen Years a Jesuit and thirteenth centuries. in spite of all differences of form and language. the centre of which is the economics. which. or twentieth century. ideas of the twelfth this complete lack of creative intellectual power. when she is bound by blind obedience and innumerable directions to the girdle of her employer ? I repeat For the learning of an organisa. the handmaid. or England. As we have already seen. " are connected with philosophy and theology " ethics.. at any rate not of its own prospecting. Whether the Jesuit work on philosophy has appeared at Rome or Madrid. Jesuit learning does not approve itself true metal. It is " ancient " wisdom (as the twenty-third General Congregation expressed it). which in their turn are the outcome of Aristotelean thought.

which are for the most part {e. history. language. chemistry) not at all or not so much dependent on philosophy and theology the ** ancient wisdom. biology. Now for the other branches of learning and the liberal arts. physics. art. philology. and there are several which it has helped to advance. . has even written on aeronautics. is and accordingly a Jesuit comparatively free in his researches and able to bring to light new and good for results. how Assyriology. acoustics. and a twentieth-century Wilhelm. in the subjects themselves. hardly exists here. optics. physics.* On many of these domains they move with apparent freedom. zoology.g. palaeontology. economics and sociology move along in ancient grooves and have only given a modern equipment to the vehicle of their learning. literature. Balthasar ology. astronomy. The cause of this apparent intellectual freedom lies. And therefore here Die Anfdnge der Lvftschiffahrt. referred back.. True. mathematics. examine new results. acoustics.J. They are at work in astronomy. S. in the first place.The Order and Learning authority. Even in the domain of secular and some scope ecclesiastical history Jesuit principles leave detailed * research. art in all its forms. There is none which the Jesuit Order has not approached." to which everything must be and bring to light in a scholarly . archaeology. above all by wide reading and a genius for quotation to give his works an appearance of scholarly research and genuine learning (and here the German Jesuits Cathrein and the brothers Tilmann and Heinrich Pesch have been particularly successful). and thus work apparently manner. botany. ages. 277 and its circumference the to thought of past draw modern circumstances and things into this circle. he understands geology. botany. optics. mathematics. chemistry. but closer examination shows that the " modern " writers on ethics. archaeJesuit.

and the privacy which they work. articles in learned reviews. the Collection of Councils by the Jesuit Labbe. and compare the result achieved in these conditions. particularly remarkable especially after the Society had gained . . and have not originated in independent.. still less has it helped to open up new paths.g. but with the object of serving the the Order and defending " Catholic truth " . we must never recall forget (1) that they are all writings with a special aim. Thus Kink. in with natural abilities. The Acta Sanctorum. unprejudiced research. coincides : " Another mistake they was reins their dependence made in their methods of instruction on scholasticism. In the professorial chairs this was . the Collectio Lacensis. they appear but meagre. But in estimating the scholarly value of such achievements. and above all great collective works. I a large number of smaller biographies. it has always served as a drag on the advancement of . so propitious for learning and study. The very opposite is the case for.278 too Fourteen Years a Jesuit we meet with conspicuous Jesuit achievements. it every one of them. drawn from the best classes of the population and. widely spread but incorrect. the historian of the University of Vienna. Church and and (2) that volumes. that the Jesuit Order has achieved great things domain of knowledge. of the Order before can be There in the is a very general opinion. therefore. in spite of some signal achievements. On this point the testimony of history with that of scholars. who is anything but anti-Jesuit. taken as a whole. etc. e. If we realise how long the Order has existed and the many thousand members it has had in the course of centuries.. admits knowledge. single articles as well as folio must pass the censorship published. to which they gave the more and more. The Order has never at any time been a real promoter of learning.

though not hostile in principle asserted that. At last they were even reproached with relaxation in their system of ethics and conduct of discipline so that authoritative voices were raised.. Tyrnau are striking instances. which delighted in setting up and opposing abstruse theories and with dogmatic stubbornness rejected every simple reconciliation.. the abuses. It would certainly have been far better if the University had never been united with the Jesuit Order. to the Empress Maria Theresa. since the Society had been incorporated with it.. Graz. or even in some cases by skilful tacking sought to avoid submission to the higher authority. if only from psychological reasons. . unfaithful dialectic. Olmiitz. And as they had admitted scholasticism into their midst. proposed to her the foundation of an Academy of in 1775. 1757. Geschichie der kaiserlichen Universitdt Wien (Vienna."* In a memorial of November 5th. van Swieten says : " Facts have shown that the studies at the University [of Vienna] were in an unsatisfactory condition. which more clearly . I. when the impulse from without was lacking. gradually made way. 1854). t Ibid. . 414-420. then Among these was an and markedly. On the contrary. all the Universities which came under Jesuit rule have fallen into decay..] had set before them. ."t Maria Theresa herself had no very high opinion of When the Com:t Commission of Studies. at first imperceptibly. adhered to the pronouncement once made.. and II. * Kink.. It is consequently clear that it has not attained the goal which the two Emperors [Ferdinand I.. were an induce- ment to effeminacy and a hindrance to further advance. I. so far as their educational work was concerned. and sometimes appealing to the party spirit of the whole community. 490.The Order and Learning 279 undisputed hegemony over the other orders and the secular clergy. the comfortable security of exclusive possession and the removal of all control. which are as it were inborn in this method. Jesuit learning. they had not been able to resist degeneracy.

thirty-six magistrands disputed on the questions Whether there was a place of descent to Hades. I. and it do not consider the Abbe Hell strong enough would repay neither the time nor the trouble to found someI We . unjustly put to death by him.. : to appear to the Arian King Theodoric in the head of a Through what power or grace was Boethius boiled fish ? able to carry. should make thing even worse than the existing academies. Scharfer for Physics. 1629: He devotes no Whether this was a probable deduction damned can live in fire : From the Archives of the Royal Imperial Commission on Studies. He quotes from the Br. is afiorded subjects records chosen for disputation by the Jesuits in the course of a good many years On September 17th. quoted by Kink. however exourselves ridiculous in the eyes of the . * ' . 510. of the earth by natural forces ? thrown out 1623. Mako for Mathematics.: : 28o Fourteen Years a Jesuit made with Professor Science. Order at the University of Freiburg by Schreiber."* A vivid picture of the inferior scholarship of the Jesuit i.. Hell for Astronomy. 1623 On June 12th.. along with Jacquin. world. suggesting that a beginning should be three Jesuit teachers. to the nearest church the head which the King had struck ofi ? What was the nature of those cauldrons into which this Theodoric was cast after his death by Pope John and Symmachus ? and how was their heat maintained ? On Was the corpse of the Emperor Julian April 26th. in his hands and actually speaking. 1621 How was it possible for the head of Symmachus. my mind to begin an academie des sciences and a professor of Chemistry. she said " I could not make up with three ex-Jesuits cellent. and where Whether the worms that gnaw the bodies it was situated ? : of the through natural power ? Whether it was probable that springs were heated and metals melted by hell fire? On September 7th.

during the mid-day recreation. 1711: Is the philosopher or the poet in greater danger of lying ? On January 29th. . the rest of the world. we were discussing the story of the CreatioiL I expressed the opinion that geology and palaeontology clearly proved * OeschicMe der Albert Lndwigs Universitdt zu Freiburg (Freiburg. Barbara with her questions at the feet of his examiner [the Jesuit Ebner]. Leibnitz."f ance of such disputation themes. etc. Even some of the students revolted against such " knowledge " for the minutes report that on July 4th. at Exaeten. 421 et seq. " threw St. On was the Promotor who conferred the degree 1658 Is the cloak with which of magister on the Virgin Mary ? Who Mary covers those whom she protects the mantle of philo- sophy ? Was on which St. Frehner. 2. Galileo. 1729 Does the divining-rod discover treasure by natural means ? Does the ointment of arms {unguentum armarium) heal the lightning which consumed the wheel : sympathy ? Why does the blood of a murdered man boil when the murderer Were the approaches him ? On August 17th. were living and working. Newton. 1743. 425. Order. 1868). therefore he : 281 July 23rd. Descartes. is a genius. an aspirant for the doctorate.The Order and Learning care to his clothes. in which Kepler. 2. with an expression of contempt. A personal experience may serve to show the spirit that prevails even in the most learned circles of the Jesuit Once. 1743 conditions of the present day foreseen by Aristotle and proclaimed by the comet of the previous year ? * However much allowance we may make for the taste of the age and the " red tape " which enwrapped all learning.. we cannot but condemn the bad taste and ignorthe wounds of the absent by natural : While the Jesuits were regaling themselves and their pupils with such fare. t Schreiber. Catherine was to be torn a natural phenomenon ? On July 13th. had long ago left behind these monstrous absurdities. .

Knowledge without objective truth (if. may count as a test case the work of the German Jesuit Duhr." There is one peculiarity of Jesuit learning as to which I desire to say a few words. Moreover. representing the history of the Order as written and circulated by the Order itself. A weighty accusation. he guilty of falsification. but in view of the facts completely justified. in every terests of the But — . into the interior of the earth.. This single instance will suffice. in view of its importance. because Duhr is the officially appointed historiographer of the German Province. domain where the inOrder and the Roman Church are concerned. for God could have introduced all these. but periods of considerable length. The archives of the Order are at his disposal. there be such a thing) and without subjective truthfulness is impossible. The investigator must creation reproduce as he finds them the results of his investigations which he recognises as to fit true.282 Fourteen Years a Jesuit its flora and fauna had taken not a few days. and his numerous historical works on the Order have been approved by its censorship. he denounced me to the Rector for " liberal opinions. the moral-theological celebrity of the Order in that the world with . view the strata. His work may therefore be regarded not as that of an individual but of the Order. whether they prove agreeable he alters or adapts them to political in with definite is aims or his own religious or attitude. I was indignantly contradicted by the Jesuit Lehmkuhl. both in this book and in my work Jesuit knowledge. In proof I will bring forward only one instance. to come into being. petrifactions. And when I asked whether he would also include coprolites among the works of God's his etc. which. without their having had any previous existence. indeed. If him or the opposite. Again and again. were no disproof of the six days' creation. he gave a decided afiirmative. is an unscrupulous and skilful falsification.

The Order and Learning 283 on the Papacy. which contains very ent directions. The Munich historian. supply particularly abundant material for estimating Duhr's love of truth. New Series. 100. By means of a long quotation from Gindely. 845 et seq. Duhr has a able that historian Gindely but he suppresses everything unfavour- striking instance Gindely says of the Jesuits. Sigmund Riezler. . 48. The Jesuitenfabelrif so frequently quoted in this book. p.. deals very severely with Duhr. § * Das PapsUum in seiner sozial-kidturellen Wirkshamkeit. A particularly is the false impression created by this means as to Gindely's opinion of the position and influence of the Jesuit Lamormaini in his character of confessor to the Emperor Ferdinand II. as also Dudik's revelation from sources in the archives as to Lamormaini's decisive influence on his second deposition. Dudik who made public the secret Instrucspecial preference for quoting the Austrian . IV. X Jesuitenfabeln. Duhr does not mention tion " there is that besides this " official Instrucdiffer- also a secret one.* have I convicted Duhr of untruthfulness and falsification. of the Monita. I will give a few instances : In order to disprove the genuineness of the Monita Secreta. Duhr " proves " the beneficent and purely religious character of Lamormaini's influence Emperor. Duhr { emphasises the opposition between Chap. t Historiache Zeitschrift. pp. Duhr while tions. But he omits Gindely's first verdict on the on Lamor- maini's share in the deposition of Wallenstein. § Vol. refers to it is just This silence is the more significant as Dudik for Acquaviva's official Instruction. again and again convicting him of misrepresentation and untruthfulness. 245-256. Ibid. which apparently prohibits political activity. on the political activity of Jesuits and the ojficial Instruction of General Acquaviva to the confessors of princes.

295. Duhr gives as a literal quotation in quotation marks " Concerning the distribution of food." Duhr adduces all manner of proofs to show that the Jesuit Order was not founded against Protestantism. etc. The Catholic historian. While the words of the Ordinance J are " concerning the remains of the food to be distributed at the door of the professed-house of the Society of Jesus at Vienna to poor students " {de reliquis cihorum. an essential part of a document which was adverse . Falsifications of the text are a very common Jesuit means of embellishment. Jardine quotes from the records able to Probably because. (1623). since a bull of canonisation is one of the most important Papal documents. Taunton. as shown in a previous chapter. Duhr falsifies the original text of an ordinance for the professed house at Vienna in 1635. But that In the chapter is the very reason for omitting it.Germ. A Narrative of the Gunpowder the complicity of the Jesuits. paed. but omits the very significant passage from the bull of Pope Urban VIII. This sort of thing must be kept from Duhr's circle of readers. 1-33. p.* Ignatius Loyola founded the Jesuit Order for the extirpation of Protestantism. viii. : " Foley's of value consists almost as much in his omissions as in his admissions. Plot. 380. t Hid. which decrees the canonisation of Ignatius Loyola. And I am bound to remark that I have found him at a critical jxjint quietly leaving out. Provincial of the English Province. § Duhr." The word " remains " would have weakened the impression of : benevolence. The English Jesuit Foley was commissioned by the Order to publish eight large volumes of Records.).. etc. planned with Duhr does not even mention Jardine's standard work. which furnish a collection of documents concerning the Jesuits in England. without any signs of omission. § * Jesuitenfabeln. In order to set the charitable disposition of the Jesuit Order in as favourable a light as possible.f 284 Fourteen Years a Jesuit In dealing with the Gunpowder Plot. says of this work in the preface to his History the Jesuits in England. much that is unfavourthe Jesuit '* Garnet. This omission is the more noteworthy. 16-245. % ^H'>^.

And Taunton supplies the proof for his weighty accusation on p. p. we are bound in the first instance to regard as correspondingly untrustworthy aU his statements that fall under this heading. the [defence of the Order and sanctifies every falsification.. illustrative 285 of the Duhr. even when ends. No dependence is to be placed on works or documents published by Jesuits. " The end sanctifies the means. v. p." is the first principle of Jesuit its authorship.The Order and Learning This anthology. The Jesuit axiom. glorification. to his case. . gives no signs of omission. Preface. who."! The Jesuit Duhr is a type. will be most suitably concluded by a quotation from Duhr himself love of truth evinced in the writings of " Falsification remains falsification. 313. 4th ed."* " If it is intended to attain or sanctify the most sacred we find an author mitrustworthy in one particular. 785. though professing to quote Gerard. so are they all." G&schichte der Jesuiten in den Ldndern deutscher Zunge (Freiburg. and is always reprehensible. and Garnet." The end. incomplete as it is. imprisoned in the Tower on a charge of high treason. As is he. 1907). •j- Jesuitenfabdn. restoring Garnet's admission of avowal of treason " quietly omitted by Foley. where he gives ia full the account of the conversation between the Jesuit Oldcome.

e. the domination of the private and public life of Catholics by means of the confessional. in 1871. The present-day Catholic morality is penetrated throughout with Jesuit morality. has attained since the end of the sixteenth century within the Church of Rome and it is the practice of the confessional which is concealed under the term Moral Theology has been mainly brought about by the moral theologians of the Jesuit Order. danger and power of the conception Is not that to designated as Jesuit morality. There is no other domain in which Jesuitism has succeeded so completely in forcing its domination on Catholicism as that of Moral Theology. Alfonso Maria di Liguori (died 1787).. honoured with the rank and dignity of a doctor of the Church. and it is this very affirmation of two seemingly contradictory statements that accentuates most markedly the reality. canonised in 1839. was merely the commentator 286 . — This important fact the circumstance that most strikingly expressed by the greatest authority on Moral is Theology in the Romish Church. i. whom Gregory XVI. and Pius IX. The develop- ment which the practice of the confessional.— CHAPTER XXIV JESUIT MOEALITY Are we really justified in speaking of " Jesuit morality " ? which we apply the term the very same as the official morality of the Ultramontane Roman Catholic Church ? Both questions may be answered in the affirmative.

decree [of the Congregation of Rites. and that the morality * see my For further details about Liguori and his dependence on Jesuit morality. which the venerable Bishop [Liguori] had adopted as his Nihil censura dignum (Nothing deserving of own."J Thus it appears that the assertion constantly repeated and put forward as a screen."f And the Montezon triumphantly asserts " The teaching of the Jesuits was solemnly declared by the Church to be secured against all censure by the verdict passed on the moral theology of Liguori at his beatification. Cretineau-Joiy. II. J Sainte-Beuve. 1803]. of the Order is but apparently true. ." says the official historian of the Order. therefore. thus says the . . book Das Papsttum. For even of the Society. " is identical with the teaching of the theologians of the Society [of Jesus]. . Just as Ultramontanism for a clear thousandjyears (since the days of Gregory VII. That is a complete and solemn apology for Jesuit doctrine.. especially the two most influential. . 231.. pp. 35G . Moralstreitigkeiten*!. I. His canonisation was. Jesuit : if the Jesuits were not expressly is named the verdict directly concerned in the proceedings with their theology. . of May 14. censure or offending against faith and morals is to be found in the moral-theology of Liguori). 6..) has dominated Catholis v. 70-157. 1831] declared that every con- might without further examination abide by all the decisions of Liguori. The real truth is that the morality of the Jesuit Order has become the morality of the Catholic Church. t Cretiueau-Joly. the justification of the casuists and especially of Busenbaum. etc. and fessor afterwards another Roman tribunal [the holy poenitentiarie of July 5. as Jesuit morality. Port Royal.Jesuit Morality 287 of the moral theologians of the Jesuit Order. 526: Dollinger-Reusch.* " Liguori's teaching.. that there is no such thing that of the Catholic Church. Busenbaum and Lacroix.

Gury. Sabetti. Tamburini. not chronological. England and North America. . which is Ultramontanism raised to a higher power. gained a firm footing and maintained it to the present day. Zaccaria.e. Sanchez. cannot be set forth here. Belgium. Voit. Palmieri. Italy. and in order as far as possible * Darmstddfer AUgemein. of course. Castrapalao. so Jesuitism. The quotations are. Busenbaum. and the stages on its triumphal progress are the moral theological works of the Jesuits Amicus. must content myself with extracts from works on For a more detailed account. Gobat. Burghaber. especially as regards Probabilism. (quoted in alphabetical. Laymann. Filliuci. Renter. Cardenas. I Vogler. Stoz. view to a characterisation of the Jesuit Order. ecclesiastical polity and general culture. Schmalzgrueber. Ballerini.288 Fourteen Years a Jesuit icism in the domains of dogma. Casuistry and Confession. No. Lehmkuhl. in favour of the moral theology of the Jesuit Gury. Lacroix. has for four centuries dominated the morality of Catholicism. and many others. selected with a Jesuit morality. 41. Vasquez. Coninck. order) this : How Azor. tia. I must refer my readers to the second volume of my book on the Papacy. set forth those i."* domination began. France. which says " : We will only record the circumstance that this text- book is in use at numerous educational establishments in Germany. made by the professors of the priestly seminary at Mayence in the year 1868. At any rate it exists. Lessius. Kirchenzeitung (1868). Moya. Haunold. Mazotta. Lugo. Escobar. I shall moral-theological dogmas which will assist the recognition of its of the Order fundamental con- ceptions of morals and ethics. A specially convincing proof of this domination has been afforded by a declaration. Hurtado. ValenScaramelli.

. and because this was and is done under the shelter of Christianity. on that account. bears testimony thus : " Moral theology has attained to such a pitch that to warn uncorrupted it. who was a leader of is immoral youths and often desecrated my years by unchastity. it is necessary youths against having anything to do with lest they entangle themselves in shameful snares and become victims of unchastity. I use the words Morals and Ethics in their widest acceptation.Jesuit Morality 289 to comprise everything in one chapter. has been treated in detail in the work above quoted. noble sexual life has been degraded by their moral theological examinations.. the most glorious sources of human happiness and human perfection. have been overspread with slime and filth by the spiritual direction and moral theology of the Jesuits. I myself. For etc. confession was versed in sexual perversion. 7 . seem fitted to young ladies. Ludovico Sergardi. there none which might not be called chaste compared with the contents of these books. For what abominations do not the moral ! theologians set before the public Among all the brothels of the Suburra. ChrisA man who by his own tianity too was degraded. Horace the daring. II. if preside over an educational establishment for * compared with Sanchez. afterwards Roman Cardinal and the friend of Alexander VII. the past-master in the Art of me more abominamost brazen of prostitutes. Love. This unpleasant subject. and that his writings have taught tions than I could have learnt from the Ovid. Das Papsttum. and TibuUus the libertine. whose chief work on Marriage is to this day a classic in the Order] I found myself blushing on more than one occasion.* Love and marriage. rendered by Jesuit moral theology. I intend here to give no extracts or disquisitions relating to the seventh commandment and so marriage. confess that on reading Sanchez [one of the leading moral theologians of the Jesuit Order. 229-410. The natural human and..

117. His importance as a personality. I. a connoisseur critic of the Jesuit Order justify his I shall also quote Jesuit critics on the morality is of their Order.. obviously of From Abbe de Ranee. published by B. the evil will continue to increase them by wrongful shall and we soon see an almost universal devastation.. at wicked- ness. J. founder and an intimate friend of Bossuet of the Trappist Order. since their opinion on this matter special value. " The morality of most Molinists [Jesuits. Sergardii. their principles are so opposed to the all sanctity of the Gospels and the rules and exhortations which Jesus Christ has given us by His words and through His saints. so called after the Jesuit Molina] is so corrupt. . (Paris. 358-365. The only non-Catholic among the number is Leibnitz. . observe the deepest silence. Le BouthUlier de Bonce. Gonod pp. I. 205. 1783). Ludov. 1864)» t Lettres de A. Orationes (Lucca. as though anything in the Church were more important than to pity on the world and subverts maintain purity of faith in the guidance of souls and the direction of morals. . . my whole What surprises as well as grieves is me is that in regard to this matter the whole world dumb. 113 et seq. D. .: 290 Fourteen Years a Jesuit any rate. . Unless God takes the zeal which is applied to destroying right principles and replacing ones. . but in Sanchea unadulterated libertinism and uncovered lust range at will. from Dollinger-Reusch. and not unfriendly admission here.."* I shall preface my extracts from Jesuit treatises on fmidamental questions of morals and ethics by criticisms of Jesuit morality uttered by men whose knowledge of the subject and good Catholic sentiments are beyond suspicion. conceals the in their case the witty expression. that nothing is more painful to me than to see how my name is used to give authority to opinions which I detest with heart. and that even those who regard themselves as zealous and pious. "t also relates Ranee * how the Jesuits revenged themp.-R.

del Card. 105. .Jesuit Morality selves for his 291 a fresh judgment on their morality. J Leitera di Fra Guidone Zoccolante (1753). in the conof Guimenius [the pseudonym of the ultra-lax Jesuit China of Le Telher. now of Moya]. reserving to themselves the right to advise in order to prevent greater evils. Ibid. another In the pulpit they are disciples of Poemi. .. 355. Fr. veUi. 1818). . lax moralists. Giovanni Berti."^ Machia- Cardinal Aguirre. : " They [the Jesuits] play various parts in China. 106. Le BouthUlier de Band. The Augustinian monk. another in the confessional. p. now quarrelsome scholastics. not to say of As occasion requires they are now zealous priests.] surrounded by these less little foxes [the Jesuits]. 1693. in a letter dated April 26. t Memorie per servire cdla storia 2. says . Buonvisi (afterwards Cardinal). Buonvisi (Lucca. allow p. Ibid. J. no calumny which Their false may serve to destroy my moral principles allow them to utter against me all the calumnies inspired by envy and passion. especially Jesuits. now open idolaters. I. wrote on May 1688. 51. and thus supplies condemnation of Jesuit morality " Every day brings me fresh experience of the injustice violence of those persons known as MoUnists.""]* the prince to follow this on the pretence that the weal of the State requires it. . Francesco 6. at court of Varroda. in the professorial chair of Molina. King is of Spain : It a question of the boundless hberty with which many modern * Lettres de writers. in Confucius."* The Papal Nuncio Sfondrati at Vienna. writes to the " . now followers now apparent Christians. . fessional one in the pulpit. in Europe of Mascarenhas. to the Abbot " I do not Hke to see him [the Emperor Leopold I. . who it ruin everything is by prob- abilism.238. saying that in certain cases permitted to follow the probable view. and They shrink from reputation. very lax opinions A. politico. I.. one in the professor's chair.

and inflicts fatal wounds on almost every part of its body. showing gratitude and trying to amend. translation. whom even the Jesuit Cordara a righteous man. For an Italian . .. There is nothing too lax. or shameful.. Innocent XI. thus pandering to the evil incUnations of men. nor yet straight and narrow. This method of casuistic theology. The General [of the Jesuits. who condemned so many of their lax opinions. it has almost wiped out all trace of that inscribed by nature in the heart of man. not to say godless."* calls The Dominican Concina. which Innocent XI. that . for them to represent through the medium is of unlimited probabilism as pious. the pestilential source which brings ruin to souls. decent all evils. But his subordinates. doctors and writers who have written against their lax morality. since he has no dealings whatever with the condemned principles of Jannsen. . Not content with perverting written law. They apply the same epithet to all the many learned and pious prelates. 115 et seq. not quite a broad call forth any involuntary alarm. has frequently upon him to publish. LXXXII. .' to Pope Innocent XI. unjust. to be printed and also teach and apply Alex- ander VII. . It is a matter of common knowledge ' many Jesuits have also applied the epithet Jannsenist. in his book most emphatically. says " For more than a century and a half Christian morality has had to endure the onset permeates the whole of bad doctrines. pronomiced sixty-five dangerous and scandalous. has ordered instead of a book to be printed in Germany. Dollinger-Reusch. the other as erroneous and subversive of morality. reconciling the world and the Gospel and transforming rough roads into * For the Spanish original. so as not to They have found a middle road. . Some of them declare that he is a Jannsenist —a shameful calumny. condemned forty-five of these opinions. one as heretical. and holy.: 292 Fourteen Years a Jesuit them practically. . see Patuzzi. II. Lettere 6. in order to counteract this called evil. and has indeed combated them . That the worst of . Thyrsus Gonzalez]. and finally Alexander VIII. . have taken up arms against him. . . condemned two. way.

. individual cases and. Although . Probabilism took an important place in Jesuit morahty. decisive vision face the infinitely holy principles of Christian morality.Jesuit Morality smooth ones. And as it was charac- teristic of them to transform the inner being into mere externals . instead of teaching Christian impulse in a free how to follow the holy sense. . it need not be regretted age. were. The tendency of Jesuitism was also unquestionably very dangerous for the Church.. . the inward spirit and cheerful . to resolve the infinite into a The reason whose very essence it was to number of finite magnitudes. Rehgious depth. Professor at the University of and unquestionably the greatest Catholic theo- logian of the nineteenth century. therefore. This method of treating Chris- tian morality often had a poisonous eliect on the innermost being of Christian hfe. stem and holy morality and strict Church disciphne were undermined by it. as it of all it . The Order belonged to a past and in * Theologia Christiana dogmatico-moralis (Romae. casuistry is atomism of Christian morality. which often really meant the best method of disguising our own egotism from ourselves. dedication to Pope Benedict XIV. . to rob . i. the one based on the weaker arguments may be . on historic grounds."* Johann Tiibingen. the maxim that of two possible courses in a particular case. 293 This middle road has probably carried more souls to hell than the broad way. It spUt could not truthfully and with clear. the Jesuits also conceived of the Church as primarily a state . . power and inward life. the whole Church. . author of the rightly renowned Symbolik.. Adam Mohler. chosen. . distinguish. treated up everything into morahty as mere casuistry and as the infinite power of moral and religious inspiration was not sufficiently regarded. . and it was necessary to put a check on its efiorts. writes " Moral theology has sustained a specially deleterious influence through them [the Jesuits]. 1749-51).e. . everything was gradually transformed into cunning calculation as to the manner of acting in individual cases. the suppression of the Jesuit Order was a work of violence and accompanied by the most crying injustice. they threatened to excavate.

of a man —his but that which constitutes the chief. in Beitrag zur Wiirdigung des J esuitenordens (Lucerne. free self -direction. beneficially in the It was. 1840). His whole life is gradually surrounded and dominated by it [the outward intercourse with the confessor introduced by the Jesuits] obedience to law. to whom i. 2nd edition. Briefwechsd (Frankfort-a-M. (Strassburg. i. and governs the whole conduct of the individual not only from the point of view of what is permissible or sinful. on the confessional the priest. . in the confessional and once a year spiritual before receiving the director. 1847).: : 294 spite of the Fourteen Years a Jesuit change of circumstances continued its activity it according to the old fashion. et meme Then he continues rejettees far les payens. but also from that of expediency. directs . every Cathohc must confess his sins at least Easter communion. et Je croy que enseignments leurs livres de et morale contribuent heaucoup a gaster Vesprit des novices de leurs jeunes gens. irreproachable conduct and piety are strongly outside it. impossible for to intervene newer age. pp. Ungedruckter I. 1885). at Tiibingen. 279. Leibniz und Landgraf Ernst von Eessen-Bheinfds. wrote of the influence of Jesuit morality " Jesuitism has transformed the confessor of the Cathohc Church. pp.e. B. in evidence.'^ " On voit en Europe quHl y a en a souvent entre eux Leibnitz : place as qui sont pleins de petites finesses. . J. 280. into the that priest who. 148. for many years leader of the Catholics in the Second Chamber at Carlsruhe (who died in 1900)."* Baden Reinhold Baumstark."t characterises Jesuit morality in the first " Cette morale ridicule de la prohahilite et ces subtilites frivoles inconnues a Vancienne Eglise. 85 t Schicksaie eines deutschen Katholiken et seq. + Rommel. . Leu. les qui ne seraient pas approuvees parmy leurs honnestes gens d^ ecole du grand monde.e. 23-29. prudence and results. indeed sole worth. communicated by the Lucerne Canon and Theological Professor. inward piety and real moral is personality — destroyed in this fashion. therefore..^^l * From a lecture dictated by Mohler in 1831. 147.. .

brutal disobedience prevails. 265). published by Pietro Bigazzi as an interesting contemporary document {Miscellanea storica e letteraria. e. his orders.Jesuit Morality 295 Among the testimonies against Jesuit morality from first within the Order.* The story of Thyrsus Gonzalez forms one of the by no means uncommon sections of the history of the Jesuit " Order. the thirteenth General of the Order (16871705). instead of the much. calumniation and intrigues. had also been " He will be the second General in our exposed by his Jesuit subordinates.vaunted " sacred and " blind " obedience to the Superiors. the place is due to the General Thyrsus Gonzalez. as the Order try to distort and hush up the matter. Bonucci writes referring to the great aimoyanoes to which the successor of Gonzalez. by command of the Order. everywhere. for many years waged a heroic war against the bad morality of his Order as incorporated in probabilism and its excrescences. . Gonzalez. 1847). and strove by open and secret attacks. Dollinger-Keusch. who wrote his book De 1855) V Existence de Vhistitut des Jesuites (Paris. the oflScial historians of Here. The " first " Genera driven out of his mind " in our time " can only refer to Gonzalez. too. only says : * The Jesuit Bonucci bears testimony to the fact that Gonzalez was driven out of his mind by his subordinates. the Jesuit de et Ravignan. says time to be driven out of his mind (e questo sara il secondo Generale che a giorn : nostri avevero fatto impazzire (cf. to make his life and position unbearable. In a confidential letter of September 9. way neither to General nor Pope acted in agreement with Pope Innocent XI. which was waged with the utmost virulence. in dealing with the struggle of the Order with the General and Pope. Firenze. 1719.. when the dark sides of the Order's history are concerned. and the disaffection stirred up by the Order's egotism and greed for rule gives for Gonzalez. The most influential of his subordinates organised revolt upon revolt against him. I. in which. until at last they drove him out of his mind. Tamburini. and under . Thus.g.

his whole life and work were devoted to extirpating the lax morality of his Order. so frequently quoted 28 . . Rituum Congregatione Em. an sit easu (Romae. and Reusch. printed by Dollinger-Reusch. in their supply almost complete material. Roman. ThjTsus Gonzalez. 132 (2). " The Pope also occasion of his commissioned him to to summon a prominent Spanish Jesuit Rome as Professor at the Collegium Romanum. moreover. 180. his testimony bears the crushing weight of the voices of a " beatified " Pope and a General of the Order. "{ And this statement was repeated on oath by Gonzalez as a witness at the Beatification of Innocent XI. by trying to adopt as the doctrine of the Order the laxer view as to the use of probable opinions. Servi et Rev. Gonzalez relates that Innocent XI. t Dollinger*. Difesa. too. and as. Positio super dubio p. 1. must necessarily feel the weight of their General's words. The Jesuits. Ibid. Card. said to him on the first audience that his (the General's) task must be to divert the Society of Jesus from the precipice (a 'praecipitio avertere) into which it seemed about to fall. D.. ^ As Gonzalez clearly expresses his assent to Innocent's declaration."* It is me is that written Many other of our relating to only when we begin to study the historical material probabilismf that we come to realise how untruthful are such utterances in consciously suppressing the truth. Beatificationis et Canonizationis Ven. members have approved of probabilism. On this account they not only ofl&ce of itself * p.296 " Fourteen Years a Jesuit Many of the Order's theologians have attacked probabilism . Sac. Ferrario. Moralstreiitgkeiten. signanda commissio introductionis causae in I. Dei Innoceniii Papce undecimi. % Concina. to teach the stricter morality approved by Gonzalez himself. whose enabled him to know the condition of the moral teachings of his Order. the strongest condemnation of the kind known to by one of our Generals. 1713). 152.

It is to its lax probabilism. worth noting.. of Florence.. 1848). Salamanca. . so many if prelates in Germany. and afterwards Cardinal. Sforza Pallavicini (Eome. 229. . in a letter addressed to the Grand Duke Cosimo III. * Ibid.. history. " They assert that it is certain that the . but they do not even shrink from representing as false the statements made on oath by their General. too. printed by Concina. J Lettere dd Card. in 1692. is The interesting letter 176. the lust of dominion which. DoUinger-Reusch. Lettere 6." H. 11.Jesuit Morality 297 keep them as secret as possible. t I."* The real reason for the resistance of the Jesuit its Order is to a reform of in spite of morality and its obstinate adherence. 35 3. gives as the view of the Jesuits '* The doctrine of their General [Thyrsus Gonzalea] . Difesa 2. Pope maintained a purely passive attitude in this matter the words placed in his mouth by Gonzalea could never have been spoken by him. because to follow his teaching they would at aU the courts. Michael de Elizalde. allowed the end to sanctify the means. 2. and I."! they wished lose their posts as confessors It would be impossible to exceed the severity of the judgment passed by the Jesuit. they must not be so severe as their General desired. Pope and General. J and was Professor of Theology at Valladolid. and so many courtiers of high rank. was dangerous princely to the efficacy of the Society fessors to so for as they [the Jesuits] were con- many great princes in Europe. and Patuzzi. Consultor of the Congregation of the Inquisition. who calls him one of the greatest theologians of the Order.. like a its *' red thread. 163. Noris. He was a friend of the Jesuit Cardinal Pallavicini. 135. runs through the whole of Jesuitism and which here.

I. 1684). . humility. . in October. . I sought for I sought " Recently I looked through a volumes. but found them not. These two doctrines. S qu 2: Dollinger-Reusch. using yea and nay simuluse connected. Gospel is simple and opposed to all equivocation . God alone knows. and he was actually threatened with the severest penalties by General Paul His work appeared first in a mutilated edition. yea of that equivocating probabilism. and it sounds incredible."* In a memorial sent to Clement XI. we find the very opposite everywhere Christ. Oliva. 150. after his death. He composed a work on Probabilism approved by Pallavicini. failed to attain the Imprimatur of the Superiors. . Modern morality is not simple. in the direction of conscience.: : 298 Fourteen Years a Jesuit Rome and Naples. 1706.. reject the common rule of probabilism so universally difiused throughout Spain. are in no way . Morals have grown so lax that * in practice scarcely anything 1. nay. it . dangers and difiiculties I and all the others experienced who. was republished in eoUenso with the title. however. but six years later. He summarises on Jesuit morality thus summary of morals in severa not. But if we read in St. Tamburini and Caramuel.. whicli. the love of I sought for Christ. De recta doctrina morum. taneously. but makes yea. the Jesuit Camargo tells of the experiences which he and others had of Jesuit morality when conducting popular missions in Spain " How many contradictions. it not. De recta doctrina morum (Friburgi. I sought for humility. but found it for the Gospel. Elizalde's polemics are directed against the theo- logians Diane his views Jesuits Escobar. not. and stand in no relation to one another. The knows only nay. but found Paul or any other apostle or saint. but found Him God and our neighbour. § is regarded as I. therefore. since its rule is the probability of mutually contradictory statements. but chiefly against his fellowand Moya. holiness abound. love.

and that not a few Jesuits believe themselves bound it to defend as one of the doctrines of the Order.. which Jesuits. abominable "J : * Printed in Concina.f is a matter of course to those who Manning and Abbe de had experience of this peculiarity of the " Society of Jesus. reproach it as being the only apologist for probabilism. J I. .. 104. .. 56. that we commit no rightly. The Jesuit Andre complains in a letter: Jesuit also know ways. and even promote and laxity it spread with zeal. 265-266. Cardinal Ranee " Every day I hear the casuists of our Order maintain that a king is not bound to abide by a treaty which he has only concluded in order to bring to an end a war which has turned out to his dis- advantage. decree of God it has come about that this I is moral doctrine. or are doubt about the matter. confessors. Neither law nor gospel doctrine ! binding in matters of State —an I." which is doubtless based on the command of Jesus. without untruth.Jesuit Morality not permitted. I stand almost alone among a crowd of persons is who pretend to be religious. .. and has been condemned almost expressly by the Apostolic See. which all is the source of and corruption of morals."* That the Jesuits Elizalde and Camargo were persecuted and grievously calumniated by their fellow-Jesuits for their candour. if we believe while acting that we are acting in do not think that we are acting wrongly. " Love your enemies . at any rate. that they so hateful to the Apostolic See and so scarcely contrary to Christian morality. do good to them that hate you. preachers Not only among the people. Dollinger-Reusch. .. It is regret- table that the enemies of the Society can. Le Pere Andre. while elsewhere it tolerated. . but also among and professors does the opinion prevail.. t Ibid. . or sin.. 2. I. 2." as have countless others before and after them. has found such favour still among the is defend it. terrible know not through what mysterious or. 299 . 60 Dollinger-Reusch. I hold the opposite opinion. 358 . Difeaa. Charma. 105. ..

300 Fourteen Years a Jesuit to whose piety and purity Paul Oliva. to Innocent XI. after The Jesuit La Quintinye. His complaints dealt with 1. The practice of the Jesuits in the direction of souls based on this doctrine. bears testimony. of morals his General. of Jesuit morality really bear testimony against it but for that very reason and on account of their boastful tone. where the documents are printed. The Jesuit Le Roux says : " Ivenin [an opponent of the Jesuits] thinks it may be deduced from their teaching that a man who.. 3. . 2. says that during the last fifteen years he had repeatedly written to former Popes about the sad conditions that prevailed in the Society of Jesus. and immediately after loses his reason through a fatal iUness. — of Jesus. 1679. vainly directing protests to his superiors. has a right to ever* Dollinger-Reusch. 57-61 and II. The moral doctrines prevailing in the Society . 4. and the Jesuit General publicly called upon his subordinates to prove their obedience . which had already been condemned by many bishops and popes. The compel the moral doctrines. they fui'nish proofs of special strength. has led a godless life and then received the sacramental absolution by mere attrition [penitence from fear of punishment]. They assured the Pope of their intention to obey. to which He he had belonged for more than thirty years but he did not know whether his letters had ever reached the persons to whom they were addressed. addressed himself on January 8. for forty years. I. but secretly and in private letters they admonished them to abide by the lax moral doctrines condemned by the Popes.* Two Jesuit voices raised on behalf .. 1-19. The cunning which the Jesuit superiors employed to prevent the Papal decrees against the lax Jesuit morahty from Jesuit superiors to means adopted by the subordinates to adopt their being made known to the subordinates.

Innocent XI. Untruthfulness. loved God. which were actually taken from the works of some of the leaders in moral theology. That we unhesitatingly admit. not even at the 301 end of his life. — 372. which exercises its I f Imago.. have repeatedly emphasised the is an all-pervading a subtle poison. * Dollinger-Reusch. 444 et seq. p. and Alexander VIII. J may FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF JESUIT ETHICS AND MORALITY 1.Jesuit Morality lasting bliss. that most of the condemned maxims were not understood by their Jesuit authors in the sense on which the Papal condenmation was based .. although he never. [in consequence of the activity of the Jesuits] sins are atoned more speedily and eagerly than they were formerly committed nothing . It I. confession is more common than monthly or even weekly most people have scarcely committed a sin before they confess it. Truly the bodyguard of the Pope took little notice of the condemnation.. especially Alexander VII. fact that part of the essence of Jesuitism untruthfulness. but " proved."* And in the Imago primi Saeculi it is stated in praise of Jesuit morality that " Now . + II. . is 80. therefore they might calmly go on teaching them.." also through its leaders. found themselves compelled to condemn in solemn mamfestoes a number of really monstrous maxims of this morality. For a detailed account of this masterpiece of Jesuit obedience and Jesuit power of exposition I must refer to my work on the Papacy."t Everything which can be said against Jesuit morality be summed up in the fact that several Popes..

as long as she lived. provide from his it own or public means food and drink for her every that a new house was built for her.: 302 Fourteen Years a Jesuit kill power to truthfulness. op- human and Christian simplicity and candour. espionage. of a Yet consider it is one thing to say something false making use not and another to hide something true. To what an extent Jesuitism has lost all sense of truth. of every kind of equivo- cation. denunciation. and admit respected persons. and necessarily begets mistrust. The Order's system posed to all of government. built up on mutual is supervision. The utterance of a judge at Liege was both cunning and permissible. Thus the Constitutions of the Order prepare the ground. easily take root flesh and shoot luxuriantly upward. who denied all accusations. by but an equivocation. is shown in startling fashion just where it appears Thus the to come forward against untruth and lies. who said to a lie stiff-necked witch. understanding day and see to by house the ' ' wooden and straw on which she would be burnt. and at last conscious and unconscious untruthfulness. Professor of Theology at the Universities of Salamanca and Graz. on which the moral theological doctrines as to the permissibility of mental restriction. These may discourse about various alien matters. These doctrines are the and blood of the Jesuit body. secret reports. whom he would not suspect. Jesuit Delrio. and are more or less the ethical and moral base of the individual Jesuits. faith and loyalty throughout the whole organism of the Order. that if she spoke the truth sufficiently he would. suspicion. of half and three-quarter truths. and finally advise him with confidence [scaffolding] with the bundles : . Other [permissible equivocations] are cited by Sprenger [a Dominican] They should treat the guilty person with greater honour than is customary. to intercourse with him. writes " It is an article of faith that a lie (which deserves the name) : is in itself something morally bad.

1900)." it is no wonder that we find the most prominent moral theologians of the Jesuit Order putting forward preposterous doctrines with regard to equivocation. * Disquiaitionum magicarum libri sex (Coloniae. for himself or the State. was one of the most famous Jesuits of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. who justifies his imprimatur " by the judgment of weighty and learned theologians of the Order. 768. if understood of eternal life. 44. for the preservation of which everything that is done is an act of mercy. t Die Stellung der Jesuiten in den deutschen Hexenprozessen. even in saving his life. With such a conception of " lying. Jesuitism for Duhr's work."* encouragement of infamous lying in trials hanging in the balance is passed unhesitatingly by the censor of the Order. understanding by this. p. who has become sufficiently well-known to us.Jesuit Morality to confess the truth. . what is more. For this is most true. who wish this is And when life to make the witches confess by means of false repre- sentations and lies. a Jesuit of the twentieth century. p. in the case of Delrio's work. passed the Order's censorship does not find any falsehood or inaccuracy in the disgraceful craftiness and lies of the judge at Liege."f Consequently. Duhr. which is the true life. praises his fellow-member of the Order. promising that the judge would 303 — show him The judge should mercy and they would act as intermediaries. then come and promise to let mercy prevail. The judge might also say to the accused that he was giving him good counsel. Vereinsschrijt der " Gorresgesellschaft zur Pflege der Wissenschaft im katholischen Deutschland " (Cologne. and in the counsel of the Jesuit Delrio." And. Oliverius Manaraus. who. and a confession would be of great advantage to him. even to the present day. too. moreover. 1679). Delrio " Because he severely attacks the judges.

If there is truth. is also frequently used for defective knowledge. but assume another meaning owing to the conditions of nothing is Thus it is related of St. who had passed him. because the different significations The second kind of per{g alius. were pursued by the officers of the law. the use of no sufficient reason for concealing the such ambiguity is unlawful. In the first place. a some one has killed a Frenchman (hominem ' natione gallum). without lying.' because they had not gone through the stone. the the other hand. for example. They have not gone through here. . through his placing his foot on the stone. time and persons. for the robbers had not passed through his sleeves. he replied to their questions as to whether the former had gone that way by saying They have not come here.' To this class i.' And this at the same time putting his hands into his sleeves. that he has not killed ' gallum. missible ambiguity arises when the words in themselves are not ambiguous. must also be referred the ambiguity in the case non : est hie.e. which means that something is added mentally. nected with mental reservation.^ if he takes this word in the sense of cock. and he That Innocent XI.' which really knowledge. signifies certain Thus. if Thus. but not untruthful. reply was perfectly truthful. on one occasion robbers. added mentally. But in the cases of ambiguity quoted above according to the not eating here. the words in ' ' question ('come through. if I make use of words which are in themselves ambiguous and apply them in one sense whilst the listener believes I am applying them in another sense. Francis that when place.' 'gone through') related to the stone. but are ambiguous. There is no mental reservation in this case. He could also have put his foot on a stone and said.304 Fourteen Years a Jesuit : The Jesuit Cardenas says " Sanchez [a Jesuit] mentions two kinds of ambiguities which he declares to be perfectly admissible. according to the difierent way in which they are used. did not condemn this use For he only condemns ambiguity conof ambiguity is certain. est) lie in the words themselves. for example. ' On ignorance means lack of certain knowledge. without mental reservation. because. he can say. word ' ' know. is way it is understood he is not here. In this class are also included those words which have only one meaning in themselves.

it is As. when questioned by her husband regarding the adultery and threatened with death. 120 et seq. ' ' in the sense in which it is frequently used in the Scriptures.' for he really has none which he can and he asked in this sense. is frequently used for the lack of any knowledge. quite true to say that the person does not possess more. is concerned. all pangs and doubt are removed. but speaks the truth. an adulterous woman. twenty pitchers of when he swears he does not deny that he has more.e. oil. Any one who is questioned by the of a criminal. and replies on being asked. adding [mentally] than must be taxed. cited. infallible do not know. one of which. example he A man who I has only a which is subsistence. police concerning the as idolatry. the tax unjustly high.. By these different ways of making use of ambiguity which of conscience we have quoted as permissible. he may twenty. saying that he has twenty pitchers. is ' who asks for one truthfully when give. which cannot be applied honour. may reply without falsehood and without mental ' wounded to honour.' he is not lying. which we have already Whoever asked by the judge on oath is how much he has of a certain commodity. In the first place. because he speaks the truth so far as the judge. Thus. that he has. Ambiguities are modes of expression with a double meaning. Secondly. namely. for example. and Lugo [the necessary for his chief theologians of the : Jesuit Order] also give the following loaf. asks as to the swear that he has not more than who only is amount of oil which ought to be taxed. IV.Jesuit Morality but if 305 Consequently. according to the hypothesis. which unjustly taxed at too high a rate."* The Jesuit Laymann " Ambiguities are not Ues.' Suare i. V&netiu (1710). Francis's reply. and can be shown in many ways that this is no perjury.' for I have not wounded your means a material wounding. ' someone has heard from another person that Peter committed I a theft. U .' have none. answers the person states. may swear that he has a considerably smaller it quantity of it than he really has. that conveying the truth. She may also deny her adultery by taking this word reservation. ' I have no knowledge of ' it. * Grins theologka. whereabouts can give is St.

Covar- He who has been induced under severe threats. Although it is a probable view that every promissory perjury is a deadly sin. but when it has in itself or in the circumstances only one meaning and that the false one. and it can consequently. . A^or and Suarea declare this view as probable. . For one interpretation of the ambiguous expression is true. An oath is only false .. ' and has said to a woman. . Indeed. I will . . thing false does not call when God is called upon as a witness for somewho swears in the above-mentioned manner upon God on behalf of the false sense which he refers but he to outwardly. the opposite view is more probable. . marry you. and hence does not even when the person addressed interprets the words in the other sense.' may. no perjury is committed when the person under oath does not intend to emphasise this false sense. it is true. . according to the hypothesis consequently." Laymann utters a lie : admits. that he has never entered into any agreement for a loan. which does not correspond with the words sworn by him. when an expression is really not ambiguous. Three assertions are implied by this thesis 1. if he has no other proof. It follows from clause 2 that he who has returned a loan may swear before a court of justice. deny on oath that he to bind himself. the speaker has in view. or without the inner wish. can be proved in the same way. that he who swears thus and usually commits a grievous sin. 3o6 Fourteen Years a Jesuit lie. and is even exempt from all moral wrong. For the speaker does not practise the deceit on the person addressed. which and is thus deceived. but on behalf of the truth which he retains inwardly. : ambiguous expression is correct. but only permits it. Although an ambiguous oath is no perjury when there is just cause for concealing the truth. An ambiguous oath is no perjury.— . it is to some extent a false oath and not permissible when there is not just cause. whoever confirms this sense with an oath does not commit perjury. if necessary. That an ambiguous oath is no sin. but another. .. when asked by the judge about the matter. have to return the loan twice. He then continues " 2. be confirmed with an oath. adding to himself. because one sense of the is incorrect. such that he should ruvias.

' may swear that he has not come thence. moralis."! The Jesuit Lehmkuhl. an addition is spoken softly. . but may be taken in a sense different from the obvious one through conditions of place.. Under mental reservation of the : understood the keeping definition. 1625. 415.. But mental reservation \sic !'\ is frequently free from falsehood permissible and necessary consequently it is occasionally and occasionally not permissible to make is use of it. 1892. if 307 has spoken such words. For example. II. . Edit. its mental This may occur in different ways — If the words themselves have different meanings according to their interpretation. and hence the truth necessary for the oath is presenjb. 418. morale. it is true. . when ambiguity is used. t Opu* theoLog. to himself. The listener is deceived. Pratt. tract.Jesuit Morality has voluntarily agreed to marry her. understanding the oath to mean that he He who falsely is asked under oath he has come from a place which is supposed to be infected with the plague. . person and time.. France. If the words have not a double meaning in themselves. the expression. 174. 176. I do not know. in fact. provided that it is evident that an is addition has been made. Holland. so that the speaker must give them a particular meaning. whose Moral Theology in is taken in : as the basis of instruction for the confessors designate numerous seminaries for Roman Catholic priests Germany. but we only admit that he misA person is permitted to swear falsely aloud when leads himself. 2. 177. . Italy. 3. saying from the plague-infected place. although the meaning of the addition not understood. says " Lying is always sinful.' may admit the ' * Theologia II.' "* and Palmieri : The Jesuits Ballerini " The general teaching of the theologians is that for a just cause ambiguity and equivocation are permissible even oath. 165. back of the sense words or 1. cp. Monach. when under And. 14. that which is manifested outwardly corresponds with the inner meaning of the person under oath. and elsewhere. Liber quarius.

. according part of the truth to the importance of the occasion. 6.. replies. I may. . Edit. in spirit. or of a robber that he has committed perjury. and herein he is justified. but is mitruthful.' The last manner of speaking.. he declares that sin a deadly " To it is call a priest or a pious member of an Order a liar. is never per. . . a is concealed. As often as I use in permissible fashion any reservation not exclusively mental.. On the Jesuit Busenbaum. to aay of one who is known as a drunkard that he . 773. I. 1179. . . . and it is admitted that they may perhaps even be wrongly understood. ' ' missible. Lehmkuhrs instructive remarks regarding calumniathe authority of Liguori and it is tion also belong here. n. which only consists of mental reservation. who Uves a freer hfe. may and must frequently occur. If the words can neither have such a meaning in themselves nor through special conditions. that the full The speaker intends. whilst a pardonable sin to accuse a soldier. for in — whatever way the words are spoken ^and they must be considered along with the circumstances definitely. of philandering or vendetta. t Ibid.' 2.— 3o8 Fourteen Years a Jesuit ' meaning in certain circumstances."* ^. be understood by the meaning shall not person addressed. swear even with this reservation. quarrels with his wife. which. Nor is it very sinful to relate similar or analogous offences of one who is already notorious in other respects for example. for just reasons. I do not know so that I can communicate it.' and says to himself. Consequently. 772. if anybody. but can only have another signification through mental addition for example. . The two other ways are permissible in suitable circumstances. on being asked whether he has been in Cologne. 1890. Who is would consider "f it a serious calumny to say that an atheist considered capable of secretly committing any crime ? {quadibet crimina) * Thedogia moralis.. n. I was there. 1178. —^they express the real meaning which the speaker mentally intended. even though not clearly and however.

A Narrative of the Ounpowder Plot (London . she could make this assertion on oath. made use of equivocation. the Commissioners. because her husband pressed her still further.Jesuit Morality i 309 The Jesuit Gury " : Anna had committed . : (Parisiis. since her conscience was no longer burdened with it after confession and the receiving of absolution. she could say that she the marriage bond. For. such adultery as I should be obliged to reveal. still deny having committed adultery in the sense that she was obliged to reveal it to the husband. 203 (1). finally. p. after she had been absolved from the sin. who was suspicious and questioned her. 182 ei seq.." so as not to be convicted of participation in the The Gunpowder Plot Garnet in the examination before says.' or I have not committed adultery which is to be revealed to you. utilised in the as Some historical will occur- rences which Jesuit have become famous serve examples. because she had the moral certainty that this had been forgiven. in a letter dated March * Casus conscientiae. Garnet. that she had not broken the marriage bond the second time. f 20th. the Salmanticenses. she replied. f Text of the letter in Jardine 1857)."* tioned. the third time. Provincial of the English Province of the Order. she could say that she was innocent of adultery. Lessius. in the probable view. she flatly denied the adultery. In the second case. and Suarea.' Is Anna to be condenmed ? Anna can be justified from falsehood in the threefold case which has been men' ' ' ' ' had not broken was still in existence. she could. as he himself writes in a letter " to the Fathers and Brethren of the Society. In the third case. because it Such theories have been practically Jesuit Order from early times.' because she understood by this. adultery . in the first case. Indeed. she replied first of all to her husband. and said. I have not committed it. according to the general opinion and that of Liguori. I am not guHty of such a crime . 1606 I. 8th edit on. 1892).

of these et seq. Jardine. the Greenway. I am : asked before I can be admitted into the town whether I come from London. " upon his priesthood that he did never write any letter or letters. he did deny in such sort as he did the writing of any letter. and the Commissioners questioned him as to the existence and contents of the letter.310 Fourteen Years a Jesuit it " In cases where defence. for he never would have denied them if he had seen them but supposing the Lords had not his letters. or damage could arise to the inhabitants.. cir- * Jardine. The letter was intercepted. 233 f Jardine. Let us suppose that I have is London. nor send any message to Greenway since he was at Coughton and this he protested to be spoken without equivocation. Garnet replied. which he might lawfully do. or for avoiding becomes necessary to an individual for his any injury or loss. and that from my admittance no loss . the keen-witted investigator et seq. and that it was evil done of the Lords to ask that question of him. and it am perhaps required to swear that I do not would be lawful for me (being assured that I bring no infection) to swear in such a case that I did not come from London for I put the case that it would be very important for me to go into Coventry.. and on arriving at Coventry. Ibid. " that he had done nothing but that he might lawfully do. where the plague raging."* Garnet acknowledged in a letter to his accomplice."t . and asked how he could justify his falsehood." A few days afterwards. and that he was obliged to impart his information (he made " " Jesuit this confession to the court of justice in a declaration written in his own hand). 244 . . Ibid. p. without danger or mischief to any other person. and to urge him upon his priesthood when they had his letters which he had written. that he knew of the Gunpowder Conspiracy from the conspirator Catesby's confession. there equivocation lately left lawful. on being shown his letter to Greenway. or for obtaining any is important advantage. he boldly replied. p.

Taunton. he had acted in strict consistency with the principles he now acknowledged.' of What ? ' ! Topcliffe. and when afterwards abashed and confounded at the clear discovery of his falsehood. . the Jesuit Garnet's attitude before the tribunal " He had denied all knowledge of the Plot until betrayed by the conferences with [the Jesuit] Hall. J 1594. The Jesuit Gerard relates " They [the Commissioners] asked me then whether I acknow' ledged the Queen [Elizabeth] as the true governor and Queen of England. 225. never confessing was proved against him. John Gerard (London. 1907..."* And this is the man of whom : Professor Buchberger.Jesuit Morality cumstances. 1882). The Life of Fr. criticises. notwithstanding such ' I know there an excommunication." This is another proof of the great extent to which the official Roman Church adapted itself to the morals of the Jesuits.''^ The Catholic theologian. Ibid. said I answered. p. and never hesitating declare palpable falsehoods respecting matters which tended to to inculpate himself and affirm them by the most solemn oaths fact until it any and protestations. I is acknowledge her as our Queen. and he denied those conferences until he plainly perceived that he only injured himself by ' so doing . I. rightly remarks t Munich. he admitted to the Lords that he had sinned unless equivocation could save him ' ! From the beginning to the end of the inquiry. 237.'s excommunication I answered. 311 still on the strength of the extant minutes. the editor of the Kirchliches Handlexikon. writes incomparable in knowledge and saintliness. on * Jardine. ' ' I do acknowledge her as such. ' in spite Pius V. p.' The Jesuit continues] I cation had been suspended in Pontiff till knew that the operation of all England by a declaration its was [the that excommunifact of the such time as execution became possible.'f which was " Garnet was a man episcopally approved.

of course.. For Gregory XIII. This book. and defended the view that the Bull. to the Jesuits Parsons and Campian. with the approval of the General. in the manner indicated by Gerard. which was published in 1625. who were journeying to England."* The shameless inaccuracy of the Jesuit's reply reflects. 4th edition." to the question as to whether Eobert Southwell were in her father's house. Unam sanctam.'s Brief.. 168. directed the daughter of his host. 1626. affords a specially striking example of the ability of the Jesuits to say " Yes " and *' No " about the same circumstance. the condemned the book. Tractatus de haeresi. On March French Parliament cited the Provincial of the Jesuits at Paris * The Jesuits in England. and confirm the reply with an oath. Kobert Southwell. Meruit. . she was to think. etc.. 130. more on the Papacy than on Jesuit morality. Santarelli. p.Jesuit.312 this cynical Fourteen Years a Jesuit : and naive utterance "It shows what reliance can be put upon some of the protestations of allegiance. p. II. published in favour of France. "J The attitude of the Parisian Jesuits with regard to a book by their fellow.. The Parisian Sorbonne 14th. taught the usual doctrine of the Order regarding the Pope's supremacy over kings and princes. f The Jesuit. that she should reply " No. TJie Jesuits' p. XXVI. a special friend of the Jesuits. Pius V. 165. in whose house he lay concealed from the sheriS's officers of Queen Elizabeth of England. " He is not in my father's house so that I am bound to tell them. 1580. which dogmatically established this doctrine. and had entrusted the " interpretation " in an audience of April 14th. had indeed authentically interpreted the Bull of deposition of his predecessor. t Memorial. Vitelleschi. J Taunton.. and Barleian Miscellany. was not suspended by Clement V. In order to make the " No " correct.

that if the House of Scotland were excluded. the political favourite of of England. Roman ' Curia has sanctioned. and upheld by many defended the Cause of that King. they might shew him. considers that its The General.' We should act in the same manner as those who are "* Louis XIV. they . in Rome ? ' ' Yes. the would certainly do nothing which would render it necessary ? But your General. 1688 " One of your Assisting Fathers of that the King of Scots. 's confessor. writes to the Jesuit Petre. yet they understood one another very well. to the Kingdom (which was Father CreigMon. against the Book of Father Parsons and tho' they seemed divided. who Pope excommimicate the King. • Eeusch. who was also of our Society. and on the other Hand. in a letter dated James : II. of our Party. appear before the bar so as to I quote from the minutes of the case 'On the conapprove of SantarelH's bad book ? trary. and release How should the his subjects from their oath of allegiance ? eldest son of the Church. the Jesuit La Chaise. Der Index. to the End.' ? ' ' And what would you do you were in Rome there. if the King happened to be restored to the Throne. . The Reasons of the King of Scots. Father Parsons) having written a book against the succession of Realm of England. who has approved the book.' Do you not know that this wicked doctrine has been approved ' " Do you ' ' by your General indiscretion. March 7th.' ' ' And your own if conviction ' ? Is quite different. thus being practised by Order of our General. we are ready to write against it and contest all that he says. the book of Father Parsons . can do nothing but approve that which the ' ' ' ' ' ' .' that the Pope may excommunicate and depose the King. but we here cannot help ' this Do you beheve and we blame it most emphatically. in a Book intituled. IL. contents are correct do you differ in opinion ? who hves in Rome. who had the Government. 351. 352.Jesuit Morality and six other Fathers to 313 question them about the book.

6. showing the necessity for a Calvinistic council. + DoUinger-Reusch. I.. published in 1631. j- p. 303 . S.. Hugo Roth. consequently invalid). (demonstrating that the choice of the Pope was simoniacal. the Jesuit — double dealing. should be written in the name of a Protestant preacher. that a SwppUcatio to the King of England. But we are certain of the existence of the two mutually contradictory works by the Jesuits Parsons and Creighton mentioned in it. also pretended that he was a Dutch Calvinist in his anonymous work. Cavea turturi structa. 1613.J — 3^4 Fourteen Years a Jesuit might obtain his Good Will. it still prov'd to the Advantage of our Society. ( . Bibliotheque de Sommervogel.J. 584 . la Compagnie de Jeaus (Bruxelles-Paria. Moral sir eitigheit en. § Ibid. suggested in a letter to the Jesuit Cardinal. or to the Dutch States-General. 9 (Supplement). Bellarmin. in order to divert attention from a letter directed against Pope Paul V. 550.. against the Dominican Jacob In a letter addressed to the Jesuit Forer he says it would not be well that he (Roth) should be known to be the author.. satirical exposure of Jesuit 24th. one another.. Theology at Mayence. 27. The Jesuit. I. and II.. by shewing him the Works of Father Creigliion : So that which Way soever the Medal turn'd. in this letter. 1689. like the Monita sharply pointed. 309. is And this is the point."* Whether the letter is genuine in this form is uncertain. 262.t and in this fact lies the proof of the equivocation of the Order which is expressed in a typical manner secreta. Papers Relating to the Present Juncture of Affairs in England. II. because it would lead to a popular scandal if it were known that members of the Orders attacked Gravina. London. The letter in case it a not genuine would then be. 148. § * Collection of Third Collection. On December Professor of Adam Contzen. 1395-1900).

P. the sixteenth century. * PoHBoyal. The object desired was achieved and Louis XIV. however. the handwritings it be compared. But. the intrigue bears . Rivette. severely attacked the Jesuits. qu'il avail imagine. The aim of the correspondence was to unmask Ligny and the other professors as Jansenists.Jesuit Morality Specially characteristic of the Jesuits 315 towards the end of Douai Kjiavery " (la fourberie de Douai). All respectable people were unanimous in its condemnation. not that of Arnauld. In legal parlance gain it may (artful deception). which displeased them because it had a tendency towards Jansenism. Leibnitz pronounced upon it. 464. and warmly took up the cause of the Jansenists. who pretended to be the Jansenist leader. in spite of everything. The cunning correspondent. 5. A professor at Douai. and banished them to different parts of France. Ligny and Malpaix of their office." was not. deprived the Professors Laleu. taken up further in the courts of law. Antoine Arnauld (he always signed himself as Antoine answers sent to Brussels. and had the which was then Arnauld's place of residence). as seems probable. was their attempt. file et conduit a la fin. probably the Jesuit Lallemand who. Antoine Arnauld. still boasted *' avec jubilation. . to destroy the Catholic Theological University at Douai. and be seen that the handwriting Besides. do not believe that the Jesuits the matter will is is will much by will easily it . and the Jesuits of Douai will be forced to say how they obtained the documents. The " Fourberie de Douai " created great commotion. de Ligny. saying ^"^ " The deceit in the Douai case is very wicked and a very bad be designated as stdlionalus I example. as Sainte-Beuve* reports. " who had rendered such a signal service to religion. la fameuse fourberie de Douai. known as " The The writer of the letters. became implicated in a secret correspondence. for if. when an old man. but a Jesuit. A. qu'il se 'proposait.

secondly. . pp. compel you to change Letters. 1847). affair at Douai] can be laid to the charge of the the failings of Roman Catholic religion . Arnauld himself tried to obtain the " amends " by pubKshing several " complaints " against the Jesuits. which . however.. 1691. Leibniz und Landgraf Ernst von Eessen-Bheinfels (Frankfort. .3i6 several Fourteen Years a Jesuit marks of falsehood.. human nature are only too well known." as the abovementioned remark of the chief culprit. In the first place^ they think that their punishment would damage the reputation . Doubtless their general superiors ought to express their strong disapproval of those who have carried out the afiair at Douai. at any rate. . except to cause alarm among I do not believe that these controversies [the the ignorant. remains for in the my right reverend Fathers. 306 and 326. dishonourable business [chose jorte malhonneste) that two considerations restrain was a very But it seems the Superiors (although they must . It is stated in one of these : " I appeal to you. so that I cannot see the use of such a cunningly contrived piece of roguery. as of the Society [of Jesus] I readily believe). so that nothing else can avail to shame you the fear of pubhc infamy may. thought very difier*' ently on the subject of making amends. of their vindictive and the Jesuits have given too many proofs character to be considered exempt from human passions. [Leibnitz thus clearly reproaches the Jesuits ' with their observance of the principle means. the Jesuit Lallemand. they have such a bad opinion of the so-called Jansenists that they rejoice over the matter as a service rendered to the Church. dated September 12th and October 9th.. It only me to world. . be exceedingly displeased.'] If I The end were in place of these Superiors. . although they all do not approve of sanctifies the I the circumstances. who cite you before the tribunal if of all honest people are already so indignant about the rascality of the false Arnauld. : . would make amends to Arnauld."* The Jesuits themselves. to Landgraf Ernst von Hessen-Rheinfels Rommel. shows. II.

10. 3. . Beitrdge. show honour to Grod. . P. " false Arnauld " Reusoh. . Nobody doubted but that a Jesuit was the author of the pamphlet. nay. " Let your communication be Yea. a violent work suddenly appeared from a withdrew his accusations secret place of publication with the title Co7icina's Recantation. regarding the Order's secrecy. one of the keenest opponents of Such a trustworthy witness as their moral teachings." is not observed. 453 ei seq. Arnaxdd aux R. they never ceased to disturb me and numerous experiences proved to me that. from Arnauld. DoUinger. 317 for There is only one way honour that all of your Society. repenting against the Jesuits. in the Society of Jesus. concealment and avoidance of the light. 1894). Jisuites. but that the words of the genuine Jesuit are full of secondary meanings and reservations. you to save the and acknowledge those of your Society who have taken part in this wretched intrigue have acted very badly.Jesuit Morality your attitude. and himself with unmercifully reproached many infamous city actions. in which Concina."t Is it surprising that this false [Rome] and treacherous spirit which pervades the manuals of moral theology and the " glorious " history of the Order should also make its way into the daily life of the Jesuit ? Ever since my suspicions were aroused. 169-195. Christ's saying. . t Denkiviirdigkeiten. . accused himself of wicked malignity. cf. Beitrdge zur Oeschichte des Jesuilenordens (Munich. 31. P."* Jesuits also tried The by a cunning trick to disarm the Dominican Concina. which was immediately circulated through the whole and was eagerly read on account of its satirical wit. My mistrust of the uprightness of their words and deeds became insurmountably strong as time passed. the Jesuit Cordara gives an account of this : " Whilst the struggle against the Jesuits raged thus [chiefly stirred up by Concina]. for the evidence concerning the R. in the second year of my novitiate. yea Nay. pp. of his misdeeds. . * SecoTule Plainte de M.

did one of us dare to speak to another of his feelings. and Piitz. to lose. it is true. suffers in an atmosphere of falsehood." I did not reply to the poor man. For both alike have the right and the duty to report everything they hear to the Superior. one who is especially so absolutely dependent as a subordinate in the Jesuit Order. Only very rarely." he added hastily. because the authority of the Church. which surrounds him and emanates from his superiors. In 1889 or 1890. and he spoke to me confidentially. But we must believe that our judgment is mistaken. Once he said to me in a hoarse.— 3iS Fourteen Years a Jesuit the case especially in were my Superiors — Meschler. Words cannot express what a subordinate. were oppressed by its weight. In the Jesuit Order. For years this " authority " had also prevented my condemnation of Jesuit untruthfulness. " for the Church has certainly approved the Jesuit Order with its theory and practice. what has caused me the severest spiritual tortures ? The feeling of being surrounded by a system which is full of reservation. had already begun to totter in my estimation. Ratgeb. there are no friends to whom we can confide cares and mental anguish without fear of betrayal. who had nothing more to hope for and nothing this suffering And too. and then but casually. of five influential Jesuits who Hovel Nix. was not felt by myself alone. the Jesuit NiemoUer died at Exaeten I frequently visited him. And yet I once heard a complaint of the untruthfulness which pervaded the Order made in a most affecting manner by a fellow-Jesuit. rattling voice "Do you know what has been the hardest thing in the Order. One afternoon it must have been in 1887 or 1888 of consumption. Others. a dying one. The Constitutions of the Order have made breach of confidence a law. : — . to which he could still cling.

the Jesuit Piitz. so I asked was founded on truth. Baron Felix von Loe. members of the Order. entered. He replied without hesitation. who knew exactly the fact of the purchase. No one could give more positive information. whether the estate had been bought.Jesuit Morality I 319 was in the library at Exaeten. A report had spread amongst us that the neighbouring estate of Oosen. reservations. All these are small passages easily multiply from daily life them which. The " classic — — I could moral theologians " of his Order teach that they are permissible . had so definitely if him this report denied I it. owing to their insignificance and frequency. the Jesuit. and that they offend against faith and honesty.e. which is situated on the Maas. i. and how oath when I entered the Prussian State deceitfully the Jesuit Superior at Blyen- beck (unfortunately I also had a share in this) kept a " magister meal " secret from my uncle. Cardinal Franzelin. and the purchase was actually legally concluded in the morning of the day. or would be bought. practise " knaveries " and make use such life ? of mental reservations . " No. why then should teachings and examples not be followed in daily . on the afternoon of which the Jesuit Piitz. and the like are dishonourable. the Socius of the Provincial Superior. it was announced that Oosen had been bought. to whose " virtue " and " saintliness " the history of the Order calls special attention. what are you thinking of ? " On the following day. show especially clearly the extent to which untruthfulness has become incorporated in the flesh and blood of the Jesuit. advised have already mentioned the mental reservation which me to employ on official taking the service. had been bought by the German Province of the Order as a place for recreation. He no longer feels that restrictions. Whilst I was there.

in the magazine DeutscJdand* edited by myself.e." does not occur in this abrupt form in the moral and But its signification.e. theological manuals of the Order. Herr Dasbach. Chaplain Dasbach. on the ground that the passages brought forward from Jesuit authors did not contain the sentence.000 He refused. The matter was not decided. The court pronounced that the matter was a betting transaction. 1903. The Jesuit Roh offered a reward oi 1. are permissible on account of the good ends which it is hoped to attain through them. It is well known that many violent disputes have raged about this maxim." i. but in my view it here Means. " The florins. • July.000 florins to anyone who could point it out in the moral and theological writings of the Order. . end sanctifies the means. repeated Roh's challenge at a public meeting at Rixdorf. to pay the 2. published the proofs from Jesuit writings. and called on the challenger. 1903. I may be we find the deepest — shadows over Jesuit morality. and that the money could not be recovered at law. " The end sanctifies the means.320 2. increasing the sum to 2. On appealing against this to the High Court of Appeal at Cologne.000 florins. I took Herr Dasbach at his word. My counsel advised against applying for a revision at the Supreme Court of the Empire. as the facts of the case would not be discussed there. i. The oft-quoted maxim. is one of the fundamental doctrines of Jesuit morals and ethics. my case was dismissed on March 30th. In April. only technical errors in the previous judgments." either formally or materially. the Centre deputy. I sued him for payment at the County Court at Treves (Dasbach's place of residence). Fourteen Years a Jesuit The End Sanctifies the is mistaken. that means in themselves bad and blameable are " sanctified. 1905. which appeared to me convincing.

Others are of the opposite opinion. have been given in detail my work. 339 is And yet the that. is permissible to advise the lesser evil so as to prevent the greater to In particular. while he was previously determined und Sohn. 8. so that the adultery may be prevented may I advise a man who wishes to steal the whole treasure to be satisfied with a part ? Some believe that it is not permissible. t Third Edition (Berlin.. ' It is not permissible to ' . A. make not not is use of a bad means so as to attain a good end permissible to steal permissible to lie thus it . an torical examination. it is it money so as to give alms from some one to the Catholic Faith. 1904). for we must not do evil that good may come. and Johannes Medina en Vasquez .. or. as the Apostle says in the Epistle to the Romans. result of this advice * Vol. p. as others put the question. All the proceedings. who wishes commit adultery. who is determined to sin. expressed the well-fomided supposition it was composed with the assistance the sentence. I will only submit a few passages here : The "Is Jesuit Becanus says it an offence he if a person advises another to do the lesser ? evil so that may it ? abstain from the greater Or. Navarrus." etc. To this is added a proof based on reason It is permissible to advise Peter. Sylvester (Prierias). and there also that in essential points of Jesuit theologians. 27. with the quotations (Latin and German) from the writings in of the leading moral theoethical his- logians of the Jesuit Order. to commit a more trivial so as to convert : sin without designating the object of the lesser sin. " Whatever But even this judgment contains we may think of the morality manifested in these cases. Adrianus. Schwetsohke . as Dominicus Soto. together with an Epilogus galeatus^j : to which I refer the reader. which is the same. ei siq. iii. to commit a simple ? sin of unchastity. Der Zweck heiligt die Mittel. may I advise Likewise. C.Jesuit Morality I 321 have given the main points of the Cologne judgment in the Zeitschrift fiir KirchengescMchte* ^lith my comments. Peter.

The motive may be either that the person in question may be any caught committing the sin and punished. For. It remains doubtful whether you are excused from the sin. but rather renders him a benefit otherwise have lost entirely. of the sin of the other person. qu. not inasmuch as it is but inasmuch as it prevents the crime of adultery. and I was not able to dissuade him from his design in any other way than by advising him to commit a simple act of unchastity in place of the adultery. thus does not injure Peter. 27. Augustinus also speaks in this sense when he says that both murder and adultery are sins. it is permissible to advise him to commit the lesser theft so that he may abandon the greater. approve the But as to this you merely permit the sin of the other so that he may be detected and punished. who is determined to steal from Peter whole stock of gold articles. 4. p. or that you secure yourself from harm. Partis secundae tract. you do not apparently but permit it.: 322 Fourteen Years a Jesuit is to commit adultery. which he would The Jesuit Castropalao says " Does a man commit ? a sinful ofEence if he offers another an occasion for sin or does not remove the occasion offered although he could do so yourself sin If you do not remove the opportunity sin. r. 1649. if I cannot prevail on him in any other way than by the advice to be satisfied with half. then you yourself sin. which would otherwise have been committed. with the intention that the other should that you on account of the evil intention. it a sin. : would be permissible to advise the latter. you act from above reasons. for there does not seem sufficient reason to justify such a permission. but. 396 et scq. . for all that. or that If he may be reformed. Mogunt. it is clear for sin."* he contrives so that Peter retains half his possessions. same his of the thief or robber. now advised rather to commit a simple This latter point of view must be thus under- stood If I saw Peter disposed and absolutely determined to commit adultery so as to satisfy his desires. if a man be determined to commit one of the I say the two. he act of unchastity. The reason is that he who advisea . The we must say that if * Opera omnia. he should rather choose adultery than murder. 1 . if you were prompted by some good purpose.

But if you permit another to sin so that he may be detected and reformed. Navarra. . of admonition on the sixth point . . for the reform of the sinner. greatest injury through the wife's adultery live when he is forced to with her. and as no other practic- able way of doing so is presented. Sanchez. to offer the sinners ? the opportunity for the sin A common opinion negatives the permissibility. may take witnesses with him so that he may prove the adultery and may bring about the divorce. can only be you. .. or is secretly aware of it. . the opinion expressed by Medina . for only then can the hope of permanent and radical improvement make up for the permission of the prospective sin. because . Navarra is held by Navarrus and Sanchez. As the husband suffers the . but co-operating in . for this does not only entail permitting a sin. permitting the commission of the theologians. In the second place. . . for instance. this doctrine Besides the above-named . The arises. as Bonacina and with her lover. the husband his wife that she not allowed to come to terms with may make an appointment who seeks to violate her chastity. a married man. .Jesuit Morality punishment the sin is 323 it if not a worthy aim in sin itself. seems to be sufficient reason for sin. he may. . . for the purpose named. and it follows from what we have said when treating the frontier are guilty of a deadly sin. this is and Emmanuel Sa. . . extort a very heavy fine from travellers who have unlawfully passed which is very hard. who again cites Bonacina . fixing time and place. I say that you may permit a sin so as to make your position secure. For these reasons. is it permissible. For such an agreement is . by witnesses. has been committed. . . that guards and Bonacina. except permitting the sin it and confirming Sanchez. it is allowable. . They by concealing themselves so as to . . but in order that the latter may be caught in his wicked design.. Molina But the prospect of reform and Joh. not in order that the adultery may be committed. imposed when the has been committed indeed. Sanchez reason. Sanchez say. must be almost certain. . . . . to avert this wrong.. which is confidently expected. when he suspects his wife of adultery. before sin. permit it and call in witnesses. its perpetration. view. Valentia . Sanchez and Bonacina hold Hence. . . . desire the punishment for the This is it implies a silent consent to the sin itself. . difficulty Bonacina and Molina hold this view.

places coins in a them and then be convicted of the theft then. Consequently. When she says. or place where the son can easily take . but just as well that he should only come to receive his punishment. an occasion for sin is may case be presented by a passive medium. leaves the key in who wishes to catch the son who is stealings the money chest as if through forgetfulness. to ofEer sinners : an occasion for sin. I agree to but only. though only in rare cases. . for instance. that the expression might appear to the seducer as a consent to the adultery under given circumstances. to the seducer at this time indifferent.. so that she rid herself of his attentions may Does and defend her honour. . the father performs an indifferent action. but which no consent on her : ' part. In the same Sanchez and others hold the same opinion way a woman does not seem to sin when she. because she has sufl&cient reason for the equivocation. moreover. 324 a is Fourteen Years a Jesuit an express consent to the proposed adultery. may be prevented you may urge one who sodomy to commit a simple unchaste act and you may point out to one who wishes to commit a murder and for by this then to steal. in presence of a seducer from whose importunity she cannot is defend herself. which Peter Navarra considers it permissible. so that he from committing the greater. wishes to commit .' your carrying out your wicked design. indeed. it allowable for her to express herself in this way. the door will be open. in this case. if a consent to the adultery. . this is is not the case. you come and hour. a Granted. not permissible. . however. I say. how to obtain money through usury . a man commit a sinful offence who advises a person about to commit is a serious sin to commit a less serious one ? .' These words may not only denote that he should come for adultery. for example.' the expressions are and although they are considered by the seducer as I agree. yet matter that he is well considered . For example. The woman does not say. I agree to your coming to-night. This. uses an ambiguous expression which the seducer in reality takes as consent. not in order that the adultery may be committed. tacit. It is certainly permissible to suggest a smaller offence to some one who quite determined to perpetrate a serious one. for such it is no consent when the an expression is frequently used. when the father. but so who ' secretly designs ' it may be punished. . It may the be said as a proof of this In the first place.

The first opinion teaches that it is permissible in this case. the view of the theoSa. Lessius and other theologians to be mentioned later. For then we do not advise the but the omission of the greater commission of the also. . rather deter clear we do not determine the sinner to commit the lesser sin. This is what is taught protected. but you only say that this is the way This is the view of Covarto avoid the greater sin. view teaches that lesser sin to in no case permissible to to The second recommend the For the recoma comparative is him who wishes of the lesser sin commit the greater. but only on the hypothesis that he wishes to commit the more serious sin. and Vasquez. Emanuel and Conrad Summenhart. lesser evil. Valentia. which is true. The difficulty. But to advise something which it is unlawful is not permissible. by Sanchez. . . ruvias. you do not induce the other to follow it. . Consequently the advice to do this is never permissible. therefore. Moreover. who Molina . but him from the perpetration of the greater. Sanchea.. . Rebellus . . In case he wishes to commit the more serious sin. when he cannot be restrained in any other is manner. I believe that the first point of view is correct if he who is advised to commit the lesser sin and persuaded to do so is already prepared not only to commit the greater sin. for you do not persuade the other absolutely to commit the lesser sin. it is right to persuade him to be satisfied with committing the lesser sin. and although the way is morally wrong.. Valentia logians Cajetan. cites others besides. . . : mendation is is still a counsel to sin presupposes a positive.Jesuit Morality indication 325 you do not directly tempt the person either to imchastity or to usury. begins when the anyone question is whether it is permissible expressly to advise who determined to commit a grievous sin and persuade him to commit the lesser sin. Covarruvias. This is Peter is determined to kill from the following example him he wishes to commit the murder. however. Cajetan. you only point out the way in which the greater sin may be avoided. . In this matter. Sylvester. : Francis in order to rob . . but also the lesser. Advice to do something which This is in itself not allowable can never be permitted. Bonacina it is . free choice of the lesser sin never permissible. . even when made by one who is ever so determined is to commit the greater sin. Lessius . . . for by this his own cause and God's are fitly Consequently you do not sin.

means of hindering the greater He who does not remove the occasion for sin [though 1. to advise one who is determined to commit a murder In the former case. but which is rather good and honest so far as you are concerned. It follows from this that you are allowed not only to advise Peter in this case to commit the theft.. but evil. but only as a not recommended evil. torn. has given you permission to aid in the theft. Dicastillo and the lesser evil is comprised in the greater. and the greater evil cannot be prevented otherwise. being committed with the tacit and assumed consent of the owner of the property who. * Operia moralis pars prima. because you do not help in an act which is not permissible in itself and wicked. to advise when it is by no means contained in the greater evil for example. 1669. . because then also the evil as such. it is supposed. not contained in the greater. In giving you do not injure Peter. that to get drunk —for that means to cause him to commit a sin which he it is had by no means intended to commit.. because this advice you wrong no one you take care that his soul is not stained with so many crimes nor yet Francis. Valentia and Sa reply that it is not permissible. evil is not directly advised.— 326 Fourteen Years a Jesuit : and you persuade him to be satisfied with wounding. it is permissible to advise the lesser evil. but it is only intended that he who is determined to commit the greater sin shall abstain from it. but also to help materially in the act. because you manage his business advantageously. however. Lugd. pp. chosen as a means for prealthough is venting the greater declare it is it Sanchez and other weighty theologians to be permissible to recommend the lesser evil. . 476-478.. This is the view of Sanchez. . Ed. ^ The Jesuit Voit says : " In regard to the knotty question whether to it is a sinful offence recommend a lesser sin to one who would otherwise certainly commit a greater. in order to escape death. for consequently to advise it always remains something bad in others reply with a distinction. Bonacina and Vasquez."* . committing a part of the lesser evil It is not permissible. itself Laymann. because then the lesser sin is not advised and suggested. even the smaller sin remains a If sin. so that his death is prevented by this assistance.

employ to veil this result. is amend and repent. Tyrannicide. Juan Mariana. 3. presenting to recommending of a an opportunity and is lesser sin. but to permit a sin as a of many sins. from these passages : That the of it. 402. has defined with unprecedented candour and minuteness of detail the doctrine of the lawfulness of the murder of princes (not only tyrants) in his book Concerning the King and his Education {De rege et regis institutione). and justify my assertion that the darkest shadows in Jesuit morality are here to be found. — Edit. That this is the substance of the above moral and theological subtleties. make even clearer to every person endowed with healthy judgment. *' Jesuit morality sets up the principle that a means " in itself bad (advising.Jesuit Morality it is in 327 his power] to the end that the person should be detected. 1850. the the if commit morally is permissible 2." 3. . is in itself bad.. no matter how small it may be. the subtleties which the Jesuit Becanus.. The * Theolog. a celebrated Jesuit and an " ornament " of his Order. does not sin. because this action not designed to lead into sin. presenting of an oppor- tunity for the lesser sin) is morally permissible. That as the recommendation to sin." * means for the prevention It follows 1. inducement it is done desig- in order to prevent a greater sin. and is " sanctified " by the " good end " (prevention of the greater sin). published in 1599 at Toledo. principles cannot be contraverted by any it On the contrary. I. clearly That the prevendistinctly tion of the greater sin and nated as a " good end. rnvral. etc. 406. And it is just these subtleties which show in an unparalleled way the unhealthiness of Jesuit moral feeling. Lugdun.

had been told by the theologians that a tyrant could justly be killed . I mentioned the imprimatur The Jesuit Ratgeb.. dated " Madrid. " Why should we. give. 1598 " " I. that godless. but suppresses its approval by the Jesuit Order (Moralphilosophie. permission that the three books. under compulsion of obedience to the Order (as I shall presently show). shows how important that the people should be pacified. a learned luminary of the German Province. (4). which is dedicated to the chains of the Apostle Peter. Claudius Acquaviva. studied he. This is an ugly but memorable spectacle calculated to teach princes [' principes. " put weapons into our enemies' hands ? " with the sin of omission in the Deutscher Merkur. he went into the camp on July 31st. Coyicerning the King and his Education^ written by Father John Mariana. Henry III. . and only then did the Jesuit Ratgeb consent to the reinsertion of the passage i. Stephan Hojeda. because they have been previously sanctioned by learned and distinguished men of our Order. King of France. On August 1st. after reading Mass {sacris operatus). . specially emphasises the official approval of Mariana's book. imder the power of special authority from our General. the mention of the in the second edition of my work.. . Here is a still more significant circumstance. . at that time of the Order in discussing Mariana's book.— 328 Fourteen Years a Jesuit : book bears the imprimatur of the Order.^ not ' tyrannos '] . on the ground that the Order's imprimatur fact had now been made known and it would no longer be advantageous to so to the Jesuits that they keep as secret as possible. the Jesuit Cathrein.. theology at the college of his Order. may be published.. hazardous enterprises . .e. . When I wrote the work Warum sollen die Jesuiten nicht nach DeutscMand zuriickf in 1891. who was out of bed but not * The approval of Mariana's doctrine by the censorship it of the Order has caused Thus. . requested me to omit this passage Reusch charged me of his comment. When answer to his question. do not remain unpunished. II. for : much annoyance — suppress it. hes there murdered by the hand of a monk. Visitator of the Society of Jesus for the Province of Toledo. 671 (Freiburg. he obeyed the summons of the King. and the charm of the knife has been thrust into his entrails. example."* The " sixth chapter of the first book says : A noble monmnent has been it is recently erected in France which . the Dominican. 1904) )." was the gist Provincial. of the same Society.. December 2nd. in Jacques Clement . 1589.

. . see that. must not be overlooked in silence. ... As he is an open enemy and wrongfully oppresses the country and has the nature and name of a tyrant in truth and reality. the remedy. . We also from ancient times. distinguished by discretion and learning. without right by arms and consent of the nation. be cited before their tribunal by the community from which he derives his kingly authority. .Jesuit Morality completely dressed. he drew nearer to hidden under medicinal ! herbs.. . Whilst many praise him and consider him worthy of eternal act.. this with many proofs and examples. . may be deprived of . I observe that philosophers and theologians agree as to the fact that a prince of a state who has taken life possession and without the and power by anybody (a quocunque). those who have murdered tyrants are held in honour. and inflicted a deep in the vicinity of the bladder with a knife 329 wound During a conversation. the King. . he may be removed by any means {amovecUur quacunque ratione) and be deprived of the power of which he has forcibly possessed himself. For princes must not be changed lightly. of mind what a glorious who rushed in covered him [the monk] He [the monk] bought the liberty of his presence country and nation with his blood . . . of the King. apparently to present a letter. of blows . . When a prince enjoys his power by consent of the people. : . . they say. if he scornfully rejects . He won a great name through the murder Thus died Clement. The courtiers with wounds. . on the state . . for any man on his own him And authority . . .. France's everlasting glory. . this . . . But those who espouse the people's cause can bring forward as many and as weighty proofs. What ! magnificent action . But first the method of deposing such a prince must be carefully conThe most practicable and safest method seems to sidered. This is they confirm what those teach who espouse the cause of the tyrant.. if the circumstances require it. and. But if he brings ruin violence. Opinions differ as to the monk's as most people believe. renown. or by inheritance. others. . he rejoiced exceedingly in spite and wounds. . to kill a king deposed by the nation. . may be divested of his princely rank. blame It is not permissible. . . . . his oppressions and whims must be borne as long as he chooses to infringe those laws of honour and morality to which he is bound as a person. It is certain that a king may.

being so devoid of . authority of the public assembly [of the Estates] has been suspended. but even honourable and glorious. convicted of participation in the conspiracy against Nero. and that not only lawful to If all it is kill them. racer began to hate you when you became a and incendiary. according to the law of self-defence and on a man's own authority. to kill the prince.e. Consequently it is only the question of fact {questio facti) which as a tyrant .330 Fourteen Years a Jesuit what is be to authorise the public assembly to determine in general conference to be done. . at the You ask what is to be done when the risk of his own salvation. replied. If he refuses the remedy. in accordance with public wishes. the State and the sacredness of religion are in danger. . . pp. If the prince then amends. . In my opinion. has been declared an open enemy. . as may . the matter remains the same and he who. abandoning hope of impunity. 65-80.. And this authority is possessed by every all private individual who seeks to aid the state. . it is permissible. {qitestio juris) is clear tyrant if may be . . .. Flavius. It is well for princes to consider that. in my opinion.. they oppress the State and become unbearable through their vices and moral infamies. and is if hope [of the prince's reformation] has disappeared. This adequately confirmed by the evidence which I have already brought forward against the tyrants. human. who . I shall be thankful if anyone can advance anything better. i. and asked why he had forgotten his oath. and since. I may be mistaken. frequently occur. matricide. is disputable. wisdom that he cannot acknowledge that it is right to shake ofi tyranny by means of the law and by weapons ? This is my opinion founded on sincere conviction. who should be regarded that a the question of justice killed. who. not acted wrongly. . I must again be reinstated and stronger measures need not be adopted.' A soldierly and brave spirit "* ! * De rege et regis instititiione. however it is permissible to deprive him of his power after judgment has And if the state cannot defend been passed upon him. .. . tries is to kill the prince has. I close the discussion with the words of the tribune. with the sword {ferro perimere). ' No soldier was more I faithful than I at the time when you deserved to be loved. their life hangs in the balance. itself in any other way. . who consider that he . wife-murderer.- .

it is not permissible to mix either an injurious medium . usurpers in bis mind."* " Consequently Mariana has not only " tyrants. 81-85. applied from outside without the co-operation of [the person to be killed]. Only seven years after the publication of the book does General Acquaviva seem to have found censure fault with the contents in a letter to the French Province of the Order. The approval of bis doctrine by the censorship of the Order.Jesuit Morality 33i In Chapter 7 Mariana asks the question. has tant " already been mentioned. (4). the poison it is so virulent that a chair or dress besmeared with has the power to kill. too. But there : is one reservation [killing is by means of poison is permissible] if the person to be killed is not obliged to drink the poison. . 672 (1) ). . pp.. . but also legitimate princes (principes) who rule " tyrannically. In my opinion. "Is it permissible to kill a tyrant by poison ? " He writes : "It lential is a glorious thing to exterminate the whole of this pesti- and pernicious race [of tyrants] from the community of mankind. not by poisoning. according to Mariana]. if Thus. . as is asserted by Jesuits. based on an examination by " learned and importheologians.. . * Ibid. This question was addressed to me a few years ago by a prince in Sicily when I was teaching theology there. that it cannot positively be shown to be directed against Mariana. but the poison for example. as Mariana emphatically adds later " (Maralphilosophie. " But only by open violence [may a tjrant be killed. that they may not infect the remainder of the body and likewise this bestial cruelty in human shape must be separated from the State The question is only whether a and cut ofi by the sword. The Jesuit Cathrein had the audacity to write opposite these plain words of Mariana's. But the is made in such a general manner and without mentioning any name. or poison in food or drink." is The attitude of the Order towards Mariana's teaching extremely instructive. public enemy and tyrant may also be killed by poison and deadly plants.. U. Limbs. are cut off when they are corrupt.

. were not expected to do anything except defray the cost of printing they were not to trouble about anything else. how easy it would have been for the General of the Order. 7. Indeed. Even Duhr admits that it may be " possible that in changes the Mayence edition are due to a Consequently the words of Isaac Casaubon. a reprint of Mariana's book was issued Balthasaris Lipii. And it cannot be doubted that this was published with at least the tacit consent of the Jesuits. impensis haeredum Mayence {tyfis Andreae Wechelii) in 1605. "t new edition almost inevitable. an omission which. and do not pretend any literary knowledge. was to be issued in a complete edition for the public weal. They . to have expressed his condemnation and censure in an effective manner. indeed. " would scarcely have been suggested by the Protestant publisher. as Reusch pertinently indicates. p..' 332 Fourteen Years a Jesuit I Again and again must repeat that the Jesuits rely on the blind credulity of their readers. Wechel's Successors Jesus. if he had really wished to condemn and censure Mariana's teaching. to Wechel's Successors are merchants. printed at Toledo and approved. . remain unanswered and unanswerable : ". (" France's eternal glory"). and checked the further circulation of the book."* renders the conclusion as to the co-operation of the Jesuits in the the Jesuit the Jesuit. * Beitrage zur G&schichie des Jesuitenordens (Munich. They were informed by a Jesuit of high standing that Mariana's book. who were then almost omnipotent at Mayence. the omission of Mariana's most disgraceful words regarding the murderer of Henry III. And. because the book was to be published at Mayence by the Fathers of the Society of They did as they were bidden. 1894). j Jesuitenfabdn (4). 739. addressed as far back as 1611 to the Jesuit Fronton Le Due. Instead of at this. p.

book. . 14th. 1610. t * Casauboni Epistolae. which threatened with the most severe punishment all those belonging to the Order who defended the per(Here. (3). repeating the threat of punishment contained 1614. and the Jesuits 333 managed every- thing else. On August 14th. four years after his first letter. 47. 9. nor yet to the remaining Provinces of the Order. by Ravaillac followed on storm of indignation arose in France against Mariana's doctrine.. to be sent to in the first letter. 9. 1610. Acquaviva caused a third letter. was due solely to opportune reasons. 728 t Monume-nta Germ. Edit. where naturally the greatest impression had been made for the previous twelve years by Mariana's In the first place. as circumstances show. But even this opposition which. paed. and troubles of every kind came upon the Order from every side. to Paris. too. dated August 1st. the Parisian Sorbonne had his book burnt by the public executioner. Acquaviva. 1610. May A presents so much that is characteristic of it the Jesuits that we are justified in doubting whether was meant seriously. as requested. 2 (Magdeburg. 1666).Jesuit Morality supplied the money. Acquaviva wrote to the remaining Provinces of the Order in a different key and without the threat of punishment. obviously to appease the bitter anger which prevailed there against the Order owing to the murder of the King. in the person of its General. and only then did the Order. all the Provinces. named. Meanwhile. oppose the doctrine.. but only to France. Finally. Mariana is not missibility of t}Tannicide. which had only been sent et sea.) It is a striking fact that this threat was not sent to Spain."* The murder of Henry IV. Acquaviva issued a letter on July 6th. the indignation against the Jesuits caused by Mariana's teaching continued to increase. 4S : Ibid. p.

. easy. . Reges ant Principes occidere. past.334 Fourteen Years a Jesuit : This threat was then also inserted in the Constitutions of the Order * " In virtue of holy obedience. is and still books. licitum esse cuique personae. Thus the opposition of the Order to Mariana closed with a piece of real Jesuitical equivocation. 1870). should perhaps be rendered " has been permitted. RomEe. instead of the present licere. .. . in Society shall presume to lectures or in counsels. 51. . ineligibility to hold any office. allowed to do so. Where clearness and exactitude of expression were necessary and which do not * Inst. II.J. quocunque praetextu tyrannidis. only refers to the face of " real " tyranny. tion accompanied For under the prohibi- not permitted to by the heaviest punishments. privation of ecclesiastical office and it is other punishments at the wiU of the General. after fifteen years of vacillation. "that it is any person under any pretext of tyranny is to kill kings or princes. S.. . seu mortem eis tnachinari. together with its punishments. under pain of excommunication. or to contrive their death praecipitur . commanded that assert publicly less in no person belonging to our or privately. under certain pretexts of tyranny or in In addition the perfect tense licitum esse. so that a prohibition of the doctrine of tyrannicide for the present and future is not contained in the decree.^* But this " severe " decree is probably the most cunning piece of deception which has ever been published officially concerning an important matter." concealed the permission that are certain persons. ne quis affirmare praesumat. words were chosen absolutely exclude the permissibility of et Cemurae praecepia hominibva Societatia imposita (Edit." in which case it is possible that the whole decree. that any person {cuique personae) of permitted under any pretext kill tyranny {quocunque praetextu tyrannidis) to : kings or princes.

and that cuique is a " printer's error." The Jesuits try to reason away the offensive wording of the threat. When. p. in both cases the translation The ambiguity consequently remains. 5) and the Roman (1870. on December 27th." But this " printer's error " is to be found in two editions of the Constitutions officially published by the Jesuits themselves and declared to be " authentic. which cannot be obtained through booksellers. The Jesuits Prat. etc. howle ever : " /Z est cependant probable que P.. The means adopted for this purpose are not very skilful. Guignard. extolled by the Jesuit Mariana]. 1876). S. a pupil of the Jesuits at Clermont. 1595.Jesuit Morality tyrannicide in certain circumstances {e." namely. but cuicunque personae stood in the original text of the decree. p. They assert that (see Duhr.. qualite de bibliothecaire avait la collection des ecrits de toute sorte qui avaient ete publics sur le sur le crime de Jacques Clement [the murderer of Henry III. 1888» . a domiciliary Jesuit college of that place. Jesuitenfabeln (4). visit of France. and partly undemonstrable " {Beitrdge.J. Schneemann. can find nothing to bring forward in defence of his fellowmember f but " Les auteurs du temps s'accordent si feu sur la nature de ces pieces qu'il rCest pas possible de la : conclure de leurs recits. But even if the statement about the remarkable " printer's error " is correct." Reusch puts aside these efforts with the remark. the Prague edition (1757. According to Dulir. The Jesuit Prat.. " The data here collected may be shown as partly false. I. t Recherche^. to murder to the Henry IV. II. partly inaccurate. Duhr and Reichmann do their best to place the attitude of the Order towards Mariana in a better light by means of all kinds of " historical data. after the attempt by John Chatel. II. was made such incriminating documents were found in the possession of the Jesuit Guignard that he was put on his trial and was hanged on January 7th. 9). the historiographer of the Order for the period between 1564-1626..'" He was (/). it is true. " Any person has been permitted. (Lyons. obliged to admit. in " real " tyranny) for the present and future." etc. is.* 335 cases of The following facts also throw a curious light on the subject of Jesuits and tyrannicide. 1594. the word used in the newest edition of the Constitutions of 1893 is cuicunque. Whether we should read cuique or cuicunque personae.g. this does not alter the sense of the passage in question. The Order refused to let me look at this edition. 51). and proves his verdict. en meurtre de Guise. 741 (3) ) not cuique personae.

the Longbois made his * Letter dated j- pupils compose an essay which bore 2. Anna de Lorena. mental subterfuge. reference Jesuit is made In to it. unless there is proof to convince him. that he is not bound to confess it. 238 : X Heeren und Ukert. (1). had a share in the attempted murder of King Joseph of Portugal (September 3rd. one was found addressed to the Lady-in. p. 1760. Magazin. Jardine. or silent pulpit : reservation. J. they try to deceive God by some equivocation. 1610." dated April 1st.{ Nor was Mariana's doctrine without education of influence on the Jesuit the young. Sir William Waad. V. 1606. " Even if the French Jesuits deny that they words approve of the doctrine [Mariana's]. OeschidUe von Portugal (Gotha. 1857).: 336 Fourteen Years a Jesuit Paolo Sarpi states* that. Le Bret.. to Leschasser. after the murder of Henry IV. petration of the act. by instigation and advice. 281 . Lane and concerning the Jesuit Garnet. 1758).. Amongst the papers belonging to the Jesuit Malagrida." " memorandum. in which. A Narrative of the Gunpowder Plot (London. reports confined in the who was Tower owing to his participation in the Gunpowder Plot " Garnet doth affirm. though he be brought and examined before a lawful magistrate. Oeschichte der euroyaischen Staaten et seq. signed A the Governor of the Tower. and sent back by her to the writer. and by by two other witnesses (W. Locherson). months before the perespecially the Jesuit Malagrida. a Jesuit had extolled this deed as meritorious from a And Sarpi adds the characteristic in Prague. Schafer. June 22nd.Waiting. even if they swear it . that if any man hath or should undertake to kill His Majesty. 318." t It is certain from the testimony of the Duke of Aveiro and the Counts whom of Atougouia and Tavora (all three of were executed as accomplices) that the Jesuits. I do not believe them. 1854).

. is the Emperor se hortatur. " Shall I kill encourages Caesar ? He . Caesarem interficiam ? sed tyrannusJ^* * Reusch. . p. ." in which the sentence occurred. yet a tyrant : Brutus Est ad caedem Caesaris imperator . Beitrdge. . 57. IV .Jesuit Morality the heading. " Brutus 337 himself to murder Caesar.

matter what dogmatic. This subordination is indirect. 16 t Jus Deeretalium (Romae). are the most and propagators of the doctrine of the indirect supremacy of the Church (Papacy) over the Jesuits. canonical or moral-theological books by Jesuits we open. Since the two greatest theologians of the Jesuit Order. really subordinate to the eccle- and bound to obedience. Francis Xavier Wernz.* And this promotion work of the Jesuit Order.CHAPTER XXV JESUIT MORALITY AND THE STATE though not the authors. my book. 1864. et acq. we encounter in all the indirect power of the Church over the State. inclusive of the right of the Pope to depose princes. 1898-190L 338 . p. to a properly has been a rocher de bronze of Ultramontane Catholic dogmatics and canon law. The energetic champions State. a " The State is German from Wiirtemberg :t subject to the jurisdiction of the Church. raised it from is the sphere of theological opinions to the height of a dogmatically established the doctrine. subject is No The so important that I will cite numerous proofs. Bellarmin and Suarez. it Encyclicals of Leo XIII. Eom und das Zerdrum (Leipzig. in is virtue of which the civil authority siastical * Cf. I will begin with the present General of the Jesuit Order. until at length the Syllabus of December 8th. and Pius X. Breitkopf und Hartel). and the articulated system. reduced this doctrine.

are the and the Syllabus of December 8th. et seq. the dispute [between tinues. II % Ibid. 223. the last sentence of which [that every person [a must be subject to the Roman Pope] contains a dogmatic definition dogmaj. but rather positive. A may arise as to the extent of is the ecclesiastical legislative authority not settled only by a mutual agreement between Church and declaration or State. 15 § Ibid. pointed out for all time the correct relation between Church and State in his Constitution Unam sanctam. f Ibid. whilst denying the of State and Church." " [| As it it not infrequently occurs that.."* " Boniface VIII. in spite of attempted friendly settlement. to civil laws. 29. so that.Jesuit Morality but not merely negative.f The legislative power of the Church extends to everything that is necessary for the suitable attainment of the dispute which Church's aims. H Ibid. 216. The State must submit to this judgment. and canonical be nuU and void. although the is less clear than in the case of the encyclical * Jits Decretalium. which calls the Concordats Papal privileges.§ The theory. 1302. but by the infallible command of the highest ecclesiastical authority. and is thus infallible. that the make temporal laws that the to Divine Papal States]. assumes the certain and undoubted doctrine that the State is indirectly subject to the Church." " From what has been in the said [namely. This opinion is based on the Catholic doctrine of the co-ordination Pope's irrevocable omnipotence. the valid application of which cannot be confined or restricted by any kind of compact.. 147. since the and the State civil 339 power cannot do anything own sphere which."1[ " The most celebrated pronouncements of Pius IX. of November 18th. But the Syllabus encyclical Quanta cur a There is certainty as to this can also rightly be named a definition ex cathedra. would damage the latter. 1864. according to the opinion of the Church. at the command of the Church. Ibid. ... in virtue of Divine right. it Pope may only by no means follows which are contrary Roman Pope cannot declare right. 105. is Church and State] con- the duty of the Church authentically to explain the point of dispute.. the State must contribute towards even within its the advantage and benefit of the Church. no doubt that the encyclical Quanta cura is an ex cathedra pronouncement of the Pope.

is completely assured against all danger It is of encroachment on the part of the ecclesiastical authority. such as purely civil and political aJSairs. true that the line of demarcation cannot always be clearly discerned at the points of contact. calling statements [and the statements given as illustrations are doubtless matic'] modern in the best sense of the word." j" ' program- The it Civilta cattolica is gave this character in a brief of the recognised mouthpiece of the Vatican. the originators of Papal thoughts. they have both become the certain infaUible rule of conduct. 1869). both assent of the bishops. Finally. . 399 et " its programmatic seq.t says : " The aim of the civil community this is or of the State is exclusively temporal happiness. . so that the Civilta cattolica could write of itself. but we certainly are the faithful echo of the Roman See " (Supplement to the Allgemeine and Zeitung for November 19th and 20th.). expressly teaches in his dogmatic bull Unam sdnctam. In the case of a human being who is both a Christian and a citizen of the State. No. it is not according to our inspirations that Pius IX. bestows great praise on the work of Wernz.340 Quanta cura. Leo XIII. Fourteen Years a Jesuit Since."* documents have received the and The cattolica. apparently belongs to the domain of the State. * Jus Decrdcdium. stood and stand in closest relation to the Civilta cattolica. the duty to obey the Church stands higher than the duty to obey the State. . it is true. . Consequently the authority of the State is subordinate to the authority of the Church. that the temporal power That which must be subordinated to the ecclesiastical. Pius IX. in the human being who has an immortal soul. to eternal happiness. 1901. But the subordination of the State to the Church is not only commanded by reason. for God must be obeyed rather than man. But even here a dispute between State It is very remarkable that the leading Centre organ. February 12th. 52. 354 et seq. to which the Church and the Church alone can lead. " We are not. in which he compares the two powers with the two swords mentioned in the Gospel. the Civilta published for more than fifty years at Rome. central organ of the Jesuit Order. Pope Boniface VIII. p. This is also the general teaching of the Fathers and Doctors of the Church [the consensus theologorum]. the Kolnische Volkszeitung (Literarische Beilage. however. speaks and acts. 1866. . . and Pius X. But subordinate. .

A distinction must be made here between place. but for those whom it is he rules. the Church must always settle the dispute which has arisen after courteous remonstrances and reasonable discussions. the mixed concerns. marriage.. Although these stand directly only under the also fall civil power. for example. . as. taxes and the civil laws. such as the army. stand exclusively . For. The Christian principles as regards the relation of the Church to the State are contained in the saying of Thomas Aquinas. .Jesuit Morality and Church is and the State is 341 not permissible. burial and charitable institutions . court of justice to resist the decision of a higher. . the administration of the Sacraments and the preaching of the Word of God these. No distinction must be drawn both have the same duty between individuals and the State . and does not hinder but promote the fulfilment of their duties and the attainment of the aim which they have as then. Consequently. duty necessitate . he must so arrange his business that in accord- ance with the necessities and the prosperity of his subjects. and the State has no more right to oppose its decision than a lower . since the former subordinate to the latter. the purely spiritual. three kinds of concerns. . the purely temporal concerns. Secondly. way In this case. . under stand ecclesiastical authority. but so that the ecclesiastical authority occupies the higher place and intervenes directly in order to amend and annul anything which the civil laws may have ordained in these matters in opposition to the Divine or canonical laws. ecclesiastical power may and must be revised by eccleand rendered void. . Finally. under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction for instance. is ' power in is subjected to the spiritual as it is the body to the soul The temporal and . of course. Catholicism asserts the necessity of that harmony which foUows from the subjection of the State to the Church. they may indirectly [ratione peccati] if. If. consequently no usurpation when a spiritual superior interferes temporal affairs. the laws issued by the siastical authority. : the ruler does not live for himself. these under the power of both. For it is the duty of the authority to prevent public sins and to remove the civil obstacles in the way of eternal salvation. In the first such as public worship. their needs and welfare and the voice human of beings.. or are in any injurious to the spiritual welfare of the nation. the laws connected with them promote immorality.

is . any supremacy of the State over the Church is but an illegal usurpation. . . necessary for the defence of Christian religion. 148. is the invisible and the Pope the visible monarch. But of what nature indisputable is that hegemony of the Church is it ? what standard right. which Christ . . Freiburg. 1883. 5. all subordinate to the Church. temporal indirectly so far as . to the ' . pp. t Kir die und Staat. Those of the German General of the Order have been given already. but. as far as the mission of ' things. contrary to spiritual welfare . 647 Vol. " The Church is not subordinate to the State. the lower "* of the higher. . even though the ruler should be heterodox how much more so where he is a Catholic " The Church is a real kingdom. Vol.' Jesuits of the present The doctrines of the " German " time are of special interest. 301. and * Ser. Hence it may amend and annul the civil laws and the temporal decisions of the courts if they are dom. Ser. cannot in any way revise the affairs on the other hand. of the Church higher than the the higher tribunal may revise the affairs of the lower. . . 19 . p. 27 . Vol. ! ' of . Vol. p. 6.342 Fourteen Years a Jesuit arrangement and guidance of the social life of his subjects. Ser. or may check the abuse of the executive command the use of the same when The tribunal civil . 6. 7. 280. 139. all ' measured ? How far We reply : does it extend ? By even where statesmen are concerned. . . the duty of every person to be a subject of this king- Every person baptised is. : The " Jesuit von Hammerstein writes f is Some superiority of the Church over the State . the ruler cannot overlook this in the Obviously this holds good in every State. 7. . as desirable after judicious consideration spiritual affairs of States are directly all of the circumstances i. 291.' The Church has the and to loose the Church regards such a ' to bind binding and loosing . 6. consequently. but the State is subordinate to the Church. more subject Pope than to any earthly ruler. and I will add the opinions of others to his. 7. It . consequently on the other hand. pp. it power and it is of armed is force. the kingdom of God on earth. 276.e. submission and obedience to the Church.

117. 133 H P. The priests are bound to observe the civil laws so far as they do not contradict the holy canons or are not subject are not incompatible with the sanctity of their spiritual status. but simply the The Church need not concern itself correct and only true one. "We not only maintain that this is the more correct view.|| its . : sufficient spiritual bearing as far as this extends.f .. .^ . . they are afiected by the direct mission of The system which we acknowledge touching the fundamental conception of the Christian and social structure is consequently that of the indirect power of the Church in temporal matters. Not only the relation between Church and State. For incornecessary.. in such as. it is a peremptory demand conscience that should previously remove any doubt as to the legitimacy and permissibility of the war in some way or other. § its . more accurately. .* 343 . because they cannot be cited before the temporal but only before the ecclesiastical tribunal for the violation of these laws. .. but also the relations of States to one another and to their dependents are subject to the doctrinal judgment it of the Church.. and no other kind than this is valid. however. 134. In virtue of teaching office the Church possesses the power in case of necessity to define the boundaries between Church and State. i. besides their temporal character. t P. * P. for it lies directly within its province to establish the plenary power also specially conferred on subject. and if the subjects desire or are compelled to take part in the war the they must likewise be clear as to the permissibility of their course of action. If they cannot themselves remove the doubt. Priests can 123. . have also a (as of the subordinate poration is . the task indirectly imposed of defining the limits of the political jurisdiction. | We may thus sum up the entire dominion of the Church (the outer The Church stands above the State. 120. it is duty of the parties concerned to apply for enlightenment to that reli- authority [the Papacy] which Christ has established for the gious instruction of nations. 11 P.e. it by revelation and to instruct the nations on the is By this means. .Jesuit Morality and the State the Church. . + P. § p. in mixed affairs. with temporal matters. . But they to the civil laws quoad vim coactivam. but with the incorporation of the temporal and individual) into the spiritual. 125. directly as well as the inner) in spiritual. indirectly in temporal or. . If a State thinks it ought of the to wage war against neighbour.

permissibility or unlawfulness. was of the first importance. conP. Budolfvon Bennigsen (Munich. have the Jesuits . . 1909). Karl Bachem. addressed to Bennigsen in whch Bachem states that in the " Compromise " which the Centre had arranged with the other parties with reference to the civil code. f Institut. I have already spoken of Lehmkuhl's importance as a moralLehmkuhl and his teachings have. in an extremely important matter. however."* The Jesuit Laurentius " writes : The rights of the Church with regard to the State. especially of their most prominent authority. enabling the Centre in the final vote to approve the great national work .J 344 Fourteen Years a Jesuit if only be punished by a temporal judge the Church hands them over to the temporal arm for some just cause. other cases also. cerning the marriage law. too. . the judgment concerning the rule of conduct in as far as the State and public possible to determine questions of morality. are contained in the scheme of the Vatican What was proposed there Council concerning the Church. . 1903). In the other discussions. 1896. . the scheme sets civil up the Catholic doctrine concerning the . authority." Bachem demands aB compensation. have done outstanding service to our side."t The next quotation is from the Jesuit Lehmkuhl. a on July 6th. X Hermann Oncken published in his book. and if we have always enjoyed the we have succeeded in finding a way . because " the Jesuits. letter by the leader of the Centre party. . theological authority. even as regards affairs. For it is an interesting fact that. the collaboration " of the German Jesuits. 643." Bachem relates further. belongs. 141. 644. corresponds well with the teaching of the indirect authority [cum doctrina de potestate indirecta bene conveniunt). to the highest teaching office of the Church. the Centre Party was guided by the directions of and there seems no reason why the Jesuit Lehmkuhl it should not again apply to Lehmkuhl as its adviser in . also a political significance. as at present claimed by the Church. juris ecdesiastici (Freiburg. After rejecting civil the false doctrine concerning the origin and nature of the authority. It teaches that it is . " disinterested advice of the Jesuits. p. * p. in discussing and voting on the civil code. Lehmkuhl.

when the oath But if these [anti-ecclesiastical] laws are. f Ibid. buried in the codes. reached for (for we must not forget the Union of Catholic lawyers) against the civil code edition.s to Lehmkuhl's verdict is to be found in my book. Moderner Stoat und Romische Kirche (Berlin : C. the spiritual director and confessor must in certain civil cir- cumstances impose a duty which the code does not set up.} has spread far even in 1900 Lehmkuhl's Commentary had writes in his its fifth Lehmkuhl Moral Theology : "It is evident that an oath taken in accordance with the civil law and constitution can never be binding with reference to laws which are contrary to the Divine or ecclesiastical law. declares there are " Because civil law and the natural and ecclesiastical law clash on several State points. which Bennigsen refused. Das Biirgerliche Gesetzbuch des Freiburg.* Lehmkuhl minutely Germany's most important code of laws from the point of view of the Divine and ecclesiastical law. Schwetschke imd Sohn. Vorwort. 80-88. A. if there is a controversy between the State and Church at the time is required and civil laws are issued or emphasised which are directed against God and the Church.Jesuit Morality and the State 345 In a commentary on the civil code. and criticises many things in it which. must be rejected. vii. p. Deutschen Reichs nebst Einfuhrungsgesetz. Germany consequently owes its civil code " in the first instance " to the Jesuits. the Catholic cannot conscientiously avail himself of all the rights which the civil code confers on the citizens of the .. Indeed. 1906) pp. 1900. although they have not been expressly pronounced invalid again so brilliantly proved their patriotic attitude. as it were. and * especially to the Jesuit Lehmkuhl." Bennigsen's assistance in the matter of the suspension of the entire Jesuit law. from the standpoint of the Church's supremacy over the State. X Further information a. ."t This mobilisation of the forces of the spiritual directors and Catholic lawyers and wide. it is not permissible to swear except with reservation and the omission of these laws.

421. Fourteen Years a Jesuit it is not then necessary to add such a protest expressly. it must be considered whether the compulsion were just.346 by the State. exercises spiritual functions and no rejoices over the fact that he breaks the laws with impunity. need not prevent him from being permitted cumstances. 411. But the strongest incitement to the disregarding of civil laws is afforded by the Jesuit Lehmkuhl in his Conscience Cases : f " The priest Remigius. even for pleasure. 6 Edit. and begs him. but he scandalised at the fact that Remigius does not observe the laws issued by the legitimate power. . Indeed. or he. namely. . The " C!onscience Cases " of the Jesuits Gury and Lehmkuhl are best known and most widely circulated. so obviously a soldier is commanded to do something which if wrong as to require him to officer's fault. When the functionary Paul. be said about every oath of allegiance and the military oath must is also be understood in like if manner in ordinary circumstances."* is anyone forced to . which uses as foundations for the instruction of confessors. Friburgi. Kenrick they and Sabetti [Jesuits] teach the same for America. become a soldier [e. 423. by the power of the Pope and the bishops. in all States where conscription prevails]. a pious Catholic. service it would be better to desert from military to such immediate occasion for sin . or whether it involved an important reason for mental restriction or dissimulation in swearing. through his exposed to spiritual dangers. j" I. nevertheless frequently returns in disguise. or by others legally delegated in accordance with the wiU of the Pope. 1890.e. takes the oath must reasonably so understand it as the person who the sense of the oath that only applies to valid laws. of any oath] can be directly removed by the ecclesiastical authority. n. than be exposed the obligation of his oath or. who had been banished from his native land by laws relating to ecclesiastical policy. is refuse obedience. hears this. The same may .g. " conscience cases " {casus conscientiae). imder some cirif even compelled to leave the colours. it Moral theology calls imaginary occurrences. * Theologia moralis.. Consequently. he takes is action. . The obligation of the oath [i. or whether the oath be invalid owing to unjust compulsion.

because they violate the superior right of the Church. Else we must also call the edicts issued It by Diocletian against has been stated above that. most of these conditions. judged ? 2. May Remigius carry out in earnest what he has threatened in jest ? " I reply to the first question that it does not follow that because such laws have been issued by the legislative power they are proper laws. " is unjust. in case of uncertainty the pre- sumption is in favour of the legitimate legislator. indeed. should Remigius be denounced to office him. the right of the priest and the right for of the Catholic nation . these laws are null by them is not legally and void as penal is To the second question I reply : Remigius not guilty of . not one alone. he has arms and weapons with which : 1. Remigius sends him a jesting reply to the effect that he fears neither laws nor fines if a fine should be imposed upon him. issued to the care of the If only one of these conditions is lacking. numerous reasons. demned to imprisonment. Did Remigius act rightly. consequently not from the legitimate authority. by those who are devoted community. his disposal with to take from him the money which he could open Paul's money chest so as if he should be conto pay it . to punish him according to his and conscience. How must these The questions are he could defend himself. Now in the case of these laws. and that it must be promulgated. For care for religious matters and for the religious community is not incumbent on the State.Jesuit Morality through a that he friend. they may is perhaps even attempt action. are lacking. They are in truth and reality not reasonable regulations because. i. it is no law . regulation. then the penalty inflicted imposed. Thomas Aquinas. it is essential to the existence and comprehension of a law that it should be a reasonable the Christians proper laws. Consequently the authority has even less legitimacy than if the French Government wished to make laws for the German Empire. to urge the priest to commit a dishonourable and forbidden They do not proceed from a person who devoted to the care of the community. they are not just.e. or laws and penalties be was Paul right to take ofEence ? 3. to discontinue and the State 347 such proceedings in future in order may not be obliged. according to the doctrine of St. he has a key at . If the laws are invalid as prohibitory laws. but laws.

to carry an unjust law into effect. but even unpermissible. owing to his faulty education. he must be taught better. ? obliged to refund as a violation of justice has taken place May The first question not Remigius oppose an attempt at arrest ? must be answered in the affirmative if Paul's treatment is objectively unjust. may be excused owing to subjective ignorance. If its failure could be anti- . for an invalid law is no law. This question fine may following form. is not morally blameGenerally worthy. If Paul. Con- sequently. Paul. namely. if he imposes the upon Remigius. Although for it would be better for Remigius to back upon the the unjust law. also such a manner of dealing [as that of Remigius] should not be a cause of offence to Catholics. successful. he would not himself be obliged to refund but Remigius. he may yet betake himself to any person immeif diately concerned in the wrong. but rather of edification.348 Fourteen Years a Jesuit of the any transgression law . is conducted without bodily injury to the if it is officials. because it is not only no duty. however. Paul's vexation consequently unfounded. He has acted rightly up to now by overlooking the matter. especially the other persons can only be reached with in the second question. theologically very sinful. which is in itself invalid. In such a case. chief offenders. . whether he returned to his native land for the sake of recreation or to bring spiritual help to others. so that difficulties. upon the originators of repayment. has produced a result and is . is evidently unjust. completely free from objection the rather that the joy at is violating this law. is Therefore his pleasure in the non-payment of the fine . it. But he may admonish Remigius and beg him to give up coming back in this way if possible. it is true. difficulty. A distinction his defiance. Paul unjustly threatens to inflict fines. does not understand that which even uneducated people understand. he did not transgress the law. or to act carefully. need not assume this good faith on Paul's part. if must be drawn As the cause for which Remigius is punished and this is clear to every reasonable person. not blameworthy. it Now Paul's deed is objectively unjust is produces an actual effect as soon as Remigius obliged to pay. and there can be no doubt as to the theological sin. in fall demanding to be refunded. : he (Paul) may not take the be involved in any " To the third question I reply Is not Paul.

vii. I. absolutely that such laws. when there is no danger that greater evil will ensue and. Preface. that even imjust and godless laws must be obeyed so long as their neglect not enforced by a higher law. because I see that it is absolutely necessary to expel that most pernicious opinion from the people. Edit. therefore. this is only by chance so that greater evil may not arise. in half of the seventeenth century.. Armed defence. as a rule."* Lehmkuhl was attacked by a Catholic critic on account of this " case. TOLERATION. If. not be permissible. Remigius were to make use of arms and weapons. or if and the State 349 it would give rise to offence. as in our case. t Ibid. RELIGIOUS EQUALITY AND DENOMINATIONAL PEACE The hatred expressed the first in the Imago primi Saeculi." In the preface to the second edition of his " Conscience Cases " he replies thus : " I am blamed because I have permitted a priest. or bodily injury to ojficials would. who casus 22. Freiburg. they are guilty of intemperance. it would be better to abstain from it. are morally right if an honourable and temperate manner if they act in an intemperate manner.. who is expelled by laws which are in themselves invalid because they have no power over spiritual affairs.Jesuit Morality cipated. is of the Church and strengthens tyranny. Therefore. not to inflict wounds. to disregard these laws even without an imperative reason. those who violate such laws. . of all those * Casus conscientiae. 1903. he might easily be acquitted of all guilt. p. But this blame has only strengthened me in my opinion. possess ." f it they do in . issued neither of nor in themselves any binding power but that. if they were ever to be binding. This opinion lessens the authority It must be maintained by a usurping power. mainly because greater evil but only as a threat.' ' seek to return to their country for pleasure. it would occasion and popular disturbances. but not of law-breaking. 2.

it Lutherans. members of the Russian Orthodox Church. But tolerance. rebels against the that the different Christian sects — for example. some universal Church. therefore. . 113. Most of them are tuned to a note in which rage and vulgarity are mingled. are.."* An enormous mass of books and pamphlets against " heretics " and " heresy " has been published in the course of time by the Jesuit Order. I. says " The rf Francis Xavier Catholic Church undoubtedly all considers all religious communities of unbelievers and Christian [non-Catholic] sects absolutely illegitimate and destitute of every claim to existence.350 Fourteen Years a Jesuit hold heterodox views. 843. etc. The Catholic * Imago <primi Saeculi. And even at the present day wherever the opportunity all offers. " Peace is out of the question. 52. The Jesuit Order regards these foundations of the modern civilised State as symptoms of decay in the structure of the Christian social order. . baptism they are subject to the absolute and eternal For through It is. it especially spits of anonymity. The seed of hate is innate within us for Hannibal. a grave error to beheve control of the Church. still under the favourite cloak out poison and gall against the Order. legitimate parts of . Ignatius his is for us what Hamilcar was eternal At command we have sworn war [against the heretical wolves] at the altars. has remained the key-note of the entire pastoral activity of the Jesuit Order. t Jus Decretalium (Romae 1898). the Anglicans. . as . Time and custom have tempered many things. of The present General Wernz. Duly baptised members of non-Catholic Christian sects are formal Church if they obstinately persist in their errors. who are not Ultramontane Catholics. religious equality and denominational peace have never found acceptance among Jesuits. p. 13. —are were. and joined to the Catholic Church as sister-churches.

Jesuit Morality and the State 351 Church alone possesses a real ecclesiastical law objectively and what is sometimes so designated in the case of other subjectively religious communities. which not in harmony with the Church have no [Catholic] Church. only in so far as their general aim is worship God in some way. and Pius IX. schismatics and Protestants. 258. they can never attain a jot of true right and true legitimation. etc. springing from the is muddy sources of indifEerentism. and consequently falsifies human nature and its claims. an aim which is godless and false. it is therefore not permissible to deal in one and the same book with the ecclesiastical law of Catholics. If denominations separated from the Church are to be regarded it is as legitimate subjects. therefore... 195. 255. .. heretics or schismatics. imderstood. perverse and absurd that an assertion. 266. all duly baptised Catholics. . Freedom of cult can at best be regarded as a lesser. . pp. . . they have no social rights. 1864. Mirari vos of August Cur a of December 8tla. But even if the Slimmen aus Maria-Laach. 1832. . 536. to . and has pronounced decrees. 534. is only an apparent ecclesiastical law {jus putativum) . 406.. According to Divine right. 1876. are subject to ecclesiastical law. . . so as to avoid greater ones. even against their wish or without their consent. 15tli. . Quanta . It is useless to object that the various sects separated from the Church do not pursue such imnatural aims as heathen superstitions with their many-headed monstrosity. schismatics and heretics. * Oewissens und Kvltusfreiheit 257."}" in recent it is times through several Popes by solemn erroneous. t Gregory XVI. whether of unbelievers. the principle naturally holds good that the denominations separated from the justified existence . that liberty of conscience the individual rightof every person. even should all kingdoms of the world unite in their favour. . .. perhaps even a necessary evil. . an is organised society with definite religious is aims. In this respect. but not in so far as they are especially In their concrete form they are characterised by Wesleyans. . . Jews.. Inasmuch as by the word ' cult ' or denomination." The Jesuit Lebmkuhl writes :* " The Catholic Church insists. : This may be so.

On . not only from a theologian present at court. matters of religion and morals. We are far but good faith may possibly from instituting a comparison here It is the duty of exist even in the thieves' caste in Madura. . the State to be Catholic. The emancipation of all cults —liberty of worship whom Christ said.: 352 error. 180-182." The Jesuit von Hammerstein says " The State." religious schism freedom of 1848 and the following years complete civil rights " We regard as a regular and acknowledges the [Catholic] Church founded by the other hand.. regarding the admissibility of not absolutely certain. promotes the general aim of the worship of God. 83. from the highest doctrinal authority on earth. Religious equality a morbid condition which may be required by circumstances. .. . 1883). even a constitu- tional one. —should never go beyond the requirements . pp. we regard as an abnormal con- dition that in which a large portion of the inhabitants are not Catholics. . . seek instruction. .' A monarch. the Vicar of Christ."* * Kirche und Stoat (Freiburg. it must be if it is must become so.. 81. all manner of things might be justified. is . We consider a misfortune that in the delirium were bestowed upon the Jews. must always regard the denomination deviating [from the Catholic Church] as an evil. * of the individual case.. whose duty in it is to decide . healthy condition that in which the entire population without Christ. A Catholic State and a Catholic prince good faith sufl&ced for the creation of . In case of doubt [as to the granting of liberty of worship]. unless it desires to rebel against that Catholic. or. . before he signs a law. to Fourteen Years a Jesuit which they adhere in good faith. but conformably to the import- which he is ance of the matter [the granting of liberty of worship]. good faith and even unmerited error in no way remove from the specific character of the separate sects as such the taint of objective illusion illegitimacy. enlightenment must be sought from those to He that heareth you heareth Me. If and consequent objective an objective and real right. . power to not. which for it owes its entire authority. must.

the Catholic. etc. a government cannot attain this conviction of itself.Jesuit Morality The Jesuit Cathrein says " Objectively amongst all and the State 353 ' Churches the Catholic Church alone it has the right to existence. Protestant governments frequently persecuted those whose faith was different. because alone is the true one. realised. from its own religious point of view that of freedom in individual judgment let its subjects decide which of the Christian religions they wish to embrace. namely. the Vicar . but not a existing ecclesiastical authority. Besides. should be the attitude of a Catholic government in a land with an entirely mixed population towards the different religious creeds ? We say a Catholic government advisedly. For a government founded on principles of religious equality must afford the same civil protection to all publicly acknowledged creeds. Stress was only laid on freedom — — of individual judgment so long as it could be used against the government can only and exclude others. but because has the guarantee of the infallible ecclesiastical as. the reward of good and evil in the next world. What. and some of the fundamental truths of Christianity. If. It is not as false. But a Protestant government must. otherwise it violates the right of the Church. But this is an ideal aim which is far from being countries Actually at the present day in almost all different religions are found side by side in peaceful possession. then. A Catholic government can count upon this. so that all humanity should religious family under the Roman Pope.. this only proved that they were not in earnest in regard to freedom of judgment. . But. . though a govern- ment had authority. Con- sequently a Catholic government in an entirely Catholic land must not permit the public exercise of other rehgious creeds. on earth. but only through the medium of an infallible. there ought to be only one religious form one great of Christ. Is it then permissible for a Catholic government to . all governments and peoples should be cult Catholic. And according to God's purpose. supernatural doctrinal authority. if it is absolutely certain of the correctness of the one and the falseness of the others. a tolerate one particular reUgious creed Protestant. to decide it what is true or revealed or not revealed. nevertheless. apart from the evident truths founded on reason as to the existence of God.

f They are to be found in my book. : The Jesuit J. however. Schwetschke und Sobn. True. the nonCatholic creeds have no right to existence in themselves and . II.354 Fourteen Years a Jesuit (Mohammedan and Jewish) creeds its if accord complete freedom of public worship to the difEerent Christian or even heathen so many and ? such different denominations come within sphere of power Our answer is Yes. 1906). and in 1866 Rector at the University at Innsbruck. pp. (4). limit of toleration. This. : . as soon as these can no longer be prevented from existing without occasioning great evil. says " The passing of the sentence of death upon heretics was at any rate not unjust. minister. for very pressing reasons. the killing of heretics. necessity. 563 et seq. permit the adherents of other creeds to worship publicly and protect them in this as in their other civil rights. Wenig. religious becomes morally impossible when once several without occasioning greater evil. the Catholic government may even. L. be he king. Modtrner Staat und rotnische Kirche Berlin C. Royal and Imperial Professor.)f Laymann. 141 et seq. etc. Escobar. as the crime of heresy can only be meetly atoned for and entirely prevented from injuring the ecclesiastical * Morcdphilosophie. com- munities have gained a firm footing in a land and cannot be opposed And. Castropalao. put together a few of the remarks of " and will here only modern " Jesuits. what is more. over the teachings of the most prominent Tanner. A Catholic of profound conviction and religious education. mayor or rural policeman."* The extreme ethics. This is civil toleration which must be distinguished from religious toleration. pp. also finds a place in the armoury of Jesuit morals and I will pass Jesuits of the seventeenth century (Bellarmin. unity in the true religion is so great a benefit for the State itself that all efforts should be made to maintain it. can afford religious tolerance to no adherent of other religions but the Catholic government may and must afford and practise civil toleration where it has become a . A.

while the mission of the Church whicn. 145.. 65. the only effectual remedy . 355 community by capital punishment. 143. and though only under compulsion. Where this punishment exists.. and if sent to prison or exile.. infect others. then banished. juris cedes. is divine and consequently independent of the stances. but also unreasonable. et seq. but also by all who obstinately adhere to the heresy imbibed with their mother's milk.. through the Inquisition. I. since heretics scorn excom- proceeded to capital punishment. I cry. then imposed finally. . I. through bodily punishment and even capital punishment. . enlightenment that. J Ibid.. Suarez it is theologian of the Jesuit Order] says a Catholic • . but."t "It is the duty of the State to punish the heretic with death at . We have seen that the ecclesiastical Inquisition cannot agree. all : the Church merely excommunicated. 74. 1901. fines. it is incurred by all apostates to heresy. the direction and by the order of the Church the heretic handed over to it it cannot deliver by the Church from this punishment. publici. • doctrine that the Church may punish heretics with death. munication and proper place. pp."* spirit of the age and of circum- The Jesuit de Luca says " First of fines. with the ideas as to toleration. 72. 146. Institut. for all For these the ecclesiastical Inquisition ! ' ideas are not only unchristian. 261 . 145." Heretics and apostates who previously belonged to the Church may be forced by the Church.Jesuit Morality and civil and the State ."^ . Theologians are so certain that the Church ' has the right ' at least indirectly [through the State as bailiS] to pass sentence of death that some most severely blame those who dispute the right of the Church to [the chief inflict capital punishment. as well as by all who remain obstinate when reproved for heresy. is to send them prematurely to their own . Capital punishment is not only incurred by those who have apostasised as adults. . ' Long live modern and humanity. watches over the purity of dogmatic theology and ethics. 1875. For. to return * •f- JJher die kirchliche und politische Inquisition. even if they wish to become reconverted. Eomae. 143.

what all theologians to-day teach in accordance with St. (2). as officially as possible. nor to executions of criminals. the Jesuit Order permits boys entrusted " executions it for instruction and education to attend : of heretics " " They [the pupils] must not go to public exhibitions. has frequently been asserted. (5). follow that this punishment cannot also be inflicted by That own right. Da^ Papsttum. X etc.''^ The Jesuit Order also gives. II. except those of heretics. in her of does not it. publicu Eomae. He declares that the punishments for heresy banishment. comedies. and partly to an incorrect estimate of the crime of heresy.: | 356 Fourteen Years a Jesuit This is to the true faith. but the necessity for such a power cannot be proved. confiscation of property and death appear heavy at the present time. 270. to pass sentence death for severe offences against religious law. in detail in t V. Inst. juris ecdes.. XL I."!] * Inatitut. The Church has contented herself with handing over the culprit to the temporal arm with a request to spare the life of the condemned. I have already shovm my practised for centuries II by the Papacy."* In the Kircherdexikon. 1445 d eeq. which would scarcely be credited were we not in possession of the authoritative proofs. that this " request " was a preposterous piece of malice 1827. 8J. . it part in executing a death sentence from service at the the Church has really the power. or plays. the Jesuit Granderath undisguisedly defends the justice of capital punishment. In its to Ratio Studiorum. a very significant emphasis to its consent to the capital punishment of heretics. I.." And " If the Jesuit Laurentius writes in another part of the Kirchenlexikon the Church excludes all those who have taken altar. 180-201. (2). 541.. this authorisation does not clearly follow and from Revelation. Thomas Aquinas. peculiar to our age. book. " partly owing to the sentimental — — objection to severe requital of crime..

. personality of the Reformers. various places : ex'punguntur haec verba. The Jesuit Tilmann Pesch. clearly of heretics as an edifying was removed from the Ratio spectacle for Studiorum. quia offenderent in variis regionibus. Jesuit and preacher also I refrain Here sixteenth " This for this. Stimmen aus Maria-Laach^f to which he was a very zealous contributor. and the Jesuit Reichmann extol him in fulsome fashion as scholar.. under the pseudonym The bulky volume (955 pages) is one long vulgar defamation of Protestantism and the Gottlieb. and the polemic bitterness of Jesuitism may be explained and excused by this. S. preface. but " because these words might give offence in designating the execution scholars. 5th f 1889. not because the Order condemned the practice. Briefe aua Hamburg (Berlin. 5th edition. is Christ oder Antichrist^ Briefe aus Hamburg. the from quoting Jesuit literature of and seventeenth centuries. paed. especially Luther * X II Manum.J. But neither did people speak nicely on the opposite side. It presents vulgarity and filthiness to the full. of sectarian persecution will enable readers to complete the picture. was one of the great literary writers of the German Province. 1905. to It appeared. who died in 1899. according the favourite Jesuit custom. edit.'"* These are the rigid fundamental principles of Jesuit A few examples intolerance. 16."t is not the place to estimate his full importance and greatness. leading at last to bloodshed. and perhaps the time has not yet arrived The book.Jesuit Morality It and the State 357 was not till the year 1832 that this sentence. 1905).. I shall quote from Jesuits of the present time. Berlin. Reichmann. . Part 10. Germ. The Jesuit review. 503. writer. \ Pesch's sectarian and polemic masterpiece. Verlag der Oermania.

and practises the principle that the end can sanctify bad means. i. according everywhere used every opportunity to give free rein to all et promptings * Christ oder Antichrist. The case appears in another form when the Reformer continually repeats that all human beings without exception have succumbed to the sin of unchastity and always and . the nations which embraced Lutheranism had retained enough conservatism from the pre-Reformation period them from experiencing all the consequences of Lutheran Here. who not only fails to oppose superstition (to which. all this is to be found in Luther's And up to the present time no one has been able to writings. that Luther also sometimes wrote the very opposite. many uneducated classes of the people are often unfortunately only too much inclined).— 358 " Fourteen Years a Jesuit A historical description of it is Luther must include an illustration — a summary one. . indeed. but promotes and adopts it. disprove this result of learning. in the most unequivocal manner. are to be respected. scientious to the most conand learned criticism. . will. I will content myself with a lishment of little. declares all good works to be sins. but this I little is quite sufi&cient for the estabI facts.e. say therefore —and am not afraid that my meet with opposition from any thinking person that he who. too. Now. p. to every violation of the Divine command and assertion will who denies the freedom of the human who blusters at every opportunity against the value of human reason. ciples of the great true — of the fact that the reforming prin- man imply not only the overthrow of political order and of Christian family life. . to preserve teaching. who repeatedly clearly and distinctly invites people to sin. I say that he who teaches thus and brings forward such teachings consciously and prodigally may be rightly designated as a rebel against the entire moral order. .* Whoever reads Luther's writings will be surprised to find how frequently and decisively the Reformer brings into prominence the indomitableness of brutal desire in human beings men must succumb helplessly Neither vows nor marriage bonds to every attack of sensuality. it is impossible for me to give all the data from Luther's words and works which would demonstrate this characteristic of the Lutheran work of reformation. Only one thing is certain. 25 seq. Fortimately. who teaches injury to the conscience. but also the collapse of the entire moral order.

Luther also teaches that God has condemned some who did not deserve it. according to my conviction. In the second all the Ten Commandments. a world of morass and misery. lies in being exceedingly fruitful. In Luther's opinion...f " I have just mentioned the temptations to suicide to which Luther. Like Calvin. but through necessity. may disregard condemnation before they were born he thus incites people to sin. and calls forth all their vices whatever we do is not done of . . Luther's teaching.. our own free will. the chosen tool of the thrice holy God. impossible for man to observe any Divine law. particularly to sin in order to annoy the devil. . the warning against good works follows quite and the repeated invitation to break the commandments and commit sins. according to sin. This reminds me of a few remonstrances which Pastor Walther addressed to me in his missive with reference to my account of the last hours of the Reformer of Wittenberg. and the State all 359 in circles . . man's vocation does not lie in the sphere of reason : —indeed. gestiftet). in the logically. Finally. to a view so low and so degrading to mankind ? The question provokes a reply which absolutely annihilates the Reformer. . and destined many to Luther declares that a Christian . . reason " In the first is in his eyes a ' fool ' and the ' devil's mistress ' but in that of animal nature. . Man's merit. like that of every tree and every animal. Concerning the last moments of his life (referring to the writing.* place. that every person should place.. I purposely abstained from a more minute exposi- tion for the simple reason that. from the data which are available up to the present time nothing more can be said about I it. . p. f Hid. third place. . 245 et seq. I am life convinced that to who move animated by Christian and thought such assertions appear like declarations from another world..Jesuit Morality of sensuality. as he himself testifies. it is acknowledged to be a fundamental it is dogma of the entire Lutheran system that . if we note the numerous passages in Luther's \vritings in which he declares in plain words that it is absolutely impossible to overcome the brutal passions. p. And the question intrudes itself What prompted a man who professed to be a Reformer of the Christian Church. . . was exposed. Wider das Papsttum zu Rom vom Teufel said that even Luther's prayer consisted of cursess ei * Christ Oder Antichrist. 243 seq. It is a necessity.

357 et seq. Jonas and Coelius."* through weariness of hfe. of only states that his soul was demanded . to put it mildly. as the statement of a true event. him on that night. Luther —to put shortly —had . and see in the impenitent Reformer a dying rather too much. also possess an account of Luther's is and one which essentially different." But he quietly permits the infamous calumny to remain For it has the desired effect on the readers in spite of the proof. But if Walther expects me to accept the information given by Jonas and Coelius. from the liberal Protestant point of \dew. he did " present them rightly. But what would Pastor Walther say if I expected him to accept this report as the only one corresponding with the truth ? Not only he. which he had himself admitted. would reject such a demand with righteous indignation. I attach no importance to this narrative. For my own part. and then feeling sick. but his liberal colleagues also. the effect on the people would still be to make them believe the fact. if Luther.360 Fourteen Years a Jesuit it . asking for my part. The true details were kept and the rumour was circulated that the great man died a godly and edifying death. by no means be regarded as so terrible. Pastor Walther gives at the close of his missive a peaceful and extremely edifpng picture of the dying Reformer as furnished by Luther's partisans. was conducted to room by Count secret Mansfield's servants next morning he was found hanging to the bedpost and dead. spent the evening at a cheerful drinking-party. in the text. remarks at this point that the untenability of the account of Luther's suicide has been proved " meanwhile. For my part. again returning to Luther's death. and this is the more certain as none of the proofs are given. And. I was walking in the garden with him and Pesch. without further consideration. as we observe. Pingsmann. had given way to the promptings of suicide this would. It is evident from the following that Pesch wished to implant the belief in Luther's suicide in the historical consciousness of the Catholic people : Once when the Sub-Agent of the Cologne priestly seminary. that did not matter . Some years later. I wish from the bottom of my heart that the poor man had ended a life racked by awful remorse with sincere repentance and had died a holy and godly death. The latter told us that he had proofs of Luther's suicide . . Suicide is quite compatible with the modern ideal of life. Regarding Luther's death." . And yet. I I. if rightly presented. saint. decease. * P. think this is. it According to this his narrative. Dr. though not absolutely decisive. in an evil moment from Luther's friends for obvious reasons. The Jesuit Reichmaim. paid me a visit at Blyenbeck. who has re-edited Pesch's violent book.

warpath it is in throughout Europe the Ultramontanes are seized with panic. In the first place all the geese in .Jesuit Morality This huge volume. the Evangelical Alliance will stretch out their necks and break out in a cackle of admiration fessor Dr. . did not sujSice Pesch and the German Province. what a hero honour of is our Willibald (Pro- His rest and recreation after the labours his seventieth birthday term and the festivities in consist in the moral annihilation of a Roman Bishop and as an interlude breaking the bones of the whole Catholic Church. existing to this day. . " The is Almost all and spiteful attack on coarse.) a piece. at 12 pfennigs (Ijd. And Korum hke a cat with a mouse "* ! * Die Segnungen der Beformation. of which Pesch was. Beyschlag) of the ! . style are attuned to a note of violent Protestantism. Ever since the appearance in the year 1890 of the first of these pamphlets with the title LutJier by Gottlieb (pseudonym for the Jesuit Pesch). which is systematically occupied in poisoning the wells and stirring up denominational hatred at a low price the Flugschriften zur Wehr high price could not attain — und Lehfy published at Berlin by the Germania. the instrument. and been scattered broadcast among the Catholics of Germany. Doubtless these tactics have advantages which must not be underrated. thousands of these little " green leaflets '* have appeared year after year. full of and the State slander 361 and provocation. of course. Here is an instance : When the chieftain of the Evangelical AIHance goes on the the eyes of his peoples an event which resounds . j). which on account of its to a wide circulation. 66. . how gracefully he does it ! He plays with poor Dr. the German Province of the Order originated an undertaking. and they feel just exactly as in the past the American backswoodsmen must have felt at the news that the Indian chieftain TwoStrikes or Sitting Bull was dancing the war-dance and sharpening his scalping-knife. and Marriage. The poison of sectarian strife must peneAccordingly the Jesuit Pesch and trate to the masses.

Bucer. Professor Beyschlag's AnJdagen gegen den Bischof von Trier. every lapse of morality. If we also consider that according to the Protestant doctrine it follows that a common Christian and men and women have the same rights and duties Protestant woman too has the right to have as This would be logical. In the French Revolution French excitability with iron consistency deduced the consequences from the principles of the Reformation. ' But ' once we accept the Protestant principle of evangelical freedom if it is only thanks to a most lucky lack of logic the most serious consequences do not result in the social and moral domain. only not from the pulpit. but at the No. 27. which he preached by word of mouth and in writing.. are absolutely permissible according to the prin- the immediate consequences of which were described by Luther. 1. but it is better and more advisable this was his philosophy of Ufe in youth and age. a falling away from Catholic principles. Alas for us. and to which to be content with one . pp. To the husband they said The claims of passion are no more bound to give way before the sanctity of the marriage vow than before the vow of chastity. he never proved unfaithful even in evil days in spite of all attacks.. which according to the reports of the societies for promoting morals in all our large Protestant towns are threatening the ruin of the German ciple. . . either by dispensation of his consistory or confessor. if German thoroughness should enter on such paths ! ! They annihilated the three Gospel counsels. The only logical conclusion to be drawn from the secret Gospel of Luther. . testantism is that every Protestant is to have as many wives as he pleases. nation. unhmited. 80. at table and in the lecture hall. in Catholicism signifies if a perversion. .: : 362 Fourteen Years a Jesuit the coarse style is And matclied by the contents " Every moral licence. Melanchthon and other Fathers of Pro.' They whispered The animal instinct is untamable and into the ears of all men All moral excesses.' But what did the Protestants do ? : ' : ' .* " There is perhaps no other dogma to which Luther remained so faithful during the long period of his reforming activity as this To have two or more wives is good. and justified in all its claims. . many husbands * Leaflet as she pleases. .

gives und an extract from a book et seq. Reichmann and von Hammerstein. the originator of the whole undertaking. Haack).' by Luther's maxim consequence of the dogma of universal priesthood Another logical and Luther's clear pronouncements is that every Protestant can supply his own dispensations and spiritual counsel. Thus we : ' should by perfectly logical means have reached the standpoint of the Berlin roues and prostitutes. Now let some one say that these are not bad Protestants ? ! Is not every logical Protestant necessarily a bad Protestant "* which pervades the whole of these very clearly expressed in the confession Flugschriften openly set down in leaflet 51-52 The spiteful spirit is " It of those is useless to say that we must not offend the convictions is who hold a different faith. wrote anonymously or pseudonymously. As a rule Further details about they. pp. since I a domain of which. like Pesch. Friede (Berlin A. the Jesuits chiefly occupied in the composition of leaflets were. I will can obviously not speak. so long as he can excuse it before his own conscience and the Bible. of our Protestant brethren."t PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF JESUIT MORALITY The many thousand Jesuit confessionals and the many millions of penitents who confide their souls to is Jesuit guidance. as long as I remained in the Order. The fact camiot be altered even Sin boldly and believe even more boldly. Besides the Jesuit Tillmann Pesch. in his Magazin. are the field where Jesuit morality practically developed. I I It is know it intimately. Le Bret. * Katkolische Protestantische SUilichkeit. the Flugachrijten may be found in my pamphlet Die : deittschen Jcsuitcn dcr Gegen- wart und der konfessioncU". In our view this only a trick of the devil's. although was myself at work on it. 86. . mere ill-apphed courtesy and Such reserve neither serves the cause of truth nor the true welfare consideration. however quote some historical instances. 27 t P.Jesuit Morality and the State 363 same time a very bad thing.

and the Jesuits. ' ' . the victorious General. surprised. the the Jesuits administered the sacraments to When was reported to the General. too. and take part in this Mohammedan religion. him shall I also deny before My heavenly Father. because they had openly professed this religion. took refuge in a mosque and begged for mercy on the ground that they were Christians. on account of their advocacy of the Pope. who the in order to be able to They were for the most part marry Turks. go to Mohammedan observances. the Jesuits did recognise the greater part of the women as their penitents.. About three hundred renegades. to question them about that they were really Christians. 364 entitled Fourteen Years a Jesuit Difesa : del giudizio formato dalla Santa Sede Afostolica " When in the year 1624 the Venetian fleet conquered Scio. their religion. Bernardino Cordenos. He who denies Me before men. but now Archbishop of NapoU di Romania. They cried aloud women. had openly adopted religion. gave orders that all the Turks should be driven out of the island. whom everyone knew to be Mohammedans. These simple people were accordingly pardoned ' But a severe reproof was administered to their instructors for not remembering Christ's saying. Antonio Zeno. But having repented their fault they solemnly recanted before the Jesuits. while them in secret. The General. are the : Archbishop of Corinth. who all testify on oath to the truth of these events. Other witnesses. and were permitted by them Mohammedan to continue openly to profess the mosques. fronted in fact. especially Father Lumaca. " When in 1606 Paul V. he caused the women to be conby the Jesuits to whom they had referred. was at war with Venice. Prior of the Monastery of SS.' I do not appeal to dead witnesses the worthy prelate of Napoli di Romania. Antonin Gavaz2d. who transacted this matter by public command. is still alive. sent Father Carlini. the Archbishop's secretary. at that time Vicar-General in the Levant. and can testify of it to any one who desires. who had taken the chief part in instructing them. And. were driven out of Venice. the Dominican Maria Ferro and Angelus Bevilacqua at Venice. they tried by every possible means to injure the heretical Republic. Giovanni e Paolo at Venice. a Dominican.

Unfortunately. : Rome to Japan as Bishop. II GesuUa Modcrno. and both protested against this their although this was a season of persecution. and forbade the believers to admit them into their homes.. who maintains that the signature was forged and that not only was it not the hand of his colleague.. They circulated slanders about other missionaries. after a more careful examination. however. The Jesuits did all in power to destroy the effect of such testimony.. It seemed to them best to deny the truth and genuineness of the letter. Fra Louis Sotelo.."f • of the holy martyr to be authentic and From letters of Paolo Sarpi in Le Bret. Venice. 427 ct acq. and insisted that. Magazin. which contains Louis Sotelo. and the other revoked the doubts which he had at first expressed as to the signature of Fra Louis. and they quoted the statement of a certain John Cervicos as to the inaccuracy of the facts there stated. t Gioberti. in August. 1624. he believed it to be genuine."* who was burnt on account of his faith. the bitterest reproaches against the Jesuits " Although he had been sent from . that the words put in his mouth by the Society [of Jesus] were shameful lies. and also believed that worthy of the writer. 542. Dr. owing to their fault the they had tried to hinder his mission Church in Japan was in a deplorable condition. 1628. At Constantinople they stirred up the Turks to war against disguised into Venetian territory. and III. at Foco in Japan. Cervicos and Fra Peter Baptista were still alive. a Franciscan and Bishop. but did not even resemble it. as well as of Fra Peter Baptista. wrote in January of the same year from his prison at Omura a letter to Pope Urban VIII. I. . One of them proved n writing and swore before a notary and witnesses on October 10. because they would members of orders but themselves to work though the thirty Jesuits could not suffice for the whole of the large territory.Jesuit Morality They stole and the State 365 and advised the women to refuse to perform their conjugal duties. allow no other priests or there. and the sons to deny obedience to their fathers until the Republic had given way. statement attributed to them by the Jesuits.

She had borne him a denounce him " child. unless there is no other way of making him amend. My honour. which Professor Stattler had also formerly expounded to us young theologians in the course of his instruction. Franz Riem- who on November 2.f * I said to myself My and accepted it honour will be From Reusch. reports the confession of a Catholic priest. On considering this principle. 1807. was threatened by the woman's arrival at Ober-Lauterbach. which fortified the Pastor " It is permissible to avert a Riembauer in committing the murder. position. it is not permissible to avenge it by murder. . I thought to myself What shall I do if she comes after all ? Then I remembered the principle laid down by Father Benedict Stattler [a Jesuit] in his Eihica : which permits the taking of another's life if there is no other way of saving our own honour and good name for honour is a greater good than life. t The principle laid down by the Jesuit Stattler. while there is great : . confessed November. if no other means are available .: : 366 Fourteen Years a Jesuit composition are favoured In 1759 the Jesuit Mamachi set the boys in one of the classes of the Jesuit College at Toulouse a on this subject " Heroes at times commit crimes which designates by fortune."* Anselm bauer. from documents. pp. 57. . everything that was of necessity dear and sacred to me. at to Ratisbon the [so Riembauer me. Beitrdge. and was threatening When I met the in Eichstadt woman 1817. at Ober-Lauterbach. A man whom France now of robber will be styled an Alexander quoting by the shameful name if he is favoured by the fortune. Feuerbach. runs thus grievous disgrace by killing the unjust adversary. and we have the same right of defence Christiana. A fortunate crime ceases to be a crime. murdered his former cook in the most cruel to manner. if the disgrace has already been incurred. my my public credit. I decided that it applied to my : case as a dictamen practicum. in Bavaria. . examining judge at Landshut] she declared her intention of never leaving . against a person who threatens our honour as against a robber. 56.

the toleration. it applicable to my was then no more than an idea and had not yet considered the mode of execution. civilisation. in the course of Moral Theology. could state were an abomination to him. the only his duties as spiritual director. Stentrup taught Moral Theology in the narrowest sense Progress. both and practically. I shall be removed by the Consistory. house in which I was stationed for any length of time in all the . (3). . gives an actuality to Moral Theology during the whole of a and it is intended to supply a standard for Jesuit's life At Exaeten. danger that he will renew the accusation. and gain an even at that time it name throughout the diocese.. Frins gave expression to his opinion by emphatically declaring his conviction that every young Protestant girl was morally ruined by the age of fifteen. II. in the presence of all the Fathers and also the Superiors. The discussion of Conscience Cases which takes place Houses of the Order once a fortnight.. 1829).."* Such are the ethics and morals. which the young Jesuit must attend for two years. unless it is clearly oreseen that the unjust calummiator will find credence for his calumny. and the modern of past ages. Although I I meditated on Stattler's principle and thought case. shall forfeit ill my property. * Aktenmdssige Darstdlung merkwurdiger et Verbrechen (Giessen. My professors of Moral Theology were the Jesuits Frins (afterwards counsellor to the Centre leader Windthorst) and Stentrup. 86 seq. Another of his utterances was that he could not understand how a married couple of Protestant morality look each other in the face without blushing. III. A grievous calumny may not as such be averted by the previous murder of the calumniator. and there is also no other means of warding off the calumny and re-establishing his injured honour " (Ethica Christiana communis.Jesuit Morality ruined by this wicked person if and the State 3^7 she comes to Lauterbach and carries out her threats . 1889-1893). . religious equality theoretically and denominational amity taught.

and in the two volumes of his work on Moral Theology dissects virtue.368 after the Fourteen Years a Jesuit end of my scholastic studies. Another characteristic of Jesuit Moral Theology deserves emphasis. Jesuit morality. the Conscience Cases were under the direction of Lehmkuhl. and afraid at every step of ofiending God . the great authority on Moral Theology. sin and temptation anatomically into their final components. he took the greatest pains to lead a pious and virtuous life in the Jesuit But for that very reason acceptation of these terms. he confessed. . Lehmkuhl. At the same time he defended. all the enormities which have been discussed in the domain of mental restriction. is one most distinctive types of Jesuitism in the bad sense Not in the sense of of the word that I have ever met. the Jesuit system had taken complete possession of him the revaluation of moral and ethical conceptions which it contains was incorporated in him. being himself bad on the contrary. with a perfectly calm mind. Lehmkuhl. who had a hundred solutions at hand for every case. . sometimes more than once. the domain of Moral Theology. some of whose principles I have already quoted. He was literally devoured by scruples. Nowhere is the saying of straining at a gnat and swallowing a camel more applicable than in the case of classic authority in the of the . every day. was in his own person helpless in face of sin and temptation.

apart from my novitiate. I was stationed at Exaeten : immediately after the conclusion of my studies. and a large and splendid * On two occasions. y 369 . : A stately college. which forms the outward conclusion of the ascetic training. however. sent direct to the Tertiate. with roomy corridors. Stimmen aus MariaLaacli and Die Katholischen Missionen. after the lapse of twenty-three years. seven since I ticate. I shall condense the most important events of these two sojourns in one chapter. I entered Exaeten as a had left it to begin my scholas- time the house had undergone a complete transformation. These thoroughgoing internal changes had resulted lected there. 1887-8. The German Province had also col- During this Exaeten had two periodicals so widely read in Germany. and after my Tertiate 1889-92. but first to Exaeten as a Scriptor. the third year of probation {tertius annus probationis). finally most of its writers become the headquarters and for the publication of the in considerable external alterations libraries. and the philosophate from Ely enbeck to Exaeten. I was not. to state exactly from memory which belonged to the first and which to the second sojourn. immediately followed by the Tertiate. if only because in my lack of written notes I am unable.CHAPTER XXVI EXAETEN* The Examen Usually this rigorosum concluded is my scholastic training. Nine years had gone by since postulant. The novitiate had been transferred from there to Blyenbeck.

If Exaeten appeared to me new and strange. I had crossed the threshold of Exaeten nine years before. not to silence my nature and my deepest individual feelings that would have been impossible but at any rate to trample them down. I had won my way to the entrance of the Order. too. and therefore full of confidence in the Jesuit Order on which she set so great a value. But how had the glory of this tower faded away ! Its very foundations were shaken when. Full of belief in the Catholic Church. the entered it as a newcomer and a stranger. I again entered the place where with eager. of almost a decade in the Order. The will of the Superior had designated me as a writer {scriptor). Not with youthful lightheartedness it was only with violent and heavy struggles that I attained the resolution to leave the world and to serve God in poverty. after the completion Stimmen aus Maria-Laach and Die The chief editor of these periodi- . chastity and obedience as a disciple of the Society of But a firm belief in the truth of that which had Jesus. never-resting effort I had first put in my spade in the endeavour to build it. I. as a shining sanctuary. — been brought to maturity in me through the atmosphere of my home and the powerful example of an honoured father and a beloved mother. and with the sword of religious idealism in one hand. I was to assist with the editing of the papers KatJiolischen Missionen. transformation which the birthplace of my Jesuit life had undergone was but a weak reflection of the change that had taken place in me. had induced me. In the first place. Fourteen Years a Jesuit had been added to the old. through — — centuries of traditional vision. Indeed. hoping.370 chapel. to erect the tower of Christian perfection which from my earliest childhood had been set before me. confined Novitiate House {Domus Prohationis). with the trowel of prayer and mortification in the other.

Dressel. final step. In the autumn of 1909 I accidentally read . Spillman. my more immediate comrades (Soeii)^ at Exaeten were Langhorst. Among Jesuits who have attained a literary reputation. representing the Rector. who himself could speak a candid word. who also presided over the whole college as Vice-Rector. t Guido Maria Dreves. Dreves. Tillmann Pesch. Frick. my fellow-pupil at Feldkirch. Cathrein. a Swiss. long after I had recognised that the excellence of the Order was a mere delusion. in spite of two decades for Fah had entered the Order very of Jesuit training young. and so hindered my taking the — — . because in him I found a man who. Hermes. True. as the Jesuits have used for several centuries. It served me as a support when the divinity of the Church fell in ruins before me. Beissel. and should not submit to such harsh commands. was an original man of singular gifts.Exaeten cals 371 was the Jesuit Fah. was the son of the poet Lebrecht Dreves. Baumgartner. who had fallen ill. Lehmkuhl. because this very characteristic of his postponed the process of development which was driving me to burst the bonds of the Order.t Pachtler. I should long ago have left it. Socii. when in distress at being suddenly transferred from Berlin to Brazil " If I did not believe in the divinity of the Church which has given its sanction to the Jesuit Order. Dreves. That Fah became my superior in a twofold capacity was both fortunate and unfortunate for me. tion and Pfiilf. he once said to me in an hour of sadness. * Socialism : may boast that it has given its members the same official designacomrades. and understand one when spoken by others unfortunate. Epping. the celebrated hymnologist. straight from the Jesuit School at Feldkirch had preserved his humanity. Fortunate. and soon afterwards died. Fah also boasted in a strong degree what I was already beginning its to lack : belief in the Church and authority as directing the Jesuit Order. a convert to Catholicism." This remark set me thinking.

induced him to enter the Order her fortune probably went the same way. I was told that I was making good progress and should become a very useful tool for the service of God. During my residence at Exaeten to train me to higher things. therefore. AVhen such outward advantages are combined in any individual with "virtue which exceeds mediocrity" and "knowledge sufficient for teaching philosophy and theology satisfactorily. all. It knows very well how great a value such things have for This work. during the many " StateSuperior. and the like its contempt for such worldly things is a mere pretence. ments of Conscience " which I had to make to my Superior. was gifted beyond the average . When ia a of South German paper that he had died as a secular priest in the neighbourhood Munich he must. but even this variety was levelled away by the formal uniformity of training was drawn towards the Provincial of the German Province. The knowledge of some of them was varied. with the exception of Baumgartner. With his strong individuality he never really belonged there. its work among mankind. even Baumgartner. have left the Jesuit Order. Indeed. is concealed under the motto of the Order Omnia ad majorem Dei gloriam. but I had a good deal of intercourse with all of them during our daily recreation and our walks. the rule of the Order does not tolerate such intimacy. family relations. who was body and soul under Jesuit dominion. advantages of birth. His bigoted mother. And such an individual was I for a long time in the eyes of my For many years. and lived at Feldkirch as a widow till her death. — — . Evidently he desired I and purpose. None of them. well The Jesuit Order knows exceedingly ploit how to ex." this individual is specially adapted to render great services to the Society of Jesus. and nothing else.— 372 Fourteen Years a Jesuit of these did I enter into With none any close relation. the Jesuit Ratgeb or rather he was drawn towards me. had completely lost their individuality in the sense of intellectual originality.

this general 373 was concluded. Pius IX. through special marks of confidence. i. he regarded them as friends to the Order for a true Jesuit has no other standard of judging matters of ecclesiastical or secular history and personalities than vincial with zeal and indocile that the confidential conversations . in the year 1814. With one exception.. however. i. and it was the Jesuit Ratgeb who gave it this One of these. and Leo XIII. times he came to occasions he let discussions in my room Someon other me come to him. my Catholic religious edifice I had been — — a docile pupil. my Pro- but then I became so ended somewhat abruptly. Leo XII.e. and a year afterand theoretic wards my recognition of my utility took a distinct and particular direction. Two of these notes of discord may be emphasised: Our conversation had turned on the relation of the Jesuit Order to the Papacy since the restoration of the Order by Pius VII. Pope was supposed not to have been well disposed to the Jesuits I could not clearly understand from Ratgeb's utterances. all clearly true nature of final collapse of had the aim of initiating me in the For a long time before the Jesuitism.. From that time the Jesuit Ratgeb disliked me as much as he had formerly favoured me.. form. In regular long conversations Ratgeb instructed me method of government of the Jesuit Order. I followed the expositions of interest . Ratgeb pronounced a favourable judgment on the successors of Pius VII. for this purpose.. will be treated in the next chapter.Exaeten my scholastic training ascetic training also. Pius VIII.e. that of friendship or opposition to exception was Leo XII. Why this The the Order.. Others in the may be mentioned here. They which many subjects were were informal treated which. my mission to Berlin. Gregory XVI. and with a sharp discord. but two things were startlingly clear the hatred with which the : .

as a matter of fact. were these " Do you think that it is impossible to get rid of Popes " who oppose the interests of the Order ? I could only understand his words in one sense. and the calm determination with which he expressed the necessity Katgeb's words. died suddenly after only three days' illness. for after a penetrating look into my eyes. Ratgeb suddenly passed on to a different subject. Vervaux. In my place another Jesuit received the post of tutor * Leo XII. whose three sons at that time were between eleven and fourteen years of age . : *' Will you accept the post of tutor to the sons of the ? Austrian Ambassador in Paris "f I Abruptly I answered. this post I "No. and the impression they made upon me. 1829. There was something peculiarly observant in his glance as he said to me influential Jesuit ." and abruptly That was the end was dismissed by the Provincial. — — course he could not guess.. that my gaze and will were fixed on a separation from both of to me. of our had a feeling that the offer of was a test. and my terror at their meaning must have been expressed in my face.* I am thoroughly aware of what I am writing here but the words I heard. Recollections oj the Last Four Popes. and others. one of them is now Secretary to the Legation at the Austrian Embassy in Berlin.Jesuit Pope. who was no longer quite know whether I was suited for matters really stood with me at that the Jesuit system had become a horror and the Catholic Church a mere ruin. Ratgeb had been Here is a second note of discord enlarging on the influence of the Order at royal courts and on prominent persons he let drop the names of the Jesuits Lamormaini. which of getting rid of such opponents. sure of me. are facts. . La Chaise. intimate conversations. Wiseman. on February 10th. that time How Ratgeb. : . were indelibly impressed on my memory. wanted to higher things. Cf.: 374 Fourteen Years a Jesuit judged the anti. t The Austrian Ambassador in Paris was Count Hoyos Sprinzenstein.

legal adviser of Windthorst in Berlin). Windthorst." And the Jesuit Pesch who. I. .Exaeten refused 375 by me. a cunning politician. my uncle. Thus. when Professor Dr. had not succeeded. and let fall characteristic remarks. A great social" apologetic " undertaking was to be founded. political and The exchange of opinions was very lively. Dr. Korum). was made to serve the In the summer with the Jesuit political influence of the Order. which. Dr. lasted many hours. for instance. Baron Felix von Loe 1908. soon afterwards began on his own account to stir up in spite of the great assistance of . Bishop Korum of Treves and the Jesuit Pesch were in favour of sharp and extreme measures. But for all that. to take part in a political conference to be held there in the house of a Bishop. Korum. is of course. by his own son) and three Jesuits. Bishop of Treves. of 1889 the Provincial Ratgeb sent me Mayence. (now a Dominican). the chief editor of the Gertnania. Here another proof of confidence. Beyschlag of Halle and his activity against the Roman Church were under "Is there no means of attacking discussion. Tilmann Pesch and Frins (the future deputies Lieber and . Prince Lowenstein There were present the Bishops of Mayence and Treves (Dr. there in Mayence the idea of a fighting denominational organi- sation which should help to win members for the Centre Party took shape. and was finally realised in the " National Union for Catholic Germany. to Windthorst. which led to no Jesuit fighting methods : ! definite result. owing to the opposition of Windthorst in calling into being an " apologetic " Union of Agitation. and legal assistant to the Protestant Duke of Cumberland. Tilmann Pesch Haffner. Marcour. Pesch asked him in his private life ? " Very typical of ultramontane The discussion. the : Racke (who was murdered at Christmas. represented the milder tendency towards persons of a different faith.

the opportunity of exercising these — — — virtues — amiability. All tried to accommodate themselves to one another.376 Fourteen Years a Jesuit denominational hatred in his Flugscliriften zur Wehr U7id In this he was most willingly supported by the Lehr. As yet I have said nothing about the vita communis in the Order the manner of our daily common life. there is but little opportunity for personal social intercourse and for the exercise of the virtues natural and " supernatural " which it calls forth. but rather to its inner character. On the contrary. an hour after dinner and another after supper. In general. Serious disagreements. soon afterwards had to make himself scarce on account of his " directorial " activity. and marked unpleasantness and enmities. self - sacrifice unselfishness —while in a well-ordered family . Still. who Max Muschik. were exceptional. and as with few exceptions walks take place only twice a week. while at other times the rule prescribes silence for the whole of the day. venomous review. and so forth. and carries it on to the present The then business manager of the Gennania. unless I called himself " Director. they are far less. mistaken. the tone of the intercourse. adaptability. which undertook the publication of the day. for the Jesuit has only twice a day. the relation of the individuals to one another. Berlin paper Germania. Since a Jesuit's day contains only two periods of recreation. I do not refer to the external arrangements. and visits in different rooms are only allowed by special permission of the Superior. for a short time. it may be said that the tone in these common recreations was good and cheerful." a certain am also took part in the Conference. which found expression in the daily routine. who. and pleasantness. the virtues which manifest themselves in the common life of the Jesuits are in no respect greater than those manifested in any good family life.

circumstance in order to throw stones at the Order or was a most unpleasant scene. human Only the strict seclusion which they have erected as a wall between themselves and the rest of the world. from morning till But in one respect the life in the Jesuit and other night. was a noisy chatterbox. are to be found here as there. but only to prove the evident fact that the sanctity of the life in the Order does not exclude considerable excesses. The virtue of the members of an Order which is surrounded and guarded by hundreds of rules and fences. I never heard that this serious excess on his part was reprimanded by the Superior. This Jesuit was one of the most distinguished writers of the German Province. even when sober. he shared in it in a more than " animated " condition. frequent excursions in a state of considerable intoxication. . In reality they are. as should I have not mentioned this certainly have been done. and remain. such as envy. or rather its consequences. During my membership of the Order I only witnessed one case of excess. Human weaknesses. Orders is exactly on a par with the secular life so greatly despised by the members of the Order. which knows itself watched at every beings.Exaeten 377 they have to be exercised all day long. enables them to produce the impression of something superhuman and specially holy. It more unpleasant since the person in question. and as the evening recreation happened to be in progress. during the A Jesuit returned from one of his recreation hours. dislike and friction. the the particular Jesuit. does not the ordinary Catholic layman behold And how in the Jesuit Order and indeed in all Orders What — ! is the reality within their walls " they " I mean Catholic circles who see in " the Order " the highest state of Christian perfection form most exaggerated conceptions of the perfection of ! very different They —by its members.

or to bring the parasitical existence of eo many hundreds of them to a well-deserved end. their bed prepared* and the quaint irony of .378 step Fourteen Years a Jesuit by Argus eyes. and thus has scarcely an opportunity for stumbling and falling. But here too we may say that countless secular male and female nurses do the same. would be needed to call forth a truly Christian evangelical perfection in the numerous settlements of the Order. This last. them by the charitable offerings of the men of the world who " stand far below them in perfection." the " man of the world." and are troubled by all the cares of life. * From this freedom from care and anxiety I must exempt the nursing orders. common per- The system of supervision and espionage which meates the Order. then no reform by the spiritual authority. If only the laity knew the real state of things as regards the convents and their inmates." as he is contemptuously called by the members of the Order. table. . They impose severe duties in hospitals and asylums on their members. the men and women in Orders live a life of ease . But there is one really dark side to the Jesuit life. the circumstances consists in this —that their house. make innocent intercourse and comradeship and friendship absolutely impossible. The pleasant life of men and women the in Orders is easy and when once first conflict caused by the parting from family and home is passed. nor restrictive legislation by the and bed are prepared for temporal. has to preserve it by fighting. everywhere their house is built. and often demand heroic sacrifices from them. is consumed with anxiety as to the sustenance of himself and his family. While the Christian of " lower grade. the mutual denunciation declared to be a rule and duty. in the midstream of life and its temptations. and for many this parting does not even occasion a conflict. is on that very account far less genuine and robust than the virtue of the man of the world who. their table spread.

but has not every profession its self-sacrificing and courageous heroes ? Are there not " martyrs of science " as there are martyrs of faith. Thus members of the Jesuit Order never approach one another closely. is 379 Jesuit does not expressly forbidden. " We too have our heroes. but rather as whom he may freely open his heart. sometimes from one day to another. the slightest demur. the refreshment and strength." . and therefore Jesuit common life knows nothing of intimacy. above all manifest in the promptitude with which a Jesuit lets himself be sent hither and thither literally from one end of the earth to another. like to appear. there would not be room in the world for the necessary altars.Exaeten indeed. Discipline prevails in the Jesuit Order. health and life are sacrificed without failings This discipline is — . in which consist the savour and sweetness. the rest the world. or who have sealed with their blood their endeavours and convictions. may say to them. due recognition of the heroism shown by of and other religious orders too. believers and unbelievers alike. in spite of all human and the very comfortable life led there. on which would stand the images of men and women of all professions. One is. . who believed neither in all God nor a future Therefore. among them hundreds and thousands of such as were not Still.Jesuit as he show he would He has no friend to intercourse. and have not hundreds and thousands of soldiers spilt their heart's blood as readily for the flag as a missionary for the Cross ? If all those are to be canonised and beatified who have held high their ideals in a life of renunciation and sacrifice. all. Here readiness for sacrifice and self-denial are displayed in an amazing fashion every difficulty is overcome. even here there is a *' but " I do not wish in any way to minimise the undeniable heroism of the Jesuits. Christians at life. with Jesuits. of human himself to his fellow.

con- (learned and religious discourse). nations. they heard confessions. Their is transitory effect on the people — — . in short. from early morning four o'clock till eleven or twelve at night. Fourteen Jesuits were literally occupied day and night. 380 It is Fourteen Years a Jesuit know owing to the narrow education of Catholics that scarcely any martyrs and saints except their indeed. who had sacrificed themselves for purely human objects and aims. independent of religion and creed. from this place as a centre. in heroic men and women. rather. like many thousands of others. when I observed the numbers of those they . but from the Church and the Order. Let us. too. they object to the expression " martyrs own This was my case too for several decades of science. I enjoyed the special confidence of my Superiors. the whole domain of Jesuit spiritual direction was open to me. or. no which I shall have to undertook pastoral work at Exaeten In this respect. ferences preaching. I also Confession. I will give some details. I took part in an unusually large mission at Gelsenkirchen in 1889 or 1890. Besides literary labours. The whole town are exercises for the masses. had sacrificed themselves for their ideals.— . allow the Jesuit Order let its us give it the place that it deserves. giving Exercises. and from thence forward I saw in them only men who. in later years. of my speak later. then. The comprehension of this truth helped me greatly in my separation heroism. religion. side by side with the millions of heroic all men and women and even of of all professions. then the haloes around the ecclesiastical saints and martyrs began to pale. I saw before me the heroism of humanity. missions." but when. Missions (popular missions) momentary but very immense. and in particular the confessionals are besieged. all religions.

by mere attrition (penitence through fear of eternal punishment) receive the sacramental absolution. then. Jesuit sent " " ' What ! A priest would not then follow my corpse . as expounded." Such conversions. which followed a few days afterwards.' On the very same evening the Last Sacraments. through purely external means such as the absence of a priest at a funeral. through the Sisters of Mercy. he prepared a French prisoner for death " All admonitions had been in vain.* relates In a report to his Superiors the Jesuit Sarrazin there how.Exaeten 381 was in a state of feverisli excitement. 1866 und 1870-71. At last the word to the sick man. accord with Jesuit moral teaching. when at Erfurt in the winter of 1870-71. That they also have good effects cannot be denied. Everything is suggestion there is no inward and personal contemplation. Externals prevail. This religious fever and nervous excitement are special characteristics of a mission. . and was thus prepared death. and ' * Die deutschen Jesuiten auf den ScMachtfeldern und in den Lazaretten. ' ? ' Certainly not you. A typical example of the external character of the — spiritual direction peculiar to Jesuits is related quite ingenuously by the Jesuit Rist. you may go quickly and he received for the priest. that by acting thus he was providing for himself a funeral without the attendance of a priest.' none would be allowed to accomfetch pany " " ' Well. for by the Jesuits Le Roux and Slaughter " Ivenin thinks that it results from our teaching that a ' man who has lived a godless life for forty years can. are in complete instance. but the manner in which these are produced is absolutely opposed to the simple religious spirit of the Gospel.

80. even though he never loved God. a passage from a letter by the Jesuit Johannes Gastel. 1685. By these the hearers are belaboured most effectively. 38. But it is comprehensible that such practice and theory produce great spiritual results. immediately afterwards lose his reason through a fatal and yet have a right to everlasting salvation. To " It this we unconditionally that a all assent. I. is characteristic " With a view to avenging the death of the above: mentioned Fathers [three Jesuits had been murdered by the Caribs. the duration of which is. however."! The contrast between Christianity and Jesuitism can scarcely be more clearly demonstrated.— 382 Fourteen Years a Jesuit illness. near the Orinoco]. and has never of love command —that is. p. if he receives the Sacrament with mere attrition. Friedrich. and to inspire fear. J Quoted by Dollinger-Reusch. fifty Portuguese soldiers and four hundred Indian bowmen kill will as many of the Caribs as possible.. Thus. sermons on death. S. the judgment and hell are the real centres of gravity of the missions. t Slaughter. as in the case of the Exercises. Beitrdge. of March 25. in proportion to the crumbling nature of its foundation. from the South American Mission. and converted through fear. From the Jesuit papers in the State Archives. and dies immediately afterwards. .J. so that they may not attempt anything similar in future."J The Jesuit Aloysius * Pfeil also relates a circumstance Le Roux.J. soon be sent out to There is no better method for subduing the savagery of barbaric nations than to drive out tyranny with tyranny. S. For the spirit in which the missions are often conducted. not even at the end of his life."* attains salvation may happen man who has often transgressed fulfilled his first God's commands.

when he was on a journey from Treves to Belgium. the Jesuit Villefort. "f communication is made by the Jesuit on the Jesuit von Waldburg-Zeil. founder of the St. * From The the Jesuit papers in the State Archives. the Jesuits Minoux. Stoppar. Bcitrdge. is Friedrich. Beitrdge zur Reichsgeschichte. Father Roothaan. 38. and Burgstahler. of the noble house of Zeil. if they did not surrender The faithful soldiers who marched of their own free will. Johannes Roothaan. Count Joseph zu StolbergStolberg. There were present. but it is demonstrated by a letter from the Jesuit Bobadilla. in the decision to revive the Popular Missions. also took part in the discussions. himself an They resulted ex-Jesuit. summoned the Jesuits scattered throughout Westphalia to a conference in Cologne in the year 1849. and at the call of the General. Devis. who had been expelled from Rome. Joseph von Klinkowstrom. " At that time Portuguese and Indian troops were sent out from San Luiz de Potosi to subdue the tribe of the Tramambases. to Christ and the King of Portugal. Behrens. : were the true instructors to convert the heretics. besides the General Roothaan and his companion."* That the Jesuit missions were conducted in the same spirit. who had attained great celebrity interesting An Mundwiler in a treatise in Germany as a popular missioner :— " The General. Peter Luiz. . for these regards heretics. Boniface Union. one of the first comrades of Ignatius Loyola. as also strikingly is a matter of course. 20.Exaeten which reveals a similar lack of the religious 383 and Christian conception of the missionary vocation. and the Provincial. who inhabit the interior of Maragnon. to the Roman King Ferdinand " But Bobadilla had never been so inwardly glad and happy as when he beheld the Spanish and Italian cavalry who had come to Germany for the Smalkaldic war. t letter quoted by DrufiFel. I. p. into battle were accompanied by Fr.

Beck. F. Anderledy and Pottgeisser from America. Petri. the following Jesuits went as missioners Ketterer from England. 1895."* And in the in spite of the expulsion of the Jesuit Order from in 1873. S. Gorheim. gentlemen. Germany gave Exercises to schoolboys. Coblence. Mayence. Max von Klinkowto Germany strom from Australia. Hasslacher from France. the Jesuits continue to the present day most various parts of the Empire to carry on their missions undisturbed. I establishments was even designated to give Exercises in the priestly The insight I thus obtained into all the seminaries.J. they cannot be reproduced. ladies. Ratisbon. One circumstance in connection with the Exercises (though not given by me) I can communicate. p. as it was long ago made known to the public. was extremely instructive. dated from Heidel* Georg von Waldburg-Zeil. even on its But. It shows how the essentially religious Exercises may also be utilised for I . . on March 17. girls. of their religious and confidential character. and in this way to perform one of the most effective pieces of work conducted by the Order. to the publisher of the Deutscher Merkur : " Shortly before the Convents Debate in the Prussian Lower House I received a letter from the Chief District Judge. circumstances of ultramontane Catholic life. It also contains a characteristic picture of Jesuit sentiment. political purposes. Paderborn. also owe their origin to the Cologne conference of the year 1849. in private houses and educational and in spite of my youth in the Order. 1906). wrote. The Federal Deputy and President of the Senate. Miinster. Bonn. students. nuns. (Freiburg.384 Fourteen Years a Jesuit : Father Minoux. Roh from Belgium. " The Jesuit residences at Cologne. Dr. 77 et scq. on account political side. which became centres of the missionary network spread over Germany.

I had to give those who turned to me. trusting in this character." This was told me by Pastor Napper. The convents and ecclesiastical associations will know how to " solve this problem." Everywhere and always I tried to give my best to the people who turned to me in their religious difficulties But even when my belief little as that may have been. said to overthrow the Hohenzollerns keep that before your service. who had heard it himself. when directing Exercises " Our ultimate aim is at St. As long as I outwardly bore the character of a Jesuit and priest. in 1851. and pledged his word of honour to its truth. and to what they saw in me. Napper. does not bear on the matter " In the minutes (!) nothing expression . was no longer Catholic I endeavoured to maintain the faith of others. who had. Peter's (in Freiburg). and the disposition of Frederick William IV. therefore. 1875. however. only one on one occasion expressed himself as unfriendly to popular . The only disproof of this credible and well-testified utterance of the Jesuit Roh : consists in a statement made by the Episcopal Chancellery in Freiburg. there was not the shadow of an excuse for any expression to the there was no such person as a effect communicated called Nopper. there could scarcely be a less dependable witness for the Chief District Judge Beck than this man. And if you betray ' it. Dr. " : — eyes. 385 is May ' 4. in Only twice the very last period of my outward adhesion to the Order and the Church did I act differently.Exaeten berg. of which the original at your which contains the following passage :— The Jesuit Roh. however. . and. is to be found about this in view of § 15 of the Prussian Constitution. which.. that which was due to my seeming. missioners. That I regarded as my duty. it will be denied.

Holland. and whose action had remained undiscovered and without consequences to others. . but I avoid doing so. who had many years previously. had contracted a happy marriage. confessor may bring about.— Fourteen Years a Jesuit those occasions I allowed the 386 On man to in me. however. Farther on I shall return to this inhuman and irreligious " dogma. Obviously I cannot give details here. being urged to it by her Meantime she confessor. to give herself up to justice. directly after its birth. inexperienced. was no great sin. killed an illegitimate. which was torturing him into despair. out shame and despair. and her denunciation of herself would have brought great sufiering and trouble on her own and her husband's highly respected families. was beginning to oust the dogmatically Many persons may perhaps disapprove of life. desired. if perhaps mistakenly. I could give very good reasons for my opinion. England. unfree Jesuit. incapable of trained. and a student. but a general remark may not be out of place. but only to show that in the last period of my priestly and Jesuit labours the human being who thought freely." Many a confession have I heard in Germany. incapable of life. The demand of the confessor for self-denunciation is. and I that the self-denunciation required by her confessor would have been an absolute crime. of brought her to see that the destruction of this premature birth.* student of his belief in an everlasting hell. The murderess. not to be set to the account of ultramontane Catholic moral teaching. my this illegitimate child. as I have not mentioned this case as a specimen of my ethical and moral views. prematurely born child. find —in relation to a woman who had murdered her child. Ultramontanism under Jesuit direction has collected its life for itself out of the religious conception of confession a powerful means for subduing to of all classes in every relation of * own service Catholics —private and public decision that the murder of was no great crime on the mother's part. and not the utterance scholastic theologian and Jesuit. still but rather to the individual fanaticism and folly of the priest in question it shows what harm the influence of an uncritical. which was incapable of life. and fanatical . I freed the Belgium.

I may say that I myself. still vivid within me. Das Papsttum. else indeed would soon stand empty. The Jesuit Order knows this. politicians. the methods by which carried on. II. Beitrdge. with persons who confess every day. Reinhold Baumstark has given an effective description — of the disastrous influence of the Jesuit Order in this non-religious as confession has it is respect. . I also * Cf. is as old as the For this we have the very competent testimony of Pope Clement VIII. is and prayers. and spiritual direction for its own The final aim of all its missions. become through though it actually has become the centre of a state within a state. in the first instance the ultramontane Catholic world. in spite of the Jesuit ultramontane training."! To my great joy.. it yet remains and must remain a noli me tangere. p. Friedrich. that they use confession as a means for obtaining knowledge of events taking place in the world. it confession. (1592-1605) " I should like to know what they [the Jesuits] do every day for three or four hours in the confessional. 49. never became a Jesuitical ultramontane confessor.. along its own lines. my work. etc.Exaeten for its 387 dominion. Its main end is the influencing of men it. although the confessing masses are not aware of citizens. own secular also is and political aspirations after That piety the consolation supplied confessionals developed in confession and spiritual is a matter of course. conferences. t From J. a lever with which This Jesuit exploitation of confession Jesuit Order itself. But the religious effect of confession has become a secondary matter. 512 et seq. exercises. and others.* And yet. I cannot help inferring from their proceedings the truth of the reproach brought against them. In this it possesses can move the world. and on this knowledge rest the exploitation of confession governing ends.

6. confined confession. and even more the desire of the Order to obtain the rule over men. have transformed daily confessions. Order that it deliberately tries to maintain its lay brothers in in a state. The frequency of confession. in as great a state of ignorance as possible. too. I enjoyed my intercourse with these simple people. annual confession." In other respects too I was an un-Jesuitical confessor. confessions. it for penetrating into family and private All such revelations on the : part of penitents were stopped by me with the remark " The object of confession is the statement of sins.388 Fourteen Years a Jesuit of sins . and they foster the whole race of scruple-mongers and bigots who do so much harm to themselves and others. : The Constitutions lay down. I did my best to stop too frequent : They are injurious they make men terribly dependent on their confessors for their religious life. and I believe that my manner.. two places " The lay brother [coadjutor temporalis] is not to learn more than he already knew before he entered the Order. VI. . was energetically combated by me. Even though I did not advocate a single Weekly. into a far-spread abuse. my remarks on children's confessions gen. This means that I set the subject of meditation and expounded it. "f * Cf. in Chapter II. to the actual state- ment I never tried to use affairs. was congenial to them. as far as possible. and are far from advising daily confession. carried by Jesuitism beyond all bounds.* I was also employed in spiritual direction within the Order. The commands of the Church only lay down the duty of confessing once in the year. even Jesuit piety. It is one of the most characteristic traits of the Jesuit before them. t Exam. For a long time I had the office of '* giving " to the lay brothers the points for their daily morning meditation. of " simplicity " —that is.

. For this half-yearly office. Of course. or else to direct the too. and write underwent correction. in spite of apparent penitent to seek absolution for his reserved sin from the Superior. the ranks of these useful Another not imimportant spiritual office which was allotted to me was that of confessor at the renewal of vows. Every Jesuit. maintains control at any rate over the more serious lapses of But my proper my am office members. had to correct proofs. must twice a year The (usually in February and June) renew his vows. to continue their studies. 14 to Order. trial articles. I served apprenticeship from the lowest stage. whether as formed coadjutor or as professed. until he takes his last vows. {renovatio votorum) is preceded by a Triduum with renewal special spiritual exercises and a general confession covering the period since the last renewal. if they have learned already. and so on. training I sincerely For the this which good grateful comm.Exaeten " 389 None of those who are admitted for the purpose of domestic offices are to learn reading or writing. so that at any rate twice in the year there is a possibility of unburdening the conscience to another than the regularly appointed confessor. or. the extraordinary confessor is bound to seek from the " Superior the right of absolution for " reservation cases which may be confessed to him. that of Scriptor. at Exaeten was. But * Reg."* It is evident that the Order does not wish to expose those on whose regular and daily work the security and " regularity of its outward life depend to the " dangers of education. which might perhaps introduce unrest into serfs. Thus the Order here its slackening of the reins. special extraordinary con- fessors are appointed. as I have already I said.

For although I recognise the great value that they were in my life. Church history. Order and the whole of my past life. without the bitterest suffering. of this history did I the purity. inclinations. was to be my my special subject. and it corresponded in every of way to With what a high conception divinity. like all other Jesuits. especially that of the Popes. a lasting and ever-painful open wound. though it seems to have been a blind one. importance —Brussels and Jesuit Fah. and Superiors of the Order. by the hand of the Jesuit Order. honoured for decades out of the depths of a believing soul. It is impossible to forsake sanctuaries. sent me to Brussels in order that I might there. ! even never faith. in a sense. library and their own establishment . is. and though I appreciate the light that they kindled within me. yet the conflict I had to endure and the sufferings I had to bear were terrible. of the Jesuit Order. Very soon I was set to independent and scholarly work. approach my task I suspected at that time that this study would have such terrible its consequences for me : the collapse of my abandonment. with the assistance of the Bollandist Library. that led me. And yet I thank the fate. I call these consequences terrible. separation from Church. Two The stages on this road to freedom were of special Berlin. and the remembrance of things past. to the road which at last brought me freedom. to burst through bonds which from the home of childhood upwards have been twined round youth and manhood.* carry in the history of the * on more exact studies Papacy than the literary resources own a literary republic within the Belgian Province but. The BoUandists are. rules.390 that I Fourteen Years a Jesuit was a good pupil may give the Order less cause for gratitude. irretrievably lost. they are subject to the general Constitutions. my two-fold Superior. in spite of all that I have gained. with their of course. .

One day he in the first said to me : " Windthorst wishes the . but dealt with Church and Papacy in a free spirit. Afterwards the are to appear as a pamphlet set to work at once. I hinted to the Jesuit Fah the impressions I had received. In the Jesuit de Smet.Exaeten at Exaeten 391 I also received would have rendered possible. at that time Superior of the Bollandists. but I made good and the study of historical works. . My Such things then existed ? The Papacy and Church could be approached from another side ? Their history consisted not only of light. permission to use the public libraries of the Belgian capital. from a purely scholarly point of view. That he. time at Brussels was but short." But very soon temptation and struggle came my way through his agency. was a sceptic in no way detracted from his human excellence. question of the Papal States to be brought forward again place. though in a very different manner from that meant by Fah. but even of darkest shadow ? Such questions and thoughts stormed in upon me like a flood. as I firmly believed. which were not written from the ultramontane Catholic standpoint. was a revelation to me. time ! On my some of return to Exaeten. The serious made on me at Brussels cannot have been quite clear to him perhaps on account of my very guarded report for he only made a few casual character of the impressions — — remarks about " temptation " and " struggle. and caused walls to totter which had hitherto blocked out every view of the " other side " of the " Divine " Church and the " Divine " Papacy. showing the necessity of the Papal States articles for freedom of the Pope. I found an amiable and ever-ready guide in my studies. At the age of thirty-eight I read such works for the first use of it. the Laacher Stimmen are to publish articles on the subject. the .

It is only — . And I had already looked too deeply into ecclesiastical and Papal history in the Brussels libraries to be able to give a cheerful and unhesitating assent to these questions. I evade the task by pointing to others of better and more learning. else I should not stand to-day where I do stand and I wrote the articles. and say no more about it. Therefore the order to defend the Papacy. and write the Unlimited space will be at your disposal in the Laacher Stimmen. and said you write the articles. and defend it as a divine institution.— — 392 Fourteen Years a Jesuit articles. was a hard one for me. and especially of the priest . but. I therefore took what others had written on the subject. it is a question of faith.'''' an order it was a tumult had already broken out within me. for my reason and will were fighting on this very subject of the Papacy. But whether the Papacy has played that particular part in the world. Even the dogmatic religious difficulties to which I have before alluded had fallen into the background before the questions : Is the Pope the Vicar of Christ ? Is the Papacy of divine origin ? Is it an infallible guide in religion and morals ? Whether Christ is actually and I When received this order —for really present in the consecrated host is a matter of enormous importance for the religious life of the Catholic Christian. Fah. whether in religion and morals in the course of centuries that blessing has proceeded from it which its divine origin and its divine mission would of necessity demand these are — questions of history to be solved by historic means. But how ? I could say nothing from my own convictions. after all." tried to ability : I lacked the it courage to reveal my inner thoughts was fortunate that I did. would listen to no excuse. who could be very curt " Do on occasion. which would suffer wrong if it did not also receive the position of a temporal sovereign with territorial possessions.

and entrust the work to one of the Jesuits. the intellectual author of frequently expressed to ciation. The collapse of my had already taken place. that at the General Assembly of Catholics at Buchum. one day at the dinner table of the Berlin Catholic Provost. And yet when I I did not want to be a thorough h}'pocrite. I should never have attained to liberty. had spoken about my Church and State told me pamphlet. Why should the Jesuits not return to Germany my stay in Berlin. And wrote from my heart the faith that I then . Baron von WendtGevelinghausen. Porsch. In vain I was said to be the best fitted. commissioned a. with the title.Exaeten the arrangement that is 393 These articles. I dared not reveal myself. who had been much longer in the Order than myself. Prince Radziwill. pamphlet afterwards. begged him to pass me over. Dr. Even more task. Ratgeb had told me how effective it would be. and the necessity of leaving the Order and the Church was pressing upon me. distressing to me was a second literary My to write Provincial. if a member of the German nobility belonging This was after religion ! to the Jesuit Order were to write this pamphlet. or Baron von GeyerSchweppenburg. an unwilling slave to obedience. again. the Jesuit Ratgeb. received a great deal of Windthorst. I still believed in the excellence of the Order. Co^mt StolbergStolberg. So I accepted. my production. as I shall explain later. I. In this mood I was to become the official apologist of the Order I did what I could to escape from this truly terrible command. me ? pamphlet in defence of the Jesuit Order. the lecturer on the Papacy. therefore. Jahnel. and a hypocrite in my own eyes. — Here. my me own. I transported myself back to the years of the novitiate. Baron von Hammerstein. and the praise. at Berlin his especial appre- and the leader of the Centre Party.

if he still can. sojourn that brought me freedom. Before anyone throws a stone at me. . The Jesuit Tilmann Pesch desired that the Provincial One piece of literary should TVehr make me his collaborator in his Flugschriften zur und Lehr. described confession faith them outre tomhe and Thus the pamphlet became a a gruesome grave. writing and retaining the possibility of freedom.394 Fourteen Years a Jesuit me. was this and longer pamphlet written by me was called It was a result of my stay in Berlin. my self-deception. d'' had. and I am still glad I did so. The compulsion in which I was placed explains. he should first find himself in a similar situation. the ideal of the Order which at that time I had seen before I brought in words. dogmatic opinions for instance. but it was off only long afterwards that I cast inherited. the composition of which was specially advocated by the Superiors of the Order. because to work which I was specially urged undertake I did refuse. or not writing and continuing to lead perhaps a long life in servitude and the most painful captivity. therefore. lay like a dark abyss between the writer and that of which he wrote. in this thought this denial anti-Christian. God and Man). . and youthful ideals were mouldering. the dogma of the metaphysical divine humanity of Christ (the doctrine At that time I did of the two natures. and opposed to them the traditional proofs of Christ's divinity. but cannot I had to choose between fully justify. I collected passages from all the Protestant theological works in which the divinity of Christ was denied. and then cast it. pamphlet. in which my their about resurrection." and I And. And yet the pamphlet was a piece of hypocrisy. Protestant theologians not realise that the most prominent denied this " fundamental dogma of Christianity. A It third Christ or Anti-Christ. — my deep-rooted.

is the Jesuit ultramontane fashion there but a short interval between " Hosanna " and " Crucify him " as indeed is the case everywhere. both in the Order and outside. And I had a right to repudiate them. of course. both in matter and otherwise. However. it is very superficial. the Jesuit Reichmann» anonymously and pseudonymously. What good thing can flow from such a source ? Soon after I left the Order I publicly repudiated my Jesuit writings. For they religious enthusiasm were gnawing at my Indeed. Still. me. and full of objective untruths. when doubts religious convictions. I declined outright. As long as I remained a Jesuit. * Instead of is who still carrying on his denominational and quarrelsome activity — .* He made no answer. I must say another not unessential word about my pamphlet. of my Jesuit period are poor. 395 and still more the harshness repugnant to me even at the risk of having a black mark set against my name. of Pesch. were so him. is hitherto praised them. under the influence of Jesuit obedience and distressing outward circumstances. and even acquainted the Provincial Ratgeb with the reason for my refusal. they could not be were composed at a time when all was quenched in me. for I was not morally free when I wrote them.Exaeten The personality that. Scarcely had I left the Order than they were depreciated by the same persons who had This. Why should the Jesuits not return to Germany? So far as the facts and historical aspect are concerned. and they were written in part against my own conviction. in particular those about the Papal States and in defence of the Order. The writings form. . Pesch appointed another amanuensis. I am quite ready to join myself in the ! ! depreciation. but Pesch never forgave me for refusing of his denominational polemics. my literary labours were highly appreciated.

To the interesting experiences of my Jesuit period of literary activity belongs the following In the year 1889 appeared the work. with the Jesuit Order. mit Beitrdgen zur Geschichte und. which. It was feared that disastrous consequences would ensue. most carefully conceals the truth about itself and its history from its members and adherents. and at that time I did not myself know how they falsify the truth. History of the Moral . They said The facts Ratgeb gave the wise counsel *' : Do not answer * GeschicJUe der Moralstreitig'keiten. and because the religious Catholic belief in me had begun to weaken. It caused great excitement in the Order. is All that I quote there in defence of the Order taken from Jesuit writers. as I have already shown. in der romisch-kathoUschen Kirche sett dem \&en Jahrhundert. Charakteristik des Jesuiteiwrdens auf Grund ungedruckter Aktenstiicke DoUinger und Fr. but on accoimt of my own experience. I only came to know the real history of the Order after I it left it." In a conversation between these two Jesuits and the Provincial Ratgeb. at which I was present.* which supplies a whole arsenal of pointed weapons against the Jesuits. Heinrich Eeusch.: 396 Fourteen Years a Jesuit the fault was not mine. but the Order's. wanted to write a refutation. Had I known before composing my pamphlet in its defence nothing —not even the prospect of the most serious consequences —would have kept me from refusing the commission to True. not because I knew its history. Among a thousand write Jesuits there are not two who know it. such attacks could not remain unanswered. with Contributions to the History and Characterisation of the Jesuit Order based on Unpublished Documents^ and published by Ignatius von DoUinger and Fr. even at that time I had already broken it. revealed must be " set back into their right light.Theological Disputes in the Roman Catholic Church since the Sixteenth Century. Tilmann Pesch and Pachtler. The Jesuits. bearbeitet und herausgegeben von Igimz von . Heinrich Eeusch. the matter was discussed in detail.

St. which was to hang in the chief The picture arrived. invited some of the Fathers. Catherine of Alexandria. The sight might prove a temptation to the young scholastics and so St. and the Provincial. study of the young philosophers of the Order. It was painted in a very *' pious style The face was in the style of Deger's Madonnas. In Exaeten too I had a second proof of the ridiculous prudery which everywhere scents immorality and temptations to break the seventh commandment (in spite of the official moral-theological studies of sexual things). which made her appear older and not quite so pretty. was dismissed from the Order. Catherine had to put up with a few additional strokes of the brush. to " a preliminary view. among whom I was one.Exaeten it . During my theological studies at Ditton Hall. His dismissal caused a great sensation. the Jesuit Lohmann. He said that she was too pretty and too young. one of my co -scholastics. which also throws a strong on the Christian love of humanity and our neighbours evinced by the Jesuits shall conclude my reminiscences of Exaeten. 397 a refutation would give the book importance and a wider circulation. — . Joseph Kreutzer. young and pretty. and I must make the shameful confession that I only studied the book and recognised its value after I had left the Order. and do us no injury." Ratgeb prophesied truly. light A . had always appeared to me a good and zealous member. Brother Kreutzer. horrible experience. with whom I had studied philosophy. A Catholic artist had been commissioned to paint a of picture the patroness of Christian philosophy. and would draw the attention of the The arrangement and style of the book Catholics to it. are so cumbersomely dreary [very unfortunately Ratgeb was right] that it will lead a neglected existence in libraries. The Provincial was greatly dissatisfied. but expressionless.

The Order had acted very generously towards him nothing more could be done for him. A few weeks later I was passing the churchyard with the Jesuit Piitz. . in a room in the poor village inn where he was staying.. 398 Fourteen Years a Jesuit never heard any details about the cause of his dismissal. in particular at the Consulting Room — and had treated him with great harshness. and from there often came Exaeten. few days later he cut his throat with a and bled to death. without any means. couragement. to consult with various Jesuits. at Baexem. A negative. Piitz would not hear of it. and I begged him to go to the neglected grave and say a prayer over the unfortunate departed. in another and last conversation. He said Kreutzer had brought his sad fate upon himself. The Superiors. the poor fellow was overwhelmed by a storm of despair and dishis Socius. I went to him and informed him of Kreutzer's circumstances. the Provincial Ratgeb. He was put away in the churchyard at Baexem as a suicide. and on the brink of despair. the Jesuit Piitz. He had been wrongfully dismissed he had done no wrong. only general unfavourable comments were spread We about him. the Provincial. though why I do not know. at that time the Jesuit Lohmann. He was now alone in the world. His answer was a curt razor. He had particular confidence in me. and begged his assistance. As the Jesuit Piitz was also at Exaeten as Socius of Lohmann's successor. When I informed Kreutzer of this. to Then suddenly Kreutzer appeared in the parish of Exaeten. He acquainted me with the history of his troubles.

for who has given his consent to this. . Hedwig's Infirmary. of the Prince Bishop of Breslau. 1888. Dr. with both these pertherefore. Kopp. For the reason for which in the previous chapter I recorded the events at Exaeten under — one heading. try to be on good terms sonages. and to what extent. Father Fah will live in St. Whether. The object of your Berlin residence is to prepare the ground permanent settlement. Provost Jahnel. you will at once be able to practise any spiritual care there. but you should occupy yourself in detail with Protestant theology. after a walk with the Jesuit Spillmann through the corridors at Exaeten. What you attend is left to your own decision. Father Ratgeb. I received an order to go at once to my Provincial. you with the delegate of the Prince Bishop. until further notice. in order to be able to combat it in lectures I desire that your writings.CHAPTER XXVll BERLIN'^ From of the the lonely Dutch moorland to the cosmopolitan stir German Imperial capital When in the beginning of May. He communi- cated this astonishing piece of news " You and Father Fah are to go at once to Berlin. you a are to be matriculated as a student at the University. I was returning to my own room. You are to place yourself entirely at the * In Berlin too I was twice stationed as Jesuit 1888 and 1892. In order that your stay in Berlin may lead to no annoyance with the police and other authorities. I shall do the same with my 399 Berlin sojourns. depends on the goodwill of the Provost and You must.

in Upper Silesia. Baron dying and desires to confess to you and after that you are to perform the marriage ceremony for your brother Clement. Was I to reply to it by revealing my inner troubles ? After a short deliberation I decided " No. I brought consolation to my former fellow-pupil at Mayence. Otto von Ketteler. and that you are ready at any time to bring him the expression of our respectful and friendly sentiments. You are I have also another commisto send me regular reports.400 Fourteen Years a Jesuit and especially disposal of the leaders of the Centre. I performed the marriage ceremony for my younger brother Clement with the Baroness Kunigunde Raitz von Frenz. and only the freedom of study in Berlin could bring me this clearness. because he believes that they are opposing his appointment as Cardinal. you are first to go to your relation. before a large assembly . I have been informed by the General that the Prince Bishop Kopp is annoyed with the Jesuits. — are commissioned to inform him that we German Jesuits should be very glad to see him made Cardinal. to Schurgast. You are to write to the Prince Bishop that you of our plan." I had a human right to attain a clear decision about the doubts that were troubling me. who approves Windany way intruding upon them." Such. near Juliers. not literally but as to their content. It was a greatly agitated by the whole commission. Further [Ratgeb added this at the end as a mere detail]. which requires a good deal of skill. sion for you personally. very striking and honourable mark of confidence on the part of the Order. Father Fah will precede you to Berlin. thorst. were my I was instructions as a Jesuit ambassador to Berlin. who . in the Chapel of Castle Kellenberg. but without in There is to be no relation of Superior and subordinate between Father Fah and you all important steps must be discussed by both of you. Meantime. is Otto von Ketteler.

sen. Count Galen. disposed to the Jesuits. He remained over an hour had taken. Windthorst was especially amiable. Soon I was on good terms with Provost Jahnel. the Grey Sisters of the Niederwall Strasse. his early and unexpected death. Church. Baron von Franckenstein. Hedwig's Church. behind St. We also helped with confessions occasionally in St. and the Ursuline nuns. Hedwig's Infirmary. 2 A . and an He was not exactly well organiser of the first rank.* little opportunity for our pastoral Fah had to minister in the pastorate of the Sacred Heart in newly founded the Schonhauser Strasse. whom I learned to value as an intelligent. energetic man. Besides that there Hedwig's of was a pastorate nuns. True.. he afforded us activity. Count Praschma.Berlin of relations. and returned on Sunday evening to the Provost's house. heard confessions. and I in the parish of Wicksdorf. Lieber. I greatly regretted He made no attempt to convert me. celebrated High Mass. He had no objection to candid speech. in my in Berlin house at the Kurfiirstendamm. was assigned me as a dwelling-place. at St. Dr. light. Count Conrad Prensing. but only expressed his regret at the step I animated conversation with me. The deputies. we were not • Provost Jahnel visited me again in 1897 —two years after my marriage. We always kept in touch with the Centre Party. in the Linden Strasse. sen.. preached and catechised. frequently visited us. but Fah and I got on very well with him. where wind and rain but very little into which came building]. But apart from occasional discussions about political matters and questions of the day. 401 and then I entered the ancient and ugly is Provost's house in Berlin [at the present time there stately a new an attic. which was very uncongenial to me. Every Saturday evening I went out there. and we were often their guests at the Kaiserhof. On great occasions we always had particularly good places in the President's Tribune of the Imperial and Prussian Parliaments.

who gave them to me. of were other leaders besides himself in the Centre Party. leader of the Centre.* to appear later. only to prepare the ground. It was a matter of annoyance to him that there in my room or in his. 1887. * Lieber. Rom und das Zentrum." " I lied myself out of the difficulty The details. in which he expressed his views on the intervention Leo XIII. The most important of the numerous conversations was that in which he described to me his relations to Windthorst. and it was not his fault that he did not become the sole leader. 1896. I should find myself compelled to publish some of Lieber's letters as a complement to the reminiscences. were to happen. He handed me several copies. Racke. after the celebrated speech at Cologne on the 6th February. in the first instance. are given in my book. including my own regret at an indiscretion I had committed. At that time Lieber was circulating very zealously a pamphlet printed for private circulation. where I also lived on the occasion of my second stay in Berlin.: 402 employed I Fourteen Years a Jesuit in politics. Lieber. He had temporary quarters with the Grey Sisters in the Niederwall Strasse. in his declaration. and the wording of a statement of Lieber's in the Germania of February 20th. had said of On that occasion with the help of God. We were. Some of them are addressed to me. He was an intriguer and a thoroughly pushing man. which referred to it. had some very interesting conversations with Dr. in the matter of the Septennate. and some to a lady. We often dined together there. unasked. in which he attacked bis colleague of the Centre. speaks of reminiscences If this and which were perhaps . and in characterising Windthorst let fall the remark that the unscrupulous Gueiph. for my free disposal. with the commission to send them to my Provincial Superior. which he had composed. and we spent many evenings The insight which Lieber afforded thought and action was not exactly me into his methods edifying.

as did also my many other University Harnack did not supply me with a single thought or impulse which could have hastened the separation from my past. make the smallest impres- development. sounds he is too clever. Kopp answered from his castle of Johannis- burg in a very diplomatic manner. who had not passed a schoolleaving examination could only attend as a " hearer "*). but I was amazed at the ignorance of Catholicism which he frequently evinced. as my Superior seemed to assume. that Harnack is a man who will it For that * — paradoxical as have a permanent influence. in my studies. After matriculating (Fah. I admired his learning. It has often been asserted that Harnack's lectures caused sion on my secession from Harnack and his lectures did not Rome. so that further steps in the year 1893 sires would be superfluous. Others may attend a* guests (hearers). — tion of a State Only persons who have pasBed the School -leaving (Abiturienten) EiaminaHigh School can be matriculated as members of the University. Nor do I think Professors. That is incorrect. The difficulties with the Jesuit Order had never been as great. Everything was now in order. The main interest in the University and my Berlin stay was concentrated in Library. he said. Protestant theology by means of private study." I refrained from entering for any other theological and philosophical lectures I wished to acquaint myself with . I entered my name for Adolf Harnack's " History of Dogma " and Friedrich Paulsen's " History of Modern Philosophy. and asked him whether I might call on him for further : My commission to the Bishop explanation. — Translator.Berlin 403 in the following of Breslau was executed manner I wrote to him what the Jesuit Ratgeb had said to me. that is to say. This is known as hospitieren. . And in fact Kopp attained the goal of his ardent de- and energetic efforts —the Red Hat—and thus became Cardinal by the grace of the Pope and the Jesuit Order. far less suggested it.

was often in later his obliged to oppose him violently in this double capacity* — I remember with gratitude and pleasure the kindness of the man Harnack. His nature too conciliatory and. Friedrich Paulsen's lectures were an aesthetic pleasure. both in form and matter. to Paulsen in his quiet Steglitz. which I also experienced in his hospitable house. My Provincial Ratgeb had. who saw and judged the world and its events only from the standpoint of his student's Paulsen too had existence. there- he delights in theses and antitheses. and not in the light of facts.404 Fourteen Years a Jesuit sees things in too He many colours. it is true. also." For detailed research and minute accuracy Harnack's method furnishes a model. Adolf Harnack iiber den Kathdiziamus. indeed. is and from too many points of view. but he is no pioneer in his conception of life. But even then perceived or teacher. 338-349 . but his intention was that I should only attend theological and philosophical courses. pp. Miirz. no direct or determining influence either as a personality brought interesting me many experiences. which I paid home among I the pine woods of and stimulating what I long afterwards expressed to Paulsen himself. Two visits. The man who did exercise a powerful influence over me was Heinrich von Treitschke. In detailed research Harnack leads the way. and it was just his course of lectures for which I had not entered. Had I informed him that I wished also to hear Treitschke's * Zeitschrift. therefore. 1907 . ^ 2 Februarheft. I cannot include the theologian and scholar Harnack among life my liberators —and. If. but it has no influence in determining the further development of religious theology. left me a free hand in the choice of lectures. and in seeking to combine contradictions in a " higher third. that he was essentially a bookworm. . fore.

of the right and duty of * HospitiereUi . His burning patriotism kindled German sentiment. to assist us against Rome and everything Romish. The eloquence of his language. I may say that I there made an exhaustive study of the whole newer Protestant theology and philosophy. though at first So I chose the difficult to irresistible and the passionate patriotism of his attacks on the foes of his country and enlightenfollow. road of somewhat extensive " visiting. It is not a clarified knowledge. Again and again I felt drawn to his lecture room.Berlin historical lectures."* On the very first occasion I heard a diatribe of Treitschke's on the hereditary hostility of Papal Rome towards Germany. which can educate an ment. Ten or twelve times. at least. dawning within me. Through Kant I attained to a recognition of the autonomy of reason. which is colourless and characterless. and its right to self-direction. but timidly. It is such men that we need in our University chairs. which for the last decade had been smothered under the ashes of Jesuitism. Kant confirmed the reading me infallibly in the consciousness. but knowledge of flesh and blood. and room of the Royal Library. it 405 would have led to explanations which I desired to avoid. whom I now first learned to know in his true character. Among the philosophers Kant was my leader. Besides my public lectures from Harnack and Paulsen. carried in me away. I must have heard Treitschke without paying my scot. and far exceeding them in importance for me. knowledge expressed with individual and daring convictions. were my in private studies in my attic in the Provost's house. and now blazed forth once more in a bright flame. me the yet glowing fire of upright generation. against the foes of civilisation and Fatherland. which had been long.

the Trinity) original accomplished by blood. even in face of the things of the other world. What miserable superficialities my Jesuit Philosophy Professors had repeated to me about Kant's "unemployable " because " illogical " Critique of Reason ! If Kant was a liberator of my reason. which caused me to realise that. but a thinking human being. formulas of faith.. in the course of centuries down to the present day. Two other liberators I must also mention with gratitude. apart from ecclesiasticism. Man. not in its . — . Kothe and Biedermann became my liberators in the domain of religious theology. 4o6 Fourteen Years a Jesuit authority. and even in oppoI learned to know the Churches for what sition to it I they are diseases incidental to religious development began to understand that there are no principles or . Ranke and Gregorovius both showed me the Papacy in its historical. Schleiermacher." but by self -purification I saw that Christianity was not a hieratical organisation. neither of them theologians. free and independent of faith in being not a mere child in leading strings. but also ruinous destruction and brutal ignorance. and to value it. it it still thoroughly human. have caused not only blessing and civilisation. though the Papacy is a prominent institution of historic importance and power. not even by the blood of a " God. that " salvation " cannot be sin. as a political abuse . pretended " Divine " aspect studies . but individual life. that the name of dogma fabulous and absurd theories {e. the traces of which. I also learned to know the Ultramontane Papacy and indeed Ultramontanism in general.g. and burdened. like every other long-lived human institution. of conducting research. both inspired me to special on the social and civilising aspect of the Papacy. nor yet can be conceals a mass of . with an enormous mass of religious and moral error of the most serious nature. I learned to understand the conception of religion.

What did I not sufier from the dogma of eternal punishment. of its " Christian " premises. and what have not many millions of souls suffered from it ! And yet in the whole history of religion. I 407 to came know that the Vicars of Christ. Further than this and to the actual denial of hell and a personal devil I did not attain at that time . but at first produced a huge abyss which swallowed up all the faith which had accumulated in me for forty years. of my mind at that time as it is when I set it down My Berlin studies were the beginning. there doctrine so brutally blasphemous as this. and probably scarcely acknowledged it to myself. was one of my pastoral experiences dogma of ever- that brought about this sacrifice. at any rate. they set in motion what was not built up into a mountain.and non-Christian religions. no just on account is . and found ception worthy of a my my way to human being. and continue even the present day to put forward this claim. had gradually to become political sovereigns. This confession of his removed the last check on a resolution that had long been seeking consummation in me. in spite of their religious vocation. the dawn. I told him that the belief in everlasting hell was blasphemous.Berlin of the Catholic religion. all this was not as to the doctrine of Christ. I did not express this opinion. But I crossed over the abyss. clear in to-day. absolutely contrary Of course. including the pre. It was only the formal breach with the Church and the Order which effected this too. of heights of world con- The consciousness the entire sacrifice of one dogma was completed even during my and strangely enough it Berlin residence. and this one word of deliverance also delivered me from my belief in hell. A student lamented to me that the lasting punishment was driving him to despair. later clear recognition .

will become everlastingly wretched in His hell. and in part also the orthodox evangelical. becomes so odious a Being that a reasonable man must turn away with horror from such a God. of people would suffer the everlasting pains of hell. even milliards. He would be a hell. although He foresaw that millions. with the consciousness and the knowledge soul. and thus Himself. : by Me therefore. God and is the only thing possible for us. produced and maintained to power effect make the individual act of by not creating the human soul. for everlasting torture. yet created the vAthout any compulsion from without or within. and All-powerful God. by His own free act. also of His own free will. which is completely innocent of its earthly existence. will become everlastingly wretched. If there is such a God. For let us realise the Christian doctrine of God and His hell. dogmatics describe Him. will suffer nameless tortures for ever in the flames of Hell. inaugurated the population of hell. which unasked receives its life from Me alone. It is in His race. can deserve of sin. His pitiable from such a God I would not even wish to accept heaven. . called into being by Him. All-good.: — 4o8 Fourteen Years a Jesuit The " Christian " God as the Catholic-Ultramontane. and All-powerful God acts in a Divine manner at the procreation of each individual human being by introducing the soul into the embryo. God the " grace " to resist the temptations of which . All-good.God worse even than the Prince of Hell himself. and the doctrine of the " Divine Grace " required for I confess that the avoidance of hell (1) The All-knowing. although He foresees that millions of people. however great. (2) The All-knowing. then the deepest pessimism and hatred of creatures. I create a being But still He creates it." (3) No human exertion. human procreation of no but He does create " This it.

although this was You who refused alone could have saved me hell. a man condeimied to hell by this " God might cry into His face " It is You who should be in hell. in which several of my relations generously assisted me with large sums of money. My sleepless nights began again.Berlin will cast 409 The " effective grace " [gratia efjicax] which alone enables him to overcome sin. being all-knowing. dominating ends. although. 18. I shall be easily believed when I say that my whole soul was in a state of turmoil during my Berlin residence. unasked. What judgment should we pass on a man who would permit even one human being. and maintained in being. * Cf. He knows that this refusal must signify everlasting hell for the man. my pamphlet. the deliverance of a woman from a position of disgrace. a " priest's dogma " that is. a dogma invented by a priestly caste. who desired to maintain mankind in fear for its own . after my breach with Rome. And yet the good God holds the fate of all men so completely in His hand that every other state of dependence is insignificant by comparison. I suffered so much that 17. although It You foresaw that I should end in hell.* but unfortunately the inviolable seal of confession keeps the whole locked safely from the public gaze. : not I." The dogma of hell is. is an absolutely free gift of the All-wise and All-good God. Walther). for You called me into life unasked. whose fate lies in his hand. Who refuses it. a source of great trouble for myself and my brave wife. Indeed. became many years later. him irretrievably into hell. In eigener Saehe und AnderesiBerYxD. pp. me Your from grace. For men are His creation. to be wretched in body and soul throughout his whole life ? All the rest of mankind would trample such a wretch to pieces. called into being by Him. more than any other. Another pastoral labour. H. .

have adhered to Catholicism and position. with equal enthusiasm. Further. and for centuries has been one of the mainstays of Catholicism. during my life in the Order. When I received the . stood before me like a threatening spectre. the member of an Order. again and again impressed upon me rooted doctrine. Above all. who. My family is one of the oldest and most respected of the Catholic families of Germany. if my former I fell away from grace of these thoughts. and their Jesuitism. of the diabolical origin of religious doubts had even yet not quite perished within me. The suffering I should cause them by my separation from the Church and the Order gave me a sensation of horror.410 Fourteen Years a Jesuit I returned to Exaeten. and brothers and sisters who. That I a Jesuit was in their eyes and those of all honour and a blessing. the terrible thought of a separation. I had an old mother. in September. But I still struggled against taking the last step and The deeply separating myself from my inherited religion. and an impassable wall seemed erected before my eyes. and the almost complete impossibility of carrying it out. What scandal should I not occasion to the Catholic world and my family ! name and The weight power in checking my final resolution can only be understood by those who have been in a similar position. Thus was bound was a priest and my relations an I — chains were fastened about but only burst asunder. equal readiness for sacrifice. I was no mere faithful layman I was a priest. when my emaciated appearance and my prematurely grey hair attracted attention. The efiect on me of these shown by two circumstances : internal struggles may be A little daughter of my elder brother Wilhelm died of telegram diphtheria in July. with sincere fidelity. me which could not be unloosed. clung to their inherited religion. and to whom by strong and tender bonds of love. 1888.

Ratgeb consented to my wish. such as Party the Berlin Germania. I therefore begged my Provincial. Ratgeb. It was a probationary year in a very different sense from that understood by the Constitutions of the Order. and since then numerous Jesuits have been active in Berlin. the decisive struggle I made * trial of my faith. or give exercises. and in this wTongful assumption of false titles they are strongly supported by the Central Organ of the Centre It publishes iimocent announcements. But I wished to leave Berlin. . 1888. fashion. What the Order desired to attain when it sent Fah and me to Berlin was in fact achieved. as the result of confessing an invalid suffering from this disease. near the English manufacturing town of St. for regarded as ruin that which lay before me. he was transferred capital to Brazil. Sometimes six and more of these professors and doctors are working at the same time ia In place. and in October. with bitter tears and knees. He became Windthoret's and retained this position until his death. and I prayed earnestly to God that my illness might lead to death. I began my " Third Probationary Year " at Portico. i. they assume the title of " Professor " or " Doctor " without having the least right to either. the Jesuit Frins my theological and political legal adviser. But I lived on. to the soul of the child for at that time I still believed that she could hear too might die. in spite of the Jesuit Law. and to adopt the last means of subduing. But these professors or doctors are Jesuits. in the quiet of a renewed was to be fought to an end.* went to Berlin. I 411 on mv I prayed. My Berlin companion. I thought that the fulfilment of my wish was near. . For in it novitiate. From this centre they carry on the work of their Order in a comprehensive and truly Jesuitical. Professor (or Doctor) So-and-So will give an address here or there. if possible. the turmoil within me. untruthfiil.e. and I submitted to the decree of a God whose " kind and Fatherly providence " was still one of my dogmas. me — —to obtain from God that I at that time I and thus be saved from ruin. in the Grosse Hamburger Strasse. Hedwig's Infirmary. Their headquarters are at St. — : Berlin. to send me to the Tertiate. Helens. remained more than a year longer in the then suddenly very much against his wish and will. or preach a sermon. the Jesuit Fah.Berlin with the news of her death. There. In order to be able to " work " undisturbed. seriously ill myself fell with diphtheria.

X. made on The instructions. were only valuable in as far as they contained explanations of the the so-called Institute of the Society of and even there gen. In my introduction I mentioned that when I left the Order. designated " Third annus probationis)^ while the novitiate consists of the first two probationary years. 34. VIII.... XVI.. Exercises extending over four weeks are there intensified by the midnight meditation. 412 .. !). however. * C!ong. they concealed more than they V. The daily instructions given by the Instructor (the Probationary Year " {Tertius — — official title of the Director of the Tertiate) deal with the Constitutions and the history of the Order.* As the novitiate lays the foundation for the structure is of Jesuit asceticism. Jesus. is. 16. All the exercises and experiments of the novitiate The chief experiment the are repeated in the Tertiate.. 2—1. omitted in the novitiate out of consideration for the youth of the novices and the sleep they require. etc.CHAPTER XXVIII THE TERTIATE AND THE END The Constitutions of the Order make frequent mention of the Tertiate. so the Tertiate to supply the coping- stone of the building. I left behind the valuable notes I had these instructions. after the conclusion of the long years of study. Ck)ng. Decret. IV. 18. I. 12. therefore. The It Tertiate is essentially a repetition of the officially novitiate. Exam. Decret. Constitutions. 7..

if a particularly celebrated preacher was in the pulpit. Drink caused frightful havoc. nothing of the abuses which originated in the Order. or even higher. belonged to was also frequently occupied in pastoral work. ditions in the great The con- towns (I speak chiefly of Liverpool and Manchester) were. nothing of its contradiction between words and deeds. of the House was the Jesuit Augustine Oswald. prices of the seats in the of religion for financial objects. and not only in the lowest and lower classes of the population. and hearing Thus I obtained an instructive insight into the religious and social conditions of England. too. and also Rector. curiously impressed. at any rate at that time. we were utilised a great deal for pastoral work. equipped with excessive luxury on the other. and thus had an opportunity of confirming interesting observations no longer new to me first. The church varied according to their position. We learned nothing about the inward conflicts. was in great request for charity sermons. On the one hand. The history of the Order was set before us as one great tale of glory. of whom I had seen more than enough at Stonyhurst. such as preaching confessions. the charity sermons. the excellent fare in eating and drinking of the the of the Order) I . German Province . magnificent churches. though situated in England. The Instructor. from 6d. to £1.The revealed. As all Tertiaries are priests. The Jesuit Bernard Vaughan. terrible misery. both social and religious. terrible. free from stain and reproach. Tertiate and the End 413 All that they provided of the history of the Order was one huge falsification. where matters were arranged as in a theatre or concert room. for instance. In the residences of the English Province (Portico and Ditton Hall. I was . by the systematic exploitation There were. whose truly Jesuitical love of gain I have already characterised.

I encountered what appears so often in theoretical submission. indeed. I heard the most spiteful expressions used about Anderledy e. and. For both these reasons the " German General. i. At that time the Order. I entered the Tertiate devoid of to death in all idealism. More urgent pleading any human seldom sent upwards from the depths soul. blind the history of the Order : obedience to the Superior. and with wounded back my belief. the completeness of Jesuit obedience. is Yes. living.g. secondly. I had entered the novitiate full of idealism. Jesuit Anderledy was General measures of the He often took very strong He was particularly anxious and to against to limit luxuidous suppress independent action. In accordance with this resolution I worked. and loosening men's tongues. if But I entered it the honestly taken resolution possible there to win my faith. the strength of which carried me over opposing difficulties. Here. and my idealism had drawn its strength from my firm belief in the divinity of the Catholic Church. in particular. abuses.e." as the Swiss Anderledy was called. night. was hated in the English Once at dinner in the Jesuit residence at St. because in that . indeed. suffered and prayed of in the Tertiate. Either I succeed in fighting error down my recognise them as and temptation. but also a Jesuit. did happen." which.— 414 Fourteen Years a Jesuit poor Jesuits. and then I remain. I prayed. Helens. soon. who represents God (Pope and General). which the English Jesuits. too. were inclined to adopt. when port and claret were circulating. For the horrible alternatives stood in dreadful clearness before my eyes day and doubts. practical disloyalty as soon as the Vicar of God causes any annoyance. and through it my idealism. " I wish the man would die Province. not only a Catholic and a Catholic priest.

into certain recognition and then I must leave the Church and the Order. even at that handling of confession and Jesuit Statement of Conscience are wrong. suffering. When in July. must put off my faith and my priesthood. Work. I too was almost at the end of my struggle. Speech and openness would have been forged into locks and bolts which would have made my departure impossible. I did not tell. ! —this much was clear to me. But even a man case the favourable . And then time. My doubts had grown almost into certainty. my Tertiate was at an end. For confession exists Jesuit The only for the purpose of declaring sins. 1890. The troubles I then experienced were dutifully revealed in the Confessions and Statements of Conscience to my Superior and spiritual Director. . i. I do not succeed. or rather a lack of complete sincerity. the doubts are transformed from temptations into truths.The Tertlate and the End 415 judgment which the Church pronounces on the Jesuit Order can and will cover my own unfavourable judgment or. but that I had already begun to see in them the truth. not tell them that the doubts were no longer merely cruel and grievous temptations to me. and prayer had produced no change of disposition. but even here I did not I did reveal their real background and true character. My silence was therefore justified and comprehensible. that enthusiasm for the Order was completely extinguished within me. in particular. from a religious and human standpoint. and the Order has no right to lay bare men's souls by the Statement of Conscience.e. I left the peaceful house of Portico with the consciousness that the breach must and would be accomplished —that the end was close at hand. . and that my remaining or not remaining in it depended on the fate of my doubts. unjustly imprisoned does not reveal to his jailers the means of his liberation. It was insincerity.

4i6

Fourteen Years a Jesuit
THE END

For more than two years afterwards

I still

stood at
it,

the edge of the precipice, wandering to and fro beside

and stumbling, before I could
it

summon up

determination

to take the leap, not into the gulf below, but right across to the other side where, separated

I could set firm foot on
I refrain

new ground

in a

by the deep chasm, new world.

of this long hesitation.

from trying to give a psychological explanation Perhaps it is altogether inexplicunintelligible things which arise from able, and one of the the lowest depths of the soul, uncomprehended even by
the individual himself.

The elements
Catholic,

of a possible solution of this apparently

insoluble riddle are to be found in the forty years of

my

Ultramontane and Jesuit

past, in the

thought of

my

family,

and the

effect of

my

exit

on the Catholic

world;

and

finally, in

my

fear of the step to be under-

taken, which at that time appeared to

a leap in the dark. For the new land of which I have spoken, on the other side of the abyss, was at that time scarcely perceived by me. True, I longed for it, but I had not yet a hopeful
belief in the possibility of

me

reaching
nature.

it

and

still less

any

clear

comprehension of

its

having so long continued to play the hypocrite by living outwardly as a Catholic and a Jesuit and priest, while inwardly I no longer
sides I shall be reproached with

On some

possessed the religious basis for these three

offices.

In the

first place, I reply, special spiritual

experiences

not possible to take a calendar and watch in one's hand, and determine the day and the hour when Catholic thought and sentiment were finally dismissed, and the opposite views adopted all ready-made. The road of knowledge always winds in
are not so simply disposed
of,

and

it is

curves and spirals, like the mountain roads, which cross

The
steep passes

Tertiate and the
to

End

417

and climb up

mountain summits.

Many

years after
I
still

breach with Rome had been accomplished, discovered in myself Catholic views, and I found

my

it dijB6.cult

Our mother's to uproot them from my mind. milk remains long with us. Home and education are powerful forces, and fourteen years' membership of the
is

Jesuit Order

an iron clamp which
will to loosen all

seizes

on the inner-

most depths

of the soul.

Even when the
of loosening

bonds and hindrances

has long existed, the hesitation as to the time and

mode

them

is

not hypocrisy, but lack of clearness

and explicable consideration.
Further, I reply, hypocrisy is a matter which I alone have to settle with my own conscience. It concerns no one else at all. For no one has been in any way wronged by my action. My duty towards others was, as I have already shown, performed up to the last, even though I was a hypocritical priest and a hypocritical Jesuit. For others I was to the very last that which I seemed to them
to be.

What

this long hesitation cost
I.

me

I

need not say, nor,

indeed, can

The cry

of a despairing soul, resounding
:

" Out of the depths have I through thousands of years cried unto thee, Lord. Lord, hear my voice !"' was

constantly on

my

lips
it

during that last period.

And how
!

earnestly I sent

upwards

—how

I

cried

and prayed
could
tell

Words

fail

to describe the misery in

which
I

I lived.

And
to

yet there was no one to
!

whom

my

sufEerings

For, as I have already explained, silence as

my

inner struggles was necessary, else the possibility

would have been cut off. I am absolutely certain that, had I spoken, the gates of a lunatic asylum would have closed on me for life. During my connection with the Order, numerous
of freedom

members
2

of the

German Province disappeared behind the

B

4i8

Fourteen Years a Jesuit
asylum
in Belgium, close to the little

walls of a lunatic

town of Diest, near Louvain. The institution, the name of which I have forgotten, belonged to a fraternity of " Brothers of Mercy." There was no State control over admission, and thus no difficulty in the way of disposing
of inconvenient individuals.

not altered by the circumstance that many Jesuits leave the Order without being interfered with. My case was a different one. I was a priest ; and I wished Even to leave, not only the Order, but also the Church. silent acquiescence in this twofold apostasy would have greatly injured the Order, especially on account of the
This fact
is

and the respect that I had already attained in wide Catholic circles. The Jesuit Order has never been soft-hearted, and in order to maintain its its ethical principles reputation, it shrinks from nothing would have found no objection to declaring me insane on account of my opinions, and the logical consequences that conveniently open Belgian would have resulted lunatic asylum would have housed me for the rest of my life. Such prospects for the future were bound to

name which

I bore,

;

:

close

my

lips.

It was, therefore, impossible for

me
that

to leave the Order
is,

in a so-called legitimate fashion

;

to ask for dis-

Only the illegitimate road missal in the usual manner. remained open. For this road I required the means of subsistence, and was obliged to have money. In spite of the vow of poverty and the renunciation of fortune, I was still, even according to canonical right, the owner of my share of our patrimony,
which was managed by

my

elder brother.

therefore entitled to a fortune,

and

I

Legally I was was certain of its

actual possession for the future, but for the

moment

I

could not touch

my

property

;

for the

day

I revealed

myself to

my

family, the Order

would at once have been

The

Tertiate and the

End

419

acquainted with it. Besides this, as my mother and family were so well disposed to Ultramontanism and the

they would have made the greatest difficulties, and a long-drawn-out conflict would have resulted, to which at that time my nerves were not equal. The explanation
Jesuits,

with

my

family, as well as the financial arrangements,

could only take place after the decisive step had been
taken.

Three accidents came to my aid. When the Jesuit Fah, with whom, as far as was possible in the Order, a kind of friendly relation connected me, was transferred to Brazil, he begged me to collect some money from relations and acquaintances to purchase books for the Brazilian Settlement. Some hundreds of marks (between 400 and 500) had been collected by me, and I had deposited them, as I was bound to do, with the Procurator of the German Province, the Jesuit Caduff.
This
I

sum

I

must now make use
it

of.

As

I

was certain that
I felt

could repay

afterwards out of
it

myself entirely justified in using tainly I did it with a necessary
Caduff that I was
"Without this
lie I

my own fortune, in my necessity.
by
v/ith that

Cer-

lie,

telling the Jesuit

now

able to

buy books

sum.

should not have got the money.

But

I

never even came into the position of having to use other

The second accident enabled me to put hand on my own. I was ordered to Blyenbeck, in order to hold a discourse in the little town of Goch, on the Lower Rhine, situated quite close to that place. It was my last public appearance in Catholic circles, by the side of Lieber, the leader of the Centre Party. I found it difficult enough. But it appeople's money.

my

peared to

me

a fortunate circumstance.
property.

For Blyenbeck

was
perty

my

father's

There
at

was

exchequer, where I could draw

money from

my brother's my own proaccount

which

was

standing

my

brother's

420

Fourteen Years a Jesuit

taken into consideration afterwards when we settled our accounts, and subtracted from the total which, as a matter of fact, was done. belonging to me
this could be
;

had the money collected for the Jesuit Fah. I dared not give it back to the Procurator. My inner excitement and disturbance were so great that the slightest circumstance and the smallest intervention might lead to the discovery of my condition and my And it was my freedom from life-long serviintentions. tude that was at stake. So I did not give back the money in person, but placed it in an envelope, wrote upon it *' For the Brazilian Mission," and left it, on my departure,

But now

I already

with
I

all

the rest of

my

papers, in the open drawer of

my

writing table.*

now had

the means for attaining freedom.
its

could I hasten on
to

hour

?

The third

But how accident came

my aid. A few days

before Christmas, 1892, I received a com-

mission to render assistance to the pastor of a parish not This was the desired opporfar from Miinchen-Gladbach.
tunity for leaving Exaeten openly.

the night,

To escape secretly perhaps through a window, was repugnant

in

to

me

not to mention that I might easily have been discovered, and then my fate would have been sealed. So on the 16th December, 1892 (I think this was the day,
;

but

am

not quite certain), I stepped across the threshold

* Ultramontane Jesuit calumny many years ago spread the report that I had taken away the money and failed to return it. It is possible this lie may again be revived. It is, of course, impossible for me to refute it, if the Jesuits assert that after my departure the money was not found among my papers. Those who can believe me capable of stealing a few hundred marks will not be convinced 1. As soon as I obtained possession of by me. But two facts may be adduced
:

property I sent the Procurator of the Order, the Jesuit Caduff, 150 marks from Berlin, as compensation for the old clothes I was wearing, and obliged to take away with me from Exaeten. 2. In 1896, three years after I left the Order, the

my

Jesuit

Fah

\vrote

me

for collecting for him.

money

for hia mission,

a very friendly letter from Brazil, in which he thanked me and said that it had been spent on books

The
of

Tertiate and the

End

421

Exaeteu in broad daylight, apparently on a commission for the Order in reality trampling it and its laws mider-

foot.

went to Cologne. I revealed myself to a lawyer there. I gave him letters to the Order, and to my mother, in which I declared the irrevocability of my step, since I had lost my faith in the truth of the Catholic doctrine bound
I
;

him over

to keep

my

address in a foreign country secret

\

and, after exchanging the garb of a secular priest for a
suit of lay clothes,

But,

first

of

all,

I

bought ready-made, set out had to set the mind of the

for Paris.
priest, to

had been sent, at rest about my non-appearance, so that he might not perhaps send a telegram to Exaeten, and thus make known my flight before I had crossed the frontier and the letters handed to the lawyer for delivery had reached their destination. So I telegraphed to the priest that the promised supply could not come, and in order to arouse no suspicion, I signed the telegram with the name of the Jesuit Superior Fischer, who had promised

whom

I

to send the supply.

The crime
rejoice,
little

of forging the telegram I gladly admit,

and

even at this day, that I boldly tore through a

wire thread (the consideration of sending ofi such a

telegram with a false signature), else this thread might

have grown into an iron fetter. remained in Paris under an alias taken from one of my father's estates until I received the news that my family was ready to arrange the money matters. The provisional settlement took place at the beginning of January, 1893, in Cologne, with the assistance of the Bank of Deichmann. I took up my residence at first at Frankfort-onthe-Main. There the final settlement of property took
easily
I
"

place,

when

I

capital of forty

handed over to my younger brother a thousand marks (£2,000), which he declared

422

Fourteen Years a Jesuit
He had owned it
ever since

he could no longer do without.

my

entrance into the Order, with

my

consent, on the

assumption that I should remain permanently in the
Order, and regarded

and treated

it

as his

own

property.

The terrible excitement of this last period brought on a long and serious illness, of which I was only cured by a
residence
of

August, 1893.

some months in Heligoland, from May to Returned from Heligoland, I took up my

permanent residence in Berlin. How often have I been reproached, publicly and
" You by Catholic Ultramontanes, who say broke your vows you committed perjury." Even evanprivately,
: ;

gelical

their disapproval of the " apostate Jesuit," the " recreant priest."
circles

have manifested

more than obvious that after fourteen years of conscientious life in the Order and six years' priesthood, the questions of apostasy, recreancy, and perjury should have occurred seriously to myself. But I took little time
It
is

surely

to decide them, so simple are they.

The vows

of

an Order, and the

state of the priesthood,

are adopted in the belief of serving
into a specially close relation to
is

God and thus

entering

Him.

When

this belief

recognised to be erroneous, in that same

moment

the

of the Order and were errors, just as the foundation on which they were based was itself an error, and a man is fully entitled to cast such errors away. That evangelical circles too are often subject to such prejudices, is due to their contemptible traditional dependence on the Catholic ultramontane point of view. The

vows

the priesthood are cancelled.

They

fact of the apostate

monk and

recreant priest, Luther,

strangely enough, seems to
evangelicals.

make no impression on such

CHAPTER XXIX
(GENERAL VERDICT ON THE JESUIT ORDER

An

appreciation of the Jesuit Order must proceed from two difierent standpoints the Order as a religious ultramontane institution must be judged from the religious point of view, and the association of men to attain certain ends here on earth, independent of religion, must be judged from the human point of view. To distinguish sharply between the two is not easy, but as far as possible
:

it

should be done.

Since the whole ultramontane Catholic
its

system of orders, with
order,

vows and
religious

its special state of

an

must be designated
distortion of
its

as a departure from Christianity
outlines, this

and a

general
it

verdict applies also to the Jesuit Order.
plies specially here, for the Jesuit

Indeed,

ap-

Order has peculiarities

which are reprehensible even from the Catholic standpoint. Its blind obedience, its " Statement of Conscience," its system of espionage and levelling, its training to
denunciation,
peculiarities,
its

misuse of confession, and

many

other

are

immoral

institutions

which

Catholic

should repudiate, and in former times would doubtless have repudiated. That the Jesuit Order, which came into being in the sixteenth century, was not
Christianity too
so repudiated, that,

on the contrary,

its

Constitutions,

though abounding in such immoralities, were approved

by the Popes,
indeed,

is

much

earlier,

a proof to what extent at that time and, the Papacy and Church were infected
423

and dominated by Ultramontanism.

424

Fourteen Years a Jesuit
of

The monasticism

the Theban and Libyan deserts

of these things, nor yet did Benedict of Nursia, founder of the Western convents. The more recent founders of orders, St. Dominic and St. Francis,

knew none
first

the

and

did not introduce into their foundations this intellectual religious slavery and bondage, enveloped in a garb
Christianity.

of religious

To make these the
the Jesuit Order.

basis

of
its

Christian perfection

was

left to

By

example and agency the innumerable later foundations of male and, above all, female orders were equipped with these monstrous excrescences. The plague of an anti- Christian dependence, which rages there in devastating fashion, and deprives many thousands of their inherited and di^rinely appointed freedom, the " freedom of Christianity,"
is

of Jesuit origin.

in religious matters unfavourably

In another essential point too the Jesuit Order difiers from the old Catholic

Orders, the Benedictines, Augustinians, Franciscans,

and

Dominicans.

While among these the

original religious

mounted upwards
cal chastity

in a brightly flaming fire to

enthusiasm heaven at

their foundation, while evangelical poverty

and evangeliall

—their human nature and were heroic —were
turies,

celebrated triumphs, which surpassed
violated Christianity, but for

that

maintained for decades, almost cenin a state of " first youth," while their ecstatic

zeal never

grew

cold,

and the "

first fruits

of the Spirit," even

though
Jesuit

falsely understood, never ceased to mature, in the

Order from the very beginning everything was attuned to sobriety and calculation there was no " first " first fruits of the Spirit." youth," no The founder of the Jesuit Order, Ignatius Loyola, though as a man and a saint he was a visionary and hysterical enthusiast, was prudence personified as the founder of an order. The Constitutions, written, at any
;

General Verdict on the Jesuit Order
rate for the greater part,

425

by him,

are calculated from

over men.
religious

beginning to end for temporal success, power, and influence Ecstatic impetus, inward enthusiasm and

warmth

are lacking.

Where they appear

to be

present, they are merely external adornment, applied in

order to disguise the calculated sobriety. The Scripture saying, " By their fruits

ye

shall

know them," condemns
institution.

the Jesuit Order as a religious

which according to the the conception which is faithful Catholic conception decisive in judging the religious side of th'e Jesuit Order must rest on the work of a divinely sanctioned Order, does not rest on the work of the Society of

The

blessing of God,

Jesus.

have already, in the chapter on the Jesuit System Education, referred to the absence of permanent of results a proof, surely, of the absence of God's blessing
I

in the

main activity of the Order, the education of youth. Outward splendour and useless show are the main fruits
Jesuit
activity,

of

but,

like

ever3rthing

external,

the

splendour and

show soon fade away.

Piaget's criticism* should be read, too, for

The words of it shows clearly

the fiasco of the Jesuit Order.
Again, the words of the Jesuit Cordara, already quoted,
* Essai sitr r Organisation de la Compagnie de Jesus (Paris, 1893), pp. 235 et seq. After commenting on the failure of the Jesuits to achieve any lasting results in their missions to the heathen, and their efforts to check the spread of Protestantism, " What is the cause of this failure at the end of so Piaget asks this question
:

much apparent

success

?

I

may

be mistaken, but

it

seems to

me

that Jesuitism

was nowhere a true religious awakening, a revival of sincere piety, which alone could have supplied a lasting foundation for its work." In regard to the revival
of pious works, to be attributed to the influence of Jesuit confessors, he asks " But did the overwhelming influence they attained lessen or even check the loose morality of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries ? Must we not rather say that immorality made way in those very classes of the population which were trained in their schools ? Strangely enough, it was the very generation that was trained up by the Jesuits which rose against them and procured their suppression." " The complete passage is quoted in the chapter on the " Suppression of the Order in the

German

edition of this book.

426

Fourteen Years a Jesuit
of the Order are a strong indictment of

on the arrogance
Ck)rdara's

the chief cause of Jesuit failure.

was written at the end of the eighteenth century, when the Order had had two hundred and fifty years of work, including its best period, and he
criticism

designated the suppression of the Society of Jesus as a

Divine judgment on the pride

which

is

so

hateful to

God. It would be impossible to bring a more serious And indictment against the worth of a religious order. from a purely human standpoint it is natural that the Jesuits should in part suppress and in part falsify the words of their distinguished fellow-Jesuit. For their undeniable failure they can find other causes than the
rejection

punishment for arrogance. The malice of men It is just because the Jesuit Order is so holy, so well-pleasing to God, that it sufiers in a special degree the fate of all saints, " the hatred and persecution The Society of Jesus fares as did Jesus of godless men." " The servant Himself how often have I heard this said they have persecuted If is not greater than his master. Me, they will also persecute you." Not one single Mea Culpa is to be found in the four hundred years' history of the Jesuit Order. For that uttered by Cordara was not official, nor meant for publicity, not even for the Order itself. It was recorded after the suppression of the Order in the secrecy of a document

by God
!

as a

!

intended only for his brother. The very fact that the Jesuit Order proclaims its absolute immaculacy in so bombastic and boastful a
fashion, transcending the

bounds

of the permissible

(as

shown, for instance, in the work Imago frimi saeculi)^ as though it were enunciating a dogma, is so un-Christian,
so irreligious, that
it

alone would suffice to

condemn the

Order as a religious and Christian institution. For the words placed by Christ in the mouth of the Pharisee,

explain the fact that the strong contrasts are not recognised. Strong contrasts to the teaching of Jesus are also to be found in other important points. a fatal hour had struck for the Papacy. The movement originated by Luther. as I have already shown. Peter to rock dangerously.General Verdict on the Jesuit Order 427 " God. are in reality far removed from both. But the first condition of this is to subdue Ultramontanism in the hierarchy. unchristian than the Jesuit piety of the Exercises. Yet these very words are the fundamental note of all the manifestations of the Society of Jesus. religion and the Jesuit Order. For this ultramontanised Papacy and Episcopacy supply the strongest support for Jesuitism. I thank thee that I am not as other men are. A world with a . Some of these I have discussed in the chapter on Jesuit Morality. what could be more irreligious and. in connection with other causes. which sets aside the individual and substitutes for it a This is one of the greatest crimes ? which the Jesuit Order commits against the human being. Further." should express the strongest contrast to the religious and moral conception of Christ. because in its turn Jesuitism is also the bulwark of Ultramontanism and its hierarchy. Only the ignorance of Catholics. When the Jesuit Order came into being. or even as this publican. The light which has dawned on individual Catholics must dawn on all. therefore. particularly in the domain of morals. stand in sharpest contrast to one another. had caused the mechanical type ship of St. however much they may be embellished by religion and Christianity. and this brings us to the consideration of the Jesuit Order as an association of human beings destined to pursue here on earth purely human aims which. Thus Jesus and the Society of Jesus. and their bias in favour of ultramontane Jesuit views.

is not the least fraction of religion in this Everything in it is irreligious and anti.Christian." was already resounding. under religious forms. Bellarmin and Suarez) — — . hence its never-resting zeal in trying to raise the indirect power of the Papacy to a fundamental dogma of Church . There doctrine. The ultramontane system. and even more in its well calculated labours directed from central points. of the new Order. with its secular and political kernel disguised under a garb of religion. but it is quite specially calculated for religious display." 428 Fourteen Years a Jesuit of life new philosophy was coming into view. as it were. makes a pretence of God's Kingdom. since Gregory VII. Then the threatened Papacy found in the Jesuit Order an ultramontane auxiliary regiment of extraordinary power and pertinacity. felt the onset of the new age. was concentrated. for it — — even desirable. which embraces this world and the next. teaching and example. which tolerates only one supreme ruler God and His Vicar and thus makes this comprehensive political universal dominion an acceptable. replaced it completely by the doctrine of the " indirect power. the immediate dominion of the Vicar of Christ over the whole world had become untenable the Jesuit Order {e. " Free from Rome. whence the cry.God of the Middle Ages. from Rome. Words and deeds. in particular the political world. religious demand in the eyes of Catholics. in the Constitutions of the Jesuit Order. which no longer recognised the Pope. The love of dominion implanted in the Jesuit Order finds the greatest possibility of development in this doctrine.g. Ultramontanism which. The Papal dominion was to be re-established. the sovereign Lord of the whole world in that capacity. were a single great propaganda for the ultramontane Papacy. and was ruling the world. had been firmly established in its seat.. The doctrine of the *' direct " that is.

at which the Jesuit confessor had carried on his religious activity for centuries. " shows quite clearly the ultimate aim the Jesuits tried to attain through their confessors dominion over the Catholic Church. such as — Gregory and Innocent and Boniface strove to attain. gave to this political power. in the Jesuit Order. the more political power will it attain itself Papacy and its indirect power serve but as a screen behind which are concealed the Jesuit Order and its By its zeal and skill it becomes aspirations for power. Hence the continuous and detailed occupation with politics. Claudius Acquaviva. It was this very political activity of the Order which And. it must subordinate part of the Catholic whole. the form still valid at the present day. and through them indirect dominion over the whole direct world. dominion over the wearers of the Papal crown. Benedictine Dudik says. an indispensable servant of the Papacy. which. by means the of a secret Instruction.General Verdict on the Jesuit Order policy. a be. it was in the first instance the Catholic courts. They felt that here. . as I have already let loose the storm against it. as such." But has the Jesuit Order not performed conspicuous . as its discoverer. the Papal Church the more it furthers the temporal political power of Rome universal dominion . a power was rising which would gain the mastery . forbidden by the Constitutions as unreligious. which demanded more and more eagerly the suppression of the Order. shown. the fifth General. working in the religious atmosphere of the confessional. and finally attained it from Clement XIV. over them. and thus acquires . but which became its most comprehensive sphere of activity by the religious road of confession. 429 The Order. cannot openly aspire to however powerful its equipment may always appear as a mere auxiliary member. and extends the religious belief in its justification among the men.

the apostate Jesuit^ good Catholics too. violent measures. advocate it strongly. but of universal religion. 1885). The lost Papal dominion was to be restored. We The Jesuit Order. t Schicksala eines deutschen Katholiken (Strassburg. directed for own benefit and Baumstark was for many years Leader Chamber at Karlsruhe. as conducted by the Jesuit Order. and is characterised by measures of violence. stands before us as the embodiment of a system which aims at temporal political dominion through temporal political means. even by blood and iron. 91. desires itself to attain the dominion over the whole world. and to sanctify the use of need only remember the words of the Jesuit Bobadilla. Reinhold Baumstark says beyond all facts stands the decisive circumstance that Jesuitism cannot rise above one point of view. to understand the nature and goal of the counter-Reformation. who otherwise — — — — praise the Jesuit Order. Religion took a second place. He died in 1900 Mannheim. work Doubtless the counter-Reformation was in the main the of the Jesuit Order. but for that very reason it also its bears the stamp of spirit.* one of the trusted comrades of Ignatius Loyola. which assigns to the head of the Catholic religion the Roman Pope the role of a temporal overlord.. was not a question of universal dominion. 383. or rather supplied the cloak which was to conceal the craving for rule. these efforts. that of the temporal political power and external compulsion."! its From * p. and using him as an instrument. p. of the Baden Catholics in the Second as President of the Provincial Court at . : " For Thus. Second Ed. therefore. That opinion is not only mine that of the renegade. for instance. it main its work ? There.430 Fourteen Years a Jesuit ? services for the Catholic religion Are not the successes of the counter-Reformation in the surely. and under shelter of the Pope-King. embellished by religion.

. Then. Lisbon. are the natural consequences of its unbridled greed for dominion. it desires to rule alone. the whole of Europe might have been subjected for arrogance. may be explained the twofold . as a matter of course. conspicuous through the whole history of the Order — its incessant quarrels with other religious Wherever the Order sets its foot.* and harsh insubordination as soon as the Papacy opposes the special interests of the Order. Munich. Its organisations. own teachings in dogma and morality are to give the lead —in short. the reverence for bishops and cardinals also disappears. generations to the Order. there peace ends and the struggle for existence begins. were for a long time completely subject to it. its own churches are to be full. those truly irreligious peculiarities of the Order which the Jesuit Cordara designated as the causes of its rejection by God. and their almost unlimited influence. how should any regard be paid to the " successors of the Apostles " ? The Jesuit greed for power also explains another phenomenon. its own confessionals besieged. Madrid. Through the Jesuit confessors of the German Emperor and the French. and for a time of London too. The immeasurable the inconsiderate and contemptible attitude towards other orders. its attempt at rule. to say nothing of smaller ones. the political in a variety frittered away the Professed of four vows. The Jesuit Order has attained many successes by its temporal political efforts. Papacy loudly emphasised submission which even takes the form of a special vow. above attitude of the Jesuit Order towards the all.General Verdict on the Jesuit Order towards its 431 own power. But even these purely worldly successes lacked endurance and magnitude. Spanish and Portuguese Kings in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Paris. The courts of Vienna. influence of the confessors * In the vow taken by Instead of is this. If the Vicar of Christ be set on one side.

but they cannot point to a single political action with an effect on the present and the future. and breaches of peace they have increased the outward splendour and glory of their Order and filled its coffers. The Jesuit confessors have always been political intriguers. from the same cause which led to its religious failures. nor a single far-reaching successful undertaking in the domain of universal politics. they have caused disturbance. They were directed too much towards securing quickly attainable momentary successes which should shed fresh glory around the external position of the Order. Therefore.432 Fourteen Years a Jesuit though all directed power and dominion. in small disputes which. the results that can only be attained in the clearness of great endeavour are completely missing in its political ledger. and not reality. of all classes. in the education of the members of its Order and others. of the individual. confusion. although the most powerful rulers of their day are entered there as its devoted and politically obedient penitents. But the deeper reason is the following. The Jesuit Order does not train men to independent thought and independent action. are which it subjects men . which let themselves be used without reason and will. It trains machines. like corpses and sticks. The politics of the Order did not penetrate far enough. The Jesuit Order has always fished in troubled waters. still imiversally lack statesmanship on a large scale and effective unity. which at the same time reveals the weakness and strength of the Order in general. in of intrigues. the levelling Its Exercises. Here too it was appearance. to the increase of Jesuit influential positions held continuously for several centuries. in the centre of which they carried on their labours. and harvested the small gains connected with small undertakings . The Jesuit aim. is the destruction . never and nowhere statesmen. Whence comes this failure ? In the first place. to away of all originality.

The individuality there receives a fatal blow. nor many All field been active in so Europe. is not balanced 2 c . ranks of the Order. Smoothly gliding no deep furrows. but in general. The possibility of enormous activity in the most varied fields. much cause for discussion in so comparatively short a time. of incessant beginning and ceasing. acting freely. 1 have already described the effect of the Jesuit educational system on the Jesuit himself. is supplied by the pliable routine of the individual Jesuit. But nowhere has even a single Jesuit shown himself a man. not a human being thinking freely. and shown how it produces mechanical routine and easy mobility. But this deprives the Jesuit of the first condition for successful of his work work —the is all and permanent His balls trace impetus individual peculiarity. as the history of the Order shows. half Asia and of its activity. on the surface. and that not only in religious respects. this possibility in the most conspicuous manner. have become the possible positions In all and offices we Jesuits employed. truly great activity. now there. the deliberate and necessary consequence of Jesuit education. And for this reason is —he — This is true of and the Superiors poral coadjutors. and creating values personality of his own. of the General as well as the lower spiritual and temall This complete lack of personality. now here. see America. easily effaceable marks. with a far-seeing outlook and enduring because every Jesuit lacks a wheel of a machine. No other institution has given so different directions. of quick movement hither and thither. become a fact.General Verdict on the Jesuit Order the great planing machines through which are enslaved in their minds 433 human beings sinew of and made dependent. they leave only light. and thus turns the individual into a smoothly gliding ball which yields silently to every impulse. And has.

They too suffer more or less in their individuality. lose a good part of their independence and power of decision. used to characterise the fundamental attitude of a Jesuit at work. The Jesuit does not devote himself to his allotted labours in the first instance from the interest he feels in them the ascetic discipline of his Order enjoins on him sacred indifference in regard to every kind of work no. all whom he educates. because he constitutes this particular wheel in the great machine which perhaps in the very next hour will be changed for another by the hand of the Superior he works zealously. does not assist us to accomplish anything great this and permanent in we require permanence of place any domain. The many thousands who. him at this particular point of the machine's activity. " One perhaps have to exchange to-morrow for foot in the air. must be exchanged for another of striking root. For Jesuit devotion and selfsacrifice is and remains the devotion and self-sacrifice of a machine. and acts in this particular way. which also wears itself out. in all classes and professions. not merely temporary experiments which at any moment if it seem good to the Superior. he acts. which is by the certainly not lacking in the Jesuit. because obedience for the moment has set — — . to all who submit to his influence." as my Novice-Master. are attached to the Jesuit Order. but only a mechanical task.434 Fourteen Years a Jesuit heroic devotion to definite tasks. the lack of aptitude is transferred. absorption in the occupation and. For and the possibility above all. the Jesuit Meschler. which does its duty and lets itself be used to the very last of its powers. but which in all this performs no individual. occupation. As a Jesuit is unfitted even by his education in the Order to become a powerful implement for lasting and individual labours. will which he another. the consciousness of being set tasks for life. . if not in so marked a degree.

For them the commonplace is the rule. can adapt himself without difficulty he changes his place again and again. But here also lies the strength of the Jesuit Order. and brings to all the same trained and superficial skill. Its education produces a similarity among its members. For mankind cannot tolerate continuous violent rule and violent impressions for ever. — . innumerable " congregations. in the history of the Order. in spite of the weakness which in another direction is combined with it. to put them in leading strings without their noticing it. with no will of his own." It is clear that this is a cause of strength. march in equal step in their place. Those who understand how to guide men silently and quietly. and it appears conspicuously in the notorious lack of enduring success. battalions drawn up in rank and file. The persons who stand outside the Order but submit to its guidance belong also to the Jesuit mass they are a column that can be directed by a single word. The ball can roll in any direction. I have often spoken of the Jesuit mass here we find it. men and women. into any corner. . Indeed the strength is far greater than the weakness. untold.General Verdict on the Jesuit Order are pliant implements in its 435 hand. but for that very reason lack the requisites for great and enduring results — initiative and independence. . It is undeniable that we here meet with the weakness of the Order. Thus the Jesuit mass permeates the whole world. and which is a guarantee for those results which can be attained through its mechanical and automatic methods. however small the Jesuit. but . Human beings with their individual differences have vanished a light and mobile army. young and old. obeying blindly. . a uniformity of activity which cannot be surpassed. in spite of favourable opportunities. controlled by the smooth working of small events and impressions.

After what I have already said. that it Here is my answer : — has elevated religious tutelage into a dogma in short. What about the danger of the Jesuit Order to the State ? It is many-sided and far-reaching. In the first tal constitutional we must remember the fundamendogma of the Jesuit Order complete — . that it sets its official hierarchical personages and its sacraments and sacramental offices and ceremonies between God and man. may only take part in religion in the way in which the piety and asceticism of the Order permits. and to what extent ? Is the Jesuit Order For the individual human being. They must be accessible. In this system of dependence lies the danger that threatens true religion and genuine Christianity from the The reproach that is brought against the Jesuit Order. manner by the Jesuit system. — — and to him alone. but even very useful).43^ become Fourteen Years a Jesuit their masters more certainly than the revolutionary : warrior or statesman." for it is not only not harmful to the Church. not to God. to the very depths of their soul. the Jesuit Order is one of the most dangerous For it destroys that institutions which has ever existed. They must renounce even the last remnant of religious freedom. which is most valuable in men moral and intellectual independence. This too requires no further proof after the detailed expositions I have given on the subject. Romish Church in general. The Jesuit and the man who submits to Jesuit direction who approach the world beyond and God that is. there is no need to explain this in further detail. for State and Religion (I purposely do not say " Church. That brings us to the question dangerous. place. but to the Superior of their Order. tries to check free intercourse between man and God as this worst of all religious reproaches is far as possible : — incurred in the strongest are in reality slaves.

and among the members most actively concerned in politics.General Verdict on the Jesuit Order . neither hath it any power to oblige any. Elizabethae Angliae Reginae haeresim Calvinianum fropugnantis saevissimtim in Catholicos sui " The universal school of Catliolic theologians and canonists regni edictum. ipso facto. also belonging to the early days of the Order. of many names and devices. and in case of punishment for such breaches of law to be indemnified from the State Treasury. because the teaching of one almost coincides with that of Lehmkuhl. however. to emphasise the fact that Lehmkuhl's theses are the hereditary doctrines of the Jesuit Order the twentieth century in them meets the sixteenth and seventeenth. . the political theological councillor of the Centre Party. . that is a true treason which is made treason by any just law and that is no treason at all which is made treason by an unjust condition be wanting. so that the laws against recusants [the English Oath of Allegiance was in question]. gives * them an increased importance for Germany. Numerous quotations from Jesuit authorities.^ on Jesuit Morality. Two other Jesuits. whom we have already encountered in this activity Parsons and Garnet may also t It : — — be mentioned. Even mitted. And the Jesuit Parsons. 437 its obligation dependence of the State on the Church to fashion itself and its life according to the laws of the Church. void ." —Jardine.' I answer. . then it is. . p. active resistance to Government officials is per- And the most simple circumstance which throws a strong light on the danger to the State of such doctrines is. I have already referred to the Jesuits Bellarmin and Suarez as the most celebrated theoretical advocates of the indirect power of the Church over the State.* and among them the present General of the Order. and other rites of Catholic religion are to be esteemed as no laws by such as steadfastly believe these to be necessary observances of the true religion. that they are to be found in books which expressly the serve as directions for attending the confessional. ' . 235. law. for. go to prove that from this fundamental dogma may be deduced the doctrine that it is permissible and meritorious to disobey the laws of the State which are opposed to the laws of the Church. that the law be unjust. against receiving of priests. Some is of these are given in the chapter right. which we are bound unto by the law of God. against mass. in his book. says : hold (and it is certain and of faith) that any Christian prince who manifestly . Being asked what I meant by true treason. . no power on earth can forbid or punish any action. if this and of Hereupon ensueth that no force. " One necessary condition required in every law is that it be just . fact that their chief advocate is German Jesuit The Lehm- kuhl.

a heretic. Quanta cura. they may and should (if they have power). from his sovereignty over Christians such a this. " which would be a matter of course for every ultramontane Catholic. is ." —Taunton. it expresses its deadly hatred towards the modern State in a specially ostentatious manner. progress. 12th decree of the 23rd General Congregation." but gives it in the most solemn manner through its General Congregation. and apparently takes part in all but under its modern garb is domains of civilisation True. 149. silent assent to itself with giving its Papal ultramontane declaration of war. . falls at once all power and dignity. the Jesuit Order of progress. man as an apostate. and before any sentence can be and his subjects passed against him by the supreme pastor and judge (the Pope) are free from the obligation of any oath of allegiance which they had taken to him as a legitimate prince . liberalism. two documents. nor agree with. both by divine right. then. True. and wishes to call others from it.. . This is surely and strikingly demonstrated in the year 1883. 148. of December 8th. from swerves from the Catholic religion. Since. and the Syllabus designates as these of the same date. 1864. of the Here the Order asserts that it abides by the Encyclical of Pius IX. Now the certain.438 Fourteen Years a Jesuit this But even Jesuit Order its is sovereignty of the towards the authority and does not satisfy them. and emphatically " plagues " the " errors " condemned in But this Encyclical Quanta cura and the Syllabus are the most comprehensive declarations of war against all the foundations and achievements of the modern State education and civilisation. defined and undoubted opinion of the most learned clearly conformable and in agreement with the apostolic doctrine. ." makes use of the attainments and civilisation. and the Jesuit Order does not content the : modern civilisation. it clothes itself in modern garb. within twenty years after the publication of the Like the ultramontane Papacy Encyclical and Syllabus. liberalism. expel . "I cannot in the Syllabus. the Jesuit Order too says be reconciled. . The the sworn foe of the modern State and all attitude State educational functions.

publishes an article on St. 1909 (page 568)."' Away let then with the civilisation of the twentieth and us return to that of the eighth century Special hostility is of the sources of civilisation. and Assistant to the General. etc. Ludgerus. Thus. so universal. grotesque form. Bishop of Miinster. for instance. . as conceived and handled by the modern State and embodied for the last centuries in a large amount of the of legislation. century. civilisation that is the Jesuit hatred for it our modem we encounter : even where we should least expect it. Ludger built hospitals. a former Novice-Master. is unjust. in the Stimmen aus Maria-Laachy for October. von Hammerstein. and convents lunatic . the Jesuit von Hammerstein writes Cathrein.General Verdict on the Jesuit Order progress the advantages of which he utilises for his purposes. set up the most unlimited demands in regard to the suzerainty of the Church over the State schools. books and : " The idea of State and school. Here is and sometimes an instance in the most The Jesuit Meschler. consequently a prominent Jesuit. but unjust in the truest signification word —that is. Rector. churches. shown by the Jesuit Order to one and one of the most important institutions of the State as a civilising agent — I mean the State school. who hates with intensity that own So deep. the civilisation of our day builds barracks. asylums. and ! prisons. 439 hidden the bitter opponent. and that not only in the most general sense of unfairness.. Provincial. The Jesuits Wernz (the present General). in their widely read articles. the laws in question lack the foundation of justice in a great part of their content. and in so doing pour the most opprobrious abuse on the State and its schools. Laurentius. in the eighth His article ends with this characteristic sentifirst ment : " The civilisation of St. They are null and void.

"* acquit of the reproach of inaugurating a a large scale. faith. and a manifesto in favour of Protestantism. Four sections are devoted by Hammerstein to the " Can Catholics be expected to entrust their question sons to Prussian State Gymnasia ? " Of course." the the J Side by side with this school hatred goes denomina- tional hatred. issued all private property. 440 Fourteen Years a Jesuit by a democratic State. the way among the people lost. . being un-Christian. pp. § Die Schvlfrage.: . 125. 162. and tolerant * civilisation is peaceful collaboration among Das preussische SchiUmonopol. pp." t " We Thus writes the same Jesuit in another book should like to set over the gateway of every school which is not genuinely a Church school these words as the brand : : of Cain ' Through me Through me Through me Hate of the way is to the city dolent way -s to eternal dole." future by it its modern school idea. we do not know how we can system of hypocrisy on Such a system must in time become the grave of fidelity. § dwelling The fundamental condition of together. On closer examination. Even the mere notion of a minister for spiritual affairs on the lines of the modern school idea is felt to be a declaration of war against the Catholic Church. abolishing and void. 139. he answers *' No. would be null ' ' ' unjust ' — it also unquestionably merits the further reproach of . p. t Ibid.' Godhead called me into being. 165-224. we are indeed actually compelled to bring the reproach of immorality and dis" If the State abides in honesty against the modern school. Not only does the modern school idea deserve the designations unpractical and just as a Socialistic decree. . ^ Longfellow's translation of the Inferno.. and morality for our youth and the whole people. 163. 127. ." " The apex of the Prussian school pyramid is the ministry and minister of pubUo worship and instruction {Kultusminister).

Here the danger is imminent because it is founded on the dangerousness of the Order the Now would in itself not be so very great. when the Jesuit Order represents these ideas. of the Order. The dangerousness influence. has gained a firm footing in the Jesuit Order." a " disease. as finally.General Verdict on the Jesuit Order different 441 which the modern State has admitted into its constitutions as toleration and religious equality * but this is regarded by the Jesuit Order as an " abuse. been sought where it is non-existent. and destruction intended by the Jesuit Order. the Superiors. the Imago primi saeculi docrine of so characteristically expresses there is the Tyrannicide is proved by numerous writings of individual members approved by the Order. . and its powerful do not consist in the prominent intelligence of its members. not even in that of its leaders. Very erroneous ideas are held as to this dangerousness. Fourteen years' intimate acquaintance with members and * Pariidt. as it. and yet it has continued to proceed on its own course But here. or in but a small degree where it is actually present it has been It has . overlooked. which. They show that " the seeds of hatred are inborn " [in the Jesuit Order towards those of other Then. My and is assertion therefore justified : The constitutional Order are its political educational doctrines of the Jesuit the destruction of the modern State. faith]. ! as such. danger from such teaching and intention What dangerous theories and intentions has the world not witnessed." I have already given many denominations. proofs of this Jesuit quarrelsomeness. . Even the very ambiguous attitude of General Acquaviva towards these doctrines gives cause is for serious consideration. matters are entirely different.

By means of this illusion. the Jesuit Order has reached an unexampled mastery. But this can be done even by men of inferior gifts. had they stood alone and not been supported and guided by the traditions and ordinances. " Religion " as " religious. have already characterised in detail the deliberately fostered dependence of the individual Jesuit as the main weakness of the Order. me that neither class exceeds the Indeed. so political. so worldly.442 Fourteen Years a Jesuit leaders has taught average. combined with the I marvellous organisation of the Order. by the its gigantic force of these religious passions of Jesuits need adherents. is the nucleus of its power and In the effective fair also of its dangerousness. This is greatly assisted by the secrecy of Jesuit activity. there is no attack on State and civilisation. and this strength is essentially increased by the manner in which the Order exercises its activity. in some of the Superiors (Rectors and Provincials) I learned to know men of but moderate intelligence who. is the wide cloak with which Jesuitism covers everything." its By means its of this untruth replaces own weakness. which the Jesuit system does not represent. plausibly too. and which wins for it easy admission into the heads and hearts of Catholics. first instance. This manner. But I have shown that this weakness also constitutes its strength. then only fan the flame which has been already kindled. who have lost their individuality. and by an organisation spread over the whole world. . especially if they are assisted by a well-planned and far-reaching organisation. in which it clothes everything. would of themselves have achieved nothing worthy of note. There is nothing so earthly. the Order utilises the same most means as Ultramontanism. due to mechanical methods." as " lying within it the sphere of religion.

etc. Stonyhurst. although this apparently the not carried on in secret. In the Jesuit ." yet when I myself belonged to the its Order and had an insight into the Order. in which Ultramontanism too possesses a mighty lever for work in politics and against enlightenment. since educational establishments (Feldkirch. indispensable with the women. above all In this position the most secret activity If we asked the Catholic families among the nobility of Germany. activity. For the Jesuit boarding-schools transform their pupils into the silently " Jesuit mass." which continues to work and imperceptibly in the families themselves. Italy. England. carried on under the shelter of darkness. was surprised at the extent of this " domestic " activity of In this must also be included its educational activity. director in the families of the upper classes. contrived to make confession it has succeeded in attaching subserve its own ends . troops of the faithful to confessional.) stand broad and clear in the light of day. more than any other ultramontane institution. becomes easy and Austria. as well as families of the upper ten thousand. Kalksburg. which of numerous them has not a Jesuit as a permanent or occasional spiritual director. the Jesuit Order has. Spain. spiritual own The Jesuit has become a popular. Ordrupshoj. safe for him. and although is numerous " German " the Jesuit boarding-school presupposes the separation from home and family. its furtive activity extends far But its beyond the Church and the confessionals.General Verdict on the Jesuit Order It is 443 excessively cunning. and by no means confined to the secrecy of the confessional. True. I Although from my youth upwards was accustomed to even I " domestic Jesuits. Portugal. Freinberg. we shall find the number of these to be extremely small. France. yet a strong and secret influence penetrates thence into both home and family.

from the centres this activity. officials. This power is the greater. And in motion a pliable mass. Westphalia. For the Catholic outside the orders knows even less than the Jesuit himself of the true history of the Order. Many officers. Sober consideration certainly deprives the Order of the false adornments and pretended glory with which it has surrounded itself.444 Fourteen Years a Jesuit tlie and polished who. Silesia. we see the gigantic nexus of circles spread over the whole world. members of Parliament. Baden. The Jesuit Order works by fascination that is the right word to use. permeated with Jesuit conceptions. the acme and the highest attainment of Christianity. Unfalsified history repre- . especially at Feldkirch and Kalksburg (both in Austria). because the Jesuit Order is surrounded by a special halo. have been educated in Jesuit institutions. lies the power of the Order. of which the Jesuit Order pursues its activity silently. too. Therefore he honours in the Jesuit Order. and Wiirtemberg. He only knows the bright immaculate picture which he encounters in the innumerable books and writings published. If we add to these the many thousands of Congreganists in all classes and professions. extend the Jesuit spirit and thought. since it clothes itself in an atmosphere of glory which raises it in the estimation of the Catholic masses far above all similar religious institutions. and in the individual Jesuits. writers. would produce the remarkable result that about 80 per cent. but with certainty of success. And this gives it one of the most effective means for the maintenance and increase of its which sets in — influence. Here too a circular letter to ultramontane editors. The same applies to numerous landed proprietors in the Ehinelands. in majorem Societatis Jesu gloriam. among them are old Jesuit pupils. and so on. these genuinely and organicboarding-scliools pupils are planed ally co-ordinated " affiliates " of the Order. Bavaria. when they grow up.

almost immaculate excellence of all and the like. an organisation injurious to religion. calumny and cunning. and also all the products of free thought. serviceable to its selfish ends. are its weapons.General Verdict on the Jesuit Order sents it 445 as society. its cunning. sanctioned by the Church. Perhaps the only saying of Jesus which the Society of — Jesus realises is this : " He who is not with Me is against from no means for making its opponents harmless. Thus the Order can boldly add calumny to falsification. regarded as indubitable truth as good and true. unhindered by any qualms of conscience. the happiness . it steps over the lives. and is directed towards their material exploita- tion and intellectual But there are great difficulties in the way of introducing the sober historical points of view into those circles where the truth about Jesuitism the is most needed. circles For it is sure of everything which the Jesuit Order sends into the world marked with its stamp is its public. The method employed for the purpose reveals the whole extent of its unscrupulousness. and Jesuit therefore its dangerousness. the Catholic circles . which deal fatal blows from its ambush. and civilisation. politics. Falsehood and physical violence. which endeavours with inconegotism to siderate make mankind suppression.e. is still unshaken among Catholics. i." It shrinks discreditable account such as could not be rivalled in the whole history of Christian civilisation foot truth : it tramples under and right . This belief is utilised unscrupulously by the Jesuit Order for belief in the The institutions of religious orders its own advantage. and Order has succeeded in transforming these difficulties into almost insuperable obstacles. by In these systematically falsifying history. By depriving all kinds of critics and opponents of their power to injure. the Jesuit Order in the course of centuries has piled up a Me.

of greed for the possessions of mankind. in order to fill the gap with its own spirit. excavates religion and State. The Jesuit Order is an international organisation which most profoundly and skilfully. in hundreds of disguises.Christianity. of immoderate self-seeking. tlius proving itself to be one of the most dangerous enemies of mankind in the realm of truth and justice and of civilisation. of lying and deceit. And this spirit is a spirit of lust and power. — . knowledge and civilisation. and goes on its way.44^ Fourteen Years a Jesuit of and the freedom men. and even more for their freedom and independence the spirit of irreligion and anti.

CHAPTER XXX FROM THEN TILL NOW My still account of the past is ended. In a sense I was face to face with nothingness. so weighty with consequences. The separation from the Order could have been endured with comparative ease. was soon closed. to ence and held my my soul tightly — 447 . for I had burnt my ships behind me. To escape from bondage. moral and religious. from the yoke which threatened to suffocate my independbe rid of fetters which compressed this was all that I then desired. in spite of my fourteen individuality. and my blood seemed to be flowing from a thousand open wounds. If express what I a tree uprooted by the storm could speak. What was to become of me ? I had formed no definite left the old world behind. enveloped in mist and clouds ? Not even these thoughts presented themselves to me at that the Order was accomplished. for. physical. This wound. it would felt after the breach with the Church and I had been torn away from soil that had supplied the origin and sustenance of my whole being. just as the tangled roots of the tree would also pour forth their sap. My step. had been a leap in the dark. But a few lines must be given to the present and the road by which I reached it. if wound indeed I may call it. Should I succeed in reaching with new ships a better shore that I dreamed of rather than saw. All else was but one mighty question. plan when I time clearly and distinctly.

resembled a vessel without mast. for I had recognised the erroneousness of some of the fundamental dogmas of the Catholic faith.44S Fourteen Years a Jesuit years of membership. . . I had never been a true Jesuit. But for the present they were still there. me. sentiments and opinions which in a life of forty years had grown along with the innermost parts of my being. Jesuit's garb because I could torturing. True. But these violent steps did not avail to set aside and destroy the innumerable Catholic feelings. saw no star shining overhead. had fallen to ruins in my sight. — . mother. I have now been for several years occupied in a definite and systematic fight against the most dangerous and troubling. But the separation from my religion It was flesh and blood to me I was united to it by the bonds of centuries every human possession that had hitherto been mine was included in it father. ! no longer regard the priesthood and the Order as Christian and religious. sail or rudder. My whole being no longer believed in the God of ultramontane Catholic dogma. frightening I was in a state of chaos. brothers and sisters. its pilot. And now Such deeply rooted conceptions cannot be cast aside like a coat. my outward connection with the Catholic Church had been sundered by a single blow. That Church in which I had been born and educated. True. emotions. I felt that they too must go. and My soul I never even thought of any other Church. and I. in which I had lived for more than a generation. tossed hither and thither by mountainous waves. or how to find occupation. I could not even imagine them except in and with my religion my thoughts and feelings had for nearly forty years been permeated by Catholicism. Nor could I tell what to do. with my whole body and soul. had no compass. And I had deliberately thrown aside the priestly cassock and the ! My . mind never assimilated the Jesuit spirit.

With D . Adolf Stocker. what I 449 To-day I powers —ultramontane knew know what nor what I I want . and neither wanted ought to do. for my part I did nothing to make them known. at that time I never thought of taking up such a position.e.'''' and were afterwards reprinted as a name. There is some siderable differences. A hand was extended to me from a side to which I am now almost as sharply opposed as to Ultramontanism.From Then strongest of all Till Now Rome. I wrote for the Preussische Jalirhiicher my first series of long articles above my own They bore the title '' Mein Austritt aus dem J esuitenorden. inviting me to write something about i. I had imagined that my secession from the Jesuit Order. and my breach with the Church. it utters no direct challenge. had attracted no attention . against the Jesuit Order for the Kreuzzeitung of his friend. Then a chance occurrence helped to disperse the clouds. And so. My first steps along this road were but timid. Baron von Hammerstein. placed his review my disposal. but did not sign it. The little article aroused — interest. so little did I at that time think of publicity and attack. me Thus was the road opened to me which was to lead to my life's work the enlightening of men on the : ultramontane danger. pamphlet. The editor of the Preussische at Jahrhucher. I was comparatively mild in this first work of mine. a state of torture which several times suggested to me the thought of suicide. probably because I was not yet fully conscious of that work. I wrote a short feuilleton article. Anyone who should compare that first pamphlet with this book would notice no inconIn spite of the condemnation of the Jesuit Order expressed in the pamphlet. I received a letter from the Court Chaplain. Professor Delbriick. in the spring of 1893. uncertainty about 2 it . Dr. And yet they were known.

450

Fourteen Years a Jesuit

each fresh book this has gradually changed and improved, because knowledge has arisen or been strengthened in me, bringing about a clarity and certainty of will which could only find expression in blows of the hammer.
of the

In Heligoland I made the acquaintance of a member Upper House, Count Karl von Finckenstein. I paid

The Master of Madlitz was a thoroughly orthodox Protestant and ConThrough him I was brought into touch with his servative. religious and political circles, and this contact gradually matured in me a distinct religious and political attitude,
frequent visits to his estate of Madlitz.

though opposed to

his.

My
ture

religious free thought,
for

inborn inclination towards political liberalism and which had been the point of depar-

from ultramontane Catholic servitude, revolted against the orthodox and conservative Truly I had not broken with Rome in routine mould. to cast myself into the arms of the Chief Consistory order But here too, I had slowly and or the Kreuzzeitung. gradually to feel my way towards my new point of view, for it must be remembered that after fo^Irteen years' seclusion from the world I was an absolute stranger to the religious and political currents of its life. I re-entered
liberation

my

them

at the age of forty with almost child-like

inex-

perience.

How
?

could I have come quickly and easily to

a decision

There was one person who helped my views to mature, but who afterwards took little pleasure in the fruits.
Scarcely had I settled
Stocker,

down

in Berlin

when Dr. Adolf

who had

suggested the writing of

my

first anti-

Jesuit article, tried to bring

me

over to his side.

He

often visited me,

and

also

invited

me.

Only on one

occasion did I accept his invitation, in order to avoid the

appearance of discourtesy and then I met, among a fairly large party, his " friend," Baron Wilhelm von
;

From Then

Till

Now

451

Hammerstein. At our very first meeting Stocker made an unpleasant impression on me. He appeared to me the type of the domineering and with all his gifts Of never narrow-minded parson. With and for him that I was determined at the outset. There are " Jesuits," too, among the " orthodox " Protestants, and Stocker was their General, What I found particularly repugnant in Stocker was his hatred of Catholicism (which was afterwards modified through his greed for political power), combined with a boundless ignorance of the subject. I had left the Catholic religion, but I did not hate it then, nor do I now. How, indeed, would it have been possible, when throughout my life I had found in it so much that was fair and good ? It was absolutely revolting to my feelings to find such hatred, inflamed by ignorance, poured

:

!

forth

by a weighty representative of Christianity. Yet Stocker's ignorance of Catholicism is a funda

mental fault of all Protestant circles, in particular of the " Orthodox " section. Once I was visiting one of our leading Protestant dignitaries. The late Provost von der Goltz was also
present.

The two men discussed their experiences at Bonn, and the conversation turned on the Catholic Church. Their statements could have been proved by any Catholic schoolboy in the Second Class to be foolish distortion and misunderstanding. At that time I was still very reserved and shy, though happily I have since thrown off my shyness, and therefore I did not undertake to play the
schoolboy's part, but entered into an animated conversation with the hostess, a charming lady,

whom

death

unfortunately claimed

all

too soon.

These people do not know how injurious are the effects of ignorance, how greatly it widens the gulf between the denominations. Things are beginning to improve in this But even they are respect in Liberal Protestant circles.

;

452
still

Fourteen Years a Jesuit

overshadowed by a dense cloud of ignorance. And it is that both Orthodox Protestants and Liberals are as convinced of their accurate knowledge of Catholicism as the Pope of his infallibility. I have often observed this with sorrow and dismay at the central committee meetings of the " Evangelischer Bund." There I saw leaders of the Liberal and Orthodox theology, who thought themselves much better informed about Catholicism than I, who had belonged to the Eoman Church for forty years. The ignorance of Protestantism among Catholics is not nearly so great. The sa}'ing, while, Catholica non leguntur, is unfortunately often true on the other side, Protestantica are very carefully studied.
the worst of
;

In

February,

1895,

I

joined
to

the

Protestant
I

State

Church.

Dr. Dryander, at that time pastor of the Holy

Trinity Church, admitted

me

communion.

had

also

attended his preparatory course, but found
faction in
it.

little

satis-

Dryander's diplomatic theological manner,

which gives no decided answer to any question, neither was nor is congenial to me. What was it that induced me to join the Protestant

community

?

Certainly not

my

love of the State Church.

After living for forty years in a Church community, I was growing weary of my religious wanderings, which had continued since the end of 1892, and as the delusion that Church and religion were necessarily connected was not yet extinguished in me, I was easily induced, by the gentle pressure brought by various acquaintances, to formal and outward adhesion. But I never left Dryander in doubt as to my want of enthusiasm for the step. At this day I should no longer take the step, but neither

do

I retract

it.

and Christianity are different, often antagonistic, ideas. This I have learnt with certainty. All Churches are merely the work of man
religion

Church

and

—Church

From Then
in the fewest cases are they the
far oftener they spring

Till

Now

453

outcome of religious needs from a greed for power. And further, the Prussian State Church is a very imperfect human institution which, both inwardly and outwardly,

much of its religious Christian character, and assumed instead that of bureaucratic formalism combined with dependence on State and Court. The " religious " Head of the State Church, its summus efiscofus, is the lord of the land, who at the same time is Head of the Army and Navy, and commander of such and such foreign regiments the dignitaries of the State Church (the Head of the Consistory, the Consistories,
has lost
;

State

General Superintendents, Superintendents, Pastors), are officials in the pay of the State. A mere glance at

the Scriptures, and the position there occupied by the Christian dignitaries, the " episcopi " and " presbyters,"

must show that the Archbishop and the
State
Christianity.

authorities of the

Church have not the slightest connection with State and religion. State and Christianity, are eccentric circles they can only be made concentric through the sacrifice of religion and Christianity.
;

But

its

unnatural relation to the State
State

is

not the only

Church which is unchristian and imreligious. Their dependence on the Court is as much to be condemned. The whole system of Court chaplains is to speak openly for once a system of Court flunkeyism, far removed from the point of view of the Christian religion. Of course, I do not speak of the Court preachers in their character as men. I refer to Court chaplains and Court chaplaincies as conceptions and State institutions. The Court chaplains are part of the staff age at Court ceremonies they bear courtly titles such as Your Excellency they have to preach at the time and place prescribed by the wearer of the crown, and from texts chosen by him, often at festivals, such as the Conferment of Orders, which
thing in the

;

454

Fourteen Years a Jesuit

are absolutely opposed to the essence of Christianity

—^and,

indeed, of religion.*
of religion

What room is there left for a trace and Christianity ? State and Church, bureaucracy and formalism, have

almost completely estranged the State Church from the and that is another of its fundamental abuses. It is believed that by elaborate Church edifices " the
people,
religion of the people will be maintained," that Christianity

can be supported and popularised by meaningless externalities

(such as an elaborate consecration ceremony of

the Cathedral and a ceremonious expedition to Palestine),

but the recognition seems lacking that such things have very little to do with popularising, and nothing at all with Christianity and religion. In the midst of the

numerous unchristian externalities of the State Church, God, religion and Christianity have become a mere cover to hide a mass of vanity and self-glorification. And it
a serious delusion to imagine that the " people " are not aware of it.
is

The more a Church is built up, both within and without, on sincerity and simplicity, the closer it adheres to the impressive simplicity of the model afforded by the community of Christ and the Apostles as depicted in the Bible, the larger will be the circles of the masses it encompasses, the deeper its impression on humanity and its power to ennoble and raise them. In addition to all this, there is in the State Church an unevangelical lack of freedom, which takes the form of compulsory belief, trials for heresy, laws against heresy, and all the other fine things which call themselves Christian, and yet are so human that they must be included among the darker aspects of human activity, those which owe
* The right text for a sermon on the occasion of conferring orders was once suggested by the old Court Chaplain Biichsel with delightful outspokenness and

ironical reflection

on himself

:

"

When

they saw the

star,

they rejoiced with

exceeding great joy."

From Then
for

Till

Now

455

their origin not to religion, but to a truly unreligious lust

power and dominion. Such a Church cannot inspire love, nor even much respect. For the good it does in the social or educational domain, to balance its failure in the domain of religion and Christianity, cannot be taken into account when estimating its value as a Christian Church and community. This is done much better by other nonreligious associations.

And
took
in

yet, as I

have

said, I shall

not retract the step I

February, 1895, for

forfeit the right to share in its

by leaving a Church we deliberations and help in

the work of reform.

Again and again have
indiscreet fashion, "

The question

is

been asked, often in most " What is your religious standpoint ? quite unjustifiable, for religion is an
I

absolutely private

matter which concerns no one, least
the curious and sensation-

of all the general public or

thou prayest," thus spoke the most religious of all men, Jesus Christ, " enter into thy closet," i.e. keep the public out. And in my view prayer is not one of the main functions of religion, but the main
mongers.
,

"

When

function.

The inquiry

as to
still

my

religious attitude

is,

therefore,
life, I

unjustifiable; but

in this, the

book

of

my

will

say a few words in answer. The point at which I now stand has been reached by a process of slow development, a road of curves and spirals.
of thinking.
;

The development is, strictly speaking, as old as my power Vague doubts dawned even in my childish in later years they often became tormenting temptasoul tions, until at last Catholic faith and Catholic Christianity collapsed within me. The result was my secession from Church and the Jesuit Order. the What new edifice did I erect on these gigantic ruins of

;

45^
religion

Fourteen Years a Jesuit

to be

and Christianity ? A small one, for I have learnt modest in my religious demands. First of all, I do not include in religion such externals as dogmas, sacraments, creeds, symbols, liturgies, ceremonies.
religion

They may be
;

of less or greater religious value

to individuals, but in themselves they are not part of

at most and at best they supply to many thousands useful, perhaps even necessary, outward maniBut festations of their religious impulses and feelings.
religion
is the inward relation of the individual, based on subjective and individual recognition and the personal conscience, to God, that Being beyond this world. Whose existence is demanded by reason as the origin and final aim of the physical and spiritual world.* Now, what is the character of this relation of man to God ? This question is answered by Christ, Who thus steps into the foreground as the founder, even creator,

of a religion.
It
is

He Who

has set mankind in the

filial

relation to

gave him God as a Father. The age of religious servitude which saw in God and gods only lords, kings and tyrants, who worshipped God and gods in fear and trembling, has gone by. From henceforth the wondrous " Our saying of Christ has become the basis of religion Father, which art in Heaven." The proclamation of the Fatherhood of God by Christ Buddha is not without precedent in the history of religion. had already set mankind on the road of heartfelt love and communion with God, but never yet had the relation of father and child, between God and man, been so clearly expressed and so comprehensively represented as by Christ. This is the characteristic of the whole of Christianity
God,
:

Who

* The man whose reason does not demand the existence of such a supernatural Being possesses no religion, but is not on that account bad, if his life is in harmony with innate natural laws and the ethical principles universally recognised in
civilised countries
;

and sooner

or later he, too, will attain to (Jod.

From Then
it

Till

Now
religion.

457
Everytliing

comprises

its

whole contents as a

else

wliich the Scriptures lay
is

down
of

as the teaching of

development of or an injunction for the conduct
Christ
either a

this

fundamental idea men towards one

another.

Dogmas and

creeds

(the

divine humanity of

Christ, the Trinity, etc.) are the products of a subtilising

theology which has lost the immediate characteristic of
religious feeling

—are

systems more or

less subtle

which

satisfy the desire of

men

for abstract sophistry, for fashion-

and by means of catalogues, but which are entirely opposed to the notion of religion. It is on the recognition of this fact that my Christianity is based,
ing according to types

and in this I find the satisfaction of my religious needs. Not that there are not a number of world riddles and
obscure questions

—as,

for instance,

What

is

the nature of

God

?

(Even the fact

of His existence

matically

demonstrated.)

^^^lat

cannot be mathehappens after death ?

and many other problems. But such questions and riddles have nothing to do with religion. Religion and its true meaning consist in the " I am God's child and God is my Father." saying Those who cannot fashion their religion and their religious
:

attitude out of this thought will not be furthered in their

by creeds, symbols, dogmas, liturgies, and sermons. In the thought of God's Fatherhood lies also the impulse to that religious activity which I regard as the main sinew of religion, without which all religious apparatus lacks religion, and with which everything is religion, even without any apparatus I mean, our intercourse with God the Father in prayer. The idea of God's Fatherhood is an endless source of immeasurable confidence. The Being Whom I call God, the final Aim and End of the world and its happenings, must be endlessly wise, good, powerful, just. And this unending Being is my Father. There is neither weakness
religion

458

Fourteen Years a Jesuit

nor sin nor error which does not vanish into nothingness in the face of such unending nature. God my Father is He has placed me in the world, the Author of my being
;

unasked, therefore

He must

also,

some time

and how I know not The saying, often
c'est tout

—become the Perfecter of my happiness.
frivolously applied,
Toitt

—when, where
comprendre,

pardonner^ has the deepest religious and genuine

God-like meaning.

This religious meaning has been revealed to
Christ,

me by

and, therefore,

it

is

the foundation and corner-

stone of
Christ

my

religion.

Therefore I

am

a Christian.

Would
?

this recognition

Certainly

not.

have been impossible without Therefore Christ is, to speak
religion.

theoretically,

not the indispensable founder of
it

But because He actually drew
eyes in
its

forth this recognition

from

the existing religious confusion, and placed

before our

grand simplicity, therefore, in the light of history.
is

He
it

is

the greatest religious founder.
also the world-religion, for thus

Thus Christianity
comprises

all religions,

and

leads them, as long as they

are not opposed to natural laws, upwards into a higher
unity.

Divine Manhood, and the doctrine of the

Two

Natures, transform Christ into an unnatural hybrid, and

mythology of demigods and the offspring of gods as to remove Him entirely from healthy human comprehension, which must be at
plunge
so deeply into the heathen

Him

the basis of every religious sentiment.

And

thus Christ,

Who
;

on the

cross

became a martyr
flesh

to His religious ideas, has arisen from the grave, not in

the body, but in the Spirit

He lives,

not in

and blood,
effects of

but in Spirit and in Truth, in Power, and in the His teachings and works.

The small and limited literary activity described above by no means satisfied my desire for work. In

From Then
particular,
I

Till
jBjced

Now
occupation,
in the

459
which,

missed a regular
I

had had ever since Government service. Before I entered the Jesuit Order I had been a Royal Prussian Referendary and, as an irreproachable citizen, I thought that I had the right to re-appointment. How greatly was I to be undeceived What I am about to write here is not stated from any sensational motives. I register facts which constitute a piece of not uninteresting contemporary histor}', and which,
result of the training I

was the natural
childhood.

my

hoped to

find

it

!

under the stage direction of the Centre Party, were enacted behind the scenes. Count Finckenstein-Madlitz, whom I have already mentioned, had been kind enough, in the summer of 1894, to go to the Imperial Chancellor, Count Caprivi, and ask

him

to

re-appoint

me
:

to

the
of

Prussian

State

service.

gave the " WTiat would the Holy Father in remarkable answer Rome and the Centre Party say, if we were to employ Count Hoensbroech in the State service ? " That settled
Caprivi, with a
distinct alarm,

movement

German and Prussian citizen for a State appointment, as far as the German Imperial Chancellor and Prussian Minister- President was concerned. But
the request of a
there

was a sequel

to that story.

In February, 1895, I suddenly, without any action on part, received " by Imperial command " an invitation to a small Court ball. The Kaiser desired to make my acquaintance. For more than half an hour on the evening of February 13th, 1895, William II. conversed with me in the White Hall of the Berlin Castle, to the great annoyance of the Centre leader, Lieber, who was also present and, because the Kaiser was so long conversing with me, missed the opportunity of being presented. To the

my

Kaiser's question as to

that

it

was

my

what I intended to do, I replied wish to re-enter the State service, but

I there were great difficulties in the And informed him about the utterance of Caprivi." I asked for a private audience. your Majesty. von Koller. my dear Count. to enable me to give him further information. " There he stands. I immediately informed Lukanus of the granting of the private audience. with the remark that I was to inform Lukanus. then I : ! assure you that from this time forward I shall take your affairs into my own him hands.460 Fourteen Years a Jesuit way of its fulfilment. For the next few days the leading organs of the Centre Party {Ger mania and Kolnisclie Volkszeitung) contained inspired by the Centre leader. The Kaiser took a step back. and only a province with a invitation to me. the then Minister of the Interior. Lukanus received my communication with an expression of ill-concealed annoyance. and asked him to assign a time for it. Several questions addressed in letters to Lukanus were answered evasively. Weeks and months went by. : — but in face of the wish of his master he could not avoid assuring me that he would " in due time " inform me of the day and hour of the audience. but I saw and heard nothing. The Kaiser graciously consented. had advised ." Then he dismissed me with saying a friendly and hearty handshake. Lieber. preponderance of Protestants could be under consideration. As the Kaiser had promised me a post as Head of a District {Landrat). The whole attitude of the Kaiser had convinced me that the promised audience would soon be granted." " Well. put his hand on his sword. " extraordinary circumstance " of the Kaiser's about the violent articles and the distinction he conferred on me by our long interview. and said " " What excit-edly Did Caprivi say that to you ? " Yes. for the long conversation with the Kaiser was causing universal sensation —Miquel it was circling fox-like round the Kaiser and me and therefore appeared to me undiplomatic.

Imperial promise. I desired that my right to an audience. should be recognised. which invited me to an audience. when I lay in bed with influenza. for I 461 up my residence in Kiel. at the end of January. forced me to return to Berlin in December. wife. Lukanus. that fox Lukanus. During I my residence in Kiel. founded on the claim for an audience. with a peculiar expression on his face." Again weeks : went by then. with whom was acquainted." and proposed that I for should give him a memorial to the Kaiser. yes . Count Waldersee. which necessitated an operation. and wrote the petition." One of the Imperial carriages would fetch me from Wildpark." I sat down at Waldersee's writing-table. My first impulse was to telegraph a refusal on account . He would choose a favourable moment enforcing for its presenting my memorial to the Kaiser and " Then we shall have disposed of claim. at Altona in the next few days who was expected an inspection and would be lunching with him. said. on account of the information I had in the meantime received about the influence of the Centre Party on the Kaiser but I did not want to be so curtly set aside. But her severe illness. On comone of these in occasions I informed Waldersee of my still unsatisfied had long ago given up all hope of it. I several times visited the General Field-Marshal. signed by the Chief Court-Marshal Eulenberg. ill .From Then me to take Till Now Therefore. in order to become in acquainted with the conditions there. who at that time was General of the 9th mand Army Corps at Altona. October. I . 1895. 1896. " to-morrow at II o'clock. Waldersee " Yes. I migrated to Kiel with my had married in August of that year. from the New Palace. I received a telegram. and after a little while I was informed by Waldersee " Everything has gone off satisfactorily I hope you will soon get your audience.

he let the remark "If matters stand thus. But there was not a word about personal matters. Only. which lasted for more than an hour. In the interview which then took place with Lukanus I curtly rejected his proa posals. the Emperor said " Everything else Lukanus will tell you " . when he dismissed me in a friendly manner. which contained next to nothing tangible position as Landrat or anything else of the kind had become " impossible. who was ill in a nursing-home. I shall let the . nor of his promise : . quite at the end. And when the fall Minister reported this to the Kaiser. that I should only come to him in order to carry out the wish of the Kaiser. my but then I thought. I cannot repeat it gave me the opportunity the contents of our interview for an interesting insight into the Kaiser's psychology and into public afiairs. The Kaiser received me very After a sympathetic inquiry about the health graciously. : but after the audience I informed Lukanus that I set little value on " everything else " which he would have to tell me . . of my wife. Lukanus conducted me to the Kaiser. he opened the "I have asked you here conversation with the words to learn your opinion about the attitude of my Government to the Centre Party.462 of Fourteen Years a Jesuit illness. " The opportunity may never recur " at the and so I put in an appearance punctually New Palace. without even considering that I was exposing the Kaiser to the risk of infection. in a high state of fever. to take my afiairs into his own hands." Of course." but there was nothing to prevent my returning to the State service as Referendar at Frank: fort-on-the-Oder ! Soon afterwards I was told by a well-informed authority that the Centre had told the Minister of ranks. and remained present during the audience. the Party would close its and vote against the next naval : estimates. War that if I received a State appointment. of a State appointment.

had suggested to me the idea of taking up an academic career." in the Ministry of Public Instruc- And A good friend of mine tion. • Bosse his voice. was speechless at the time . and quite in : that accordance with his own wishes. He procured me an interview with the Minister of Public Instruction. until to-day I should not have words thought that a Mnister in a land of religious equality like gall to : would thus give way before the troops of Rome. Would they stand open in the Empire ? Prussia. Of course it was not the matter of my own personality which induced the Centre Party to take up this attitude. it was not till years later that he recovered when he happened once to sit next me at dinner after his resignation. It was a fundamental principle for which it was fighting the rebel against the Roman Church must not make his way cates in Prussia." Till Now 463 In this way I and my affairs slipped tkrough tlie fingers of his Majesty which. etc. Bosse received me with overwhelming amiability was an excellent idea. I rose and took my leave with the " Your Excellency. or even advocate it " This panic-mongering caused my ! overflow . Bosse. Dr."* In Prussia accordingly the doors of all appointments were closed to me.. and settling down at the University of Berlin. The pressure from the Centre Party had compelled the Imperial hand to let me go." . the late Count Andreas Bernsdorff. were to hold and lead me on. as a lecturer {Privatdozent) on Church history. etc. to which I " And you me and yourself even worse. or some other Prussian University. '* yet the Centre emphatically advocivic toleration " and " religious equality.From Then man drop. but the consideration which he was obliged to take for the powerful Centre Party unfortunately rendered the execution of this excellent plan impossible. according to his Imperial promise. " What a storm the Centre would raise in Parliament were I to consent to your appointment as lecturer. Then he replied : said to me : "At treated that time you treated me very badly " ..

Breitkopf und Hartel). Rome and the Centre. gives information t It afforded me great satisfaction that Bismarck had read this book with considerable interest. I my I. These are some reminiscences from the dark days of rebellion against the Church. N. : regard it as providential that everything turned out thus. It stood among other much-used books in his reference library. Breitkopf und Hartel). "f The Modern State and the Romish Church . My book. but also many a disappointment. Prince Hohenlohe. do not propose to enter into the violent personal attacks to which I and In eigener Sache und Anderes. whose arm is long. sein Wesen und seine Bekdmpfung (Leipzig. It is impossible in this place to develop my ultra: For this I refer to my writings Ultramontanism : its Nature and how to Attack It . and also increased immeasur- ably the political force which Ultramontanism possesses in the Centre. They belong to the same time when I was warned by the Foreign Office only to go there after dark. when I visited Friedrichsruhe soon after the death of the great man. Schwetschke und Solm). % Der Ultramontanismus. because they are characteristic of our internal politics. * I The Government parties and the Press. on the subject. Moderner Stoat und Eomische Kirche (Berlin. for admission to the diplomatic service refusal. E. How could to spread enlightenment have carried on my life's task Ultramontanism. for the Centre Party had set my detectives to watch Still. . goings to and fro. had greatly damped the desire to attack Ultramontanism. There I saw it.* as a State official or a diplomat.464 Fourteen Years a Jesuit met with a polite A request to the Imperial Chancellor.% I will say only a few words about my disappointments. montane programme. and with great precautions (I used often to go there to visit one of the Eeporting Councillors). Rom nnd das Zentrum (Leipzig. with its unfortunate issue. full of book-markers. The wrongly conducted Kulturhampf of the 'seventies. my family were exposed. and stir up a conffict against it ? about In the fulfilment of this difficult task I have found contentment and success.

No one would hear of a new and better conducted KuUurkmnpf. they forgot that in the Centre is embodied the ultramontane view of life. The circles that set the tone regarded a KuUurkampf as a struggle between denominational passions. Added to this was their fear of social democracy. All who recognise the threatening danger of ultramontane Jesuitism should join thid Association. its On the Centre had offered enemy of the civilisation." the " Gustav Adolf Verein. harmful. The Government parties and the Press were overcome by the desire for compromise . " Better black than red. — 2 £ . that therefore the struggle against it must be. that it is the deadly of their great antagonist. It attacks its opponents on those domains where alone it is open to attack and capable of defeat that is. The only right method in combating Ultramontanism is pursued by the " Anti-ultramontaner Reichsverband " (President.) is. had not yet dawned upon them.W. Wilhelmstrasse . S. which is the alpha and omega of a Kulturka?npf with any prospect of success. modern State and the development of its and saw in it only the party whose numerous members could give decisive votes for their legislation. I was included among the stirrers up of denominational strife. 122a). politics and education.* — * Every association with a distinctly denominational tendency (such as the " Evangelischer Bund. the Parliamentary collaboration. Here denoniinationalism and religion are excluded by the constitutions. the calling of religion into the field for its own purposes. Berlin. Shallow opportunism and Miquel's " collective policy did their part. and thus supplies Ultramontanism with a weapon which makes it invincible. Admiral von Knorr Office. were powerless in face other hand. for it arouses denominational counter-passions. The recognition that Ultramontanism is historically and actually separable from the Catholic religion.. as far as its tendency is anti-ultramontane.From Then Till Now 465 unable to distinguish the wrongful methods of the old struggle from its rightful aims. Therefore my rallying cry against Ultramontanism fell on deaf ears." they used to say at that time ! Each year the Centre became a more convenient ally. not a denominational but a political struggle on behalf of civilisation this recognition." etc.

fanaticism. have been set in motion by Jesuitism with a cunning and unscrupulous daring unexampled in the history of the Christian era. irreligion. And only this recognition can produce the joy and determination for combat which are guarantees of victory. And my work of enlightenment. Slowly the wheel began to swing round. reaction. Above all.466 Fourteen Years a Jesuit severest disappointments. in the consciousness that I was on the right road. and often of the by ultramontane at- and accusations. the highest standpoint is still lacking the consciousness that the struggle with Ultramontanism has a background and a : significance in universal history . and a tacks characteristic proof of this is that. " Rather red than black. with their hostility to human nature. with an addition. And these forces. This book proves beyond refutation that at the present moment the driving force of Ultramontanism is Jesuitism. the saying. voUd Vennemi ! " Yet my book shall close with a more peaceful note and a happier outlook. Those who fight against Jesuitism and Ultramontanism — — fight for the religious liberation of many. " Le Clericalisme " Clericalism is Ultramontanism " et le Jhuitisme. " Rather black than red " has been changed for the opposite. Thus the sum total of my book may be compressed into the saying of the great French statesman and patriot. increased In spite of the greatest hindrances. many millions ." Still there is an immense deal yet to be done. has not been in vain. Gambetta. in great part through my labours on behalf of enlightenment. and hostility to progress which in the course of centuries have sprung from ultramontane soil. In Jesuitism are concentrated all the intolerance. in spoken words and in writings. that in reality the existence or non-existence of a modern state of civilisation depends on the result of this struggle. I held out.

Let us allow religions to develop themselves. . Till Now 467 But the Catholic religion conceals. in spite of terrible human weaknesses and in what creed are these lacking ? forcible and profound elements of edification and civilisation. and their sound proclaims the coming of a better day. only let us root out ignorance from them. germinate ! Wide tional horizons and possibilities of religious and educaus. development open up before We seem to hear the bells ringing for peace.From Then of Catholics. to allow these seeds to tyranny. They are held down and misused by the — — violation of their true nature through ultramontane Jesuit What a task for a liberator. But men must refrain from religious strife and denominational bitterness. and destroy it Concord and unity too comprehension and tolera- — — tion will result and bring blessing. after subduing Ultramontanism and Jesuitism. For humanity needs religion^ and will always need it. THROUGH CONFLICT TO PEACE.

.

10 j. 324-5. 366. attitude of. ii. his diploma to the Marchioness of Hoensbroech. approves Marian Congregations. St. on the unchastity of the Order. Aix-la-Chapelle. 212 Alexander III. i. an objectionably "angelic" boy. towards General Boulanger. 352. 71. ii. Father. con- demns 292 Jesuit teaching on morals. Aguirre.. ii. examples of his mental dexterity. 250-3 Arminia. Antonio. Bishop Palafox's report of Jesuit wealth in. on the post 195. gpirituale of. Jesuit condonation of. 420. ii. Tsar.. relics at the Cathedral of. of princes' confessor. Jesuit conception of. Loyola's recognition of.. 319 . in Bavaria. ii. i. author visits. 63 Aquinas. Claudius.. i. ii. author's pilgrimage to. completes the organisation of the Society of Jesus. approves of the author's conduct during novitiate. 292 Algiers. i. i. his secret Instructions touching the confessing of sovereigns. 299 et seqq. his instructions as to the confessing of women. 309: on sinning to avoid. 174. 161 Acquaviva. duties of. 54 Angelus Bell. ii. 182. Catholic belief in. ii. i. 313. i. 151 Aloysius of Gonzaga. persecuted by the Jesuits. Cardinal. cases. 10.INDEX Aachen. 1321. 370 Alvarez. Father Francisco. 125. 372 of.. i. Cardinal. 347. supports the designs of the 181 . ii. i. 407 advises reserve in political matters. philosophy schools. Antonio. Adultery. 386. ii. 333-4 Admonitor. 124. 67. 204. 87-8 Anatomia anatomiae ii. 127-8. drafts the Ratio Stadiorum. Jesuit forgeries in the name of. 461 Alvarez. i. Societatis Jesu. the Exercitium i. an example to the young. i. 253 Angelita. Anti-ultramontaner Reichsverband. Pope. 77 Abiturienten at Berlin University. i. i. i. Congregations of. ii. used at Jesuit schools. 422. Emanuel. i. duties of 86 (note) Aehrenthal. over the Marchioness of Hoensbroech. 101-2. 304-7 America. ii. Thomas. General of the Jesuit Order. on the death of Cardinal Tournon. 424 271. 9 confessors of princes. great relics at. 167 Aristotle. ii. 244 jEsthetics. 165. question 363 of. 54-5. 403. authority of. 145. i. 121 among Jesuits. Apparitions. Academy. obliged to condemn this doctrine. Baron Luis von. 291-2 Aristocracy. Agricola. ii. ii. admits the Jesuit control of the Marian Congregations. sanctions the publication of Mariana's book approving tyrannicide. 171. ii. supports the Virgin in a vision of her Descent. 126: enjoins surveillance of priests and the size of confessionals. 26 et seqq. ii. Antoine. 172-3. concerning women and the Exercises. instances of pseTido-mystical. 324-5. 145-6. Ill. ii. alleges that Cardinal Tournon was poisoned. author's pilgrimage to. 212 Aalbeck. in Jesuit schools. 169-70. condemns Jesuit neglect of Latin. supremacy in Alexander VII. Father Balthasar. 400. enjoins the reading of Loyola's letter on obedience. advises the omission of references to confession from annual reports. 137. i. 253-6 ii. exclusion from. Count Waldersee at. misuse of the post of. ii. " Latin Grammar of. records the existence of some curious relics. Jesuit doctrine of. on Jesuit morals. ii. Jesuits in Hungary. gives an instance of demoniac possession. 383-4. his on the confessing of sovereigns. 63. ii. unpopularity of. ii. Jesuit subservience to. 328. in reserved Alexander VIII. encouraged.influence of. 190. 112 Aloysius. as used by Jesuit students. 16-17 Agnus Dei. Jesuit villa at. 129. 261-2 Allen. i. Andre on Jesuit morality. ii. 322 Appiani. 124 Affiliates of the Society of Jesus. the Catholic Students' Union at Bonn. 245 Arnauld. 125. 177 of the Jesuit. ii. the duties 355 465 (note) of. 299 Angelic Doctor (Aquinas). ii. his crafty hint . Arcana Societatis Jesv. . i. 61. ii. 70-2 Ambiguity. Province of. deprecates the " reluctance to make a " statement of conscience. Advocatus Biaholi. ii. 537. Pope. 323-5 305. 33. i. purpose sure. ii. 208. as a means of pres- Acolyte. in theology. Commis- sion of Studies in Germany instituted by. 176. to Ordinance Anderledy. Canon John Marcell. 164 Altona. 429. 403 (note) Absolution.. ii. 414 Angelus Custos. i. Jesuit students and. i. declines to stop the ostracism of Leo XIII. 315-7 . 107 (note). condemns Jesuit teaching on morals.o9 the Jesuit .

" 209. Koglan. T-onpaled the decree of ot General Con^ Lf to the boldlng . 46 160: he. 83-4 Dragoon author loins the First settlement at" ii. Theoderich... ii. fostereduniand denunciation.''sh'aped by the the ^"Jesuits.. i. canonised by by i 308. 244. 309-10. 2^6-45 EenS|iS'. s against the Jesuits. 319. u. Suicide's grave at. i 326 factiicism'or'the Jesuit Order. u. 307 Sacred necessity of Bartoli." Latin and German ^"''Schapelle. Jesuit poet. 1. Marshal i. : Aveiro. 11. 372 formed. novitiate author's conduct during supremacy 01 403. 381-/5 iSS'"edSioi"in. 37-8. sx"„TaiSe'tr. .^ ^^"^ the doing public afiairs. • Ave. on the use of . 264. of a lesser sin to the Bec?^Chief District Judge and ® Jesuit designs against the Hohen384-5 .° tests. 326. 336 OongregaBachem. Claude Mesmes. Duke of. uthe Catholic Church 46-7. zoUerns. wealth of Jesuit Order in. on Jesuit influence ii.wonders wrought Leo . 416 i AssiftknctsVf the Jesuit OrderSociety the Assistants to the General of ?abUshing aristocratic *caBedburl. the Catholic of the Behrlns^ piio^ncial Superior Jesuit province. activity of. ii. i.'ii. on avoid a ^reaiei. provides for the a General Congregation 423 the confessor of vrmces n.». of the suppression of the a. 93. 470 Arrogance of Index Bazaine. his character trans(note). alitv conthrough confession. discipline the Exercises complete the instances 384-90: of 369-84. of' 361-9. dependence on Deis to sin. 181. his criticism ii. 114 decree publishing Innocent XI. railway accident .pflecta of by Government. XITI. St the founder of monach- 39B Baexem. of the " indirect " power . Reinhold. Berf the Jesuit piety in. ii.author attends authors studies 403. and theJJ^"... lo. 1. the Jesuits and with Prussia date wealth of the Jesuits in at the Bb Order. BODhv censorship. ' . a Inau^sition. 336. TD ^^JfoV^TTTT Benedict Xiii. character German Tit of Jesus. 124-3 i. i.3998>"r"thl ^'esuit' "n^^ersity at 411. in foundress of Barat. .. mount with the author's notions and note.. 1. uo to admiration. 232 ideas Beauty. Jacob.ktaSw''S'*e'. (note) Berge-Borbeck. 345 BerchmannsJohannes. 1 339 o^y^llpr Schiller . maintainedcom326-40. Arf^^flnctrine of ^'*concermng about. ii. and ^timi^4 33.|° Benedict. A. 344 (note) . o'Jo Loyola s saves Cardinal. Ball"nni 1749 Bamberg. on required U> alter his monograph Goethe 244-5. a. 70-2.. 210-14. Father.^^^ ^ P^^^^yH'i^H' discipUne considered ascetic Jesuit iHm: and the with Christian. on the blind obedience. at 71 approves of the his advice.° on the German guidPany'i indebtedness to Jesuit . u. Jesuit schools in . on Jesuit mor294. Pope <* pi. .„„sp -mjsruyc and the Jesuit Elizabeth's reign. edits the men aus Maria-Laacn. his power paraGe^rman war. of his Baumstark. 1. XIV. as a result what has been done Becanus Father. on ance. Benedict. 2Zy equivocations. result of the . asserts lue Congregations.^^^fpprogress {n^lll' Dleased with the author 3 modern philofn vfrtue. Jesuit right to control innocent ^. i.»» laws against the Of the German Tfisuits ii.Pe-.422 Attrition. 309: legends of. Asceticism o ^^^^.. literary . . on instruction Oi. 324-5. 65 Marian Pope. u. his tirade on Goethe.his influence over tne i mis211 author's' sister ^ Antonia Francorenresents the facts of the 233. 300. Ms death demnation of the Order. fruits of. 335-6. its end by means to it. 165 them 170^. Baumgartner. the El Dorado of war t^e Jesuits. Ill on the supremacy teacnea 338 of Church over State.. . Maria. es251-2. on the Marian Centre Bachem'' Kari. ._^. Count d Avaux. perverted Catholic the Society of Jesus. Mother of the the female Congregation Heart.. Jesuits of Ifgahawe. in 1866. 341 Superior the rule of practice the Statement of Conscience by by confession. doctrine of. the Jesuit \ gymnasium in. by the letter from condemnation famous Jesuit i. iii^usi"^. ii. 387. mother. Belirrmin. Madeleine. H^ IfJ'^at.Jwe''ii/pr. 342-8.. 207. of the Jesuit So^ki Peter General reactionary Order maintains the system of education in A^^^f^^^-^: Konie 2b^ the author visits. Jesuit teaching ot. the Pope. disciplinary the relics at AixR-^is'^el 'Itephan.d Balde. how it Wind obedience. 430 of 430 {note) condemned Bavana. 71 Beck.. Christopher. the of as- Jesuit asceticism compared a mainstay of. 245 real 234-6. espionage supported greatly formity 348-61 observances of . 193-4 : literary convictions. 1.

status of. Father Jacob. Father Karl. 464 (note) Bissel. i. 6. Boulanger. 413: Axcendente Domino. Father. i. 16-7. General Assembly of Catholics at. ii. ii. 456 Jesuit mission at.. 390 (note) Bollandus. 85. Professor. Jesuits support the war against. i. surrenders to Borne. 390. ii. 454 (note) Buchum. CohenBlind's and KuUmann's attempts on the life of. 311 i. Baron von dem. 185 ii. 400. Father Joseph. i.Index in. 291 Busch. Father Stanislaus. character of. Buddha and his Buffalo. his private life to be investigated. Count of Penaranda. Father. Father. 16. 383 Bodler. 21-2. the author's lie to. ii. 463 406 and note Bossuet attacked by Father La Ohaise. Father. i. his contempt of the human body. 14. ii. in. as a German classic. i. 167. ii. ii. i. 122. Exposcit dehitum. ii. 390-1 Buchberger.. supports Papal infallibility. 32 Blessed (Beatus). ii. 340 of 287 his estate of Boniface VIII. work of. 121 Britto. i. Francis. the author reads his first Mass at. John. Father Fah transferred to. 212. supported by the Jesuits. 103. Wynandsrade. 141-2. the Arminia at. ii. 160 German Jesuit mission at. the Pope condemns the book by. 248 Boger. St. unigenitus. disregarded in Jesuit education. 268. Father. on Jesuit morality. 311 Biichsel. Prince. ceremonial reception of exiles at. Von. 272 Bismarck. 229 391-2 Bongart. 186 164-5 of. of Urban VIII. 369 by Jesuit teachers. girea the the use i. ii. i. on the author. 287. 111 i. novels of. Catholic amBrazil. Father. 310 (vote) Blyenbeck Castle. ii. 103 Bresciani. widow Berlingike lidiinde. 114 . ii. General.. i. ih. i. ii. 85 (note) Beyschlag. German 85 teaching. 340 Buonvisi. influence of. 407. 188 Bernard. Francisco. Bosse. urges the author to join the Jesuits. ii. 43 Brussels. Bracamnte y Guzman. L'nam sanctam. on Jesuit wirepulling in Poland. ii. 463 Berruyer. 99- Blyssem. liia reaidence Bombay. Father. ii. Antonio. 318 neglect of. i. ii. anthologies compiled by.. the compilers of the Acta Sanctorum. 255-6. the author attends. Professor. tries to induce the Bien Public. in. ii. 245. Director of the Mayence Gymnasium. 295 (note) Borgia. approved man Jesuits. Gaspar de. Jesuit ambassador of Portugal to the Pope. ii. as a sort of Diocleantagonism of the tian. in the Austrian Borderlands. author to enter the Jesuit Order. celebrates the pity and love of Father Rem. ii. German 85 Berling. ii. 214-6.. i. 140-1 Biedermann. 189. 159-60 Bollandists. 287. Professor of History at Wynandsrade. author's parents to. Jesnita of. 16. canonised. 167 Bermudez. duplicity (note) 185. author makes convert 166-7 ii. lawsuit at Brussels.. 222 Billet. Cardinal. 419 Breitung. Pope. 312. the De Buck lawsuit at 11. 164 Cabrallius. 217 Bishops." ib. 375 Bible. set aside for the students in philosophy. 220. is rusticated to Ordrupshoj. i. i. 121 254 Bohemia. Catholic neglect of the. ii. Boeselager. i. ridiculed by the Jesuit Pesch. on Jesuit political activity at Graz. ii. Clement XI. ii. Bernsdorfl. 339. Procurator. the author's residence at. the wealthy Bone. Count Andreas. Sebastian. canonising Ignatius Loyola. on calumniation. Bonn University. 146-8 Baron Karl von. 130 . i. excommunicating the Bishop of Macao. feast of. the author's studies in. pronounces the author consumptive. Busenbaum. ii. i. i. on Jesuit versatility. favoured 01 the Jesuits. Le. forged documents to be used against. ii. Catholic. 291 ii. a " magister " meal at. 361. 249. Academy Jesuits at Bedburg. 246 Bonucci on the persecution of Gonzalez. ii. his use of pseudo. ii. 417. 99-100. Court Chaplain. German Chancellor. a student of the author's book on bassador at Miinster.. on the relation between Church and State. Giovanni. Regimini militantis ecclesiae. Breisgau. the Union boycotted by German high- class students. ii. at Kevelaer. i. i. i. Dr. 222. ii. 382 Bieczynski. Bulls: nyms. a leading Jesuit casuist. 413. offered to exiled Ger- Brentano. teacher at the Catholic Heinrich. 422 471 Jesuit mission at. Biedermann. i. 142 Boarding-house system advocated by the Jesuits. ii. 411 (note): the author collects money for. 40 Ultramontanism. 308 Cabarassi. i. becomes the seat of the novitiate. 153-4 Brischar. St. Bethmann-Hollweg. 160-1 Blasius. Pastor of Guelders. 52 Berti. Dr. his blunder over the Kulturkampf. i. i. ii. lack of supervision Omnipotentis Bei. 59. 140 equivocation of his report to General Acquaviva. ii. 64-5 Briihl. "not wanted even by the devil. a literary republic. Bourdaloue. in the Exercises. 144 Caduff. 407. 300 (note): library of. 248. 165. i. John. 76.. a title preliminary to Saint (Sanctus). 393 Buck. 185 i. of Bobadilla. on the Deluge condemned. 100 De. 243.

the vow of. i. his hostility to State schools. 275. 289. 248-9 Cisneros. influence of. 463-4. i. ii.. ii. "better black than red. music in. in Parliament. created by the Kulturkampf. at Koniggratz and Sedan. the question of. Jesuit students. extravagance of. under Jesuit guidance. 423. ii. 256 Canrobert. ii. ii. ii. from the Jeeuit stand308 174 Jesuit morality. 170-1 China. Christ. by the 288 Ultramontane Catholic Church. Ill " Hammer of Canossa. 402. the three fundamental practices of piety compulsory. Father. grandeur of and superstition in. wealth of the Jesuits in. Nicholas.. ii. dogma of. Jesus in. character of the German Catholic priests. i. i. 275 Censorship. 413 Chastity. Father Edmund. Jesuit opposition to. ii. 256. 45. protests against violation of confession of sovereigns. 98 Civilta cattolica. 51. neglect of the Bible by. Marshal. at Colmar. Jesuit. a National Church a branch of the Civil Service. 175-6 Canada." 46s " rather red than black. and why. Index 419. ii. Ill. 67. 420 politics. juggles with the Jesuit approval of Mariana's book on tyrannicide. on Jesuit influence in Clement IX. 371 Cistercians. 353-4. violates the confession of Maria Theresa. Loyola's confessor at Montserrat. 40. 88-9 Chinese rites and missions. 340 and note.. power of. 277. 39. 159. 392-3 not always next to godliof. 286-8. 402 (note) Peter. i. 397 Catholic League and the German Jesuits. 387 (note). his crafty device of the " Conscience " formula. the to. the real nature of. i. condemned by its toleration of Jesuitism. 328 Clement VIII. ii. the counsel of chastity examined." i. John. ii. 109 Chatel. Garcia de. to the author. the predominant force in German politics of the day. i. ii. 331 (note): his view of reli- gious toleration. i. 453 Churches. 404-5 . Isaac. ii. 344 and note.. 298-9 Campian. ii. 23. ii. i. Vincent. 467 Magdeburg. i. on the subordination of the State to the Church. 452-5. 55-65 . Father. the only hope for. ii.. a strong ultramontane force. ii. ii. the Kulturkampf sends Ger- 371 many to. requires early confession. by the Jesuits. 19 Canaye. " Chocolate " for the General Society of Jesus. 394 Christianity. teaches faith in guardian angels. Pope. 246 Catholicism. St. 312 Oampmiiller. prohibits the Orders from carrying on commerce. 26-7. Pope. i. Calumniation ii. the use of this title in a Jesuit society. with the 460. 53-66 Cardenas on 304-5 justifiable equivocation. during the Oathrein his reflects on Leo XIII. theatrical representations in. why so named. i. attempts to murder Henry IV. ii. Cardinal. on Jesuits and confession. use of. Jesuit. the chief. author restores the money point. lay members of the Society of Camargo on Celibacy. i. the root idea of. and the excommunication of Queen Elizabeth. the Heretics. 335 Cheminet. ii. 401. ii. the English Jesuit preacher." ii. 395 Circulus (Circle) disputation. ii. 406. midnight Mass on Christmas Eve at Feldkirch. hostility of. of Prance. 201-2 161 Catholic Students' Unions boycotted by Catholics of " blood. 272 i. lack novitiate. intervenes 190 on behalf of the other Orders at Vienna University. ii. ib. Jesuit boastfulness of their. affected by the force of Christian idealism. ghosts and devils. ii. appearance of scholarship. Jesuit leaders of. Boulangist activity in the Jesuit College at. 160.. Kaiser. 4-6. Canisius. on abuse of confession. and the Marian Congregations. enjoins teaching on all Charity. 464." 466 Chanones. 264-9 Centre Party in German politics. morality of. ii. 332-3 Castropalao on the justifiable connivance at sin. 160-1. flagrantly scouted by the Jesuits. 271 Oasaubon. 233. 322-6 Casuists. 165. 34 et seqq. Catalogues. i. 246. involved in the Jesuit settlement in Berlin. 67-71. on the Mayence reprint of Mariana's book. 170. ii. 459. ii. 277 et seqq. 97 Caraffa. dominated by Ultramontanism. classification of. i. 99 and note Clement XI. ii." the author's ii. 367 Candlemas Day. 165-6. ii. Cleanliness 340-2 ness. violation of. 104 of the Carissimus. i. character of the second. ii.. 273. Jesuit opposition to. commercial aspect of. ii. 456-8 Christians. the " Christ. dominated by Jesuitism. 78 "morality" of. ii. 459 Capuchins. work He accomplished for humanity. 472 ii. Pope. i. discreditable conduct of. 232 Canterbury. the mouthpiece of the Vatican. Cienfuegos. force of tradition in. 14. 354-5 Catherine of Alexandria. 354. i. 461-3. relates how the Virgin interceded for a dead Jesuit.. 12-13. ih. the struggle between Rome and the Jesuits about. among the Jesuits. Count. the two Jesuit. ii. 2878. i. Gonzalez appeals to. 439 Caussin. 164-5 Caprivi. ii. erroneously alleged to have been beaten at Cilicium. decoration of. ii. pamphlet. 456-8 or Anti-Christ. French Ambassador at Venice.. 87-8. Church and State considered. Christmas creche before the High Altar.

221-2 Constance. are the Constitutions complete? et seqq. 36 et seqq. 423-5 (see also . i. Professor Adam. 54 et seqq. i. liberty of. as to. on the Chinese and Indian Mission. the monstrosity or early confession. on the Humanities. for women. priestly qualification to hear. the Jesuits settle at. . the "statement" of first rate importance." 546-8. 568-9. 361 used as a disciplinary scourge. General Acquaviva's instructions as to the position and size of. sanction violation of confession. 564. 157. on the scope of the vow of poverty. 229. veiled Theology. i. approved by the Papacy. 517 Confession. 79. 58. i. the spirit that fills. 192 (note). 67. 328-9 Clermont. of reserved sins. . may be starved. {See Formed Coadjutors) Coblence. on the use of. Confessionals. o35 Cleves. summary of the ten quintessence of. 342-8. 42 ii. 105: on Jesuit effeminacy. 426: on Jesuit influence at the Courts of Europe. 78. 565-7 aided by the practice of conscience-searching. 162. author visits. prohibit Jesuits from acting as the confessors of statesmen. the author takes the State oath at. 124-5: Jesuit violation of the confession of sovereigns. ascetic practices at. conduct Concina. 163. Julius Caesar. 361-9 freedom of confession denied to the Jesuit. 413. 587. Jesuit success in. 78 {iiote). 423. 66 473 Clement. on the Jesuit " cooking " of accounts. 388 ' Confession-Book for Children. 526 et sega. 174-8. and Henry IV. 56. seal of.. of.: obscurity respecting. 548-9. 65. on the overweening pride of the Jesuit Society. 568-9 551 marck. 22. and compulsory. experiments prescribed by. degradation of. 202-5. 5. i. 198-9. General Congregation. 56-9. 86-7. of France. Aloysina (see Marian Congregations). the power of. 408-11 contained in the Formula Instituti. concerning the final importance of obedience. how the " statement " is effected. ii. Archbishop Melchers in his cell at. 50-2 cosmopolitanism of. 164 of St. on the means of reporting (espionage).. authorship of. established. 67. detrimental effect of general confession in Jesuit schools. Procura- torial Congregation. 278. and the aflair Tournon. of Jesuits. cold and calculating regulations. 91-9 Communion. i. 265 Coadjutors. 286. as practised at Jesuit schools. on the avarice imputed to Jesuits. 362. university at. ii.. 52 Clement XiV.Index Oleruent XIII. 261. 56 et seqq. the Jesuit College authorities the attempt to murder at. 366. 89. violated. how it destroys the young conscience. 197. mischief of early. ii. 133-4. 43. Conscience weakened and destroyed by confession. touching scholars and other such matters. 168. compulsory teaching on Jesuit neglect . 386-7. 225-6 Cornely. 352. ii. mechanical 159. ii. ii. 421 the Commerce and ii. the author studies for the law at. ii. 388-9. anecdote of a nunnery at. the Particular Examination. i. 424 Contemplation. ii.. 80 Colmar. . i. the 197-200 Jesuit in author's first communion. commands . . 581 Contzen. 8 Cohen-Blind attempts the life of Bis212 Colleges of Jesuits. schools. i. 314 Convents. 257. by the Jesuits in their dealings the use 170-1. non-Christian character of.i62-5. i. 55. 124-5. i. 395. parts of. trade. forbid interference in politics and State affairs. 168: his Memoirs under a ban at Ditton Hall. i. Jesuit instructions on the confession of women and nuns. »b. 424-5 Consultors. real i. 55. . compared and contrasted. 57 Cornova on the i. on tyrannicide. 55. ordinary and par- i. Daniel. on the " Statement of Conscience. 228. on penances. wickedness of confession in the confessor's bedroom. Constitutions of the Society of Jesus. 105-32. 373-5. i. 352.. ii." 545 abuses of the "statement. Conscience-searching. i. Father. i. on Jesuit morality. of Prance. 573 Concertation. M^moires de la Conoregation de la Mission. on denunciation. impropriety of a repeated confession." 542-4. Marian. 562. 544-5 frequency of the ' statement. the duties of. trading practices of the Jesuits 94-8 Consecration. effect of. ii. i. the sense of personal responsibility ruined by the " statement. 407-8. 106-9. 128 Congregations. 59-65 Cordara. disregarders of Jesuit . 103-4. and why." 296-7. 32. 592-3. 587. a great feature of Jesuit upbringing. 159. 143 Compositio loci in the Exercises. i." cited. 334. 44. Jesuit plot against. on sensitive natures. 385. ii. murders Henry III. an absurd doctrine. confirms the condemDation of Berruyer's book. ii. what the "' Statement of Conscience " implies. suppresses the Jesuit Order. nature of. of the Society of Jesus. 163-180: of the Guardian Angels. 183. on the confessing of women. Provincial Congregation) Jjazarist Missionary Congregation. the theory and practice of." 546 (note). 58.. ii. 1 intentional. 97. on compulsory frequent confession to specified confessors. Cologne. Pope. Jacques. 297 Contemplations of the Exercises. of. 279 under the term Moral Jesuit exploitation object of. frequency of confession enjoined. 363-4. compulsory. . difficulties which prevent adherents from leaving. 71-2. of "conscience cases. on the vow of chastity. 102. on keeping the Jesuit lay brother in ignorance. with sovereigns. 353. 56. Pope. his conversation with the King of Sardinia on the boundless wealth of the Jesuits. how abused. as an essential of ascetic aiscipline. 292-5. ticular. of.

32 Orucitix. falseness of the Jesuit conception of. Professor Josef. 242 Denmark. 225. ii. 323. 14y confessions of. Donnes. i. Ill B. i. ii. admits the enormous wealth of the Jesuits in France in 1773. as a classic at Stonyhurst. 138-41 Deger'a " Madonnas. Jesuits towards. i. 193 Craeset. admits that Jesuits proaelytise at their schools. i. ii. 248-9. set aside for Jesuit students of theology. i. 216-22. 148-50 devils. 424 Donat. 352-4. 320-1. ii. 216. 512-13. ceremony of. Dominic. Jesuit view of the. i. 452 Dudik on the confessing of aovereigna. use of Latin in. 120 Diost. Professor.. III. 172-98. 418 Discipline. del ends the Jesuit system of at Babylon. 103 (note\. . . ii. and Catholic students' unions. 183 Court cliaplains. on the political . ii. the Dufrene. 226 . Father. his evil influence at the Spanish Court. 197-8. Abbot. 198 how Jesuits inilict. how to exorcise it. the terrible environment of the Hall. 226. Decurio.. Belatio. the author is consecrated to the priesthood at. ii. as used by Jesuit students. terrible interview with. at Jesuit schools. 248-50. an experience of the author's at. salary of. 349-51 derhand method of securing the consent of young students to. ii. 157. 96. the salaries of. Jean. " . . various kinds of. futility of. Dr. i. 193 Declarations of the Constitutions. condemna neglect of poor scnolars. ii. 348-9. the asylum at. 449 Delrio. 34 Disputation. i. 413. at Jesuit thoroughness of. 178. on permissible falsehood. 287 Gross of Ashes at Kevelaer. 375. 474 Index Devil Devils. i. discovers documents reproaching the Jesuits with their great wealth. a feature 320-1 Oorrespoudence of pupils. Professor. 87 Dasbach. grossly abused. of his " Beitrage creates a temporary sensation at Ditton Hall. 321-3 Denbigh. i. Dr. 145 Cosmopolitanism of the Jesuit Order. i. fessor. von Adolf. Jesuit opinion of. . 321-3. doctrine of.. 75. his safe cliallenge. the " table" at. on Liguori's teaching. his foolish views about classics.yal of a confession of Philip V. 371 (note) Droste-Vischering-Erbdroste. ii. 192 Corporal punishment. betra. 246 Dryander. 263 Demoniac possession. mysterious messages from. ii. the status of. 149-50. or Denunciation. . Vol. i. 189. justifies Jesuit activity in politics. of the Monita at Prague and Paderadmits Jesuit horn. at Marxheim. dogma. system of secret reporting used in. 147. 110. the author's stay at. a wholesale unsecret detective agency. ii. ii.. ii. as confessor to the King. 322 Dickens. 302-3 Deluge. 131 clear of the flaws of the Jesuits. 121 Dreves. in Romish 31^-23. 397 348 et Orders. 250. 102. i. Goethe and the German 249-50 Douai. commissions the author to write for the Preussische Jahrhiicher. receives the author into the Protestant State Church. 406 records instances of D611inger. misery entailed by the practice of. 313-4 Oretineau-Joly on the discovery of MSS. ii. 379 Discretion. Charles. 108-9. 160 ment at Mayence. i.. schools. compulsory. i. 139-41 the Constitutions. the heart of. 315-16 Drecker. 378-9 " Deo gratiaa " at the Stella Matutina. case Father Francis. 396-7 Domeuech. ii. 287. Creighton. 166-7 Denunciation in the Jesuit system of expounded by education. i. 172 346 i. his appearance. 141-2. specimen of the conduct of a. 227-8. the strange of. Jesuit. 220. his book in favour of the succession of the King of Scotland. 222 Dogma. 280-1 Ditton Hall. 249.. 381. a class of 20 affiliate Jesuits. ii. 124. form of. ii. of German. ii. 225. ii. i. 351-2. i. 258-60 examples of subjects chosen for. 45-6. education. of Jesuit how to exorcise instances of possession. his "History of the Moral-Theological Disputes " in the Catholic Church. i. becomes the author's con. alleged tyranny arrogance of the of. 16 424 Dominican 80 ii. Superior of the Jesuit settlei. 73 {7iote). 303-4 Dackazat. ii.'s by. Jesuit dealings with the Dominicans at Colmar. 350 training in. names of the chief possessing belief i. preferred by Jesuits in Church service. Devil. duties of. them. . Father Maximilian. ii. ii. activity of Edward Petre. »b. at Freiburg. i. ii. instances of. piety. Duhr. Doss. ii. 242 Diel." i. alleged author of the Bull uniQcnitui. grotesque miracles. 33 Coton. mischievous supervision of. 153. Jesuit plot against the Catholic College at. Dominican nuns and the Jesuit Order. 229. accomplice in the Jesuit plot against Queen EUzabath. 32 et seqq. i. 182 Cyprian.. Father. 22. i. explains how the Jesuit system of education resembles that of the . i. compositions of. ii. force of his influence. for theo101 logy. ii. 164 and note. ii. 453 Court coniessors. aeqg. importance of. 149-50 witiiin the Jesuit Order. ii. Deibriick. Jesuit activity in. 89. Father. the Earl of. John. 320 D'Aubanton. 9 (note) hostility" to heresy. 272-4 . ii. i. Jesuit belief in the. the Master of. Guido Maria. 55 Deposition of Bishops. 257 Desertion from the Army. Count. St. ii. 208-9 in. in the scheme of Jesuit study.

tries to minimise the eflect of the publication of the Daily Koutine. 57. 406 its villa at Oosen. 76-7. 77. 461 Evangelical Alliance of Germany. 149-53 Epping's lectures on astronomy at Blyenbeck. 248 Equivocation. 465 (note) Exaeten. a surprise for. on the genuineness of the iionita. Karl. 164-5 Duplicia feasts among the Jesuits. neglect of the German tongue. the lost chances of Jesuit education. 135 ct seqQ. 323. enters again. 83. retrograde features of the Scheme of Study. 475 aueut Jesuit scholars and externa. the author appointed . 100-2 Ebner. his work on Probabilism ii. 394. ' good " pupils make bad scholars. 7980. England. school. 150 130-1. 84-6. 356-7 Eulenberg. ii. answers Kelle's criticism of the standard of Latin Grammar in Jesuit schools. description of the administration and routine at the Stella Matutina. 203-8. egotism and selfishness of the system. i. ii. 56. uulikeness between likeness and Jesuit schools and English public schools. Jesuit strictures on the systems of instruction and education. espionage and tale-beariug encouraged. supports Boulanger. i. 252. Parsons' plot to depose Eliza- beth from the throne of. 129. 69 {note). 304-5 Erfurt. 167-8. 163-80. special favour shown to the study of Latin. 302-3. approves of use of Latin tor ordinary conversation. the real source of. Studiorum. alleged gratuitous teaching of the 115-6. i. piety in the school. hardship and discomfort of life at. 255 Encyclopaedists in France overcome i. the Church. devils : at. number of educational establishments in the Order in 1762. 77-84 Nostri considered always. 99. " i. 63. produces a "common" type man and woman. 133 " Studienordnung der {note}. the Batio Studiorum. 20. i. 99. the tragedy of. against mistaken tactics Ultramontanism. praises the practice of Latin composition. on witch persecution by the Jesuits. 292. defends the Jesuits in the afiair Tournon. for a few days. the externa casually. Jesuit. cardinal defect in Jesuit conception of teaching as a profession. . ii. ii. 126. how the French made his peace with 381 prisoner at. illustrates General Anderledy's mental gymnastics. aa authorised by the liatio . (See Denunciation) Easeiva. international.note) Ebenhoch. qn the existence of affilii. ii. 189 {note) his notions of modern philosophy. 283-5 . to destroy patriotism and nationality. 152. on the violation of the confession of Maria Theresa. proselytising at school. 107. 52. ib.. i. 288-9: seclusion of. 175-6 instances of his untrustworthiness. as seen through Jesuit glasses. on the ing aloud at meals. the teachers poorly equipped. 115-17. 9. 75 (. on the prohibition of friendships. crushes independence of thought and keeps the mind in bondage. 259. pupils.Index " Brothers of the Common Life " at Liege. 85. 98 his views about German classics 110 ineffective reply to Jesuit stric tures on Jesuit education. ii. disingenuous assertions of. times. and expulsion from school. to public opinion. lawsuits regarding it. regulations as to training of teachers disregarded. defends Jesuit political activity against the Protestants of Graz in the sixteenth century. ii. 432-4 Eichendorf as a German classic. its real aim.. weighed by the author and found wanting. quality of actual instruction behind the of Jesuitism. misleading criticiam of. ii." ii. the end of teaching. Papal. Du Lac. excommunicated by Pius v. the question of unchaatity. 320-7. rejected by the Order. &. the daily routine at a Jesuit espionage enjoined. 311 Elizalde. Jesuit justification of. of. Queen. fail. 108 Elizabeth. 281 Education. his insinuations against Bishop Palafos. a system to last for centuries. 128 End sanctifies the means. ib. ii. i. limited attention to cxterns. 63. 84. 452. 137-42. 298. Court Marshal. 184-95. 72-4. reactionary methods in Aus70-2. 143 {note).. 181-4 183. . reserved originally for the novices. 77. Jesuit attitude to the maxim. ii. practically unchanged during three centuries. 8. worship of wealth and aristocracy. 78. 61. 50-1. 288. the. his defence of Edward Petre. 129 {note). 148-50. 147. fails.: police-like supervision. eulogy of Jesuit teaching greatly overdone. Father Joseph. Michael de. ii. iates. 151. 138-41. 54-60. 149-53. lacks the creative spirit. 104. use of. 145-6. why Jesuit teaching 117. 361 ignorance of Catholicism among the members of. an educational farce. 114. treatment of poor scholars. 74. 64. threatened by General Oliva. grudging concessions 320. 155-7. on Jesuit morality. the so-called celebrated represses family life. 154-5. disregard of the world's classics. 75. the author leaves. Feldkirch. tries to depreciate the Declarations of the Jesuit Constitutions. ib. 86-7. read- can show no world classic in German and other tongues. ii. Jesuits. ii. why their education always must . 81. as to free education of the Jesuits. Encyclicals." 184. ii. 51-2. ib. 158-63. 297-8. Jesuits and corporal punishment. 96-114. 270.. the author enters the novitiate at. 95-6. 151-2. encourages superstition. Espionage. his Gesellschaft Jesu. use and influence of JIarian Congregations. 63-111. tria. 142-3. one brand of teaching for all countries. 319 and note. Parsons' plot to murder. 174 Etiquette in the Jesuit Order.

teachers in the author's time. 197. why Government grants at. is transferred to Brazil. ib. 369 i. a ready tool of the Jesuits. 159. 231 Faller. utilised for political night Mass on Christmas Eve at. 411 (note) Talk. daily routine. Franco-German war of 1870-1. 161 . ii. how wealth Bcriptor at. a Jesuit method of embellishment. Foley. and his duties. 116. i. 366-7 Fiesole. his attempts to induce the author to enter the Jesuit Ordex. Francis. 371. i. Forsler. Jesuit headquarters at. a of Jesuit scholarship. 370. improvements were the day boys. punishment at. and the Chancellorship of Prague University. annoyance at their temporary failure. his fondness for the author. 52-3. 165. ii. purposes. actual object of. 569. 391. ii. description of the buildings. rioorosutn. 370. 411. 155. 118. gluttony tacitly encouraged. 284 (note) Forer. 227. pseudo-mysticism of. ascribed to the Virgin and to God. fees at. the authorship of. war of 1870-1. Ignatius. 590. final 415. editorin-chief of the Stiinmen aus MariaLaach and Die Katholischen Missionen. 148. 456-8 Feldkirch. 476 Index of the education at. 270. 214-5. Externals. Margaret Duchess of. the end and aim of. ii. jubilee of. the author's confessors and teachers at. in Jesuit labours. 162-3. 240-1 Anselm. 424 . 244. 569-70." 156-7. pull- examination Exercises. tries to persuade the author to become a Jesuit.. Marian observances at. Expulsion from school. i. favoured by the Jesuits in the 418 Formxila Instituti. ii. 129. the best scholars 152. 450. make every Jesuit everywhere of a uniform pattern. i. 284 (note). 379. on Jesuit political activity at Graz. Dr. 32-5 Ferdinand II. Emerich. ii. Franciscan nuns and the Jesuit Order. 3-4 scrihendi. at. 163. i. text of. 424 the system of education failure. vows Formula education. Frederick William. his feats in prevarication. Father Jacob. consults with Windthorst in Berlin. attention pafd to. atmosphere of. ii. 119. i. ii. 371. for Portico. 155. records a priest's confession of murder. ii. the author quits.. 202-10. leaves. 31 Fah. how effected by Jesuits. i. 417. 213. 155-7. Joseph. Count Karl von. 130-1 Farnese. it. 54-60. 551 summary of the. E. game of "running the gauntlet. 108. 217 Finckenstein. i. 182 Fessler. Father. 9 i. how he a wiser i. 178 Fox's Commentary on Demosthenes' de " classic " Corona. 217. ii. and was a Jesuit hauteur towards. sends the author to Brussels for research work in history. craft of the. 229 France. value of the Exercises in popular missions. 152. 6. used to win recruits for the Jesuit priesthood. General Prefect at Feldkirch. 378. Particular. ii. mid201-2. 177 Fessler. due to State pressure. improvement in teaching at. Father. on the author's recantation. 200 Feuerbach. duration of. the " patriotism " of German Jesuits as evidenced in the war of 1870-1. 381-2 Eyre. becomes the Beat of the Philosophate. 161 Flugschriften zur Wehr 361 und Lehr. effect of. 582. ignores the author's hints as to the effect of his studies. his free and easy manner of dealing with history. Formed coadjutors Jesus. ii. 413-4. Franciscan Orders. ii. St. the library at. under the influence of the Jesuits. for ever. ii. ii. i. 49. 577-84. 459 Faber. terror in the young inspired by melodramatic addresses in the. 208 F^nelon ii. 171. i.. ii. 264 Filling.. 129 Fatherhood of God the basis of true religion. etc. headquarters of the Stimmen aus Maria-Laach and Die Katholischen Missionen. 164-5 . 179. 504. and the Jesuit Professors of Theology at Vienna. 378-82. ii. i. foolish rites iu honour of the Virgin at. denounces Father La Chaise. an instance in which he withstood his confessor.. i. i. supported by the Jesuits. 156. applies for a post in the State service for the author. 411. 253-4. spiritual. of. ii. 40. the structural at." 369 368-9. i.. 399-400. summary of the contents of. Cardinal Reisach's prophecy regarding. 205. 56-8 Boulanger's plot against. two main characteristics of. Examination. i. repudiation of the Monita by. 505. the Jesuit school at. 146. mixed nationality of the teaching staff at. nervous excitement caused by. 584-5 Experiments 592-3 during 151 the novitiate. 420 Eramen generale. criticism of. 151 cannot be condemned as can the Jesuits. ing the " particular chain. note. . 252-3. 371-6. BO. on Jesuit pupils. 580-2. and the discovery of the confessions of eminent persons. i. 285 Family life and the Jesuit system of Flares mariani. administration. ii. ii. 244. character of. sports at. i. the author and rank were favoured at. 1. ii. 183-4 Ferdinand I. Father Jacob. 218 Falsification of the text. is despatched to Berlin to prepare for a Jesuit settlement there. 162. Director of. ii. introduces the author to Orthodoxy and Conservatism.. assisted justice. 238. 117-9. 369-70. curious "atmosphere" at. of the Society of simple vows of. contents of. 352 et seqq. 150. 370. 380. man than 164 Loyola. negative results at. high fees charged for the Exercises. ii.

. deposition of. 28. the war misrepresented. 307 Friedrich. activity of Jesuits in. 151-2. 158-9 Ghosts. 234-45 Germania. 464-5. 311 i. 437 (note) Gastel. 378-9 Prins. 122 Frederick W'illiam IV. 311. ii.. Gelsenkirchen. ject of . Catholic belief in. Jesuit objections to. 11-2. 419-20. i. 232. von Hammerstein's appreciation of. ii. the real object of 1870-1. i. concerned in Parsons' plot against Queen Elizabeth. Father Henry. how ne acknowledged Elizabeth as Queen of England. ii. intrigues of. of Hesse. »b. 281 Freiburg. Jesuit hatred of the idea. 411 (note) Froment. i. Professor J. on the souldestroying effect of Jesuit teaching on the German students at Eome. 27-8 ment. i.. 166. 183 Canon. Professor. Qualifications for. General Conffregation. i. 238 Galen. ii. Jesuit scheme to subjugate. 230-4 by Baumgartner. Fiirstenberg. Miiffendorf. the Great. his views touching the killing of the king. 69. i. sent to Canossa by the Kulturkampf. Cardinal. 224 Freethinker. 342. ii. activity of. haunted houses at Zeil 188 and . powers of. 156-7 Giphanius. a learned and saintly man. on eflective Jesuit vengeance. Reinhold. 380-1 Genplli. a constant adviser of Windthorst. 420-1. the Fatherhood of God the basis of true religion. 104. ii. the young. 227 Garnet. Head of the Order.the . on mental reservation. 236-45 Goldie. how often held. Jesuit neglect of the. 422-3. unfortunate results to. Baron Klemens von. ii. ib. Jesuits. and the report of the poisoning of Cardinal Tournon. and fear of. 233-4. 411 (note). 246-7. return of the Jesuits to. on Jesuit self-aggrandise. ii. summoned by. i. supervision over. Count Max von. 419. 26-8. Francis. 367. 309-11. 232-3. tb. condemns the secret drinking in Jesuit settlements. 158-9. the. 55 Friendships at school. 382 Gauntlet-running at Jesuit schools. ^ranzelin. 329 . 161-2 Frick's " Manual on Logic for the use of Schools. 175-6 Galen. French League supported by the Jesuits.. as seen through Jesuit glasses.. ib.on . dominated by the Centre Party.. learning at. 106. by von Hammeretein. ii. Michael Jesuit intrigues at the ii. God " 419 scenea during the mission at.. Count Wratislaw von. ii. i. 154. Cardinal.. of the Kulturkampf.Index Jesuit hatred of Prusaia. 376. powers of. i. i. oflered to the author. P'ather John. 233 Gindely's account of the Jesuit proceedings against Wallenstein. to the General Congregation." ii. 47-8 Fiirstenberg. 422-3 Gerard. Father Link recognises their value. Johannes.. 421 Frankfort -on . Germany. composition oif. ii. on Jesuit intrigue Goch. 257-8 Friday. freely employs equivocation. ii. 230-2. the Decrees of. Count Ferdinand von. 182. great German classics denounced by von Doss.Main. 5 462 i. the author's residence at. ih. 227-8. an instance of records 179-80 Ferdinand II. 256. Jesuit ordinance anent German classics. i. elected aut vitam nut culpam. ii. i. ib. 408-9. records Alonzo Rodriguez's senseless literalism. 210 friendship forbidden within the Jesuit Order. 421-2. 111.. and the author's father. 7 Freemasonry. friendship with Lady Anne Vaux. 232-3 Frankfort . 411 (note): his opinion about Protestant girls. 384. ib. anent the violation of the confession of Maria Theresa. 456-8 Goethe. 39 at. denounced and misrepresented by Jesuits. organ of the Centre Party. 462. 456 (note) Frehner's revolt. attitude of the Order. 67 ordinance concerning German classics issued in the year of Goethe's death. 227. Jesuit opinion of. Chancellor of the University of Paris. 128. ii. 466 Gertt. 422. Jesuit *' at Ingolstadt. the highest court ti