This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Dr. Dheeraj Kumar Associate, Department of Mining Engineering, I.S.M Dhanbad Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Surveying is the art of determining the relative positions of points on, above or beneath the surface of the earth by means of direct or indirect measurements of distance, direction and elevation These measurement when drawn on a plan or map on a scale, all the natural and man-made features can be shown in their correct horizontal and vertical relationships. In general, surveying deals with measurements in an horizontal plane where as leveling deals with measurements in a vertical plane.
Importance of Mine Surveying
• • • • • • • It is very important for safe and ‘to the specification’ mining. It is the ‘eyes and ears’ of the mining. Essential to layout the design from ‘paper to the field ’. Used in the calculation of various required quantities. Very useful in planning the mining operations. Helpful in installing machines and structures. Brings the ‘mine on to the table’ for discussions and decisions.
Primary Divisions of Survey
The two primary divisions of survey are, • • Plane surveying Geodetic surveying
Plane Surveying It is that type of surveying in which the mean surface of the earth is considered as a plane and the spheroidal shape is neglected. All triangles formed by survey lines are considered as plane triangles. The level line is considered as straight and plumb lines are considered parallel. In other words, when small areas are to be surveyed, the curvature of the earth’s surface is ignored and such a surveying is called plane surveying. Geodetic Surveying It is that type of surveying in which the curved shape of the earth is taken in to account. The object of geodetic survey is to determine the precise position on the surface of the earth, of a system of widely distant points which form control stations in which surveys of less precision may be referred.
L. Theodolite Survey 3. Based on Object of Survey 1. Land Surveying a. 2. Geological Survey C. (Mean Sea Level). Hydrographic Survey 3. Military Survey 3. Plane Table Survey Some of the important surveys are. depth of water bodies. Traverse Survey 4. water spread area. Cadastral Survey c. Hydrographic Survey Hydro-graphic survey is carried out to determine M. hills etc.Topographical surveys They are carried out determine the position of natural features of a region such as rivers. Chain Survey 2. The purpose of such surveys is to prepare maps and such maps of are called topo-sheets. object of survey and instruments used. A. cross-section area of flow etc. . Mine Survey 4. Astronomical Survey B. Engineering Survey 2. Classification based on nature of field survey 1. Triangulation Survey 5. 1. streams.S. velocity of flow in streams.Classification Surveys may be classified based on the nature of the field of survey. Topographical Surveys b. Tacheometric Survey 6. and artificial features such as roads and canals. Based on Instruments Used 1. City Survey 2.
such as R.3. 1. Principles of Surveying The fundamental principle upon which the various methods of plane surveying are based can be stated under the following two aspects. Location of a point by measurement from two points of reference According to this principle. The survey consists of making observations to heavenly bodies such as stars. 8. Aerial Survey In this type of survey data about large tracks of land is collected by taking photographs from an aero-plane. 5. bridges and reservoirs. 4. Photographic survey In this type of survey. Astronomical Survey The Astronomical Survey is carried out to determine the absolute location of any point on the surface of earth. the relative position of a point to be surveyed should be located by measurement from at least two points of reference. 7. . Engineering Survey This type of survey is undertaken whenever sufficient data is to be collected for the purpose of planning and designing engineering works such as roads. Archeological Survey This type of survey is carried out to gather information about sites that are important from archeological considerations and for unearthing relics of antiquity. any other point. can be located by any of the direct methods shown in the figures below. data is collected by marking physical observation and some measurements using simple survey instruments. 6. If P and Q are the two reference points on the ground. Reconnaissance Survey In this type of survey. information is collected by taking photographs from selected points using a camera. the positions of which have already been fixed.
2. Fieldwork Involves (a) (b) Reconnaissance Survey Measurements & their Recording (i) Measurement of Distances (ii) Measurement of Angles (iii) Measurement of Directions (iv) Measurement of Levels (v) Measurement of Positions Types of Measurement • • • • • Horizontal distances Vertical distances Slope distances Horizontal angles Vertical angles .e. making measurements in the field. would expand to greater magnitudes if the reverse process is followed. when an area is to be surveyed. Office-work – (i) Planning of & Preparation for Fieldwork. This means. Then minor details are located by less precise methods. The idea of working this way is to prevent the accumulation of errors and to control and localize minor errors which. Working from whole to part According to this principle. thus making the work uncontrolled at the end. Surveying involves (a) (b) Fieldwork – Data Acquisition i. (ii) Processing of the field data – Computations (iii) Presentation of final product. otherwise. first a system of control points is to be established covering the whole area with very high precision. it is always desirable to carryout survey work from whole to part.
On a topographic map. C) Area. 1. distances. B) Location of a point. D) Volume. E) Other information. B) Direction of a line. Sections • Provide a side view of the interior of an object • Has an orientation of view that must be shown in plan • Found using reference bubbles Example: Right-of-way cross sections . Plan Plan views should include • • North arrow and scale Existing features and proposed construction Details • Provide detailed information that cannot be shown on plan • Reference bubbles Elevations • Provide side view of exterior of a building • Construction grid lines and elevations may be shown 2. areas. Plotting Obtaining in Formations from Plans or Processed Field data viz. Plans & sections Used for the determination of: A) Distance between any two points. On a plan generally only horizontal distances and directions are shown. however. to some scale of the features on. near or below the surface of the earth as projected on a horizontal plane which is represented by plane of the paper on which plan is drawn.Office work Involves • • • • Computations Assessment of Accuracies – Accuracy & Precision. Plans & Maps A plan is the graphical representation. If the scale used is small then it is called map. the vertical distances are also represented by contour lines. Here scale used is large. volumes etc.
Diagonal Scale 3... represents 1 km on the ground . Representative Fraction Types of Scales Scales may be classified as follows 1. For example.....3. or. Plain' scale 2. Profiles • • • • • Shows a pipe or road centerline. In each case. Vernier scale . if 2 cm on a map . the scale would be 2 cm = 1 km. along its length Has horizontal and vertical scales Shows existing ground line and proposed grade How are objects drawn along a profile? How are objects drawn that cross the axis of the profile? Scales & R.F Maps are made to scale.. etc. the scale represents the ratio of a distance on the map to the actual distance on the ground.
extending in both the directions. A plain scale showing 1cm = 3m Diagonal Scale On a diagonal scale. units. yards. the Vernier used is called double Vernier. miles and furlongs. etc. metres and decimeters. If the graduations of the main scale are numbered in both the directions. the Vernier used is called a single Vernier. decimeters and centimeters. tenths and hundredths. It usually consists of a small auxiliary scale which slides along side the main scale. it is possible to measure three dimensions such as metres. extending in one direction. The Vernier carries an index mark which forms the zero of the Vernier. A short length is divided into a number of parts by using the principle of similar triangles in which like sides are proportional Vernier Scale Vernier is a device for measuring the fractional part of one of the smallest divisions of a graduated scale.Plain Scale A plain scale is one on which it is possible to measure two dimensions only l such as units and lengths. feet and inches etc. having its index mark in the middle. . If the graduations of the main scale are numbered in one direction only.
The divisions of the Vernier are either just a little smaller or a little larger than the divisions of the main scale. . The fineness of reading or least count of the Vernier is equal to the difference between the smallest division on the main scale and smallest division on the Vernier.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.