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Welcome to the SAT Teaching Systems


Weve developed our educational package to integrate you, your students, the video component, and the supplemental materials into an effective learning system. The program delivers information in a clear, concise, example-filled manner that teaches with the perspective of the learner in mind. The supplemental material allows students structured opportunities to practice and enhance their knowledge of basic and advanced concepts. Each module contains the following items: a lesson plan, worksheets, and various testing components, and a practice exam.

The Lesson Plan has three parts:


Pre-viewing reviews the basic elements of the SAT test. Viewing the program offers a fun fast-paced way to teach important concepts. Post-viewing provides worksheets to reinforce the concepts taught in the video.

Testing components consist of:


Worksheets that have your students practice the material to reinforce the concepts and topics introduced. Practice Test which covers all the learning objectives and can be used either as a homework assignment or as a practice test in class. We hope that you and your students find Teaching Systems beneficial and enjoyable. Be sure to check out Cerebellum.com for special offers, new subjects, and other great resources!

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Lesson Plan
Video: 63 minutes Lesson: 70 minutes

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Pre-Viewing
:00 Warm Up: Do you need to have a photographic memory? No. Do you need to possess a canny ability to outwit the schemes of devious SAT designers? No. The good news is that increasing your vocabulary is a relatively simple process, anyone can do it. Well make the job easier by showing you the best way to learn new vocabulary words, along with tricks and tips to help you remember them. The only skill you need to have is a willingness to work. :00 Test-Prep: There are three main learning styles: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic & tactile (doing and touching). Most people favor learning in one of these three styles. For example, when you meet a new person, what is easiest for you to remember about that person a week later? The persons face, but not the name? (visual learner) The persons name, but not the face? (auditory learner) What you did together with the person? (kinesthetic & tactile) If you are able to identify the way you learn best, you can use that knowledge to help you learn. Weve made a list of study tips geared towards each learning style. Try memorizing the following words with the strategies we provide. Rank how effective you find each strategy on a scale of 1 to 3 (1=Works great! 3=Doesnt help much) to see which ones fit you best.

Viewing
:04 Playing Video: The SAT Vocabulary video program is divided into 2 segments. Twos Company uses short comedic videos to illustrate the meanings words in a way that students can easily relate to and understand. The videos are to engage students interest and enable them to learn and remember the meanings of difficult words. The Vocabulary Skills & Drills section will help you beef up your word skillsthe better your vocabulary, the better youll do on the test! :60 Wrap-Up: When youre ready, you can have students take the practice tests provided on the CD-ROM. The idea is that if you take these tests in a similar settings to the real tests, your students will be better prepared come test day.

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SAT: Vocabulary

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The Good and Bad News About Learning New Words


The good news: whatever your talents or abilities, you can increase your SAT vocabulary. A lot. Almost as much as you want to. Do you need to have a photographic memory? No. Do you need to possess a canny ability to outwit the schemes of devious SAT designers? No. The good news is that increasing your vocabulary is a relatively simple process. Anyone can do it. Well make the job easier by showing you the best way to learn new vocabulary words, along with tricks to help you remember them. The only skill you need to have is a willingness to work. The bad news: memorizing new words takes work. There isnt a single trick or magic system that will allow you to memorize 500 words a day and rattle off esoteric words that will make you look erudite to your friends after a week. Its not hard work, but it does take effort, and the more time you spend studying, the better you will do. You are in control of how much or little you learn. But thats not really bad news, is it?

Whats in This Section?


1. Study Plans. Taking the SAT in six months? What about in a week? We suggest the best study strategy depending on how much time you have. 2. Learning Tips. Tricks and tools that will help you remember the words you learn. 3. Word Roots + Flash Cards. Word roots can help you figure out a words meaning even if youve never seen the word before. Take neologism. If you know that neo means new, and log means speech, thought, you know neologism is close to new speech, thought. The real definition: neologism--a new word, expression, or usage. 4. Word Groupings. We organized like-minded words into groups to make them easier to memorize. For example, canny, esoteric, and erudite (highlighted above) are in the Intelligence or Knowledge group. The definitions of these words are all related to intelligence or knowledge. Each word group is followed by a quiz, and we have a cumulative review after every four chapters.

Learning Strategies and Tips


There are three main learning styles: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic & tactile (doing and touching). Most people favor learning in one of these three styles. For example, when you meet a new person, what is easiest for you to remember about that person a week later? The persons face, but not the name? (visual learner) The persons name, but not the face? (auditory learner) What you did together with the person? (kinesthetic & tactile) If you are able to identify the way you learn best, you can use that knowledge to help you learn. Weve made a list of study tips geared towards each learning style. Try memorizing the following words with the strategies we provide. Rank how effective you find each strategy on a scale of 1 to 3 (1=Works great! 3=Doesnt help much) to see which ones fit you best.

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Words
cupidity (adj.) greed diurnal (adj.) active during the day

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dogmatic (adj.) arrogantly certain about an opinion without adequate grounds. endemic (adj.) belonging to a particular area indubitable (adj.) unquestionable; too evident to be doubted nefarious (adj.) very mean and villainous quiescent (adj.) quiet; still; at rest

Rating (1-3)

Strategy (visual) Make a flash card. Write the word on one side, the definition on the other. (visual/tactile) Draw a picture that incorporates the meaning of the word. Example: diurnal. Draw a rooster crowing as the sun rises. (tactile) Act out the word, or tie it to one of your senses. Example: nefarious. Twirl your imaginary mustache, and cackle in your most villainous voice, Ha ha ha! I love being nefarious. (auditory) Record your voice (or a friends) reading the word and definition. Play it back until you memorize it. (auditory) Ask a friend to say the word aloud and then quiz you on the definition. (auditory, optional) There are several web sites on the Internet that provide free mp3 files that teach a new word or two every day. Download one of these files and listen to it at home or on the way to school. (Search for vocabulary podcast in an Internet search engine).

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Strategies for All Learners


These techniques are useful no matter which learning style you favor;

1. Create a sentence using the word.


Underline the word, and put clues to the words meaning in the sentence. It will help you remember the definition. His cupidity cost him a fortune when he put all his winnings on 25 at the casinos roulette wheel and lost. Marsh grass is endemic to the Spotsylvania area, but it is non-existent in the neighboring counties.

2. Integrate new words in your daily routine.


Every day, pick three words that you will use at least once either while talking or writing. Make a checklist and mark off the word once you use it. If it feels unnatural to use the word in conversation, tell your friends, Im going to use a new vocabulary word in the next two minutes. Try to guess what it is. The added benefit is that theyll pay close attention to what you say for the next few minutes.

3. Tie the word to a strong emotion.


Try this exercise. For one minute, think about your childhood. What are the first memories that come up? Its likely that most, if not all of those memories, are connected with a strong emotion. When an event is associated with a strong emotion, we are much more likely to remember the event than if the emotion wasnt there. Its why you may not be able to recall a word of what your teacher said yesterday, but you can clearly remember a scene from a scary movie six months ago. For practice, try associating these words with an emotional event in your life. chide (v.) to scold or criticize delectable (adj.) delicious euphoria (n.) the feeling of happiness or elation Connecting an emotion to a word is a powerful way to remember its meaning.

Last Step:
Write down five learning strategies you will use to help you memorize new words. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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Where Do I Start?

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The most effective way to augment your vocabulary (augment: to make greater) is as youd expectslow and steady. Learning a handful of words a day over many months is by far the best way to increase your vocabulary. It is less stressful than cramming, makes memorization easier, and most importantly, gives you time to review the material. Regularly reviewing, even for just a few minutes a day, is one of the most important things you can do to become an SAT-crushing wordsmith. But even if you only have a few weeks before taking the SAT, you can still make significant progress. Weve created two study plans, depending on how much time you have before the big day.

Before You Start


Buy a notebook to track your progress and to use the learning strategies we outlined on pages 3-5, such as drawing a picture of the word or using it in conversation.

Help! Im taking the test next week.


(Test date: 2 weeks or less. Study time: 2-3 hours a day) Day 1: Day 2: Day 3: Memorize word roots. Each word root has a few examples of it in action. Guess what the word means based on its root, and then check the definition to see how close you are. Skim the word groups. For now, ignore the definitions and try to memorize which group the word belongs to. When you recognize a word root, underline the root and guess the words definition. For as many words as you can, cover up the definition and guess whether the words connotation is positive, negative, or neutral. Often, knowing a words connotation is enough information to answer a SAT question, or at least make an educated guess. Review all material.

Day 4-6: Do as many chapters as possible in the book. Review word roots for 15-30 minutes a day. Day 7: If you have more than a week, either spread out the work above or repeat the tasks you have trouble with.

Im taking the test in the next month or two.


(Tesdt dare: 6 weeks or more. 1 hour a day) 1. Proceed through the chapters at your own pace. We suggest finishing a chapter every other day, and reviewing the material once a week until you have it well memorized. 2. Outside study: after you finish all the chapters (2-4 weeks), go to a library and borrow a few books written at or near college level. Books that were nominated or won an award are often good places to start. Make it your goal to learn 5-10 words a day. When you read a word that you are not 100% positive of the definition, follow this process: a) Guess what the word means. b) Look up the definition in a dictionary. c) Write the word and definition in your notebook. d) Write a sentence using the word. e) Reread the sentence in the book.

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Learning vocabulary through reading has two benefits. One, seeing the word used in context helps memorization and understanding of proper usage. Two, the new SAT values reading comprehension skills more than the old SAT. By reading a few pages every day, youll be able to improve your reading comprehension skills at the same time.

Reviewing
For both plans, set aside 5-10 minutes at the end of the day to review. Once a week, take 30-60 minutes to review material from the past week or two. Once a month, take 60 minutes to skim over your notes and refresh any definitions.

Word Roots
One of the tricks to increasing vocabulary is to memorize common word roots. Knowing word roots makes it easier to do the following: 1. Remember the words definition. 2. Figure out the meaning of new words. 3. Make educated guesses on the SAT. Often, you can make an educated guess just by knowing a words connotation or part of its definition. Keep in mind... 1. Word roots can look identical but have different meanings. amoralwithout morals (a means not, without) abetto encourage or assist another (a means to, towards) 2. Many words have two or more roots: incessantunending (in means not; cess means to go, to yeild) 3. Sometimes, a word appears to have a word root when it doesnt, or its roots are no longer related to its current meaning. ostensible1. intended for display. 2. plausibly true but not really true (os means in the way; tens means to stretch)

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Study Tips
We suggest two ways to learn word roots:

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1. Head-On Approach: Use flashcards to learn 10-15 word roots a day. Review old word roots along with new ones. 2. Integrated Approach: As you proceed through the chapters, identify the word roots in each word. Check the word root table or a dictionary to verify the root. Root a, an ab, a ad, a ante, ant am, ami anti, ant bene cede, cess chron circum clud, clus claus cogn, gno co, com, con, contra, counter cred de dei, div dem, demo dict dis, dys, dif en, em equi e, ex fac, fea, fect, fic, fy ferv Meaning not, without away, from to, towards before love against, opposite good, well go, yield time around shut, close know with, together against, opposite believe from, down, away God, godly people speak apart, away, not in, into equal out, out of, from make, do boil Examples amoral, atrophy, atheist aberration, abject, abscond, absolve, abstain abet, adroit, admonish, affluent antecedent, antediluvian, anticipate ameliorate, amicable antipathy, antithesis benefactor, benevolent, benign cede, incessant, secede anachronistic, chronological circumlocution, circumspect, circumvent exclude, preclude, occlude, reclusive cognizant, ignorant, incognito, prognosis combustion, complete, congenial, constrain, convoluted contradictory, counterintuitive, incontrovertible credulity, discredit, incredible debase, deface, demarcation, deride deity, divine democracy, endemic abdicate, contradictory, malediction discern, discordant, disdain, disparage, disseminate, dysfunctional embellish, empathy, endemic equidistant, equivocal exacerbate, exonerate, exorbitant, expiate, egregious, egress benefactor, confection, feasible, factory, vilify fervent, effervescent

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Root flu, flux grad, gress grat greg hyper hypo in, ig, il, im in, il, im, ir inter, intro intra, intr jac, ject loc, log, loqu luc, lum mal micro mis morph mut nat, nasc non ob pan path per per pet pot pre Meaning flow step pleasing crowd, flock above, over, too much below, less than, too little not in, on, into between within, into to throw speech, thought light bad, badly small wrong, bad, badly shape change born not against, toward all feeling, suffering through, intensive, throughout against, destruction seek, go towards power before

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Examples

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affluent, confluence, superfluous digress, gradient, progress gratuitous, gratuity, denigrate, ingratiate aggregate, gregarious, egregious hyperventilate, hyperbole, hyperthermia hypothermia, hypothetical impeccable, impregnable, insipid, intrepid, ignoble, illogical incandescent, imbue, induct, ingratiate, innate, irritate internet, interstate, introduction, intervene intrastate, intrinsic, introspective abject, conjecture, interject circumlocution, eulogy, loquacious, neologism elucidate, illuminate, lucid malediction, malevolent microcosm, microscope mischievous, misconstrue, misleading amorphous, metamorphosis, morphology commute, immutable, mutate innate, native, nascent nonchalant, nonplussed obfuscate, oblivious, obscure, obtuse panacea, pandemic apathy, empathy, sympathy perfunctory, perspicacious, peruse perfidious, perjure impetus, impetuous, petulant despot, impotent, omnipotent preclude, precocious, predilection, prescient, presumptuous, prevent

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Root pro quie rid sacr, sanct se sed, sid sem sub super, sur theo, the tract trem, trep vac ven, vent vert, vers vol volv, volut Meaning ahead, forth quiet laugh holy apart, away sit seed, sow under above God drag, draw shake, timid empty come turn wish turn, roll

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procrastinate, progeny, provoke acquiesce, disquiet, quiescent deride, ridiculous consecrate, sacrilege, sacrosanct secede, segregate, sedition assiduous, insidious, sedate, sedentary disseminate, seminal subjugate, subliminal, subservient insuperable, supercilious, surfeit apotheosis, atheist, theology protract, tractable intrepid, trepidation, tremor, tremulous vacant, vacuous, vacuum advent, contravene, circumvent aversion, incontrovertible, subvert, versatile benevolent, malevolent, volition convoluted, evolve

Study Strategy
1. Read definitions 2. Use learning strategies to memorize definitions 3. Test knowledge with quiz aberration Root a, an: not, without ab, a: away, from aberration (n.) a deviation from the normal The police chief publicly apologized for the two officers involved in the bribery scandal. He assured citizens that the officers were aberrations and not representative of the department in any way. atypical eclectic eccentric iconoclast idiosyncratic pathology uncanny

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atypical (adj.) not typical

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When Dr. Munsons robot overcame his programming and began a killing spree, the doctor understatedly said that the outcome was atypical. eclectic (adj.) selected from a variety of sources The honorary feast was an eclectic mix of traditional dishes and modern cuisine. eccentric (adj.) 1. odd, different from the norm 2. deviating from a circular form or path, as in an elliptical orbit. Coworkers found Gregs habit of bird house collecting to be a little eccentric. iconoclast (n.) one who defies common beliefs or institutions Many of the people we revere today, such as Gandhi or Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., were iconoclasts and controversial figures when they were alive. idiosyncratic (adj.) peculiar to one person Susan has the idiosyncratic habit of tapping the tune of Skip to my Lou with her foot every time she meets someone named Lou or Louise. pathology (n.) a departure from a normal condition The formerly pleasant neighborhood of Lyonsville is currently suffering from the pathologies of drug dealing and late-night drag racing. uncanny (adj.) seeming to have supernatural origin Robert has an uncanny ability to find dollar bills on the ground whenever he visits the city.

Boost Your Score


Underline the word roots. Pick the four toughest words and use each of them in a sentence in your vocabulary journal. Look up eccentric in a thesaurus and learn the definitions of three of its synonyms.

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Matching: Definitions
1. atypical 2. eclectic 3. eccentric 4. iconoclast 5. idiosyncratic

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Chapter 1 Quiz: Words Dealing with the Abnormal or Odd


a. selected from a variety of sources b. one who defies common beliefs or institutions c. odd, different from the norm d. not typical e. peculiar to one person

Word Roots Flashback


6. ab, a = _________________________ 7. co, com, con = __________________ 8. ex, e = _________________________

Circle the Correct Word


9. It is (idiosyncratic, uncanny) the way the lamp post flickers every time I walk by it. 10. Louies (pathology, eccentricity) is that his skin turns blue during winter. 11. The diners found the chefs selection of dishesMongolian crab, Japanese bamboo shoots, French croissants, and Hungarian wineto be pleasantly (atypical, eclectic). 12. Joan assured her boss that her late arrival today was (an aberration, idiosyncratic) and wouldnt happen again.

Chapter 2: Words Dealing with Admirable Character


alacrity fidelity Root bene: good, well en, em: in, into in, ig, il, im: not mag, maj, mas, max: great phil: love path, pass: feel, suffer trem, trep: shake, timid vol: wish assiduous forbearance benevolent fortitude decorous intrepid deft lenient diligent empathy philanthropic magnanimous

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alacrity (n.) cheerful willingness; timeliness assiduous (adj.) persistently attentive; diligent

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Matts boss appreciated how he would do any task, even mundane ones, with alacrity. Kathie was assiduous to her grandfathers needs after he had a stroke and needed help to get around. benevolent (adj.) marked by goodness Mateos father was a benevolent man, who gave much of his time and money to charities. decorous (adj.) socially proper Sarah warned her boyfriend about the necessity of being decorous with her family, but he still forgot to put his napkin on his lap before eating. deft (adj.) skillful The locksmith deftly picked the lock in under 15 seconds. diligent (adj.) characterized by persistent effort It is difficult for most people to be diligent about studying for a subject in which they have little interest. empathy (n.) sensitivity to anothers feelings as if they were ones own Susanna is so empathetic that Im hesitant to tell her when Im feeling depressed, because shell usually feel depressed as well. fidelity (n.) faithfulness to ones obligations; devotion Fidelity to each other is treasured in any marriage. forbearance (n.) patience and restraint, especially when being provoked Kenny showed great forbearance in not punching a classmate that was goading him into a fight, especially considering that Kenny was six inches taller than his classmate. fortitude (n.) strength of mind that allows one to endure adversity Although being a political prisoner for 11 years was a horrible experience, the activist developed a sense of fortitude while in jail that allowed him to feel unbreakable after he was released. intrepid (adj.) fearless, unable to be shaken The hero was intrepid, even when the dragon ate his sword and shield. lenient (adj.) tolerant, merciful The teacher was in a lenient mood and decided not to chide Tammy for coming late to class. magnanimous (adj.) generous and noble; forgiving It was magnanimous of the king to allow the assassin to live. philanthropic (adj.) charitable and giving Charities depend on the philanthropic spirit of people to survive.

Boost Your Score


Underline word roots. Pick the six toughest words and use the learning strategies on page 4-5 to learn them.

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Matching: Definitions 1. alacrity 2. benevolent 3. decorous 4. fortitude 5. intrepid 6. lenient Word Roots Flashback 7. a, an = _____________________ 8. ab, a = _____________________ Circle the Correct Word

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Chapter 2 Quiz: Words Dealing With Admirable Character


___a. cheerful willingness; timeliness ___b. fearless, unable to be shaken ___c. tolerant, merciful ___d. socially proper ___e. strength of mind that allows one to endure adversity ___f. marked by goodness

9. It is (benevolent, intrepid) of her to volunteer at a soup kitchen every week. 10. Some of his friends took advantage of his (assiduous, magnanimous) character. 11. The thief was (deft, philanthropic) at breaking into art museums unseen. 12. Bert finished his task with (alacrity, fidelity) and had enough time to watch a movie before going to bed.

Chapter 3: Words Dealing With Arguing or Convincing


accost contentious Root co, com, con: with, together cogn, gno: to know de: from, away, down accost (v.) to confront verbally, often with a demand or request The teacher was accosted by several students after class with demands that she change their test grades. altercation (n.) a dispute The two men got in an altercation when they arrived at the grocery line at the same time. altercation debunk arbiter beseech dogmatic coerce cajole cogent sophistry

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beseech (v.) to beg, to plead

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arbiter (n.) one who can resolve a dispute, make a decision Neither side is happy with the arbiters ruling, which some say means its a good decision. I beseech you, Mr. Scrooge! Please let me leave a hour early to visit my child in the hospital. cajole (v.) to repeatedly coax, usually in a good-natured way Freddie cajoled his friends to go skinny-dipping with him. Eventually, they gave in. coerce (v.) to make someone do something by force or threat The Mafia coerces owners of local businesses to pay them protection money. cogent (adj.) logically convincing I disagreed with the speaker at first, but his argument was so cogent that it changed my view. contentious (adj.) quarrelsome, belligerent Brittany is a contentious child, always picking fights with her parents and sister. debunk (v.) to discredit or disprove Although scientists have debunked the notion of ESP repeatedly, some people still believe it exists. dogmatic (adj.) arrogantly certain about an opinion without adequate grounds. Amy hated arguing with Carlos. He is dogmatic and unwilling to change his mind. sophistry (n.) a plausible but misleading argument The politicians sophistry regarding immigration proved popular with the public, in spite of the criticism of it by many experts.

Boost Your Score


Underline word roots. Look up the definition for pugnacious and write it down in your notebook. Find antonyms for these words and write down the definitions: coerce, contentious, debunk.

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Matching: Definitions 1. beseech 2. coerce 3. contentious 4. debunk 5. sophistry Word Roots Flashback 6. bene = __________ 7. en, em = __________ 8. in, ig, il, im = __________ 9. mag, maj, mas, max = __________ 10. phil = __________ 11. path, pass = __________ 12. trem, trep = __________ 13. vol = __________ Circle the Correct Word

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Chapter 3 Quiz: Words Dealing With Arguing or Convincing


___a. a plausible but misleading argument ___b. quarrelsome, belligerent ___c. to discredit or disprove ___d. to make someone do something by force or threat ___e. to beg, to plead

14. He looked so pitiful when he (beseeched, coerced) his boss for a raise that his boss was reluctant to say no. 15. Sarah convinced me with her (cogent, dogmatic) argument that I should start saving for retirement as soon as possible. 16. The five-year study on alien abduction thoroughly (debunked, accosted) the notion that aliens are snatching up people in the middle of the night.

Chapter 4: Words Dealing With Assistance, Calm, or Relief


ameliorate pacific Root am, ami: love pan: all assuage placate equanimity respite mitigate salve mollify panacea serene

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ameliorate (v.) to improve assuage (v.) to relieve, to reduce pain or difficulty The cool, damp cloth assuaged his fever. equanimity (n.) the act of being calm, even-tempered Greg accepted the bad news with equanimity. mitigate (v.) to make less severe or painful

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The mayor hopes the new subway system will ameliorate traffic congestion downtown.

The dentist gave her patient a shot of Novocain to mitigate her pain. mollify (v.) to pacify, soothe, or appease Xavier was ready to chase after the guy that stepped on his toe, but his girlfriend mollified him. panacea (n.) a remedy for all ills or difficulties The salesman claimed his elixir was a panacea but I was skeptical, as he kept coughing during his presentation. pacific (adj.) peaceful, soothing Lying on warm sand on a beach while listening to the ocean roar in the distance is quite pacific. placate (v.) to ease the anger of, soothe Jimmys mother was so desperate to get him to stop crying that she bought him an ice cream cone to placate him. respite (n.) a break or period of relief After each round, boxers get a moment of respite before returning to the fight. salve (n.) a soothing balm The salve mitigated the pain from the burns, but not by much. serene (adj.) calm, peaceful The only sound on the serene lake was the water lapping gently against the boat.

Boost Your Score


Underline word roots. Find antonyms for these words and memorize the definitions: ameliorate, pacific, placate.

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Chapter 4 Quiz: Words Dealing with Assistance, Calm, or Relief


Matching: Definitions 1. ameliorate 2. equanimity 3. panacea 4. respite 5. salve 6. serene Word Roots Flashback 7. co, com, con = ____________________ 8. cogn, gno = _______________________ 9. de = ______________________________ Circle the Correct Word 10. Tyson (mitigated, placated) his anger at losing the chess match by reminding himself that he only started playing a few months ago. 11. The health food company claimed its new vitamin was a (panacea, salve) that could cure almost any health problem. 12. After working non-stop for six days, the construction worker felt he earned a (respite, amelioration) from work. ___a. to improve ___b. a break or period of relief ___c. a soothing balm ___d. the act of being calm, even-tempered ___e. a remedy for all ills or difficulties ___f. calm, peaceful

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Match the word with the word group: ___1. pacific ___2. altercation ___3. benevolent ___4. cajole ___5. eccentric ___6. magnanimous ___7. aberration ___8. ameliorate ___9. arbiter ___10. diligent ___11. mollify ___12. idiosyncratic a. Abnormal or Odd

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Cumulative Review: Chapters 1-4


b. Admirable Character c. Arguing or Convincing d. Assistance, Calm, or Relief

Underline the word root(s) in the word. Then write the words definition. 13. atypical _____________________________________________________________ 14. intrepid _____________________________________________________________ 15. cogent _____________________________________________________________ 16. panacea _____________________________________________________________ Circle the Correct Answer: 17. The (eccentric, wily) farmer was the only person in the whole state of Nebraska to have a blue farm house. 18. It takes an (intrepid, serene) person to go sky diving. 19. Jaromirs mother (coerced, mollified) him into clearing his room. 20. It was (devious, uncanny) of Simone to tell her parents she was going to spend the weekend at a friends house when her real plan was to take a road trip with her friends to Las Vegas.

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circumlocution turgid Root circum: around loc, loq, loqu: speech, thought circumlocution (n.) indirect and wordy language concise verbose pithy

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laconic

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Chapter 5: Words Dealing With Brevity or Wordiness


redundant succinct

If the professor spoke directly instead of indulging in circumlocution, his lectures would take one-third the time and be easier to follow. concise (adj.) brief and direct I appreciate Franks concise way of speaking. He rarely rambles and I dont have to guess what he is trying to say. laconic (adj.) terse or brief, in speech or writing Gita was shocked when her usually laconic father spoke to her for over an hour on the phone. pithy (adj.) concisely meaningful Yoda responded to Luke with a pithy saying: Do or do not. There is no try. succinct (adj.) precise, short Her response to her sons demands for a new toy was succinct: no. redundant (adj.) unnecessary; repetitive in expression The phrase PIN number is redundant because PIN stands for Personal Identification Number. turgid (adj.) swollen, excessively embellished in style or language Before Karl ate his waffle, he said in his most turgid manner, O, glorious squares, aggregation of earthen wheat and heavenly flour, covered with the syrup of desire and strawberries of life: my mouth awaits you! verbose (adj.) unnecessarily wordy Boomer disliked being verbose, but he needed to write a 15-page report on climate change and didnt know how else to do it.

Boost Your Score


Underline word roots. Pick the six toughest words and use each of them in a sentence in your vocabulary journal.

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Chapter 5 Quiz: Words Dealing With Brevity or Wordiness


Matching: Examples 1. circumlocution 2. laconic 3. pithy a. How was your three-month vacation to India? Fine. b. Lets meet in front of the theater at 9:00 p.m. Thats 9:00 p.m., in front of the theater. c. So what Im trying to say is, well, first, maybe I should start with what happened this morning. This morning, I was eating cereal, whenactually, let me start over. d. A stitch in time saves nine. e. It is necessary for all white, rectangular paper to meet the required classifications and requirements as stated in the official office supply purchasing and procurement manual, OB-87b. f. From the deepest pits of hell, from the darkness where demons linger, may the beasts of evil arise and come forth to inflict a thousand wounds upon you for eating the last jelly doughnut.

4. redundant 5. turgid

6. verbose

Word Roots Flashback 7. am, ami = __________________ 8. pan = ______________________ Circle the Correct Word 9. His answer to my question was (succinct, verbose): no. 10. Steves thoughts tend to be disorganized when he is under stress. His normally concise speaking style is replaced with lapses into (circumlocution, pithiness). 11. Diane was unusually (concise, laconic). She usually cant stop talking. 12. The gurus followers found his wisdom to be (pithy, turgid).

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VOCABULARY

Chapter 6: Words Dealing With Caution or Uncertainty


addle dubious Root a, an: not, without ambi, amphi: both circum: around equi: equal morph: shape spec, spic: around, look addle (v.) to muddle or confuse The fever so addled his brain that he could barely recognize his own room. ambiguous (adj.) open to interpretation; uncertain The staff found their boss latest request to work hard, but not too hard very ambiguous. amorphous (adj.) without definite shape or form Tanya was frightened by the dark, amorphous shape drifting towards her through the fog. apocryphal (adj.) of questionable authorship or authenticity The story of Newton devising the Universal Law of Gravitation after an apple dropped on the head is apocryphal, but many people believe it is true anyway. circumspect (adj.) cautious; prudent He was circumspect about making his way through the jungle as he heard it was infested with poisonous snakes. dubious (adj.) doubtful, questionable Big Joes claim of bowling two perfect 300 games in a row is dubious. equivocal (adj.) subject to two or more interpretations, and sometimes intended to mislead Sometimes when faced with a scandal, a politician will issue an equivocal statement that is misleading but technically true, like I did not accept a bribe on that day. ambiguous equivocal amorphous prudent apocryphal vacillate circumspect

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VOCABULARY

prudent (adj.) careful and sensible; marked by sound judgment. Sarahs decision to buy fire insurance for her home proved to be prudent when a bolt of lightning struck her house and set the roof on fire. vacillate (v.) to be indecisive; to sway between decisions Jon vacillated so much between the chicken and pasta before ordering dinner that his date eventually snapped, Just pick one!

Boost Your Score


Underline word roots. Write down something ambiguous you heard or were told today. Write down a dubious claim a friend made recently. Write down a story or urban legend that you believe to be apocryphal.

Chapter 6 Quiz: Words Dealing with Caution or Uncertainty


Matching: Definitions 1. addle 2. ambiguous 3. amorphous 4. circumspect 5. dubious 6. vacillate Word Roots Flashback 7. circum = ________________________ 8. loc, loq, loqu = __________________ Circle the Correct Word 9. Sandra couldnt make out the (amorphous, circumspect) object beneath the lakes surface. 10. Mr. Swanson found it (dubious, prudent) that Tonys dog ate his homework for the third time in a week. 11. Benny was (addling, vacillating) between ordering the soup and the hamburger. 12. Jennifer felt her husband was being (apocryphal, equivocal) when she asked him if he planned a surprise vacation to Tahiti for her birthday and he responded, I didnt make any plans to travel... there. a. without definite shape or form b. to be indecisive; to sway between decisions c. open to interpretation; uncertain d. to muddle or confuse e. cautious; prudent f. doubtful, questionable

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acquiesce obsequious Root cap, cip: head co, com, con: with, together ob: against, toward sequ, secu: follow tract: drag, draw trem, trep: shake, timid acquiesce (v.) to comply quietly amenable punctilious capitulate

SAT
trepidation

VOCABULARY

Chapter 7: Words Dealing with Compliance or Timidity


compliant deferential docile servile tractable timorous

The hostage, fearful of being killed, acquiesced to his captors demands. amenable (adj.) agreeable, cooperative Although they had agreed to go hiking, Lily knew she could get her amenable friend to see a movie instead. capitulate (v.) to surrender On April 9, 1865, after four years of fighting, General Robert E. Lee capitulated to Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant, and the American Civil War was finally over. compliant (adj.) yielding, obedient Most children are compliant to their parents wishes until they get older and begin to rebel. deferential (adj.) yielding to the wishes of another; showing respect for authority Zoriada says she would like to give the President of the United States a piece of her mind, but I suspect if she ever met him, she would be deferential to him. docile (adj.) easily taught or trained Some breeds of dogs, like the poodle and Golden Retriever, are more docile than other breeds. obsequious (adj.) excessively submissive or attentive Franklins obsequiousness towards his teacher evoked derision from his classmates, who called him a kiss-up. punctilious (adj.) eager to follow rules or conventions Joseph is punctilious about signaling while driving. He even uses his turn signals when no one is around.

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servile (adj.) subservient, almost slave-like

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VOCABULARY

It makes me cringe to see a married couple where one of them is servile to the other. Shouldnt there be equality in relationships? tractable (adj.) easily controlled or dealt with; obedient When the glass of the pythons pen broke, the situation was tractable because it happened after zoo hours and the python stayed nearby. trepidation (n.) fear and apprehension Louise agreed to give the graduation speech with trepidationshe hated public speaking and had never spoken to so many people at once. timorous (adj.) fearful, timid Jill appears timorous at first because of her small stature and mousy voice, but people who know her are quick to say she can be pushy and demanding when she wants to.

Boost Your Score


Underline word roots. Look up the definitions of these words: accede, conciliatory, tremulous. For each word, write a sentence that uses the word.

Chapter 7 Quiz: Words Dealing with Compliance or Timidity


Matching: Definitions 1. amenable 2. capitulate 3. deferential 4. obsequious 5. punctilious 6. tractable 7. timorous Word Roots Flashback 8. ambi, amphi = ______________________ 9. circum = ___________________________ 10. equi = ____________________________ 11. morph = __________________________ 12. spec, spic = _______________________ a. yielding to the wishes of another; showing respect for authority b. excessively submissive or attentive c. eager to follow rules or conventions d. agreeable, cooperative e. easily controlled or dealt with; obedient f. to surrender g. fearful, timid

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Circle the Correct Word

SAT

VOCABULARY

13. Judy felt (docile, timorous) when waiting in line for a scary roller coaster. 14. True friendships cant work when one of the people is (amenable, servile) to the other. 15. Joseph is (deferential, punctilious): a real stickler for the rules. 16. The war finally ended with the generals (capitulation, trepidation).

Chapter 8: Words Dealing with Criticism or Scolding


admonish disparage Root ad, a: to, towards de: from, down, away dis, dys, dif: apart, away, not admonish (v.) to caution or warn gently Now, now, admonished the pastor, Its not nice to lie. berate (v.) to scold in an angry or harsh tone Lucy berated her husband mercilessly for getting drunk and insulting her boss last night. censure (v.) the act of blaming or condemning sternly Before giving his verdict, the judge censured the delinquent mother for neglecting her children. chide (v.) to scold or express disproval Louise found it humorous when his younger brother chided him for not doing the dishes last night. decry (v.) to criticize publicly At her sermon, the minister decried people who only thought about spirituality on Sundays. denigrate (v.) to insult someones reputation It makes Mateo uncomfortable to hear Cathy denigrate Arin behind her back, because he considers both of them to be his friends. deride (v.) to mock, scorn, or make fun of Jon is a movie snob. He derides every movie made by Hollywood unless it is filmed in black-and-white and is difficult to understand. disparage (v.) to reduce in esteem or rank; to speak of in a disrespectful way James is jealous of his sister Alexias accomplishments, so he constantly disparages her to make himself feel better. berate invective censure rebuke chide upbraid decry denigrate deride

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invective (n.) a verbal attack, such as cursing

SAT

VOCABULARY

Ms. Williams was speechless when she asked one of her sixth-grade students to pay attention and he responded with an invective directed at her. rebuke (v.) to reprimand; to criticize sharply After she recovered from the shock, Ms. Williams rebuked the student and sent him to the principals office. upbraid (v.) to criticize or scold severely Robert cringed to hear the mother upbraid her daughter in the store just for asking for a new dress.

Boost Your Score


Underline word roots. Pick the six toughest words and use each of them in a sentence in your vocabulary journal.

Chapter 8 Quiz: Words Dealing With Criticism or Scolding


Matching: Definitions 1. admonish 2. decry 3. denigrate 4. deride 5. invective 6. rebuke Word Roots Flashback 7. cap, cip = ____________________ 8. co, com, con = _______________ 9. ob = _________________________ 10. sequ, secu = ________________ 11. tract = ______________________ 12. trem, trep = _________________ ___a. to caution or warn gently ___b. to insult someones reputation ___c. to criticize publicly ___d. a verbal attack, such as cursing ___e. to reprimand; to criticize sharply ___f. to mock, scorn, or make fun of

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Circle the Correct Word

SAT

VOCABULARY

13. After fouling out of the basketball game, Nancy expected the coach to berate her, or at the very least, (admonish, upbraid) her, but the coach said nothing. 14. Most people prefer to be criticized in private rather than (decried, rebuked). 15. The secretary has a bad habit of (denigrating, rebuking) the reputations of coworkers she dislikes. 16.The stand-up comic cruelly (admonished, derided) the slovenly appearance of one of the audience members.

Cumulative Review Chapters 5-8


Match the word with the word group: ___1. amorphous ___2. denigrate ___3. deferential ___4. punctilious ___5. laconic ___6. addle ___7. succinct ___8. acquiesce ___9. deride ___10. turgid ___11. dubious ___12. censure a. Brevity or Wordiness b. Caution or Uncertainty c. Compliance or Timidity d. Criticism or Scolding

Underline the word root(s) in the word. Then write the words definition. 13. circumlocution ___________________________________________________________ 14. amorphous _____________________________________________________________ 15. tractable ________________________________________________________________ 16. disparage _______________________________________________________________

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Circle the Correct Answer

SAT

VOCABULARY

17. When Kia didnt acquiesce to Marys demand to help her cheat on a test, Mary (censured, denigrated) Kias reputation to all her classmates. 18. The prudent man was quite (amenable, circumspect) about investing his entire life savings in magic beans. 19. Cathy wished her mother was more (laconic, verbose) when upbraiding her. 20. The power-hungry warlord berated his lieutenant for suggesting that they (capitulate, equivocate) to the enemy.

Chapter 9: Words Dealing with Deception or Trickery


beguile bilk duplicity veneer wily Root co, com, con: with, together dis, dys, dif: apart, away, not beguile (v.) to deceive; to charm The con artist, pretending to be a prince from a faraway land, beguiled the heiress and won her heart. bilk (v.) to cheat; to defraud The slimy salesman bilked dozens of elderly people out of their savings before he was caught. chicanery (n.) deception by trickery The football team won the game by using chicanery. The players painted footballs on the fronts of their jerseys so the opposing team couldnt tell who was carrying the ball. concoct (v.) to fabricate, make up When Taylors parents caught him sneaking into the house past his curfew, he concocted a story about how his friends car broke down and it took two hours for a tow truck to arrive. connive (v.) to plot, scheme The disgruntled bank teller connived to rob the bank if he didnt get a raise next month. devious (adj.) dishonest, deceptive Most people found Larry friendly, but Tameka sensed a devious side to his nature and was wary to trust him. dissemble (v.) to conceal or disguise ones nature, feelings, or motives Ken dissembled when he invited his friend over on Saturday to watch a basketball game. It was his friends birthday and Ken had planned a surprise party. guile chicanery concoct connive devious ostensible pretense prevaricate ruse unctuous dissemble spurious

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duplicity (n.) crafty dishonesty

SAT

VOCABULARY

The spys duplicity ran so deep that she fooled both the U.S. and Russia into thinking that she was working for them. guile (n.) deceitful, cunning behavior Allison rarely engaged in guile, but when she started having a romantic liaison with a coworker, she surprised herself with her ability to hide the affair. ostensible (adj.) 1. intended for display 2. plausibly true but not really true His ostensible purpose for being in the Debate Club was to be a better communicator, but his real purpose was to pad his college rsum. pretense (n.) an appearance or action intended to deceive Some parents poke around in their teenagers rooms on the pretense that they are trying to find a household object they cant find, like a pair of scissors. prevaricate (v.) to stray from or evade the truth Sean thought it was wise to prevaricate when his wife asked him about the details of his spelunking expedition. He almost died in the cave, and thought she would demand that he give up his hobby if she knew. ruse (n.) a trick The ruse workedthe noblemen ran into the bandits stronghold after a woman pretended to cry for help. spurious (adj.) false but designed to seem plausible The Van Gogh painting was spurious, but created expertly enough to deceive art critics at first. veneer (n.) a mask, faade; a superficial or deceptively attractive appearance It is difficult to tell whether a celebritys personality is genuine or a veneer. wily (adj.) crafty, sly Wile E. Coyote attempted to live up to his name, but his wily attempts to catch the Road Runner always met with failure. unctuous (adj.) insincerely earnest; oily The unctuous car salesman feigned interest in the familys needs and then led them to a more expensive model.

Boost Your Score


Underline word roots. Write a paragraph about someone you know that is crafty or dishonest. Use at least three of the vocabulary words in this section as you write.

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VOCABULARY

Chapter 9 Quiz: Words Dealing With Deception or Trickery


Matching: Definitions 1. beguile 2. chicanery 3. concoct 4. devious 5. dissemble 6. ostensible 7. prevaricate 8. unctuous Word Roots Flashback 9. ad, a = _______________________ 10. de = ________________________ Circle the Correct Word 11. Fredrick asked Jennifer if she wanted to study together on the (pretense, ruse) of preparing for the test, but his real motive was to get to know her better. 12. Some of the more perceptive shoppers noticed the store clerks insincere, (wily, unctuous) manner. 13. Even the most moral person (bilks, prevaricates) from time to time when caught in a lie. 14. Although Ive lived next to Mr. Mitchell for years, I barely know him as he (connives, dissembles) his feelings and thoughts. a. to fabricate, make up b. dishonest, deceptive c. to conceal or disguise ones nature, feelings, or motivess d. plausibly true but not really true e. to deceive; to charm f. insincerely earnest; oily g. deception by trickery h. to stray from or evade the truth

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gourmand

VOCABULARY

Chapter 10: Words Dealing with Food, Taste, or Hunger


arable delectable Root in, ig, il, im: not vor: eat arable (adj.) suitable for growing crops Increasing land development and environmental damage makes finding arable land more difficult than it was 50 years ago. culinary (adj.) relating to cooking Beth cajoled her roommate into taking take a culinary skills class with her in hope that their house would no longer be filled with smoke when her roommate cooked. delectable (adj.) delicious Your crab patties are delectable! the patron said, to the delight of the chef. Can I have your recipe? gourmand (n.) someone fond of eating I know how much Big Al enjoys being a gourmand, but he never exercises and Im afraid hes going to develop heart problems. insatiable (adj.) incapable of being satisfied Violets desire for porcelain figurines is insatiable. She has over 200 of them, and she is still searching for more. insipid (adj.) lacking flavor or taste; dull Ugh! This food is insipid, thought the restaurant critic as he chewed the rubbery shrimp. This place will be lucky to get 2 stars. palatable (adj.) agreeable to the taste or sensibilities I dont care what the restaurant looks like, said Francis. Im starving. I just want the food to be palatable. voracious (adj.) unending hunger; insatiable Violets brother, Samuel, also shared her thirst for knowledge. He was a voracious reader, particularly of books on history and science. culinary insatiable palatable insipid voracious

Boost Your Score


Underline word roots. Write three sentences, each one using a word in this section and a word in Chapter 6: Words Dealing with Caution or Uncertainty.

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Matching: Definitions 1. culinary 2. delectable 3. insatiable 4. insipid 5. palatable 6. voracious Word Roots Flashback 7. co, com, con = _____________ 8. dis, dys, dif = _____________ Circle the Correct Word a. delicious

SAT

VOCABULARY

Chapter 10 Quiz: Words Dealing With Food, Taste, or Hunger

b. unending hunger; insatiable c. lacking flavor or taste; dull d. relating to cooking e. agreeable to the taste or sensibilities f. incapable of being satisfied

9. The gourmand finds most food (insipid, palatable), even the foods his friends think are bland. 10. While the cooking class didnt make Mark a master of (culinary, insatiable) arts, it did teach him how to make simple meals that were also appetizing. 11. It takes a truly (delectable, voracious) eater to complete the Sonnys Steak House 70 oz. Steak Challenge. 12. When John bought the farm land, he didnt care if it was (arable, insipid) because he planned to transform it into a housing development.

Chapter 11: Words Dealing With Happiness or Friendliness


amiable ebullient Root am, ami: love co, com, con: with, together greg: cloud, flock eu: well, good amicable effervescent camaraderie euphoria congenial facetious gregarious jocular ecstatic jubilant

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amiable (adj.) friendly, kind

SAT

VOCABULARY

The townspeople were amiable to strangers, but at the same time, they were hesitant to offer personal details about themselves. amicable (adj.) agreeable, showing good will The two neighbors came to an amicable agreement to mow each others lawn when one of them went on vacation. camaraderie (n.) brotherhood, group unity Keith isnt passionate about playing the trombone, but the camaraderie of the pep band made him look forward to the groups practices. congenial (adj.) having similar tastes or habits; a pleasant disposition Anton and Sarah are a congenial couple; they share many interests like hiking, watching basketball, and going to the movies. ecstatic (adj.) intensely happy Emily was ecstatic to see her brother, who had been serving in the Army overseas for the past two years. ebullient (adj.) extremely enthusiastic Henry is ebullient about the prospect of achieving his lifelong dreambecoming a professional rodeo clown. effervescent (adj.) bubbly, excited The waitress has an effervescent personality that endears her to many of her customers. euphoria (n.) the feeling of happiness or elation After crossing the finish line to win the marathon, Jays fatigue washed away and he was overcome by euphoria. facetious (adj.) humorous, not serious Jack made a joke about Jills clumsiness, and was taken aback when she became angry. Jill, calm down! I was just being facetious. gregarious (adj.) friendly, talkative, sociable Some of Gregs friends call him Gregarious G because he strikes up a conversation with a stranger everywhere he goes. jocular (adj.) given to joking; habitually jolly Bernard is a good match for his jocular friend, Pete. Bernard is often serious and reserved, and Pete jokes around all the time, so they even each other out. jubilant (adj.) extremely joyful, happy On graduation day, Joe felt jubilant about the prospect of being able to sleep in and have fun for a few months before leaving for college.

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Boost Your Score
Underline word roots.

SAT

VOCABULARY

For each of the following words, write down a name of a friend or classmate who best fits the definition: amicable, gregarious, jocular.

Chapter 11 Quiz: Words Dealing With Happiness or Friendliness


Match the word with its general definition. Definitions can be used more than once. ___1. amiable ___2. amicable ___3. ecstatic ___4. ebullient ___5. effervescent ___6. euphoria ___7. facetious ___8. gregarious ___9. jocular ___10. jubilant Word Roots Flashback 11. in, ig, il, im = ____________ 12. vor = ____________ Circle the Correct Word 13. Tweedledee and Tweedledum are a (congenial, ebullient) pair. They both enjoy logic puzzles, reading, and singing. 14. Simones friends were surprised at her lack of (camaraderie, jubilation) when she won the lottery. She won $5,000,000 and acted like nothing special happened. 15. Daves wry humor makes it difficult to tell when he is being serious and when he is being (ecstatic, facetious). a. friendly/talkative b. humorous/joking c. very happy/excited

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abhor malediction Root ab, a: away, from de: from, down, away dic, dict: speak mal: bad, badly vol: wish abhor (v.) to loathe animosity malevolent antipathy nefarious

SAT
depravity odious

VOCABULARY

Chapter 12: Words Dealing with Hatred or Evil


enmity heinous wrath

Melissa abhorred her fancy pink dress, but her mother forced her to wear it whenever they attended church. animosity (n.) bitter hostility; open hatred Ever since his father abandoned Steven and his mother, Steven has felt animosity toward his estranged father. antipathy (n.) a strong feeling of dislike or aversion Almost everyone has a food that inspires antipathy in them. depravity (n.) wickedness; moral corruption The depravity of the villain in the movie was too extreme to be believable. No one could murder his own family plus countless others and feel no remorse. enmity (n.) intense, often mutual hatred Many wars and regional conflicts are fueled by enmity held by various ethnic groups against each other. heinous (adj.) wicked, reprehensible Hitlers crimes against the Jewish people and other minorities was heinous. malediction (n.) a curse Before the adventurer could escape, the witch put a malediction on him that would haunt him for the rest of his life. malevolent (adj.) having or exhibiting ill will; wishing harm to others Jons parents worried about him. At times he was uncaring, even malevolent to those around him. It was disturbing to see in a child so young. nefarious (adj.) extremely wicked or villainous; known for being wicked Everyone in Oz also feared the Wicked Witch of the Wests cousin, the Nefarious Niece of the North.

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wrath (n.) vengeful anger; punishment

SAT

VOCABULARY

odious (adj.) contemptible; instilling hatred or intense displeasure Some find the thought of eating raw oysters odious; others love them. Although her name may sound unthreatening, the citizens of Oz know from experience they have good reason to fear the wrath of Silent Sally of the South.

Boost Your Score


Underline word roots. Choose three words in this section and use each one in a sentence to describe something you despise.

Chapter 12 Quiz: Words Dealing With Hatred or Evil


Matching: Definitions 1. abhor 2. depravity 3. enmity 4. heinous 5. malevolent 6. nefarious 7. wrath Word Roots Flashback 8. _______________ = love 9. co, _______, ________= with, together 10. ______________ = cloud, flock 11. ______________ = well, good Circle the Correct Word 12. Jonas wanted to break off his friendship with Darlene, but he feared her (malediction, wrath). 13. The princess found the thought of scrubbing floors all day (heinous, odious). 14. It is remarkable that Romeo and Juliet fell in love considering the (depravity, enmity) between their feuding families. 15. The palm reader claimed that if Roberto did not give her more money, she would put a/an (antipathy, malediction) on him. a. wickedness; moral corruption b. extremely wicked or villainous; known for being wicked c. wicked, reprehensible d. vengeful anger; punishment e. intense, often mutual hatred f. having or exhibiting ill will; wishing harm to others g. to loathe

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Cumulative Review 9-12
Match the word with the word group ___1. gourmand ___2. beguile ___3. insipid ___4. amiable ___5. abhor ___6. veneer ___7. effervescent ___8. palatable ___9. voracious ___10. gregarious ___11. unctuous ___12. malevolent ___13. heinous ___14. jubilant ___15. dissemble ___16. malediction a. Deception/Trickery b. Food/Taste/Hunger c. Happiness/Friendliness d. Hatred/Evil

SAT

VOCABULARY

Underline the word root(s) in the word. Then write the words definition. 17. amicable ______________________________________________________________ 18. dissemble _____________________________________________________________ 19. malevolent ____________________________________________________________ 20. voracious _____________________________________________________________ Circle the Correct Answer 21. Steven holds (animosity, jubilation) toward doctors ever since one of them used a (malediction, ruse) to poke him with a needle when he was a child. 22. An excellent meal sends a gourmand into a state of (euphoria, malevolence). 23. The (congeniality, depravity) of the villain to kidnap the little girls dog is truly (insipid, odious). 24. The defendant lied under oath when he made a/an (abhorrent, spurious) statement about his alibi during the night of the murder.

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acumen esoteric Root ac, acr: sharp, sour cogn, gno: know peri: around spec, spic: look, see acumen (n.) sharpness of mind; shrewd judgment ascertain erudite arcane ingenious

SAT
astute

VOCABULARY

Chapter 13: Words Dealing With Intelligence or Knowledge


canny didactic cognizant perspicacious sagacity

His natural-born acumen allowed him to beat opponents who have more experience with chess. ascertain (v.) to discover with certainty Sherlock Holmes explained his reasoning to Dr. Watson. If we can ascertain the original owner of the painting, we will eventually be able to find the identity of the murderer. arcane (adj.) obscure, known only by a few Consultants who are knowledgeable about arcane matters, such as Chinas tax regulations for foreign oil companies, can charge a lot of money for their advice. astute (adj.) clever intelligence; sharp perception Jennifer is an astute businesswoman who has a knack for negotiating the best possible prices from her suppliers. canny (adj.) shrewd; founded on common sense Roberts mother may not have gone to college, but her natural canniness proved to be more beneficial to her family than a formal education would have been. cognizant (adj.) aware, mindful Wang-Shi was cognizant that he had difficulty focusing for more than a few minutes ever since his daughter ran away with her boyfriend, but he could do nothing to help his concentration. didactic (adj.) meant to teach While fairy tales like Hansel and Gretel are entertaining, they are also didactic in that they teach children lessons such as, Be wary of strangers and Dont wander too far from home. erudite (adj.) scholarly, learned While it is obvious that the professor is erudite, his habit of talking to the floor makes it difficult for him to share his knowledge with his students. esoteric (adj.) understood by only a select few Quantum Physics is an esoteric field that seems inaccessible to non-scientists.

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ingenious (adj.) clever or inventive

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VOCABULARY

The plane crash survivors might have died if one of them hadnt figured out an ingenious way to covert rain water into fresh water by using a bucket, a sheet of plastic, and some rope. perspicacious (adj.) having keen perception or judgment Reginald considers his father a perspicacious man and often asks him for advice. sagacity (n.) shrewdness, farsightedness Thomas Edison proved his sagacity many times with his hundreds of inventions and keen business sense in marketing them.

Boost Your Score


Underline word roots. For each of the following words, write down a name of someone you admire who best epitomizes the word: astute, erudite, ingenious, sagacious.

Chapter 13 Quiz
Matching: Definitions 1. acumen 2. arcane 3. didactic 4. erudite 5. ingenious Word Roots Flashback 6. dic, dic = _________________________ 7. mal = ____________________________ 8. vol = _____________________________ Shrewd or Not? Write S if the words meaning is similar to shrewd, write D if it is different. 9. ascertain ________________________ 10. astute _________________________ 11. canny _________________________ 12. cognizant ______________________ 13. esoteric ________________________ 14. perspicacious __________________ 15. sagacity _______________________

a. sharpness of mind; shrewd judgment b. scholarly, learned c. obscure, known only by a few d. meant to teach e. clever or inventive

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disseminate

VOCABULARY

Chapter 14: Words Dealing with Joining or Separating


aggregate linchpin Root co, com, con: with, together dis, dys, dif: apart, away, not greg: crowd, flock se: apart, away sem: seed, sow aggregate 1. (v.) to gather together 2. (n.) a total The aggregate of her purchases over the weekend is $213.47, a bargain for a two-day vacation at a Florida resort. cleave 1. (v.) to divide 2. (v.) to stick together firmly (Tricky SAT word alert: note that cleave has two opposite meanings.) The chef cleaved the head of lettuce in half and tossed the pieces to his assistant. The frightened little girl cleaved herself to her mothers leg. coalesce (v.) to come together; to fuse After staring at the math problem in frustration for hours, the lessons of the past monthly finally coalesced and the solution popped into his head. confluence (n.) a gathering or meeting together at a juncture The two streams met at a confluence before flowing into the lake. linchpin (n.) something critical that holds separate parts together Carol was the linchpin for her group of high school friends. Once she transferred to a different high school, her friends lost contact with each other. segregate (v.) to separate others from a group After the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, the federal government segregated hundreds of thousands of Japanese-Americans from their communities and forced them to live in internment camps. yoke (v.) to join or link securely The farmer expertly yoked the cart to his mule. cleave segregate coalesce yoke confluence engender

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disseminate (v.) to spread widely

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VOCABULARY

Mini-Group: Words Dealing With Creating and Spreading


The soccer club, desperate for new members, disseminated flyers advertising its next meeting all over campus. engender (v.) to bring about, create, generate The teacher engendered creativity in her students by giving them half-an-hour each Friday to write and illustrate a fairy tale based on the lives of themselves and their families.

Boost Your Score


Underline word roots. Write three sentences using a vocabulary word in this section and a word in the previous section.

Chapter 14 Quiz
Write the Word in the Blank to come together; to fuse something that holds separate parts together to spread widely (v.) to gather together; (n.) a total to bring about, create, generate to join or link securely Word Roots Flashback 7. ac, acr = ________________________ 8. cogn, gno = _____________________ 9. peri = ___________________________ 10. spec, spic = ____________________ Circle the Correct Word 11. News about the polices arrest of the Homecoming King (disseminated, engendered) quickly around school. 12. Mrs. Krobowsky (segregated, yoked) the boys and the girls in her class to keep them from fighting. 13. The annual International Physicist Conference was a (confluence, linchpin) of the brightest minds in science. 14. Mary hoped her love and affection would (coalesce, engender) good behaviors in the abandoned puppy. 1.________________________________ 2. ________________________________ 3. ________________________________ 4. ________________________________ 5. ________________________________ 6. ________________________________

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dormant sedentary Root sed, sid: sit somn: sleep torp: stiff, numb dormant (adj.) sleeping, temporarily inactive flag somnolent indolent stagnate

SAT
languid torpid wallow

VOCABULARY

Chapter 15: Words Dealing with Laziness or Lack of Energy


lethargic repose

Bears become dormant in the winter to conserve energy. flag (v.) to decline in energy or strength Cynthias energy flags in the afternoon and she can barely concentrate for the last two hours of the workday. indolent (adj.) lazy, not wanting to work Every weekend, Lucy claims she is too busy to help clean the house, but her roommate thinks that she is just being indolent. languid (adj.) lacking energy, slow After staying up all night and skipping breakfast, Winston felt languid and could barely trudge to his next class. lethargic (adj.) having little or no energy; unmotivated to move The humidity and 90 degree heat made everyone without air conditioning feel lethargic. repose (n.) relaxation Tyrone entered a state of repose after he finished his last exam. sedentary (adj.) related to sitting around a lot Homer Simpson is a sedentary person. He is often sitting on the couch, watching TV. somnolent (adj.) drowsy, sleepy The sandman sprinkled his dust on the childs forehead. The child because somnolent and quickly fell asleep. stagnate (v.) to be inactive, not develop, not flow As the lava cooled, it slowed down and eventually became stagnate. torpid (adj.) sluggish; unable to move After running around deliriously in the heat, the Golden Retriever became torpid and unwilling to play fetch anymore.

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wallow (v.) to indulge oneself excessively

SAT

VOCABULARY

Ana wallowed in the mud bath for hours, only leaving because she had an appointment for a massage.

Boost Your Score


Underline word roots. Write three sentences using a vocabulary word in this section and a word from Chapter 10: Words Dealing with Food, Taste, or Hunger.

Chapter 15 Quiz
Matching: Definitions Match the word with its general definition. A few of the words have two matches. ___1. dormant ___2. flag ___3. indolent ___4. languid ___5. lethargic ___6. repose ___7. sedentary ___8. somnolent ___9. stagnate ___10. torpid ___11. wallow Word Roots Flashback 12. greg = ______________________ 13. se = ________________________ 14. sem = ______________________ Circle the Correct Word 15. Once the invigorating effect of the coffee dissipated, Thomass energy (flagged, wallowed) and he felt tired. 16. Although they are twins, Mark and Andy chose two markedly different career paths. Mark is a construction worker who is soaked with sweat by the end of the day while Andy, an office manager, has a/an (indolent, sedentary) job. a. drowsy/sleepy b. sluggish/inactive c. lazy/relaxation

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effrontery petulant Root pet: seek, go towards effrontery (n.) brazenly bold or rude haughty supercilious insolent truculent

SAT
irascible vindictive

VOCABULARY

Chapter 16: Words Dealing with Poor Character


licentious wanton mendacious mercurial

After an American hugged the Queen of England instead of shaking her hand, many in the British press chided the American for her effrontery. haughty (adj.) overly proud of oneself and disdainful of others Tamriels haughty attitude irked her neighbors, who felt they were at least as good as she was. insolent (adj.) insultingly rude Calling the President Dude would be considered by many people to be insolent. irascible (adj.) quick to anger His irascible nature made his friends wary to bring up certain subjects with him. licentious (adj.) displaying a lack of moral or legal restraints The lawyers willingness to be licentious when defending his clients made him detested by his colleagues, and admired by his clients who were desperate to avoid jail time at any cost. mendacious (adj.) having a lying, false character The Senator was so charming that few voters considered him mendacious in spite of the fact that he was caught lying several times. mercurial (adj.) temperamental, quick to change Samanthas mercurial temperament made him unpredictable and difficult to like. petulant (adj.) unreasonably irritable The petulant child cried all the way home because her mother wouldnt buy her a doll at the department store. supercilious (adj.) scornful; looking down on others After he won the lottery, he alienated most of his friends by adopting a supercilious attitude towards anyone with less money than he. truculent (adj.) disposed to fight Brunos truculent nature caused him to be suspended several times from school for fighting. vindictive (adj.) vengeful, disposed to seeking revenge Sometimes it is just easier to apologize to a vindictive person, as there is no telling how far he or she will go to extract revenge for even a small slight.

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wanton (adj.) immoral, lustful; malicious, inhumane

SAT

VOCABULARY

The mayors wife wanted him to remove the nude statue in the park because she felt it encouraged wanton thoughts in the people that saw it.

Boost Your Score


Underline word roots. Rank the words in order of most to least appealing traits. Then look up antonyms for the first five traits and learn their definitions. Look up the definition for pugnacious. Which word in this chapter is its definition closest to?

Chapter 16 Quiz
Matching: Definitions 1. insolent 2. licentious 3. mercurial 4. petulant 5. truculent 6. supercilious 7. vindictive Word Roots Flashback 8. _______ = sit 9. _______ = sleep 10. _______ = stiff, numb Synonym or Not? Write S if the words have similar definitions, D if they have different definitions. 11. haughty 12. truculent 13. petulant 14. irascible 15. petulant 16. insolent supercilious _______ wanton _______ vindictive _______ mercurial _______ supercilious _______ licentious _______ a. displaying a lack of moral or legal restraints b. unreasonably irritable c. disposed to fight d. insultingly rude e. scornful; looking down on others f. temperamental, quick to change g. vengeful, disposed to seeking revenge

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Match the word with the word group ___1. acumen ___2. aggregate ___3. indolent ___4. segregate ___5. haughty ___6. irascible ___7. perspicacious ___8. confluence ___9. mercurial ___10. ingenious ___11. languid ___12. wanton ___13. arcane ___14. somnolent ___15. yoke ___16. stagnate a. Intelligence or Knowledge b. Joining or Separating c. Laziness or Lack of Energy d. Poor Character

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VOCABULARY

Cumulative Review: Chapters 13-16

Underline the word root(s). Then write the words definition. 17. cognizant _____________________________________________________________ 18. disseminate ___________________________________________________________ 19. segregate _____________________________________________________________ 20. somnolent _____________________________________________________________ Circle the Correct Answer 21. The doctor tried to (ascertain, engender) why the normally energetic Ms. Murphy has been feeling so (insolent, lethargic) lately. 22. Missys (canny, supercilious) attitude made her disliked by most of her down-to-earth neighbors. 23. What (confluence, effrontery)! cried the Countess, as the carpet installer rested his muddy shoes on her couch and began watching TV. 24. Ya wanna fight? snapped the (mendacious, truculent) bully.

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apotheosis ethereal Roots a, an: not, without co, com, con: with, together de: from, down, away dei, div: God, godly sacr, sanct: holy theo, the: God, godly atheist hallow consecrate rectitude

SAT
desecrate

VOCABULARY

Chapter 17: Words Relating to Religion or Spirituality


divine sanctimonious sacrosanct

apotheosis (n.) 1. elevation to divine status. 2. (n.) a glorified example One hundred years after her death, the Pope highlighted the formerly unknown nun as an apotheosis of kindness and charity. atheist (n.) one who does not believe in God Although Essan is a devout Muslim, he enjoys arguing about the existence of God with his neighbor, Bob, who is an atheist. consecrate (v.) to dedicate something to a holy purpose When the church was finished, the minister gathered the congregation to consecrate their new home. desecrate (v.) to violate the sacredness of a thing or place Mildred gasped when she read in the newspaper that someone had desecrated the statue of the Virgin Mary in the park nearby. divine (adj.) godly, exceedingly wonderful These chocolate-covered strawberries are divine! exclaimed Evelyn. ethereal (adj.) lacking material substance; celestial, heavenly Renee had a dream that she was visited by an angel. At least, she thought it was an angel. Its ethereal form was difficult to make out, but she felt a warm, peaceful glow from its presence. hallow (v.) revere, consecrate The priest said solemnly, In the name of our Lord, we hallow this ground in memory of our dead. rectitude (n.) extreme morality Jims impression of his neighbor as a man of great rectitude was shattered when his neighbor invited him over for some drinks and to watch a movie he illegally copied with a DVD burner. sacrosanct (adj.) holy, above criticism Some Catholics think that the Pope should be sacrosanct, and other Catholics think it is fair to criticize him.

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VOCABULARY

sanctimonious (adj.) giving a hypocritical appearance of piety Robin placed religious-themed bumper stickers on her car and chided her friends for not going to church more often, but in truth, she was being sanctimonious as she rarely practiced the teachings of her religion and prayed infrequently.

Boost Your Score


Underline word roots. Lincoln uses one of these words twice in his 1863 Gettysburg address. Which one do you think it is? You can find the text of Lincolns speech on the Internet or in an encyclopedia.

Chapter 17 Quiz
Matching: Definitions 1. apotheosis 2. atheist 3. consecrate 4. divine 5. ethereal 6. rectitude 7. sacrosanct 8. sanctimonious a. godly, exceedingly wonderful b. one who does not believe in God c. celestial, heavenly; lacking material substance d. giving a hypocritical appearance of piety e. (1.) elevation to divine status. (2.) a glorified example f. extreme morality g. to dedicate something to a holy purpose h. holy, above criticism

Similar, Opposite, or Different? Write S if the two words have similar definitions, O if they have opposite definitions, and D if neither apply (different definitions). 9. apotheosis, atheist _________ 10. consecrate, desecrate _________ 11. sacrosanct, sanctimonious _________ 12. consecrate, hallow _________ 13. apotheosis, rectitude _________

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aloof quiescent Roots dis, dys, dif: apart, away, not in, ig, il, im: not quie: quiet tacit, tic: silent aloof (adj.) reserved, distant ascetic reticent demure staid

SAT

VOCABULARY

Chapter 18: Words Dealing With Shyness or Holding Back


diffident stoic impassive taciturn insular temperance

Cheryls coworkers found her aloof at first. She rarely greeted them in the hallways or joined them for lunch. Once they got to know her, though, they realized she is just shy around new people. ascetic (adj.) practicing restraint as self-discipline Many monks like an ascetic lifestyle, fasting for months and rejecting conveniences like hot showers and TV. demure (adj.) modest, quiet The demure little girl said nothing except Thank you and Yes, please until one of the grownups asked her about her doll. diffident (adj.) shy due to lack of confidence Charles wanted to introduce himself to people in his dorm, but he was diffident and thought no one would like him. impassive (adj.) devoid of external emotion; expressionless After Lara told her husband she wanted a divorce, he stood there, impassive, until the shock passed by and he realized what shed said. insular (adj.) isolated from others; related to living on an island Jakes insular world view makes it difficult for him to put himself in other peoples shoes. quiescent (adj.) quiet; still; at rest The woods were eerily quiescent. Not even the whistle of a single bird could be heard. reticent (adj.) reserved or restrained, especially in offering personal information Some people will share their life story with a stranger. Other people are reticent about their personal lives, even with their close friends. staid (adj.) serious and self-restrained, tight-laced The school teacher appeared staid to her students, but outside the classroom, she felt comfortable letting her vivacious personality out.

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VOCABULARY

stoic (adj.) seemingly unaffected by any passions or feelings Murphy was stoic during his fathers funeral. His response concerned his friends, who knew that they were close. taciturn (adj.) habitually disinclined to talk The prosecutor had trouble getting useful testimony out of the taciturn witness. temperance (n.) moderation and self-restraint in action or thought Stevens philosophy was to live with temperance. Enjoy the pleasures of life, but do not overindulge in them.

Boost Your Score


Underline word roots. For three of these words, write down the word, then the name of someone you know that embodies the word. For the three words you chose above, use a thesaurus to find an antonym for the word. Then write the name of a person that symbolizes the antonym.

Chapter 18 Quiz
Matching: Definitions ___1. aloof ___2. demure ___3. diffident ___4. impassive ___5. insular ___6. reticent ___7. taciturn ___8. temperance Word Roots Flashback 9. co, com, con = ___________________ 10. dei, div = _______________________ 11. sacr, sanct = ____________________ 12. theo, the = ______________________ a. devoid of external emotion; expressionless b. reserved or restrained, especially in offering personal information c. habitually disinclined to talk d. isolated from others; related to living on an island e. reserved, distant f. moderation and self-restraint in action or thought g. shy due to lack of confidence h. modest, quiet

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Synonym or Not? 13. demure, quiescent _____ 14. impassive, stoic _____ 15. aloof, insular _____ 16. reticent, staid _____ 17. asceticism, temperance _____ 18. demure, stoic _____

SAT

VOCABULARY

Write S if the words have similar definitions, D if they have different definitions.

Chapter 19: Words Dealing With Size or Grandeur


august grandiose Roots co, com, con: with, together august (adj.) majestic The pyramids in Egypt ruins are truly august. behemoth (n.) something of great power or size The alien invaders in War of the Worlds were behemoths. They towered over 100 feet and could level a city in minutes with their lasers and metal arms. commensurate (adj.) corresponding in size or amount Many of the job listings Andrew read promised that salary would be commensurate with experience. commodious (adj.) spacious The hotels penthouse was commodious. It contained a king-sized bed, full-sized kitchen, two bathrooms, and a large balcony. diminutive (adj.) small Stars appear diminutive in the night sky, but they are actually hundreds of times the size of the Earth. grandiose (adj.) magnificent; absurdly exaggerated or imaginative Meredith found her best friends plans to own a multi-million dollar company and a private jet before turning 21 to be grandiose. palatial (adj.) relating to a palace, or suitable for a palace The community centers new pool was palatial. It had twenty-four swimming lanes, a large wading area, and two water slides. behemoth palatial commensurate sublime commodious truncate diminutive wane

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sublime (adj.) grand, exalted, awe-inspiring

SAT

VOCABULARY

When the sun set behind the church, the light poured through the stain-glass windows and filled the church with a sublime radiance. truncate (v.) to shorten by cutting off After the previous speaker rambled for ten minutes past his allotted time, George had to truncate his speech so they could finish on schedule. wane (v.) to decrease in size, amount, or intensity The flashlight waned for several minutes before finally dying out.

Boost Your Score


Underline word roots. What is the difference between august and grandiose? What is the difference between truncate and wane?

Chapter 19 Quiz
Matching: Definitions ___1. august ___2. commodious ___3. diminutive ___4. sublime ___5. truncate ___6. wane Word Roots Flashback 7. in, ig, il, im = ___________________ 8. quie = _________________________ 9. tacit, tic = ______________________ Circle the Correct Word 10. As (august, diminutive) as the Roman Coliseum is today, it must have been truly magnificent when it was undamaged thousands of years ago. 11. The nefarious scientist had (grandiose, palatial) plans to conquer the entire world. 12. Evelyn (truncated, waned) the branches of her tree with a hedge clipper because they were hanging in her neighbors yard. 13. Aprils new apartment was (commensurate, commodious) enough for her to fit all her belongings.

a. spacious b. small c. majestic d. to decrease in size, amount, or intensity e. grand, exalted, awe-inspiring f. to shorten by cutting off

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acrimonious lucid Roots loc, log, loqu: speech, thought luc, lum: light tacit, tic: silent bombastic laudatory colloquial platitude

SAT

VOCABULARY

Chapter 20: Words Dealing with Speech or Language


eloquent polemic garrulous promulgate harangue tacit inarticulate tirade

acrimonious (adj.) bitter and sharp in language or tone The Presidential debate was acrimonious as both candidates were strong-minded people with starkly different views on the world. bombastic (adj.) pompous, unnecessarily showy language or style Greg felt that Desiree would find it much easier to make friends if she would stop trying to impress new people by acting bombastic. colloquial (adj.) characterized by the use of informal language The judge spoke formally while serving on the bench, but in private had a colloquial relationship with his staff. eloquent (adj.) articulate, moving Although she was 90, Ninas grandmother gave an eloquent toast at Ninas wedding that made her cry. garrulous (adj.) talkative Mike is so garrulous that sometimes his friends cant get a word in for minutes. harangue 1. (n.) a ranting speech 2. (v.) to rant Before being sentenced to death, the terrorist gave an invective-laced harangue against the policies of the U.S. government. inarticulate (adj.) incapable of expressing oneself through speech Carol was rendered inarticulate for a few hours after getting her wisdom teeth removed. lucid (adj.) clear, easily understandable The lecturers lucid explanation of quantum physics helped the audience understand the complicated topic. laudatory (adj.) expressing admiration or praise Krystal blushed at the company award banquet when her supervisor made a laudatory speech in her honor. platitude (n.) an uninspired remark, clich Platitudes provide little comfort to those who are suffering. polemic (n.) an aggressive argument against a specific opinion The talk show hosts polemics against taffy spurred a nationwide movement to ban taffy eating by children and the elderly.

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tacit (adj.) expressed without words

SAT

VOCABULARY

promulgate (v.) to proclaim publicly, often by official announcement The USDA promulgated the revised food pyramid through a web site and a large marketing campaign. Bruce has a tacit understanding with his neighbor not to mow his lawn before 10:00 A.M. on the weekend. tirade (n.) a rant, a long speech marked by harsh or biting language When I ate one of my roommates apples, he went on a tirade about how it was a sign of the downfall of civilization.

Boost Your Score


Underline word roots. Find two synonyms for each of these words: bombastic, harangue, lucid.

Chapter 20 Quiz
Matching: Definitions ___1. acrimonious ___2. bombastic ___3. colloquial ___4. eloquent ___5. garrulous ___6. harangue ___7. lucid ___8. platitude ___9. promulgate ___10. tacit Identify the Example 11. Hey, man, whats up? Not much. Just chillin (colloquial, garrulous) 12. I ask you, how could anyone not be impressed by the grandiose extent of my palatial abode? (bombastic, tacit) 13. Three cheers to the winner! (laudatory, polemic) 14. Mmrm irm is the smprm? (inarticulate, tacit) a. characterized by the use of informal language b. articulate, moving c. talkative d. bitter and sharp in language or tone e. an uninspired remark, clich f. clear, easily understandable g. expressed without words h. to proclaim publicly, often by official announcement i. pompous, unnecessarily showy language or style j. 1. (n.) a ranting speech 2. (v.) to rant

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VOCABULARY

Cumulative Review: Chapters 17-20


Match the word with the word group, words can be used more than once. ___1. aloof ___2. commensurate ___3. consecrate ___4. acrimonious ___5. tirade ___6. diffident ___7. sublime ___8. sacrosanct ___9. garrulous ___10. quiescent ___11. rectitude ___12. stoic ___13. commodious ___14. wane ___15. platitude ___16. ethereal Underline the word(s) roots. Then write the words definition. 17. apotheosis __________________________________________________________ 18. colloquial ____________________________________________________________ 19. diffident _____________________________________________________________ 20. quiescent ___________________________________________________________ Circle the Correct Answer 21. Melissa wondered if Joan was aloof or just (diffident, garrulous). 22. The community was split into two groups: one of them contended the (diminutive, grandiose) MegaCorp would drive out small businesses in their community, while the other group dismissed their claim as a/an (apotheosis, polemic) designed to scare people. 23. Mitchs relationship with his parents became strained when he criticized a topic at dinner that his parents considered (reticent, sacrosanct). 24. Kendras (garrulous, stoic) personality lets her feel comfortable engaging anyone in conversation. a. Religion/Spirituality b. Shyness/Holding Back c. Size/Grandeur d. Speech/Language

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anachronistic ephemeral primeval Roots ante, ant: before chron: time ex, e: out, out of pre: before trans: across, over, through antecedent expedite quotidian

SAT
antediluvian hiatus transient

VOCABULARY

Chapter 21: Words Dealing with Time or History


chronological prescient dilatory portent

anachronistic (adj.) being chronologically out of place The sense of realism in the movie about Shakespeares life was ruined by several anachronistic elements, such as one of the actors briefly showing a digital watch. antecedent (n.) something that came before Bob wished the antecedent for movies wasnt a series of annoying commercials. antediluvian (adj.) ancient It was clear the wind-up clock was antediluvian once the dust was wiped from it. It was hand-made and the inscription on the clock was written in an archaic form of English. chronological (adj.) arranged in order of time It is difficult to arrange events that happened thousands of years ago chronologically. The start and end dates for these events is often missing or questionable. dilatory (adj.) causing or intending to delay Nikita was annoyed at her boyfriend for showing up late yesterday, so she was dilatory in getting ready for thier date while he waited downstairs. ephemeral (adj.) short-lived, fleeting The euphoria of winning their first play-off series was ephemeral once they learned their next opponent would be the undefeated Boston Bone Crushers. expedite (v.) to speed up the progress of Electronically filing a tax return can expedite receiving a refund. hiatus (n.) a break or gap in space, time, or continuity There was a hiatus in the construction of the new ball park when it rained for three days in a row. prescient (adj.) to have foreknowledge of events Spider-Man has a prescient ability to sense when he is in danger.

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portent (n.) an omen

SAT

VOCABULARY

Aarons mother-in-law thought it was a bad portent for it to rain at the wedding. Then again, she didnt want Aaron to marry her daughter. primeval (adj.) original, ancient Archaeologists found primeval cutting tools that they suspect were the first tools used by homo sapiens. quotidian (adj.) recurring daily; commonplace Exercise is more beneficial if it is quotidian rather than just once a week. transient (adj.) passing through briefly In some places, the seasons are transient, changing almost every month. Boost Your Score Underline word roots. Look up the definitions for the following words: archaic, contemporaneous, evanescent. Write down the definition in your vocabulary notebook, and then write a sentence using each of the words.

Chapter 21 Quiz
Matching: Definitions ___1. anachronistic ___2. antediluvian ___3. dilatory ___4. expedite ___5. hiatus ___6. prescient ___7. quotidian ___8. transient Synonym or Not? Write S if the two words have similar definitions, D if they have different definitions. 9. antediluvian, primeval __________ 10. dilatory, transient ____________ a. Being chronologically out of place b. Causing or intending to delay c. A break or gap in space, time, or continuity d. Recurring daily; commonplace e. Ancient f. Passing through briefly g. To have foreknowledge of events h. To speed up the progress of

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Used Correctly? Write Y if the word is used correctly, N if it isnt.

SAT

VOCABULARY

11. The circus is a transient business, moving from town to town every few weeks. ________ 12. Marshall was often called by reporters for quotes because he is such a quotidian person. _______ 13. After working non-stop on his Ph.D. thesis for the past three months, the grad student took a hiatus for a week and went on a vacation. ________

Chapter 22A: Words Dealing with Wealth, Greed, or Envy


avarice affluent cupidity benefactor exorbitant covet opulent

Roots
ad, a: towards fac, fea, fect, fic, fi: make, do flu, flux: flow ex, e: out, out of affluent (adj.) wealthy; plentiful; flowing freely The Howells, an affluent couple, had more difficulty adjusting to the lack of amenities on the deserted island than did the rest of the castaways. avarice (n.) greed Mr. Burns avarice once motivated him to erect a large structure to block the sun so the townspeople would be forced to use more power from his nuclear plant. benefactor (n.) one who gives aid or money Jillian was shocked to learn that a mysterious benefactor was going to pay for her entire college education. cupidity (adj.) excessive desire, especially for money A common downfall of criminals, at least in the movies, is their cupidity for money. covet (v.) to desire longingly Martha coveted the expensive, glass figurines of her neighbor, Laura. exorbitant (adj.) unreasonably excessive especially when related to wealth or price $150 for a glass of wine! These prices are exorbitant, exclaimed Tom when he opened the menu. opulent (adj.) richly abundant; showing great wealth Red marble Grecian columns lined the walkway to the opulent mansion

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austere indigent bereft privation derelict dearth

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VOCABULARY

Chapter 22B: Words Relating to Poverty and Destitution


desolate destitute emaciated

austere (adj.) strict, unadorned Toms room was austere. It only contained the bare necessities: a bed, a desk, and a small bookshelf. bereft (adj.) devoid of, without The homeless suffer from many hardships; they are often bereft of shelter and food. dearth (n.) a scarcity Antone complained to anyone who would listen about the dearth of intelligent science fiction movies. derelict (adj.) abandoned, run-down The city finally condemned the derelict house that had become overgrown with ivy and weeds over the years. destitute (adj.) having nothing; in poverty Most of the graduate students teaching Deepas college classes appeared destitute. They wore ratty clothes and had pallid complexions that suggested malnutrition. She wondered if she could trade them a sandwich for a better grade. desolate (adj.) deserted; lifeless The desolation that marks most of the Sahara desert also gives it an eerie beauty. emaciated (adj.) overly thin, especially due to lack of food Its a mystery to some why emaciated models are considered the pinnacle of beauty. indigent (adj.) very poor Some of the indigent people in Mexico try to cross into the United States illegally to find work and escape poverty. privation (n.) lacking basic necessities; the state of being deprived The campsite was in a state of privation, lacking showers and toilets, but Greg and Linda were willing to live without such conveniences for a few days.

Boost Your Score


Underline word roots. Write five sentences, each one using a word from 22A and a word from 22B.

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Chapter 22 Quiz
Enter the Correct Word in the Blank affluent emaciated austere avarice opulent cupidity

SAT
benefactor

VOCABULARY

derelict covet

destitute

1. _______to desire longingly 2. _______wealthy; plentiful; flowing freely 3. _______greed 4. _______strict, unadorned 5. _______richly abundant; showing great wealth 6. _______one who gives aid or money 7 ._______having nothing; in poverty 8. _______abandoned, run-down 9. _______overly thin, especially due to lack of food 10._______excessive desire, especially for money Word Roots Flashback 11. chron = _______ 12. ex, e = _______ 13. pre = _______ 14. trans = _______

Chapter 23A: The Fun Person at the Party


convivial Roots co, com, con: with, together per: through, intensive, throughout viv, vit: life abandon 1. (n.) total lack of inhibition 2. (v.) to give up with the intent of never reclaiming Vivian was going to be swamped with work the next three months, so she partied that night with abandon. abandon irreverence enthrall vivacious winsome

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enthrall (v.) to charm, hold spellbound

SAT

VOCABULARY

convivial (adj.) outgoing and festive, especially at social gatherings Gregs convivial nature usually makes him the life of the party. The former Navy SEAL enthralled the crowd with stories of his adventures and brushes with death. irreverence (n.) mischievous disrespect A necessary quality for a satirist is irreverence. One needs to be willing to mock sacred beliefs and institutions to make a humorous point. winsome (adj.) charming, often in a childlike way The young boy had a winsome manner to him that make him instantly likable. vivacious (adj.) animated; lively Tita wasnt planning on going on a cruise, but her friend was so vivacious when she was describing her trip that she began to consider going on one.

Chapter 23B: The Boring Person at the Party


banal apathetic perfunctory dour vapid apathetic (adj.) lacking interest or concern The teacher had a hard time motivating herself to be lively as most of her students were apathetic about learning. banal (adj.) overly commonplace or trite, especially in relation to language The Hollywood executive felt like tearing his hair out if he read one more script loaded with banal language and a clichd plot. dour (adj.) stern, joyless The doormans dour personality reduced the number of tips he received. perfunctory (adj.) done routinely and with little interest or enthusiasm Hicham could tell the customer service representative wasnt going to be interested in helping him from the perfunctory way that she answered the phone. vapid (adj.) lacking liveliness or interest, dull Lauren tried striking up a conversation with her new coworker, Bob, but she found him vapid and boring to talk to.

Boost Your Score


Underline word roots. Match four of the above words with people you know or have met recently.

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Chapter 23 Quiz
Matching: Definitions ___1. apathetic ___2. banal ___3. convivial ___4. dour ___5. enthrall ___6. irreverence ___7. perfunctory ___8. vivacious Word Roots Flashback 9. ____, a = towards 10. _____, ______, ____, fic, fi = make, do 11. _____, ____ = flow 12. _____, e = out, out of Boring or Fun?

SAT

VOCABULARY

a. Outgoing and festive, especially at social gatherings b. Stern, joyless c. Mischievous disrespect d. Overly commonplace or trite, especially in relation to language e. Animated; lively f. To charm, hold spellbound g. Done routinely and with little interest or enthusiasm h. Lacking interest or concern

Write B if the word best describes a boring person, F if it best describes a fun person. 13. banal _______ 14. vivacious_______ 15. dour _______ 16. vapid_______ 17. abandon _______

Chapter 24A: Words Dealing with Forgiveness or Mercy


atone Roots ab, a: away, from co, com, con: with, together ex, e: out, out of absolve contrite clemency epentant exonerate

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absolve (v.) to free from blame, guilt, or sin atone (v.) to repent, make amends

SAT

VOCABULARY

On his deathbed, the convict asked the priest to absolve him of his crimes. Marcel atoned for injuring a woman while driving drunk by devoting his life to preventing alcohol abuse. clemency (n.) a merciful act Since it was Lindseys first traffic violation, the judge granted her clemency and let her go with a warning. condone (v.) to overlook or forgive an offense Condoning a friends actions can be harmful in the long run because it tells the friend he or she can repeat the action without a negative consequence. contrite (adj.) feeling deep regret for ones actions Robert felt contrite about spending little time with his children while they were growing up. exonerate (v.) to clear from guilt or blame After the real killer was captured, Samuel was exonerated and released from jail. repentant (adj.) guilty, remorseful At the press conference announcing his resignation, the mayor said, I truly feel repentant for my actions and for violating the trust of the people that elected me.

Chapter 24B: Words Dealing With Sadness


dirge despondent lugubrious elegy wistful morose despondent (adj.) feeling depressed, hopeless After a tornado destroyed her house and killed her cat, Beth felt despondent and unwilling to live. dirge (n.) a mournful song The dirge the elves sang about Gandalfs death moved the hobbits hearts, even though they couldnt understand the words. elegy (n.) a speech given in honor of a dead person It was difficult for Miriam to give an elegy for her mother, but afterwards many people told her it was a fitting tribute. lugubrious (adj.) mournful or gloomy, often exaggeratedly so Peter gets lugubrious every time he has to take an important test. His friends find his melodramatic antics comical, although they are kind enough not to make fun of him to his face. morose (adj.) gloomy, sullen A morose mood came over the bar crowd when their team lost the championship by fumbling the ball in the last minute of the game.

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wistful (adj.) yearning; musing upon sad things

SAT

VOCABULARY

Peter was wistful for his childhood, when he felt life was simpler and he was happy.

Boost Your Score


Underline word roots. Write four sentences, with each one containing a word from 24A and a word from 24B. Review Chapter 11: Words Dealing with Happiness or Friendliness. For three of the words in 24B, find an antonym for it in Chapter 11.

Chapter 24 Quiz
Matching: Definitions ___1. atone ___2. clemency ___3. contrite ___4. despondent ___5. elegy ___6. lugubrious ___7. repentant ___8. wistful Guilt or Sadness? Write G if the word relates to guilt, S if it relates to sadness, or N for neither. 9. despondent ______ 10. morose _______ 11. repentant ______ 12. clemency ______ 13. contrite ______ 14. lugubrious _______ a. Feeling depressed, hopeless b. Feeling deep regret for ones actions c. A speech given in honor of a dead person d. Mournful or gloomy, often exaggeratedly so e. To repent, make amends f. Guilty, remorseful g. A merciful act h. Yearning; musing upon sad things

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Match the word with the word group ___1. anachronistic ___2. avarice ___3. cupidity ___4. dilatory ___5. destitute ___6. prescient ___7. indigent ___8. portent ___9. quotidian ___10. bereft ___11. morose ___12. absolve ___13. irreverence ___14. apathetic ___15. despondent ___16. exonerate ___17. vapid ___18. convivial ___19. wistful ___20. repentant Circle the Correct Answer a. Fun person b. Boring person c. Forgiveness/Mercy d. Sadness a. Time/History

SAT

VOCABULARY

Cumulative Review: Chapters 21-24


b. Wealth/Greed/Envy c. Poverty/Destitution

21. Carl asked why Alison is feeling (convivial, morose). She said it is because she had a (indigent, prescient) feeling that someone she loves is going to die soon. 22. The (destitute, opulent) party had life-size statues made of sorbet that were later served in china bowls. 23. The convict felt (contrite, dilatory) for the crimes he committed. 24. Watching the teenagers party with (abandon, dourness) made the elderly man (lugubrious, wistful) for the fun times he had as a teenager.

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abandon aggregate anathema annex apprehend canvas cleave defer faade facile imperative morass reprobate sanguine

SAT

VOCABULARY

Further Study: Words With Dual Meanings


1. (n.) total lack of inhibition 2. (v.) to give up with the intent of never reclaiming 1. (v.) to gather together 2. (n.) a total 1. (n.) a formal ban or curse 2. (n.) one who is greatly detested 1. (v.) to seize territory or space 2. (n.) a room attached to a larger room 1. (v.) to seize, arrest 2. (v.) to perceive or understand 1. (n.) a piece of cloth on which an artist paints 2. (v.) to cover, inspect 1. (v.) to divide 2. (v.) to stick together (v.) 1. to postpone 2. to yield to anothers wisdom 1. (n.) the decorative front wall of a building 2. (n.) a deceptive appearance or attitude 1. (adj.) easy 2. (adj.) superficial, insincere 1. (adj.) necessary, important 2. (n.) a command or order (n.) 1. a swamp 2. something that confuses or overwhelms 1. (adj.) unprincipled, lacking in morals 2. (v.) to condemn 1. (adj.) optimistic 2. of the color of blood

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SAT

VOCABULARY

Further Study: Mini-Groups


If you have time, look up these words in a collegiate-level dictionary and write the definitions in your vocabulary notebook. The basic definitions are highlighted, but the words have shades of meaning that are necessary to know if you want to use them correctly. Loud boisterous (adj.) strident (adj.) vociferous (adj.) Abundant copious (adj.) plethora (n.) profuse (adj.) surfeit (adj.) Intense Praise A Tiny Amount modicum (n.) paucity (adj.) pittance (n.) Unoriginal derivative (adj.) hackneyed (adj.) trite (adj.) Best Example archetypal (adj.) epitome (n.) paradigm (n.) paragon (n.) Harmful baleful (adj.) deleterious (adj.) grievous (adj.)

Slanderous aspersion (n.) defamatory (adj.) pejorative (adj.) Rude brazen (adj.) brusque (adj.) impertinent (adj.)

adulation (n.) approbation (n.) exalt (v.) extol (v.) To Reduce abate (v.) atrophy (v.) abridge (v.) corrode (v.) expurgate (v.) Secretive clandestine (adj.) covert (adj.) surreptitious (adj.)

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Answer Keys
Chapter 1 Quiz
1. d 2. a 3. c 4. b 5. e 6. away, from 7. with, together 8. out, out of 9. uncanny 10. pathology 11. eclectic 12. aberration

SAT
1. e 2. d 3. b 4. c 5. a

VOCABULARY

6. good, well 7. in, into 8. not 9. great 10. love 11. feel, suffer 12. shake, timid 13. wish 14. beseeched 15. cogent 16. debunked

Chapter 2 Quiz
1. a 2. f 3. d 4. e 5. b 6. c 7. not, without 8. away, from 9. benevolent 10. magnanimous 11. deft 12. alacrity

Chapter 4 Quiz
1. a 2. d 3. e 4. b 5. c 6. f 7. with, together 8. to know 9. from, away, down 10. placated 11. panacea 12. respite

Chapter 3 Quiz

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Answer Keys
Cumulative Review: Chapters 1-4
Match the word with the word group 1. d 2. c 3. b 4. c 5. a 6. b 7. a 8. d 9. c 10. b 11. d 12. a 13. atypical not typical 14. in trep id fearless, unshakable 15. cogent logically convincing 16. panacea a cure-all 17. eccentric 18. intrepid 19. coerced 20. devious

SAT
1. c 2. a 3. d 4. b 5. f 6. e 7. love 8. all 9. succinct

VOCABULARY

Chapter 5 Quiz

10. circumlocution 11. laconic 12. pithy

Chapter 6 Quiz
1. d 2. c 3. a 4. e 5. f 6. n 7. around 8. speech, thought 9. amorphous 10. dubious 11. vacillating 12. equivocal

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Answer Keys
Chapter 7 Quiz
1. d 2. f 3. a 4. b 5. c 6. e 7. g 8. both 9. around 10. equivocal 11. shape 12. around, look 13. timorous 14. servile 15. punctilious 16. capitulation

SAT
14. decried 16. derided

VOCABULARY

15. denigrating

Chapters 5-8 Review


1. b 2. d 3. c 4. c 5. a 6. b 7. a 8. c 9. d 10. a 11. b 12. d 13. circum loc ution indirect and wordy language 14. a morph ous without definite shape or form 15. tractable easily controlled or dealt with 16. disparage to reduce in esteem or rank; to speak of in a disrespectful way 17. denigrated 18. circumspect 19. laconic 20. capitulate

Chapter 8 Quiz
1. a 2. c 3. b 4. f 5. d 6. e 7. head 8. with, together 9. against, toward 10. follow 11. drag, draw 12. shake, timid 13. admonish

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Answer Keys
Chapter 9 Quiz
1. e 2. g 3. a 4. b 5. c 6. d 7. h 8. f 9. to, towards 10. from, down, away 11. pretense 12. unctuous 13. prevaricates 14. dissembles

SAT
1. a 2. a 3. c 4. c 5. c 6. c 7. b 8. a 9. b 10. c 11. not 12. eat

VOCABULARY

Chapter 11 Quiz

13. congenial 14. jubilation 15. facetious

Chapter 10 Quiz
1. d 2. a 3. f 4. c 5. e 6. b 7. with, together 8. apart, away, not 9. palatable 10. culinary 11. voracious 12. arable

Chapter 12 Quiz
1. g 2. a 3. e 4. c 5. f 6. b 7. d 8. am, ami 9. co, com, con 10. greg 11. eu 12. wrath 13. odious 14. enmity 15. malediction

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Answer Keys
Chapters 9-12 Review
1. b 2. a 3. b 4. c 5. d 6. a 7. c 8. b 9. b 10. c 11. a 12. d 13. d 14. c 15. a 16. d 17. amicable agreeable, showing good will

SAT
1. a 2. c 3. d 4. b 5. e 6. speak

VOCABULARY

Chapter 13 Quiz

7. bad, badly 8. wish 9. D 10. S 11. S 12. D 13. D 14. S 15. sS

Chapter 14 Quiz
1. coalesce 2. linchpin 3. disseminate 4. aggregate 5. engender 6. yoke 7. sharp, sour 8. know 9. around 10. look, see 11. disseminated 12. segregated 13. confluence 14. engender

18. dis sem ble to conceal or disguise ones nature, feelings, or motives 19. malevolent having or exhibiting ill will; wishing harm to others 20. voracious unending hunger; insatiable 21. animosity, ruse 22. euphoria 23. depravity 24. spurious

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Answer Keys
Chapter 15 Quiz
1. a, b 2. b 3. c 4. b 5. b, c 6. c 7. b 8. a 9. b 10. b 11. c 12. crowd, flock 13. apart, away 14. seed, sow 15. flagged 16. sedentary

SAT
14. S 15. D 16. D

VOCABULARY

Chapters 13-16 Review


1. a 2. b 3. c 4. b 5. d 6. d 7. a 8. b 9. d 10. a 11. c 12. d 13. a 14. c 15. b 16. c 17. cognizant aware, mindful 18. disseminate to spread widely 19. segregate to separate others from a group 20. somnolent drowsy, sleepy 21. ascertain, lethargic 22. supercilious 23. effrontery 24. truculent

Chapter 16 Quiz
1. d 2. a 3. f 4. b 5. c 6. e 7. g 8. sed, sid 9. somn 10. torp 11. S 12. D 13. D

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Answer Keys
Chapter 17 Quiz
1. e 2. b 3. g 4. a 5. c 6. f 7. h 8. d 9. D 10. O 11. D 12. S 13. D

SAT
18. D

VOCABULARY

Chapter 19 Quiz
1. c 2. a 3. b 4. e 5. f 6. d 7. not 8. quiet 9. silent 10. august 11. palatial 12. truncated 13. commodious

Chapter 18 Quiz
1. e 2. h 3. g 4. a 5. d 6. b 7. c 8. f 9. with, together 10. God, godly 11. holy 12. God, godly 13. S 14. S 15. D 16. S 17. S

Chapter 20 Quiz
1. d 2. i 3. a 4. b 5. c 6. j 7. f 8. e 9. h 10. g 11. colloquial 12. bombastic 13. laudatory 14. inarticulate

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Answer Keys
Chapters 16-20 Review
1. b 2. c 3. a 4. d 5. d 6. b 7. c 8. a 9. d 10. b 11. a 12. b 13. c 14. c 15. d 16. a

SAT
1. a 2. e 3.b 4. g 5. c 6. g 7. d 8. f 9. S 10. D 11. Y 12. N 13. Y

VOCABULARY

Chapter 21 Quiz

Chapter 22 Quiz
1. covet 2. affluent 3. avarice 4. austere 5. opulent 6. benefactor 7. destitute 8. derelict 9. emaciated 10. cupidity 11. chron time 12. ex, e out, out of 13. pre before 14. trans across, over, through

17. apotheosis (n.) 1. elevation to divine status. 2. (n.) a glorified example 18. colloquial characterized by the use of informal language 19. diffident shy due to lack of confidence 20. quiescent quiet; still; at rest 21. diffident 22. diminutive, polemic 23. sacrosanct 24. garrulous

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Answer Keys
Chapter 23 Quiz
1. h 2. d 3. a 4. b 5. f 6. c 7. g 8. e 9. ad 10. fac, fea, fect 11. flu, flux 12. ex 13. B 14. F 15. B 16. B 17. F

SAT
12. N 13. G 14. S

VOCABULARY

Chapters 21-24 Review


1. a 2. b 3. b 4. a 5. c 6. a 7. c 8. a 9. a 10. c 11. d 12. c 13. a 14. b 15. d 16. c 17. b 18. a 19. d 20. c 21. morose, prescient 22. opulent 23. contrite 24. abandon, wistful

Chapter 24 Quiz
1. e 2. g 3. b 4. a 5. c 6. d 7. f 8. h 9. S 10. S 11. G

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