Section 6 Part 04

General Specification

TABLE OF CONTENTS

4.1

GENERAL ......................................................................................................................... 2 Scope ........................................................................................................................ 2 References ................................................................................................................ 2 Definitions .................................................................................................................. 3 Submittals .................................................................................................................. 3 Quality Assurance ..................................................................................................... 4

4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.2

MATERIALS ...................................................................................................................... 4 Sources of Materials .................................................................................................. 4 Storage and Handling of Materials ............................................................................ 4 Inspection Testing and Control .................................................................................. 4 Fine Aggregate .......................................................................................................... 5 Coarse Aggregate ..................................................................................................... 5 Water ......................................................................................................................... 6

4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 4.3

MAIN EQUIPMENT ........................................................................................................... 6 General ...................................................................................................................... 6 Paving Machines ....................................................................................................... 6 Central Mixers ........................................................................................................... 7

4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9

MIX DESIGNS ................................................................................................................... 7 SCREENING AND MIXING............................................................................................... 7 SPREADING AND COMPACTION ................................................................................... 7 CORRECTIVE ACTION .................................................................................................... 8 PROTECTION OF SURFACE........................................................................................... 9 TESTING ........................................................................................................................... 9 General ...................................................................................................................... 9 Compaction ............................................................................................................... 9 Gradation ................................................................................................................. 10 Thickness ................................................................................................................ 10 Evenness and Level ................................................................................................ 10

4.9.1 4.9.2 4.9.3 4.9.4 4.9.5

Rev. 0

1/10

2.1 UNBOUND PAVEMENT MATERIALS GENERAL 4. Test 16 Determination of the California bearing ratio.1. Mosses. Humus and Related Products Standard Method of Test for Moisture. Methods of tests for soils for civil engineering purposes Test 1 Determination of the moisture content Test 2 Determination of the liquid limit of soils Test 3 Determination of the plastic limit of soils Test 4 Determination of the plasticity index of soils Test 6 Determination of the specific gravity of soils Test 7 Determination of the particle size distribution Test 8 Determination of the organic matter Test 13 Determination of the dry density/moisture relationship (4. Earthworks Part 5. Asphalt Works 4. Ash and Organic Matter of Peat Materials Standard Method of Test for Sand Content of Peat Materials Standard Method of Test for pH of Peat Materials Standard Method of Test for Practical Size Range of Peat Materials. This Part includes materials. BS 5930 ASTM D 2607 D 2974 D 2975 D 2976 D 2977 Standard Classification of Peats. Related Parts are: Part 1.5 kg rammer method) Test 15 Determination of the dry density of the soil on site Test 16 Determination of the California bearing ratio. equipment and construction requirements for granular base material (aggregate sub-base and road base courses).1.2 References 1.Section 6 Part 04 General Specification PART 4 4. 1 2/10 .1 Scope 1. General Part 3. Code for Practice for Site Investigations AASHTO M 145 Classifications of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures for Highway Construction Purposes Rev. Testing aggregates BS 1377. The following standards are referred to in this Part: British Standards BS 812.

Base course: the layer of bituminous material between the road base or subbase and the wearing course.54 kg) Rammer and an 18 in (457 mm ) Drop. Slag. 5.3 Definitions 1.075mm Sieve in Aggregate Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates Investigating and Sampling Soils and Rock for Engineering Purposes Dry Preparation of Disturbed Soil and Soil Aggregate Samples for Test. Density of Soil In-Place by the Sand-Cone Method The California Bearing Ratio Density of Soil In-Place by the Drive Cylinder Method Density of Soil In-Place by the Rubber-Balloon Method Determination of Moisture in Soils by Means of a Calcium Carbide Gas Pressure Moisture tester. Sand and Stone Block for Use as Highway Material Amount of Material Finer than 0.1.5m beneath formation. T 100 T 104 T 143 T 176 T 180 T 191 T 193 T 204 T 205 T 217 4. 1 3/10 . 4.4 Submittals The Contractor shall submit recent test results for the proposed sources of materials for all quality requirements of the Contract. Maximum dry density: the dry density of soil obtained using a specific degree of compaction at the optimum moisture content when determined in accordance with AASHTO standard T180. Sub-grade: the compacted existing ground or fill for 0. 6. Gravel. 2. Road base: the compacted selected material forming the layer between the sub-base and base course. Formation: the completed earthworks level shaped in readiness to receive the sub-base. Specific Gravity of Soils Soundness of Aggregate by Use of Sodium Sulphate or Magnesium Sulphate Sampling and Testing Calcium Chloride for Roads and Structural Applications. 7. Plastic Fines in Graded Aggregates and Soils by Use of the Sand Equivalent Test Moisture – Density Relations of Soils using a 10 1b (4. Particle Size Analysis of Soils Determining the Liquid Limit of Soils Determining the Plastic Limit and Plasticity Index of Soils Determining the Field Moisture Equivalent of Soils Resistance to Abrasion of Small Size Coarse Aggregate by Use of the Los Angeles Machine. Sub-base: the compacted fill material forming the layer between the formation and the road base or base course. 3. Rev. Optimum moisture content: the moisture content of soil at which a specific degree of compaction will produce the maximum dry density when determined in accordance with AASHTO standard T180.Section 6 Part 04 T 2 T 11 T 27 T 86 T 87 T T T T T 88 89 90 93 96 General Specification Sampling Stone.1. 4.

Materials shall be so stored and handled as to assure the preservation of their quality and fitness for use in the works. Even after source approval has been given materials may again be inspected and tested before use in the work. the stockpiles shall be constructed one layer at a time with trucks depositing their loads as close to the previous load as possible. The Contractor shall take all necessary protection measures in the storage. When trucks are used to construct stockpiles.2 MATERIALS 4.1 Sources of Materials 1.Section 6 Part 04 General Specification 4. 4. Where a proposed source of material is not approved. 3.1. and the formation of high cone-shaped piles shall not be permitted. testing and other quality control requirements. storage yards.2. When conveyor belts are used for stockpiling aggregates the Engineer may require the use of baffled chutes or perforated chimneys. the Contractor shall propose an alternative source of material. The Engineer shall approve the sources before delivery of materials to the site.2. All storage sites shall be restored to their original condition before acceptance of the Works. Stored material shall be located so as to facilitate prompt inspection. Stockpiles shall be kept flat. 1 4/10 . Handling and stockpiling of aggregates shall at all times be such as to eliminate segregation or contamination of the various sizes. 6. The Contractor shall notify the Engineer of the proposed sources of materials.5 Quality Assurance If requested the Contractor shall arrange for the Engineer to visit the source of the materials and jointly take samples for testing. The measures that the Contractor proposes to take shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer. 4.2 Storage and Handling of Materials 1. The Contractor shall carry out testing as directed by the Engineer. 4.3 Inspection Testing and Control 1. handling and stockpiling of materials to prevent contamination of materials by dust.2. the Engineer shall at all times be provided access to all portions of the mixing plant. The use of tractors or loaders to push material deposited at one location to another location in the stockpile shall not be allowed during the construction of the stockpile and their use shall be limited to leveling the deposited material only. crushers and other facilities used for producing and processing the materials of construction. 3. 2. aggregate plant. character of materials used in the preparation of the mixes. Rev. 5. 2. 4. For verification of plant weights and measures.

Rev.425mm sieve) shall consist of crushed stone. Materials which require drying before performing any of the designated tests shall be dried out at temperatures not greater than 100 C. The parent rock of the crushed mineral aggregate shall be Gabbro in accordance with Group 4 of BS 812 or similar.425mm sieve shall have a maximum liquid limit of 25% and the plasticity index shall not exceed 6%. the Contractor may. The ratio of fine aggregates passing the 0.425mm sieve so as to meet the requirements.075mm sieve shall not exceed 66% of the portion passing the 0. add fine aggregate and filler to correct the gradation or to change the characteristics of the material passing the 0. with the Engineer's approval.2. 4. 2. 1 5/10 .425mm sieve.2. clay-balls and other extraneous or detrimental materials. 6. 4. 4. The fine aggregate shall be clean and free from organic matter.Section 6 Part 04 General Specification 2. The Contractor shall arrange for obtaining specimens of materials and samples taken from stockpiles. the Contractor shall not proceed with subsequent work until approval has been given by the Engineer. 4. 2. The material passing the 0. Samples shall also be taken from completed work to determine compliance. Fine aggregate (passing the 4. Materials that are not in compliance shall be rejected and removed immediately from the site of the works unless otherwise instructed by the Engineer. This work shall be performed in the presence of the Engineer if so directed by the Engineer. Where the source of fine aggregate does not meet the above requirements. 5.4 Fine Aggregate 1. The Engineer shall have authority to take samples and perform tests on any material supplied to the site from any source whatsoever in order to establish compliance and to accept or reject as He deems necessary. crushed gravel with 50% by weight with fractured faces and shall be of such gradation that when combined with other required aggregate fractions in proper proportion. 3. 7. The frequency of all sampling and testing shall be as designated by the Engineer. The flakiness index of the aggregate shall not exceed 35 % when tested in accordance with BS 812. The parent rock of the crushed stone shall be Gabbro in accordance with Group 4 of BS 812 or similar. 5. 3.75mm sieve) shall consist of natural sand and/or crushed mineral aggregate and shall be of such gradation that when combined with other required aggregate fraction in proper proportions. Coarse aggregate (retained on the 0. the resultant mixture will meet the designated gradation.5 Coarse Aggregate 1. Such additional material shall be added in a manner which ensures a completely homogeneous material. The Contractor shall provide suitable facilities at the quarry or plants to carry out all necessary tests on the raw materials and mixes. the resultant mixture will meet the designated gradation. including the provision of any necessary equipment and plant. Where defects in the materials or the completed work have been corrected.

5. 5. subject to the modifications and additions in this clause.Section 6 Part 04 General Specification 3. 4. 4. 4. Coarse aggregate shall be subject to the sodium sulphate soundness loss test in accordance with AASHTO T104. Unless otherwise stipulated herein the provisions of Section 6. 2. The screed shall be adjustable to the required width being laid. The Contractor shall immediately comply with such instructions without being entitled to any indemnities or extensions as a result of such instructions. ASTM or AASHTO.3 MAIN EQUIPMENT 4. Paving machines shall be self-propelled and shall be capable of spreading the sub-base and base materials in one operation so as to make it ready for compaction with minimum shaping. in respect of the main machinery and tools used in earthworks construction. 2.2 Paving Machines 1. mechanics or labor and to instruct suitable replacement thereof at any time be deems such action is necessary. The paving machines shall be provided with a screed that strikes off and distributes the material to the required width and level. The percentage of wear of coarse aggregate shall not exceed 40 % when tested for resistance to abrasion in accordance with AASHTO T96.6 Water Sea and brackish or saline water shall not be used in the mixing. Screed action includes any practical motion that produces a finished surface texture of uniform appearance. 3.2. The Contractor shall not be allowed to use any equipment or plant before obtaining the approval of the Engineer. Rev. 6. 3. 4. The Engineer shall have the right to stop the use of any equipment or plant which be deems to be inferior to the quality required and to instruct the removal of such equipment and to have it replaced by suitable equipment or to alter the method of operation at any time he so desires. 1 6/10 . 4. and the Contractor shall undertake sound technical methods in operation and to engage skilled and trained operators. The Engineer shall have the right to expel any operators. The total loss factor when tested in accordance with the 10 minute immersed rotational test shall not exceed 20%.3. The maximum allowable sodium sulphate soundness loss shall be 18 %. The coarse aggregate shall be hard and durable and free from organic matter. Part 3 (Earthworks). mechanics and labor to carry out the works. The test shall be carried out in accordance with one of the following appropriate standards: BS. 4. 5. spreading and compacting operations for granular base. shall be adhered to.3. The width of each spread shall not be less than a traffic lane wide.1 General 1. clay and other extraneous or detrimental materials.

The maximum dry density and the optimum moisture content of the material shall be ascertained as per the test procedure given in AASHTO standard T180and this shall be used to assess the degree of compaction of the mix after rolling. 6. 5. 4.5 70-100 25 55-85 100 20 50-80 90-100 10 40-70 50-85 5 30-60 35-65 2. Screening shall be required for the materials used in sub base and road base to ensure that the designated gradation is attained. 2. The various feeds shall be calibrated to allow adjustments to the mix design to be carried out. 4.Section 6 Part 04 4. 1 . Before commencing the construction of the sub base and road base. The particle size shall be determined by the washing and sieving method of BS 812 : part 103. 4. 3. 2. Fine and coarse aggregates for road base shall be a combined gradation of material that conforms to the gradation of Class 1 or 2 as follows : Percent Passing BS Sieve (mm) Class 1 Class 2 63 50 100 37. A central mixing plant shall be used for the mixing of materials. if necessary. Mixing of separate materials on the roadway by motor grader will not be permitted. 4.3 Central Mixers General Specification 1.36 20-50 25-50 0. Means shall be provided for regulating the flow of material to the mixer. to separate the materials into two or more fractions so that they may be combined to meet the required gradation.4 MIX DESIGNS 1. The pavement layer designated as sub-base may be substituted by any of the materials designated to be laid on it subject to the approval of the Engineer. 4. 7/10 Rev.425 10-30 15-30 0. Aggregate sub-base and base courses shall consist of crushed mineral aggregates or natural mineral aggregates of the designated gradation and thickness.3. 2.075 5-15 5-15 3.5 SCREENING AND MIXING 1.6 SPREADING AND COMPACTION 1. Screens shall be of the size and number required to remove oversize aggregate and. Fine and coarse aggregates for sub base shall be a combined gradation of material that meets the requirements of the specification for density and other properties. A central mixing plant shall be either of an approved drum or pugmill type with a moisture control system so that the material may be spread without further mixing or processing. written approval for the Engineer must be obtained that the sub-grade is in compliance.

Work on the sub-base and road base courses shall not be permitted during rainy weather. the irregular surface shall be loosened. 13. 10. The course shall not be rolled when the underlying material is soft or yielding or when the rolling causes a wave-like motion in this course. the necessary amount of water must be added to obtain the optimum content. Where the finished compacted thickness exceeds 150 mm placing shall be executed in composite layers each layer not exceeding 150 mm in compacted thickness as directed by the Engineer. 14. Any soft spots. either of the following procedures shall be adopted subject to the approval of the Engineer: 8/10 3. The compacted layer shall have moisture content within +/. 3. or by removing the material in such areas and replacing with further approved material. General Specification 5. Road base and Sub base may be laid by either a paving machine with a spreader box or end tipped from trucks and spread by grader. depending on atmospheric temperature. leveling and compacting. 4. This aspect must be given special attention in places where rolling equipment makes turns to change direction. 16. caused either by excessive build-up of pore water pressure or the groundwater table being sufficiently high to affect construction techniques. 1 . then refilled with the same kind of material as used in constructing the course and again rolled. irregularities or depressions that develop in the surface of the subbase or road base. the sub-base or road base course material shall be tamped thoroughly with suitable mechanical tampers to achieve the required density and finish. 8. 12. 9. In the event of heave occurring during compaction.Section 6 Part 04 2. The moisture content shall be uniform in all parts of the section where the work is being carried out and in the various depths of the layer thickness. If the natural moisture content is less than the optimum moisture content. Material shall be spread to a thickness that would result in layers not more than 150 mm thick after compaction. 17. or that the formation is not damaged. Allowance shall be made for the quantity of moisture which may be lost by evaporation in the process of raking.7 CORRECTIVE ACTION 1. Any such damage resulting in mixing the various layers constituting the different sub-grades and road base courses shall be carefully made good by the Contractor at his own expense and to the satisfaction of the Engineer. Any material that fails to meet test requirements shall either be reworked or removed and replaced and then retested to check for compliance. Compaction shall start immediately the material has been laid and as per the approved rolling pattern. 15. shall either be corrected by loosening the surface of such areas and adding further material. 2. 7. Along places inaccessible to rollers. 4. Rev. Care shall be taken so that layers already compacted under the layer being executed do not get damaged. Rolling must continue until a relative density of not less than 100 % of the maximum dry density has been obtained as determined by the moisture-density relationship in AASHTO standard T180.2 % of the optimum moisture content. 11. 6. The optimum moisture content of the material shall be noted from the mix design and the actual moisture content determined at the plant after mixing. When the rolling develops irregularities.

2 Compaction 1. General Specification 4. 3. and approved alternative construction layers substituted. Following the completion of the sub-base or road base courses the Contractor shall perform all maintenance work necessary to keep the course in a condition for priming.9 TESTING 4. the affected material shall be removed.1 General 1. For correction of low density or incorrect level. 4. Two 9/10 Rev. and re-compacted prior to the application of prime coat.8 PROTECTION OF SURFACE 1. Where the surface of the sub-base is covered in a very thin smooth skin composed of fine particles cemented together acting as a barrier to the prime coat the top 75mm shall be scarified . 2. the aggregate sub-base and road base shall have been tested for compliance with the requirements of this clause on testing and approved by the Engineer. All testing shall be carried out in accordance with AASHTO T96. the top 75 mm shall be scarified. reshaped with material added or removed as necessary and re-compacted to the designated requirement. Any damage caused to the layer if exposed to traffic or natural conditions resulting in damage to its surface shall be made good at the expense of the Contractor and to the satisfaction of the Engineer. At any stage in the mixing. the Engineer may instruct that these tests are carried out. watered if necessary. 2. 6. The Contractor shall carry out additional testing if required by the Engineer to ensure that the standard of compaction is satisfactory through the full depth of the layer. 4. transportation. Before the application of any prime coat or any other paving course.9.9. sufficient time shall be allowed to elapse enabling the excess pore water to dissipate before further construction or compaction is carried out b. The sub base or road base shall be compacted and tested for acceptance in accordance with AASHTO standard T180 and BS 1377 to attain a minimum density of 100 % of the maximum dry density of the material.2. 4. The Contractor shall protect the sub-base or road base course so that it shall be maintained sound during work progress. AASHTO T104 and the relevant Parts of BS 1377 or ASTM Standard Methods of test.Section 6 Part 04 a. 4. reshaped. 1 . Prior to proceeding with the mixing of material individual stockpiles shall be tested for compliance to the requirements of clause 4. after its completion and before receiving the bituminous layers or before laying the surface overlay thereon. 4. 5. The area treated shall not be less than 30 meters long and 2 meters wide or such area determined by the Engineer as necessary to attain compliance. The Engineer has the right to stop all hauling over completed or partially completed sub-base and base courses when in his opinion such hauling is causing damage. 3. spreading or compaction process.

9. 2. 2. 2.5 m by 0. Wherever the gradation is found to be outside the designated limits. The thickness of the material shall be derived from checking the level by dipping from string lines stretched across the roadway between pins or kerbs. The final surfaces of the sub-base or road base shall be tested by means of a 4 meter long straight edge and no rises or depressions in excess of 10 mm shall appear in the surface. 4. 4. Unless agreed otherwise with the Engineer dipping shall be carried out at intervals of not less than 10m. The gradation shall be tested in accordance with BS 812: Part 103. 2. The finished surface shall also be checked by dips or spot levels and shall be constructed to the designated grade levels to within plus Zero mm and minus 20 mm. The Engineer may also instruct that the gradation of material shall be checked by taking samples from the mixing plant.3 Gradation 1. the area of sub-base or road base involved shall be scarified.5 m from the full depth of the layer for every 1000 m3 of laid material. reshaping by adding or removing material as necessary.9. 3. 3. Wherever the thickness of compacted aggregate sub-base or road base is found to vary from the thickness specified in the project drawings or specification by more than 10 % the area involved shall be satisfactorily corrected to provide the required thickness constructed to the designated grade level. 4. 1 10/10 . the Contractor shall determine the full extent of the area which is out of tolerance and shall make good the surface of the course by scarifying to a minimum depth of 75 mm or 4 times the maximum particle size. 3. The gradation shall be tested in accordance with BS 812: Part 103.4 Thickness 1.5 Evenness and Level 1. END OF PART Rev. The thickness of the material shall be derived at the location where the material is removed from the roadway for gradation analysis. the area of sub-base or road base involved shall be satisfactorily corrected.Section 6 Part 04 General Specification tests every 500 m2 shall be carried out unless otherwise directed by the Engineer. Where these requirements are not met. The gradation of the placed material shall be checked by taking samples from an area 0. adding water if necessary and recompacting. whichever is the greater. removed or otherwise reworked as directed by the Engineer to provide a gradation in compliance.9. Wherever the degree of compaction is found to be less than required.

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