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NATURAL GAS Compression NTNU 2012

Gas Compressor
Compressors used in OIL & GAS Industry Emphasis on Centrifugal compressor
Thor Owe Johansen
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Dresser-Rand AS

Agenda
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Compressor in Natural gas production & transport Types and Principles Centrifugal Compressor Selection process Compressor Components Latest developments

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NATURAL GAS Compression NTNU 2012

Since 1840

Kongsberg

Where are we . . . . ?
DRAMMEN

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NATURAL GAS Compression NTNU 2012

What does a Compressor do ?

Reduce volume of gas Increase pressure of gass Control pressure in process

GAS FROM RESERVIOR TO LAND

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NATURAL GAS Compression NTNU 2012

TYPICAL OIL PLATFORM

DRIVER
ASDS -EM

Compressor

Gear GT

Compressor

Gear ST

Compressor

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NATURAL GAS Compression NTNU 2012

COMPRESSOR ON KOLLSNESS
VSD- electric motor Gearbox DATUM Compressors

COMPRESSOR TRAIN
GE LM2500+ Gas Generator D-R VECTRA Powerturbine Gearbox DATUM Compressors

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NATURAL GAS Compression NTNU 2012

Gas turbine Driven Generator (30 MW)

Gas turbine Driven Compressor(30 MW)

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NATURAL GAS Compression NTNU 2012

Gas turbine Driven Compressor (30 MW)

Gas turbine Driven Compressor (30 MW)

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NATURAL GAS Compression NTNU 2012

Compressor train (reinjection)

60,3 b 63,5 b 285 b 282 b

131 b 20,5 b 134 b 485 b


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Centrifugal compressor

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2 TYPES AND PRINCIPLE

Compressor Type Centrifugal - principle

Compressor Types

Axial - large flow, low pressure


Centrifugal - large to medium flow, high presssure Helical Screw - low flow, low pressure Reciprocating - medium to low flow, high pressure

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NATURAL GAS Compression NTNU 2012

Application parameters
Outlet pressure bars a

Reciprocating

Centrifugal Axial

Inlet flow m3/h

Offshore North Sea - large flow, high pressure

Axial Compressor

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NATURAL GAS Compression NTNU 2012

Centrifugal Compressor

Centrifugal Compressor

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NATURAL GAS Compression NTNU 2012

Reciprocating Compressor

Reciprocating compressor

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Helical Screw Compressor

Basic Principles

Centrifugal Action A Centrifugal Stage Energy Conversion

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NATURAL GAS Compression NTNU 2012

Centrifugal Action

Centrifugal Action

Velocity Relationship

Exit Path
B

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Centrifugal Action
Cover Blades Disk

High Velocity, Higher Pressure Gas Outlet

Impellers

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Low Velocity, Low Pressure Gas Inlet

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DIFFUSOR
From impellers gas flows in to diffuser

Diffusor

Diffuser converts kinetic energy to pressure energy

How A Centrifugal Works


Centrifugal Stage

Return Bend

Return Bend

Diffuser
Reduces Velocity Increases Static Pressure

Return Channel

Impeller
Increases Velocity Increases Static Pressure
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Guide Vanes

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NATURAL GAS Compression NTNU 2012

A Centrifugal Stage
IMPELLER Transfer energy - pressure and speed DIFFUSOR Converts kinetic energy to pressure

GAS COMPRESSOR
3 Centrifugal Compressor Selection process

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NATURAL GAS Compression NTNU 2012

Selection Process
Inputs required for centrifugal compressor selection
Typically Know: Ts inlet Ps inlet Pd outlet Flow (Q) Gas composition Driver type (Gas Turbine, Steam Turbine, Motor)

Selection Process
Selection Process Aerodynamic Selection and Optimization Impeller Requirements (including Stress) Mechanical Design Coupling size Bearing and Seal sizes Rotordynamic Design Could reselect coupling, bearings, seals

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NATURAL GAS Compression NTNU 2012

Polytropic Work (Head)

COURTESY OF BILL FORSTHOFFER

Basic Thermodynamic Equations


P m d 1 P Head = s R Ts Z avg m
Redlich Kwong equation used to calculate compressibility(z)

m=

[(k 1) / k ]

z = compressibility R = Universal Gas Constant (1545.3/Mw) Mw = Mole Weight k = Isentropic Exponent (Cp/Cv) Cp = Specific Heat at constant pressure Cv = Specific Heat at constant volume
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Some Rotor dynamic terminology:


Axial vibrations Torsional vibrations

Lateral vibrations

Concepts used in Rotor Dynamics: Basic principles of vibrations Knowledge of how a fluid film bearing works Influence of bearings on the dynamics of the machine Influence of labyrinth and damper seals on the dynamics of the machine

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NATURAL GAS Compression NTNU 2012

Some Rotor dynamic terminology:


Rotor: rotating element consisting of shaft, impellers/disks, shrunk-on components like sleeves, balance piston, etc. Bearings: Journal bearings support the rotor in the lateral direction. (Thrust bearings support the axial load of the rotor while in operation.)

Some Rotor dynamic terminology (Contd.):


Natural frequency: Frequency at which the system vibrates. The frequency of vibration of a system (e.g. rotor-bearing system) with damping is called the damped natural frequency.

Critical speed: Is a natural frequency with an active enough response that the natural frequency should be designed around.

Stability: The stability of a system is defined as the reaction to any external perturbation.
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Compressor Control Recycle Valve

Recycle Increases Suction Flow

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Surge!

Polytropic Pressure Coefficient

SURGE LINE

COMPRESSOR DESIGN POINT

105% Speed 100% Speed

90% Speed
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Flow

ASC

FT

PDY PDT

Compressor
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GAS COMPRESSOR
4 Centrifugal Compressor components

Rotor Assembly
Balance Piston Impellers Drive Coupling Mount Shaft Thrust Rotor Bearing Journals

Impeller Spacers
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Seal Area

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NATURAL GAS Compression NTNU 2012

STRAIGHT THROUGH FLOW


DATUM D10R5S

Thrust Bearing

bearing

Gas seal

bearing

Centrifugal Flowpaths
P3 P5 P7 P9

Balance Piston
P1

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Straight-Through or Series Flow

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Gas seals

Balance piston

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NATURAL GAS Compression NTNU 2012

Centrifugal Flowpaths
SS In SS Out

P3

P5

P7

P9

Balance Piston
P1

Series Flow with Sidestreams


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Centrifugal Flowpaths
P3 P5 P7 P9

Balance Piston

P1

Compound Flow
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Centrifugal Flowpaths
P3 P5 P3

P1

P1

Centrifugal Flowpaths
P5 P9

P1

P5

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Back to Back Flow with No Cooler

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Parallel or Double Flow

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NATURAL GAS Compression NTNU 2012

Centrifugal Flowpaths
P5 P9

P1

P5

APPLICATIONS
Application parameters Applications / Services
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Back to Back Flow with a Cooler

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NATURAL GAS Compression NTNU 2012

Application parameters

Gases - All types of gases Speed - 3,500 to 26,500 RPM Pressure - Vacuum to 724 bars (10,500 PSI) Flow - 1300 to 900,000 m3/h Number of stages - 1 to 10 impellers

Designation of centrifugal compressors

Horizontal split

Vertical split
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Types of multi-stages centrifugals

Radially split

Axially split
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Types of multi-stages centrifugals

Axially split compressor on test

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Sizes of compressors

Different scales

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Designation of centrifugal compressors


The name DATUM is an acronym of : Dresser-Rand Advanced Turbo Machine. The name is made of 5 components as follows : DXYNZ
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Designation of centrifugal compressors DXYNZ


D : always D for Datum X : frame size, one or two digits, 2 through 28 in step of 2 Y : case split design as follows : R for Radial (Barrel type) A for Axial (Horizontal type) N : total number of impellers, one or two digits Z : casing configuration as follows : S for straight through , compound or side stream
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B for back to Back arrangement D for double flow arrangement

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Size of Datums

COMPRESSOR ACESSORIES - COMPONENTS


Compressor Lube oil system Gasseal system gas or oil Gear and Couplings Driver - el. motor, gasturbine, steam turbine Foundation skid Prosess- anti-surge valve, scrubber and cooler Instrumentation and control system

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NATURAL GAS Compression NTNU 2012

GAS COMPRESSOR
5 Centrifugal Compressor latest develoments

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Latest Developments
Compact integral Motor driven compressor

Latest Developments
Compact integral Motor driven compressor - High speed Electrical motors - No gearbox - Magnetic bearings that eliminate need for oil lubrication - Reduced footprint - digital controls instead of analog controls - Emission-free design

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Latest Developments
Integrated Compression System(ICS)

DATUM I Compressor package

Thanks for your attention..


Dresser-Rand AS Kirkegrdsveien 45 / P.O.Box 1010, NO-3601 KONGSBERG www.dresser-rand.com
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