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Name Class Angka Giliran No. Kad Pengenalan : Lee Tze Howe Brandon : 5 Kensett :
Name Class Angka Giliran No. Kad Pengenalan : Lee Tze Howe Brandon : 5 Kensett :

Name Class Angka Giliran No. Kad Pengenalan

: Lee Tze Howe Brandon : 5 Kensett : WB004A018 : 951109-14-6315

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VOLUME 1.1 Definition Volume is the <a href=quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by some closed boundary, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains. Volume is often quantified numerically using the SI derived unit, the cubic metre. The volume of a container is generally understood to be the capacity of the container, i. e. the amount of fluid (gas or liquid) that the container could hold, rather than the amount of space the container itself displaces. Three dimensional mathematical shapes are also assigned volumes. Volumes of some simple shapes, such as regular, straight-edged, and circular shapes can be easily calculated using arithmetic formulas. The volumes of more complicated shapes can be calculated by integral calculus if a formula exists for the shape's boundary. One- dimensional figures (such as lines) and two-dimensional shapes (such as squares) are assigned zero volume in the three-dimensional space. The volume of a solid (whether regularly or irregularly shaped) can be determined by fluid displacement. Displacement of liquid can also be used to determine the volume of a gas. The combined volume of two substances is usually greater than the volume of one of the substances. However, sometimes one substance dissolves in the other and the combined volume is not additive. In differential geometry , volume is expressed by means of the volume form, and is an important global Riemannian invariant. In thermodynamics , volume is a fundamental parameter, and is a conjugate variable to pressure. " id="pdf-obj-3-2" src="pdf-obj-3-2.jpg">

VOLUME

1.1 Definition

Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by some closed boundary, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains. Volume is often quantified numerically using the SI derived unit, the cubic metre. The volume of a container is generally understood to be the capacity of the container, i. e. the amount of fluid (gas or liquid) that the container could hold, rather than the amount of space the container itself displaces.

Three dimensional mathematical shapes are also assigned volumes. Volumes of some simple shapes, such as regular, straight-edged, and circular shapes can be easily calculated using arithmetic formulas. The volumes of more complicated shapes can be calculated by integral calculus if a formula exists for the shape's boundary. One- dimensional figures (such as lines) and two-dimensional shapes (such as squares) are assigned zero volume in the three-dimensional space.

The volume of a solid (whether regularly or irregularly shaped) can be determined by fluid displacement. Displacement of liquid can also be used to determine the volume of a gas. The combined volume of two substances is usually greater than the volume of one of the substances. However, sometimes one substance dissolves in the other and the combined volume is not additive.

In differential geometry, volume is expressed by means of the volume form, and is an important global Riemannian invariant. In thermodynamics, volume is a fundamental parameter, and is a conjugate variable to pressure.

1.2 Units

1.2 Units Volume measurements from the 1914 <a href=The New Student's Reference Work. Approximate conversion to millilitres. Imperial U.S. U.S. liquid dry Gill 142 ml 118 138 ml ml Pint 568 ml 473 551 ml ml Quart 1137 ml 946 1101 ml ml Gallon 4546 ml 3785 4405 ml ml Any unit of length gives a corresponding unit of volume, namely the volume of a cube whose side has the given length. For example, a cubic centimetre (cm ) would be the volume of a cube whose sides are one centimetre (1 cm) in length. In the International System of Units (SI), the standard unit of volume is the cubic metre (m ). The metric system also includes the litre (L) as a unit of volume, where one litre is the volume of a 10-centimetre cube. Thus 1 litre = (10 cm) = 1000 cubic centimetres = 0.001 cubic metres, " id="pdf-obj-4-4" src="pdf-obj-4-4.jpg">

Volume measurements from the 1914 The New Student's Reference Work.

Approximate conversion to millilitres.

 

Imperial

U.S.

U.S.

liquid

dry

142

ml

118

138

 

ml

ml

568

ml

473

551

 

ml

ml

1137 ml

946

1101

ml

ml

4546 ml

3785

4405

ml

ml

Any unit of length gives a corresponding unit of volume, namely the volume of a cube whose side has the given length. For example, a cubic centimetre (cm 3 ) would be the volume of a cube whose sides are one centimetre (1 cm) in length.

In the International System of Units (SI), the standard unit of volume is the cubic metre (m 3 ). The metric system also includes the litre (L) as a unit of volume, where one litre is the volume of a 10-centimetre cube. Thus

1 litre = (10 cm) 3 = 1000 cubic centimetres = 0.001 cubic metres,

so

  • 1 cubic metre = 1000 litres.

Small amounts of liquid are often measured in millilitres, where

  • 1 millilitre = 0.001 litres = 1 cubic centimetre.

Various other traditional units of volume are also in use, including the cubic inch, the cubic foot, the cubic mile, the teaspoon, the tablespoon, the fluid ounce, the fluid dram, the gill, the pint, the quart, the gallon, the minim, the barrel, the cord, the peck, the bushel, and the hogshead.

  • 1.3 Related terms

Volume and capacity are sometimes distinguished, with capacity being used for how much a container can hold (with contents measured commonly in litres or its derived units), and volume being how much space an object displaces (commonly measured in cubic metres or its derived units).

Volume and capacity are also distinguished in capacity management, where capacity is defined as volume over a specified time period. However in this context the term volume may be more loosely interpreted to mean quantity.

The density of an object is defined as mass per unit volume. The inverse of density is specific volume which is defined as volume divided by mass. Specific volume is a concept important in thermodynamics where the volume of a working fluid is often an important parameter of a system being studied.

The volumetric flow rate in fluid dynamics is the volume of fluid which passes through a given surface per unit time (for example cubic meters per second [m 3 s -1 ]).

  • 1.4 Volume formulas

Shape

Volume formula

Variables

<a href=Cube a = length of any side (or edge) " id="pdf-obj-5-96" src="pdf-obj-5-96.jpg">

a = length of any side (or edge)

<a href=Cylinder r = radius of circular face, h = height " id="pdf-obj-5-106" src="pdf-obj-5-106.jpg">

r = radius of circular face, h = height

<a href=Prism B = area of the base, " id="pdf-obj-5-118" src="pdf-obj-5-118.jpg">

B = area of the base,

   

h = height

 
<a href=Rectangular l = length, w = width, " id="pdf-obj-6-13" src="pdf-obj-6-13.jpg">

l = length, w = width,

h = height

<a href=Sphere r = radius of sphere which is the integral of the surface area of a sphere " id="pdf-obj-6-28" src="pdf-obj-6-28.jpg">

r = radius of sphere which is the integral of the surface area of a sphere

<a href=Ellipsoid a , b , c = semi-axes of ellipsoid " id="pdf-obj-6-42" src="pdf-obj-6-42.jpg">

a, b, c = semi-axes of ellipsoid

<a href=Pyramid B = area of the base, " id="pdf-obj-6-56" src="pdf-obj-6-56.jpg">

B = area of the base,

h = height of pyramid

<a href=Cone r = radius of circle at base, h = distance from base to tip or height " id="pdf-obj-6-70" src="pdf-obj-6-70.jpg">

r = radius of circle at base, h = distance from base to tip or height

<a href=Tetrahedron edge length " id="pdf-obj-6-85" src="pdf-obj-6-85.jpg">

edge length

<a href=Tetrahedron edge length " id="pdf-obj-6-91" src="pdf-obj-6-91.jpg">
<a href=Parallelepiped a , b , and c are the " id="pdf-obj-6-97" src="pdf-obj-6-97.jpg">

a, b, and c are the

parallelepiped edge lengths, and α , β , and γ are the internal angles between the

parallelepiped edge lengths, and α, β, and γ are the internal angles between the edges

Any volumetric sweep (calculus required)

Any volumetric sweep <a href=(calculus required) h = any dimension of the figure, A ( h ) = area of the cross-sections perpendicular to h described as a function of the position along h . a and b are the limits of integration for the volumetric sweep. (This will work for any figure if its cross- sectional area can be determined from h). " id="pdf-obj-6-125" src="pdf-obj-6-125.jpg">

h = any dimension of the figure, A(h) = area of the cross-sections perpendicular to h described as a function of the position along h. a and b are the limits of integration for the volumetric sweep. (This will work for any figure if its cross- sectional area can be determined from h).

Any rotated

Any rotated and are
Any rotated and are

and

are

are

figure (washer method) (calculus required)

functions expressing the outer and inner radii of the function, respectively.

<a href=Klein bottle No volume — it has no inside. " id="pdf-obj-7-6" src="pdf-obj-7-6.jpg">

No volumeit has no inside.

1.4.1 Ratio of volumes of a cone, sphere and cylinder of the same radius and height

<a href=Klein bottle No volume — it has no inside. 1.4.1 Ratio of volumes of a cone, sphere and cylinder of the same radius and height A cone, sphere and cylinder of radius r and height h The above formulas can be used to show that the volumes of a cone, sphere and cylinder of the same radius and height are in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3, as follows. Let the radius be r and the height be h (which is 2 r for the sphere), then the volume of cone is the volume of the sphere is while the volume of the cylinder is The discovery of the 2 : 3 ratio of the volumes of the sphere and cylinder is credited to Archimedes. 1.4.2 Volume formula derivations i) Cylinder Although a cylinder is technically not a prism, it shares many of the properties of a prism. Like prisms, the volume is found by multiplying the area of one end of the cylinder (base) by its height. " id="pdf-obj-7-15" src="pdf-obj-7-15.jpg">

A cone, sphere and cylinder of radius r and height h

The above formulas can be used to show that the volumes of a cone, sphere and cylinder of the same radius and height are in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3, as follows.

Let the radius be r and the height be h (which is 2r for the sphere), then the volume of cone is

<a href=Klein bottle No volume — it has no inside. 1.4.1 Ratio of volumes of a cone, sphere and cylinder of the same radius and height A cone, sphere and cylinder of radius r and height h The above formulas can be used to show that the volumes of a cone, sphere and cylinder of the same radius and height are in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3, as follows. Let the radius be r and the height be h (which is 2 r for the sphere), then the volume of cone is the volume of the sphere is while the volume of the cylinder is The discovery of the 2 : 3 ratio of the volumes of the sphere and cylinder is credited to Archimedes. 1.4.2 Volume formula derivations i) Cylinder Although a cylinder is technically not a prism, it shares many of the properties of a prism. Like prisms, the volume is found by multiplying the area of one end of the cylinder (base) by its height. " id="pdf-obj-7-36" src="pdf-obj-7-36.jpg">

the volume of the sphere is

<a href=Klein bottle No volume — it has no inside. 1.4.1 Ratio of volumes of a cone, sphere and cylinder of the same radius and height A cone, sphere and cylinder of radius r and height h The above formulas can be used to show that the volumes of a cone, sphere and cylinder of the same radius and height are in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3, as follows. Let the radius be r and the height be h (which is 2 r for the sphere), then the volume of cone is the volume of the sphere is while the volume of the cylinder is The discovery of the 2 : 3 ratio of the volumes of the sphere and cylinder is credited to Archimedes. 1.4.2 Volume formula derivations i) Cylinder Although a cylinder is technically not a prism, it shares many of the properties of a prism. Like prisms, the volume is found by multiplying the area of one end of the cylinder (base) by its height. " id="pdf-obj-7-40" src="pdf-obj-7-40.jpg">

while the volume of the cylinder is

<a href=Klein bottle No volume — it has no inside. 1.4.1 Ratio of volumes of a cone, sphere and cylinder of the same radius and height A cone, sphere and cylinder of radius r and height h The above formulas can be used to show that the volumes of a cone, sphere and cylinder of the same radius and height are in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3, as follows. Let the radius be r and the height be h (which is 2 r for the sphere), then the volume of cone is the volume of the sphere is while the volume of the cylinder is The discovery of the 2 : 3 ratio of the volumes of the sphere and cylinder is credited to Archimedes. 1.4.2 Volume formula derivations i) Cylinder Although a cylinder is technically not a prism, it shares many of the properties of a prism. Like prisms, the volume is found by multiplying the area of one end of the cylinder (base) by its height. " id="pdf-obj-7-44" src="pdf-obj-7-44.jpg">

The discovery of the 2 : 3 ratio of the volumes of the sphere and cylinder is credited to Archimedes.

1.4.2 Volume formula derivations

i) Cylinder

Although a cylinder is technically not a prism, it shares many of the properties of a prism. Like prisms, the volume is found by multiplying the area of one end of the cylinder (base) by its height.

Since the end (base) of a cylinder is a circle, the area of that circle is given by

Since the end (base) of a cylinder is a circle, the area of that circle isPi, approximately 3.142 r is the radius of the circular end of the cylinder h height of the cylinder ii) Sphere The volume of a sphere is the integral of infinitesimal circular slabs of thickness dx . The calculation for the volume of a sphere with center 0 and radius r is as follows. The surface area of the circular slab is . The radius of the circular slabs, defined such that the x-axis cuts perpendicularly through them, is; or where y or z can be taken to represent the radius of a slab at a particular x value. Using y as the slab radius, the volume of the sphere can be calculated as Now Combining yields gives This formula can be derived more quickly using the formula for the sphere's surface area, which is . The volume of the sphere consists of layers of infinitesimal spherical slabs, and the sphere volume is equal to " id="pdf-obj-8-4" src="pdf-obj-8-4.jpg">

Multiplying by the height h we get

where:

π is Pi, approximately 3.142 r is the radius of the circular end of the cylinder h height of the cylinder

ii) Sphere

The volume of a sphere is the integral of infinitesimal circular slabs of thickness dx. The calculation for the volume of a sphere with center 0 and radius r is as follows.

The surface area of the circular slab is

.
.

The radius of the circular slabs, defined such that the x-axis cuts perpendicularly through them, is;

Since the end (base) of a cylinder is a circle, the area of that circle isPi, approximately 3.142 r is the radius of the circular end of the cylinder h height of the cylinder ii) Sphere The volume of a sphere is the integral of infinitesimal circular slabs of thickness dx . The calculation for the volume of a sphere with center 0 and radius r is as follows. The surface area of the circular slab is . The radius of the circular slabs, defined such that the x-axis cuts perpendicularly through them, is; or where y or z can be taken to represent the radius of a slab at a particular x value. Using y as the slab radius, the volume of the sphere can be calculated as Now Combining yields gives This formula can be derived more quickly using the formula for the sphere's surface area, which is . The volume of the sphere consists of layers of infinitesimal spherical slabs, and the sphere volume is equal to " id="pdf-obj-8-42" src="pdf-obj-8-42.jpg">

or

Since the end (base) of a cylinder is a circle, the area of that circle isPi, approximately 3.142 r is the radius of the circular end of the cylinder h height of the cylinder ii) Sphere The volume of a sphere is the integral of infinitesimal circular slabs of thickness dx . The calculation for the volume of a sphere with center 0 and radius r is as follows. The surface area of the circular slab is . The radius of the circular slabs, defined such that the x-axis cuts perpendicularly through them, is; or where y or z can be taken to represent the radius of a slab at a particular x value. Using y as the slab radius, the volume of the sphere can be calculated as Now Combining yields gives This formula can be derived more quickly using the formula for the sphere's surface area, which is . The volume of the sphere consists of layers of infinitesimal spherical slabs, and the sphere volume is equal to " id="pdf-obj-8-46" src="pdf-obj-8-46.jpg">

where y or z can be taken to represent the radius of a slab at a particular x value.

Using y as the slab radius, the volume of the sphere can be calculated as

Since the end (base) of a cylinder is a circle, the area of that circle isPi, approximately 3.142 r is the radius of the circular end of the cylinder h height of the cylinder ii) Sphere The volume of a sphere is the integral of infinitesimal circular slabs of thickness dx . The calculation for the volume of a sphere with center 0 and radius r is as follows. The surface area of the circular slab is . The radius of the circular slabs, defined such that the x-axis cuts perpendicularly through them, is; or where y or z can be taken to represent the radius of a slab at a particular x value. Using y as the slab radius, the volume of the sphere can be calculated as Now Combining yields gives This formula can be derived more quickly using the formula for the sphere's surface area, which is . The volume of the sphere consists of layers of infinitesimal spherical slabs, and the sphere volume is equal to " id="pdf-obj-8-52" src="pdf-obj-8-52.jpg">

Now

Since the end (base) of a cylinder is a circle, the area of that circle isPi, approximately 3.142 r is the radius of the circular end of the cylinder h height of the cylinder ii) Sphere The volume of a sphere is the integral of infinitesimal circular slabs of thickness dx . The calculation for the volume of a sphere with center 0 and radius r is as follows. The surface area of the circular slab is . The radius of the circular slabs, defined such that the x-axis cuts perpendicularly through them, is; or where y or z can be taken to represent the radius of a slab at a particular x value. Using y as the slab radius, the volume of the sphere can be calculated as Now Combining yields gives This formula can be derived more quickly using the formula for the sphere's surface area, which is . The volume of the sphere consists of layers of infinitesimal spherical slabs, and the sphere volume is equal to " id="pdf-obj-8-56" src="pdf-obj-8-56.jpg">

Combining yields gives

Since the end (base) of a cylinder is a circle, the area of that circle isPi, approximately 3.142 r is the radius of the circular end of the cylinder h height of the cylinder ii) Sphere The volume of a sphere is the integral of infinitesimal circular slabs of thickness dx . The calculation for the volume of a sphere with center 0 and radius r is as follows. The surface area of the circular slab is . The radius of the circular slabs, defined such that the x-axis cuts perpendicularly through them, is; or where y or z can be taken to represent the radius of a slab at a particular x value. Using y as the slab radius, the volume of the sphere can be calculated as Now Combining yields gives This formula can be derived more quickly using the formula for the sphere's surface area, which is . The volume of the sphere consists of layers of infinitesimal spherical slabs, and the sphere volume is equal to " id="pdf-obj-8-60" src="pdf-obj-8-60.jpg">

This formula can be derived more quickly using the formula for the sphere's surface

area, which is

Since the end (base) of a cylinder is a circle, the area of that circle isPi, approximately 3.142 r is the radius of the circular end of the cylinder h height of the cylinder ii) Sphere The volume of a sphere is the integral of infinitesimal circular slabs of thickness dx . The calculation for the volume of a sphere with center 0 and radius r is as follows. The surface area of the circular slab is . The radius of the circular slabs, defined such that the x-axis cuts perpendicularly through them, is; or where y or z can be taken to represent the radius of a slab at a particular x value. Using y as the slab radius, the volume of the sphere can be calculated as Now Combining yields gives This formula can be derived more quickly using the formula for the sphere's surface area, which is . The volume of the sphere consists of layers of infinitesimal spherical slabs, and the sphere volume is equal to " id="pdf-obj-8-68" src="pdf-obj-8-68.jpg">

. The volume of the sphere consists of layers of infinitesimal

spherical slabs, and the sphere volume is equal to

= iii) Cone The cone is a type of pyramidal shape. The fundamental equation for pyramids,cone is the integral of infinitesimal circular slabs of thickness dx . The calculation for the volume of a cone of height h , whose base is centered at (0,0,0) with radius r , is as follows. The radius of each circular slab is r if x = 0 and 0 if x = h , and varying linearly in between — that is, The surface area of the circular slab is then The volume of the cone can then be calculated as and after extraction of the constants: Integrating gives us 1.5 Volume integral In mathematics — in particular, in multivariable calculus — a volume integral refers to an integral over a 3 -dimensional domain. A volume integral is a triple integral of the constant function 1, which gives the volume of the region D . That is, the integral " id="pdf-obj-9-2" src="pdf-obj-9-2.jpg">

=

= iii) Cone The cone is a type of pyramidal shape. The fundamental equation for pyramids,cone is the integral of infinitesimal circular slabs of thickness dx . The calculation for the volume of a cone of height h , whose base is centered at (0,0,0) with radius r , is as follows. The radius of each circular slab is r if x = 0 and 0 if x = h , and varying linearly in between — that is, The surface area of the circular slab is then The volume of the cone can then be calculated as and after extraction of the constants: Integrating gives us 1.5 Volume integral In mathematics — in particular, in multivariable calculus — a volume integral refers to an integral over a 3 -dimensional domain. A volume integral is a triple integral of the constant function 1, which gives the volume of the region D . That is, the integral " id="pdf-obj-9-6" src="pdf-obj-9-6.jpg">

iii) Cone

The cone is a type of pyramidal shape. The fundamental equation for pyramids, one- third times base times altitude, applies cones as well. But for an explanation using calculus:

The volume of a cone is the integral of infinitesimal circular slabs of thickness dx. The calculation for the volume of a cone of height h, whose base is centered at (0,0,0) with radius r, is as follows.

The radius of each circular slab is r if x = 0 and 0 if x = h, and varying linearly in

betweenthat is,

= iii) Cone The cone is a type of pyramidal shape. The fundamental equation for pyramids,cone is the integral of infinitesimal circular slabs of thickness dx . The calculation for the volume of a cone of height h , whose base is centered at (0,0,0) with radius r , is as follows. The radius of each circular slab is r if x = 0 and 0 if x = h , and varying linearly in between — that is, The surface area of the circular slab is then The volume of the cone can then be calculated as and after extraction of the constants: Integrating gives us 1.5 Volume integral In mathematics — in particular, in multivariable calculus — a volume integral refers to an integral over a 3 -dimensional domain. A volume integral is a triple integral of the constant function 1, which gives the volume of the region D . That is, the integral " id="pdf-obj-9-38" src="pdf-obj-9-38.jpg">

The surface area of the circular slab is then

= iii) Cone The cone is a type of pyramidal shape. The fundamental equation for pyramids,cone is the integral of infinitesimal circular slabs of thickness dx . The calculation for the volume of a cone of height h , whose base is centered at (0,0,0) with radius r , is as follows. The radius of each circular slab is r if x = 0 and 0 if x = h , and varying linearly in between — that is, The surface area of the circular slab is then The volume of the cone can then be calculated as and after extraction of the constants: Integrating gives us 1.5 Volume integral In mathematics — in particular, in multivariable calculus — a volume integral refers to an integral over a 3 -dimensional domain. A volume integral is a triple integral of the constant function 1, which gives the volume of the region D . That is, the integral " id="pdf-obj-9-42" src="pdf-obj-9-42.jpg">

The volume of the cone can then be calculated as

= iii) Cone The cone is a type of pyramidal shape. The fundamental equation for pyramids,cone is the integral of infinitesimal circular slabs of thickness dx . The calculation for the volume of a cone of height h , whose base is centered at (0,0,0) with radius r , is as follows. The radius of each circular slab is r if x = 0 and 0 if x = h , and varying linearly in between — that is, The surface area of the circular slab is then The volume of the cone can then be calculated as and after extraction of the constants: Integrating gives us 1.5 Volume integral In mathematics — in particular, in multivariable calculus — a volume integral refers to an integral over a 3 -dimensional domain. A volume integral is a triple integral of the constant function 1, which gives the volume of the region D . That is, the integral " id="pdf-obj-9-46" src="pdf-obj-9-46.jpg">

and after extraction of the constants:

= iii) Cone The cone is a type of pyramidal shape. The fundamental equation for pyramids,cone is the integral of infinitesimal circular slabs of thickness dx . The calculation for the volume of a cone of height h , whose base is centered at (0,0,0) with radius r , is as follows. The radius of each circular slab is r if x = 0 and 0 if x = h , and varying linearly in between — that is, The surface area of the circular slab is then The volume of the cone can then be calculated as and after extraction of the constants: Integrating gives us 1.5 Volume integral In mathematics — in particular, in multivariable calculus — a volume integral refers to an integral over a 3 -dimensional domain. A volume integral is a triple integral of the constant function 1, which gives the volume of the region D . That is, the integral " id="pdf-obj-9-50" src="pdf-obj-9-50.jpg">

Integrating gives us

= iii) Cone The cone is a type of pyramidal shape. The fundamental equation for pyramids,cone is the integral of infinitesimal circular slabs of thickness dx . The calculation for the volume of a cone of height h , whose base is centered at (0,0,0) with radius r , is as follows. The radius of each circular slab is r if x = 0 and 0 if x = h , and varying linearly in between — that is, The surface area of the circular slab is then The volume of the cone can then be calculated as and after extraction of the constants: Integrating gives us 1.5 Volume integral In mathematics — in particular, in multivariable calculus — a volume integral refers to an integral over a 3 -dimensional domain. A volume integral is a triple integral of the constant function 1, which gives the volume of the region D . That is, the integral " id="pdf-obj-9-54" src="pdf-obj-9-54.jpg">

1.5 Volume integral

In mathematics in particular, in multivariable calculus a volume integral refers to an integral over a 3-dimensional domain.

A volume integral is a triple integral of the constant function 1, which gives the volume of the region D. That is, the integral

= iii) Cone The cone is a type of pyramidal shape. The fundamental equation for pyramids,cone is the integral of infinitesimal circular slabs of thickness dx . The calculation for the volume of a cone of height h , whose base is centered at (0,0,0) with radius r , is as follows. The radius of each circular slab is r if x = 0 and 0 if x = h , and varying linearly in between — that is, The surface area of the circular slab is then The volume of the cone can then be calculated as and after extraction of the constants: Integrating gives us 1.5 Volume integral In mathematics — in particular, in multivariable calculus — a volume integral refers to an integral over a 3 -dimensional domain. A volume integral is a triple integral of the constant function 1, which gives the volume of the region D . That is, the integral " id="pdf-obj-9-76" src="pdf-obj-9-76.jpg">

It can also mean a triple integral within a region D in R 3 of a function is usually written as:

It can also mean a <a href=triple integral within a region D in R of a function is usually written as: and A volume integral in cylindrical coordinates is and a volume integral in spherical coordinates (using the standard convention for angles, i.e. with φ as the azimuth) has the form Example Integrating the function over a unit cube yields the following result: So the volume of the unit cube is 1 as expected. This is rather trivial however and a volume integral is far more powerful. For instance if we have a scalar function describing the density of the cube at a given point by then performing the volume integral will give the total mass of the cube: 1.6 Solid of revolution In mathematics, engineering, and manufacturing, a solid of revolution is a solid figure obtained by rotating a plane curve around some straight line (the axis) that lies on the same plane. " id="pdf-obj-10-13" src="pdf-obj-10-13.jpg">

and

It can also mean a <a href=triple integral within a region D in R of a function is usually written as: and A volume integral in cylindrical coordinates is and a volume integral in spherical coordinates (using the standard convention for angles, i.e. with φ as the azimuth) has the form Example Integrating the function over a unit cube yields the following result: So the volume of the unit cube is 1 as expected. This is rather trivial however and a volume integral is far more powerful. For instance if we have a scalar function describing the density of the cube at a given point by then performing the volume integral will give the total mass of the cube: 1.6 Solid of revolution In mathematics, engineering, and manufacturing, a solid of revolution is a solid figure obtained by rotating a plane curve around some straight line (the axis) that lies on the same plane. " id="pdf-obj-10-17" src="pdf-obj-10-17.jpg">

A volume integral in cylindrical coordinates is

It can also mean a <a href=triple integral within a region D in R of a function is usually written as: and A volume integral in cylindrical coordinates is and a volume integral in spherical coordinates (using the standard convention for angles, i.e. with φ as the azimuth) has the form Example Integrating the function over a unit cube yields the following result: So the volume of the unit cube is 1 as expected. This is rather trivial however and a volume integral is far more powerful. For instance if we have a scalar function describing the density of the cube at a given point by then performing the volume integral will give the total mass of the cube: 1.6 Solid of revolution In mathematics, engineering, and manufacturing, a solid of revolution is a solid figure obtained by rotating a plane curve around some straight line (the axis) that lies on the same plane. " id="pdf-obj-10-23" src="pdf-obj-10-23.jpg">

and a volume integral in spherical coordinates (using the standard convention for angles, i.e. with φ as the azimuth) has the form

It can also mean a <a href=triple integral within a region D in R of a function is usually written as: and A volume integral in cylindrical coordinates is and a volume integral in spherical coordinates (using the standard convention for angles, i.e. with φ as the azimuth) has the form Example Integrating the function over a unit cube yields the following result: So the volume of the unit cube is 1 as expected. This is rather trivial however and a volume integral is far more powerful. For instance if we have a scalar function describing the density of the cube at a given point by then performing the volume integral will give the total mass of the cube: 1.6 Solid of revolution In mathematics, engineering, and manufacturing, a solid of revolution is a solid figure obtained by rotating a plane curve around some straight line (the axis) that lies on the same plane. " id="pdf-obj-10-31" src="pdf-obj-10-31.jpg">

Example

Integrating the function

It can also mean a <a href=triple integral within a region D in R of a function is usually written as: and A volume integral in cylindrical coordinates is and a volume integral in spherical coordinates (using the standard convention for angles, i.e. with φ as the azimuth) has the form Example Integrating the function over a unit cube yields the following result: So the volume of the unit cube is 1 as expected. This is rather trivial however and a volume integral is far more powerful. For instance if we have a scalar function describing the density of the cube at a given point by then performing the volume integral will give the total mass of the cube: 1.6 Solid of revolution In mathematics, engineering, and manufacturing, a solid of revolution is a solid figure obtained by rotating a plane curve around some straight line (the axis) that lies on the same plane. " id="pdf-obj-10-37" src="pdf-obj-10-37.jpg">

over a unit cube yields the following result:

It can also mean a <a href=triple integral within a region D in R of a function is usually written as: and A volume integral in cylindrical coordinates is and a volume integral in spherical coordinates (using the standard convention for angles, i.e. with φ as the azimuth) has the form Example Integrating the function over a unit cube yields the following result: So the volume of the unit cube is 1 as expected. This is rather trivial however and a volume integral is far more powerful. For instance if we have a scalar function describing the density of the cube at a given point by then performing the volume integral will give the total mass of the cube: 1.6 Solid of revolution In mathematics, engineering, and manufacturing, a solid of revolution is a solid figure obtained by rotating a plane curve around some straight line (the axis) that lies on the same plane. " id="pdf-obj-10-41" src="pdf-obj-10-41.jpg">

So the volume of the unit cube is 1 as expected. This is rather trivial however and a volume integral is far more powerful. For instance if we have a scalar function

It can also mean a <a href=triple integral within a region D in R of a function is usually written as: and A volume integral in cylindrical coordinates is and a volume integral in spherical coordinates (using the standard convention for angles, i.e. with φ as the azimuth) has the form Example Integrating the function over a unit cube yields the following result: So the volume of the unit cube is 1 as expected. This is rather trivial however and a volume integral is far more powerful. For instance if we have a scalar function describing the density of the cube at a given point by then performing the volume integral will give the total mass of the cube: 1.6 Solid of revolution In mathematics, engineering, and manufacturing, a solid of revolution is a solid figure obtained by rotating a plane curve around some straight line (the axis) that lies on the same plane. " id="pdf-obj-10-45" src="pdf-obj-10-45.jpg">

describing the density of the cube at a given point

It can also mean a <a href=triple integral within a region D in R of a function is usually written as: and A volume integral in cylindrical coordinates is and a volume integral in spherical coordinates (using the standard convention for angles, i.e. with φ as the azimuth) has the form Example Integrating the function over a unit cube yields the following result: So the volume of the unit cube is 1 as expected. This is rather trivial however and a volume integral is far more powerful. For instance if we have a scalar function describing the density of the cube at a given point by then performing the volume integral will give the total mass of the cube: 1.6 Solid of revolution In mathematics, engineering, and manufacturing, a solid of revolution is a solid figure obtained by rotating a plane curve around some straight line (the axis) that lies on the same plane. " id="pdf-obj-10-49" src="pdf-obj-10-49.jpg">

by

It can also mean a <a href=triple integral within a region D in R of a function is usually written as: and A volume integral in cylindrical coordinates is and a volume integral in spherical coordinates (using the standard convention for angles, i.e. with φ as the azimuth) has the form Example Integrating the function over a unit cube yields the following result: So the volume of the unit cube is 1 as expected. This is rather trivial however and a volume integral is far more powerful. For instance if we have a scalar function describing the density of the cube at a given point by then performing the volume integral will give the total mass of the cube: 1.6 Solid of revolution In mathematics, engineering, and manufacturing, a solid of revolution is a solid figure obtained by rotating a plane curve around some straight line (the axis) that lies on the same plane. " id="pdf-obj-10-53" src="pdf-obj-10-53.jpg">

then performing the volume integral will give the total mass of the

cube:

It can also mean a <a href=triple integral within a region D in R of a function is usually written as: and A volume integral in cylindrical coordinates is and a volume integral in spherical coordinates (using the standard convention for angles, i.e. with φ as the azimuth) has the form Example Integrating the function over a unit cube yields the following result: So the volume of the unit cube is 1 as expected. This is rather trivial however and a volume integral is far more powerful. For instance if we have a scalar function describing the density of the cube at a given point by then performing the volume integral will give the total mass of the cube: 1.6 Solid of revolution In mathematics, engineering, and manufacturing, a solid of revolution is a solid figure obtained by rotating a plane curve around some straight line (the axis) that lies on the same plane. " id="pdf-obj-10-59" src="pdf-obj-10-59.jpg">
  • 1.6 Solid of revolution

In mathematics, engineering, and manufacturing, a solid of revolution is a solid figure obtained by rotating a plane curve around some straight line (the axis) that lies on the same plane.

Assuming that the curve does not cross the axis, the solid's volume is equal to the length of the circle described by the figure's centroid multiplied by the figure's area (Pappus's second centroid Theorem).

Assuming that the curve does not cross the axis, the solid's <a href=volume is equal to the length of the circle described by the figure's centroid multiplied by the figure's area (Pappus's second centroid Theorem) . Rotating a curve A representative disk is a three -dimensional volume element of a solid of revolution. The element is created by rotating a line segment (of length w ) around some axis (located r units away), so that a cylindrical volume of π ∫ r w units is enclosed. 1.6.1 Finding the volume Two common methods for finding the volume of a solid of revolution are the disc method and the shell method of integration. To apply these methods, it is easiest to draw the graph in question; identify the area that is to be revolved about the axis of revolution; determine the volume of either a disc-shaped slice of the solid, with thickness δ x , or a cylindrical shell of width δ x ; and then find the limiting sum of these volumes as δ x approaches 0, a value which may be found by evaluating a suitable integral. a) Disc method " id="pdf-obj-11-15" src="pdf-obj-11-15.jpg">

Rotating a curve

A representative disk is a three-dimensional volume element of a solid of revolution. The element is created by rotating a line segment (of length w) around some axis (located r units away), so that a cylindrical volume of πr 2 w units is enclosed.

  • 1.6.1 Finding the volume

Two common methods for finding the volume of a solid of revolution are the disc method and the shell method of integration. To apply these methods, it is easiest to draw the graph in question; identify the area that is to be revolved about the axis of revolution; determine the volume of either a disc-shaped slice of the solid, with thickness δx, or a cylindrical shell of width δx; and then find the limiting sum of these volumes as δx approaches 0, a value which may be found by evaluating a suitable integral.

a) Disc method

Disc integration about the y-axis. The disc method is used when the slice that was drawn

Disc integration about the y-axis.

The disc method is used when the slice that was drawn is perpendicular to the axis of revolution; i.e. when integrating parallel to the axis of revolution.

The volume of the solid formed by rotating the area between the curves of

Disc integration about the y-axis. The disc method is used when the slice that was drawn

and

and the lines and about the x-axis is given by
and the lines
and
about the x-axis is given by

If g(x) = 0 (e.g. revolving an area between curve and x-axis), this reduces to:

Disc integration about the y-axis. The disc method is used when the slice that was drawn

The method can be visualized by considering a thin vertical rectangle at x between

  • on top and

Disc integration about the y-axis. The disc method is used when the slice that was drawn

on the bottom, and revolving it about the x-axis; it

Disc integration about the y-axis. The disc method is used when the slice that was drawn

forms a ring (or disc in the case that

radius g(x). The area of a ring is

), with outer radius f(x) and inner , where R is the outer radius (in this case

Disc integration about the y-axis. The disc method is used when the slice that was drawn

f(x)), and r is the inner radius (in this case g(x)). Summing up all of the areas along the

interval gives the total volume. Alternatively, where each disc has a radius of f(x), the discs approach perfect cylinders as their height dx approaches zero. The volume of

Disc integration about the y-axis. The disc method is used when the slice that was drawn

each infinitesimal disc is therefore and b manifests itself as integral (1).

. An infinite sum of the discs between a

  • b) Cylinder method

b) Cylinder method Shell integration. The cylinder method is used when the slice that was drawny " id="pdf-obj-13-4" src="pdf-obj-13-4.jpg">

Shell integration.

The cylinder method is used when the slice that was drawn is parallel to the axis of revolution; i.e. when integrating perpendicular to the axis of revolution.

The volume of the solid formed by rotating the area between the curves of

b) Cylinder method Shell integration. The cylinder method is used when the slice that was drawny " id="pdf-obj-13-16" src="pdf-obj-13-16.jpg">

and

and the lines and about the y-axis is given by
and the lines
and
about the y-axis is given by

If g(x) = 0 (e.g. revolving an area between curve and x-axis), this reduces to:

b) Cylinder method Shell integration. The cylinder method is used when the slice that was drawny " id="pdf-obj-13-30" src="pdf-obj-13-30.jpg">

The method can be visualized by considering a thin vertical rectangle at x with height , and revolving it about the y-axis; it forms a cylindrical shell. The

b) Cylinder method Shell integration. The cylinder method is used when the slice that was drawny " id="pdf-obj-13-38" src="pdf-obj-13-38.jpg">

lateral surface area of a cylinder is the height (in this case the interval gives the total volume.

b) Cylinder method Shell integration. The cylinder method is used when the slice that was drawny " id="pdf-obj-13-42" src="pdf-obj-13-42.jpg">

, where r is the radius (in this case x), and h is ). Summing up all of the surface areas along

  • c) Parametric form

b) Cylinder method Shell integration. The cylinder method is used when the slice that was drawny " id="pdf-obj-13-54" src="pdf-obj-13-54.jpg">
b) Cylinder method Shell integration. The cylinder method is used when the slice that was drawny " id="pdf-obj-13-56" src="pdf-obj-13-56.jpg">

When a curve is defined by its parametric form

in some interval

, the volumes of the solids generated by revolving the curve around the x-axis, resp. the y-axis are given by [1]

b) Cylinder method Shell integration. The cylinder method is used when the slice that was drawny " id="pdf-obj-13-70" src="pdf-obj-13-70.jpg">
Under the same circumstances the areas of the surfaces of the solids generated by revolving the

Under the same circumstances the areas of the surfaces of the solids generated by revolving the curve around the x-axis, resp. the y-axis are given by.

Under the same circumstances the areas of the surfaces of the solids generated by revolving the
Under the same circumstances the areas of the surfaces of the solids generated by revolving the
  • 2.0 Popcorn

  • 2.1 Popcorn History

In 1948 kernels of an early corn variety capable of being popped were found in an archaeological dig in a New Mexico rock shelter known as "Bat Cave". These finds are widely reported as being the oldest ears of popcorn ever found; such reports often say they are dated to be 4000-5000 years old, or more. The actual facts about the Bat Cave corn are less clear. While initial reports dated the corn to be 4000-5000 years old, in 1967 the same researchers revealed data from more specifically targeted dating: a sample consisting only of cobs was dated to be 1,752 years old, and a sample of cobs and nearby wood 2,249 years. These dates have been called into question as well: Michael S. Berry, after a study of the Bat Cave procedures, wrote it "was a poorly excavated site that can be interpreted nearly any way one pleases by juggling the data." In these times popcorn was prepared by using a bowl containing sand and placing the bowl over a fire, the sand heated the kernels and the ready popcorn rised to the top from under the sand. Popcorn in those days was most likely ground up into a gruel afterwards.

Popcorn was very popular in the 1890s, until the Great Depression . As corn crops became more depleted during the Great Depression, nuts were used instead of corn. During the Depression, popcorn was a luxury at 5-10 cents a bag. When some of the other businesses failed, the popcorn business thrived. An example is "an Oklahoma banker who went broke when his bank failed, bought a popcorn machine, and started a business in a small store near a theater. After a couple of years, his popcorn business made enough money to buy back three of the farms he'd lost." In the time of World War II, Americans ate three times more popcorn than they had before because of the sugar that was going over seas.

At least six localities (all in the United States of America ) claim to be the "Popcorn Capital of the World": Valparaiso, Indiana ; Van Buren, Indiana ; Marion, Ohio ; Ridgway, Illinois ; Schaller, Iowa ; and North Loup, Nebraska . According to the USDA , most of the maize used for popcorn production is specifically planted for this purpose; most is grown in Nebraska and Indiana with increasing area in Texas.

As the result of an elementary school project, popcorn became the official state snack food of Illinois.

Movies And Popcorn

Some years later, when street vendors started setting up outside movie theatres, they were not welcome, at least as far as the theatre owners were concerned. They thought the vendors were a distraction.

But movie goers didn't agree. They went out on the sidewalk in droves to buy bags of yummy popcorn before going back inside to see the movie.

The Movie Snack Bar Is Invented

Movie theatre owners have always had a keen eye for profits. So a few of the smarter ones asked the vendors to come inside and split whatever they made from their popcorn sales with the theatre. Of course it wasn't long until the theatre owners realized they could set up their own popcorn popper and send the vendor packing ... And that's apparently how the movie snack bar came to be.

  • 2.2 What is Popcorn

Popping corn, is corn (maize) that expands from the kernel and puffs up when heated. Corn is able to pop because, like amaranth grain, sorghum, quinoa and millet, its kernels have a hard moisture-sealed hull and a dense starchy interior. This allows pressure to build inside the kernel until an explosive "pop" results. Some strains of corn are now cultivated specifically as popping corns. The kernels are sometimes different than others.

There are many techniques for popping corn. Commercial large-scale popcorn machines were invented by Charles Cretors in the late 19th century. Many types of small-scale home methods for popping corn also exist, with the most popular in the United States being prepackaged.

Depending on how it is prepared and cooked, some consider it to be a health food while others caution against it for a variety of reasons. Popcorn can also have non- food applications, ranging from holiday decorations to packaging materials.

  • 2.2.1 Popping mechanism

Movies And Popcorn Some years later, when street vendors started setting up outside movie theatres, they(maize) that expands from the kernel and puffs up when heated. Corn is able to pop because, like amaranth grain, sorghum, quinoa and millet, its kernels have a hard moisture-sealed hull and a dense starchy interior. This allows pressure to build inside the kernel until an explosive "pop" results. Some strains of corn are now cultivated specifically as popping corns. The kernels are sometimes different than others. There are many techniques for popping corn. Commercial large-scale popcorn machines were invented by Charles Cretors in the late 19th century. Many types of small-scale home methods for popping corn also exist, with the most popular in the United States being prepackaged. Depending on how it is prepared and cooked, some consider it to be a health food while others caution against it for a variety of reasons. Popcorn can also have non- food applications, ranging from holiday decorations to packaging materials. 2.2.1 Popping mechanism The process of a kernel popping " id="pdf-obj-16-54" src="pdf-obj-16-54.jpg">

The process of a kernel popping

Each kernel of popcorn contains a certain amount of moisture and oil. Unlike most other grains, the outer hull of the popcorn kernel is both strong and impervious to moisture, and the starch inside consists almost entirely of a hard, dense type.

As the oil and the water are heated until it dies, they turn the moisture in the kernel, which has a moisture-proof hull, into a superheated pressurized steam. Under these conditions, the starch inside the kernel gelatinizes, softens and becomes pliable. The pressure continues to increase until the breaking point of the hull is reached: a pressure of about 135 psi (930 kPa) and a temperature of 180 °C (356 °F). The hull ruptures rapidly, causing a sudden drop in pressure inside the kernel and a corresponding rapid expansion of the steam, which expands the starch and proteins of the endosperm into airy foam. As the foam rapidly cools, the starch and protein polymers set into the familiar crispy puff. Special varieties are grown to give improved popping yield. Some wild types will pop, but the cultivated strain is "Zea mays averta," which is a special kind of "flint corn."

  • 2.3 Cooking methods

Each kernel of popcorn contains a certain amount of moisture and oil. Unlike most other grains,gelatinizes, softens and becomes pliable. The pressure continues to increase until the breaking point of the hull is reached: a pressure of about 135 psi (930 kPa) and a temperature of 180 °C (356 °F). The hull ruptures rapidly, causing a sudden drop in pressure inside the kernel and a corresponding rapid expansion of the steam, which expands the starch and proteins of the endosperm into airy foam. As the foam rapidly cools, the starch and protein polymers set into the familiar crispy puff. Special varieties are grown to give improved popping yield. Some wild types will pop, but the cultivated strain is "Zea mays averta," which is a special kind of "flint corn. " 2.3 Cooking methods An early popcorn machine in a street cart, invented in the 1880s by Charles Cretors in Chicago Although small quantities can be popped in a stove-top kettle, or pot in a home kitchen, commercial sale of freshly popped popcorn employs specially designed popcorn machines, which were invented in Chicago, Illinois, by Charles Cretors in 1885. Cretors successfully introduced his invention at the Columbian Exposition in 1893. At this same world's fair, F.W. Rueckheim introduced a molasses- flavored "Candied Popcorn", the first caramel corn; his brother, Louis, slightly altered the recipe and introduced it as Cracker Jack popcorn in 1896. " id="pdf-obj-17-18" src="pdf-obj-17-18.jpg">

An early popcorn machine in a street cart, invented in the 1880s by Charles Cretors in Chicago

Although small quantities can be popped in a stove-top kettle, or pot in a home kitchen, commercial sale of freshly popped popcorn employs specially designed popcorn machines, which were invented in Chicago, Illinois, by Charles Cretors in 1885. Cretors successfully introduced his invention at the Columbian Exposition in 1893. At this same world's fair, F.W. Rueckheim introduced a molasses-flavored "Candied Popcorn", the first caramel corn; his brother, Louis, slightly altered the recipe and introduced it as Cracker Jack popcorn in 1896.

Cretors's invention introduced the first patented steam-driven popcorn machine that popped corn in oil. Previously, vendors popped corn by holding a wire basket over an open flame. At best, the result was a hot, dry, unevenly cooked snack. Cretors's machine popped corn in a mixture of one-third clarified butter, two-thirds lard, and salt. This mixture could withstand the 450 °F (232 °C) temperature needed to pop corn and it did without producing much smoke. A fire under a boiler created steam that drove a small engine; that engine drove the gears, shaft, and agitator that stirred the corn and powered a small automated clown puppet-like figure, "the Toasty Roasty Man", an attention attracting amusement intended to drum up business. A wire connected to the top of the cooking pan allowed the operator to disengage the drive mechanism, lift the cover, and dump popped corn into the storage bin beneath. Exhaust from the steam engine was piped to a hollow pan below the corn storage bin and kept freshly popped corn uniformly warm for the first time ever.

Cretors's invention introduced the first <a href=patented steam-driven popcorn machine that popped corn in oil. Previously, vendors popped corn by holding a wire basket over an open flame. At best, the result was a hot, dry, unevenly cooked snack. Cretors's machine popped corn in a mixture of one-third clarified butter, two-thirds lard, and salt. This mixture could withstand the 450 °F (232 °C) temperature needed to pop corn and it did without producing much smoke. A fire under a boiler created steam that drove a small engine; that engine drove the gears, shaft, and agitator that stirred the corn and powered a small automated clown puppet-like figure, "the Toasty Roasty Man", an attention attracting amusement intended to drum up business. A wire connected to the top of the cooking pan allowed the operator to disengage the drive mechanism, lift the cover, and dump popped corn into the storage bin beneath. Exhaust from the steam engine was piped to a hollow pan below the corn storage bin and kept freshly popped corn uniformly warm for the first time ever. An in-home hot-air popcorn maker A very different method of popcorn-making can still be seen on the streets of some Chinese cities today. The un-popped corn kernels are poured into a large cast-iron canister — sometimes called a 'popcorn hammer' — that is then sealed with a heavy lid and slowly turned over a curbside fire in rotisserie fashion. When a pressure gauge on the canister reaches a certain level, the canister is removed from the fire, a large canvas sack is put over the lid, and the seal is released. With a huge boom, all of the popcorn explodes at once and is poured into the sack. This method is believed to have been developed during the Song dynasty originally for puffing rice. Individual consumers can also buy and use specialized popping appliances that typically generate no more than a gallon of popped corn per batch. Some of these appliances also accept a small volume of oil or melted butter to assist thermal transfer from a stationary heating element, but others are "air poppers" which rapidly circulate heated air up through the interior, keeping the un-popped kernels in motion to avoid burning and then blowing the popped kernels out through the chute. The majority of popcorn sold for home consumption is now packaged in a microwave popcorn bag for use in a microwave oven. " id="pdf-obj-18-15" src="pdf-obj-18-15.jpg">

An in-home hot-air popcorn maker

A very different method of popcorn-making can still be seen on the streets of some Chinese cities today. The un-popped corn kernels are poured into a large cast-iron canister sometimes called a 'popcorn hammer' that is then sealed with a heavy lid and slowly turned over a curbside fire in rotisserie fashion. When a pressure gauge on the canister reaches a certain level, the canister is removed from the fire, a large canvas sack is put over the lid, and the seal is released. With a huge boom, all of the popcorn explodes at once and is poured into the sack. This method is believed to have been developed during the Song dynasty originally for puffing rice.

Individual consumers can also buy and use specialized popping appliances that typically generate no more than a gallon of popped corn per batch. Some of these appliances also accept a small volume of oil or melted butter to assist thermal transfer from a stationary heating element, but others are "air poppers" which rapidly circulate heated air up through the interior, keeping the un-popped kernels in motion to avoid burning and then blowing the popped kernels out through the chute. The majority of popcorn sold for home consumption is now packaged in a microwave popcorn bag for use in a microwave oven.

2.3.1

Expansion and yield

Popping results are sensitive to the rate at which the kernels are heated. If heated too quickly, the steam in the outer layers of the kernel can reach high pressures and rupture the hull before the starch in the center of the kernel can fully gelatinize, leading to partially popped kernels with hard centers. Heating too slowly leads to entirely unpopped kernels: the tip of the kernel, where it attached to the cob, is not entirely moisture-proof, and when heated slowly, the steam can leak out of the tip fast enough to keep the pressure from rising sufficiently to break the hull and cause the pop.

Producers and sellers of popcorn consider two major factors in evaluating the quality of popcorn: what percentage of the kernels will pop, and how much each popped kernel expands. Expansion is an important factor to both the consumer and vendor. For the consumer, larger pieces of popcorn tend to be more tender and are associated with higher quality. For the grower, distributor, and vendor, expansion is closely correlated with profit: vendors such as theaters buy popcorn by weight and sell it by volume. For both these reasons, higher-expansion popcorn fetches a higher profit per unit weight.

Popcorn will pop when freshly harvested, but not well: its high moisture content leads to poor expansion and chewy pieces of popcorn. Kernels with a high moisture content are also susceptible to mold when stored. For these reasons, popcorn growers and distributors dry the kernels until they reach the moisture level at which they expand the most. This differs by variety and conditions, but is generally in the range of 1415% moisture by weight. If the kernels are over-dried, the expansion rate will suffer and the percentage of kernels that pop at all will decline.

Two explanations exist for kernels which do not pop at proper temperatures, known in the popcorn industry as "old maids". The first is that unpopped kernels do not have enough moisture to create enough steam for an explosion. The second explanation, according to research led by Dr. Bruce Hamaker of Purdue University, is that the unpopped kernel may have a leaky hull.

Popcorn varieties are broadly categorized by the shape of the kernels, the color of the kernels, or the shape of the popped corn. While the kernels may come in a variety of colors, the popped corn is always off-yellow or white as it is only the hull (or pericarp) that is colored. "Rice" type popcorns have a long kernel pointed at both ends; "pearl" type kernels are rounded at the top. Commercial popcorn production has moved mostly to pearl types. [15] Historically, pearl popcorns were usually yellow and rice popcorns usually white. Today both shapes are available in both colors, as well as others including black, red, and variegated. Commercial production is dominated by white and yellow.

"Mushroom"-shaped popcorn, left, is less fragile and less tender than "butterfly"-shaped, right In popcorn jargon, amouthfeel, with greater tenderness and less noticeable hulls. Mushroom flakes are less fragile than butterfly flakes and are therefore often used for packaged popcorn or confectionery, such as caramel corn . The kernels from a single cob of popcorn may form both butterfly and mushroom flakes; hybrids that produce 100% butterfly flakes or 100% mushroom flakes exist, the latter developed only as recently as 1998. Growing conditions and popping environment can also affect the butterfly-to-mushroom ratio. 2.4 Consumption Popcorn is commonly eaten in movie theaters. This snack is usually served salted or sweetened. In North America, it is traditionally served salted, often with butter or a butterlike topping. However, sweetened versions, such as caramel corn and kettle corn, are also commonly available. In the United Kingdom, ready-made popcorn is available either salted or simply sweetened with sugar. Toffee (i.e. caramel) popcorn is also available, but tends to be more expensive. In Peru popcorn is sometimes sweetened with small candy pellets and sweetened condensed milk, but its more often eaten with salt and the only buttered version known to any considerable degree is the microwave popcorn. Popcorn is a popular snack food at sporting events and in cinemas, where it has been served since 1912. The Boy Scouts of America sell popcorn door-to-door as a primary fundraiser, similar to Girl Scout cookies. 2.4.1 Nutritional value " id="pdf-obj-20-2" src="pdf-obj-20-2.jpg">

"Mushroom"-shaped popcorn, left, is less fragile and less tender than "butterfly"-shaped, right

In popcorn jargon, a popped kernel of corn is known as a "flake". Two shapes of flakes are commercially important. "Butterfly" flakes are irregular in shape and have a number of protruding "wings". "Mushroom" flakes are largely ball-shaped, with few wings. Butterfly flakes are regarded as having better mouthfeel, with greater tenderness and less noticeable hulls. Mushroom flakes are less fragile than butterfly flakes and are therefore often used for packaged popcorn or confectionery, such as caramel corn. [16] The kernels from a single cob of popcorn may form both butterfly and mushroom flakes; hybrids that produce 100% butterfly flakes or 100% mushroom flakes exist, the latter developed only as recently as 1998. Growing conditions and popping environment can also affect the butterfly-to-mushroom ratio.

2.4 Consumption

Popcorn is commonly eaten in movie theaters. This snack is usually served salted or sweetened. In North America, it is traditionally served salted, often with butter or a butterlike topping. However, sweetened versions, such as caramel corn and kettle corn, are also commonly available. In the United Kingdom, ready-made popcorn is available either salted or simply sweetened with sugar. Toffee (i.e. caramel) popcorn is also available, but tends to be more expensive. In Peru popcorn is sometimes sweetened with small candy pellets and sweetened condensed milk, but its more often eaten with salt and the only buttered version known to any considerable degree is the microwave popcorn. Popcorn is a popular snack food at sporting events and in cinemas, where it has been served since 1912. The Boy Scouts of America sell popcorn door-to-door as a primary fundraiser, similar to Girl Scout cookies.

2.4.1 Nutritional value

Popcorn, air-popped, no additives

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

1,598 kJ (382 kcal)

78 g

15 g

Fat

4 g

12 g

0.2 mg (17%)

0.3 mg (25%)

2.7 mg (21%)

One cup is 8 grams. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Air-popped popcorn is naturally high in dietary fiber, low in calories and fat, contains no sodium, and is sugar free. This can make it an attractive snack to people with dietary restrictions on the intake of calories, fat, and/or sodium. For the sake of flavor, however, large amounts of fat, sugar, and sodium are often added to prepared popcorn, which can quickly convert it to a very poor choice for those on restricted diets.

One particularly notorious example of this first came to public attention in the mid- 1990s, when the Center for Science in the Public Interest produced a report about "Movie Popcorn", which became the subject of a widespread publicity campaign. The movie theaters surveyed used coconut oil to pop the corn, and then topped it with butter or margarine. "A medium-size buttered popcorn", the report said, "contains more fat than a breakfast of bacon and eggs, a Big Mac and fries, and a steak dinner combined." The practice continues today. For example, according to DietFacts.com, a small popcorn from Regal Cinema Group (the largest theater chain in the United States) still contains 29 g of saturated fat, as much as three Big Macs and the equivalent of a full day-and-a-half's reference daily intake.

2.4.2

Health risks

Popcorn is included on the list of foods that the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends not serving to children under four, because of the risk of choking. Special "hull-less" popcorn has been developed that offers an alternative for small children and for people with braces or other dental problems who may otherwise need to avoid popcorn.

Microwaveable popcorn represents a special case, since it is designed to be cooked along with its various flavoring agents. One of these common artificial-butter flavorants, diacetyl, has been implicated in causing respiratory ailments.

  • 2.5 Other uses

Popcorn, threaded onto a string, is used as a wall or Christmas tree decoration in some parts of North America, as well as on the Balkan peninsula.

Some shipping companies have experimented with using popcorn as a biodegradable replacement for expanded polystyrene packing material. However, popcorn has numerous undesirable properties as a packing material, including attractiveness to pests, flammability, and a higher cost and greater density than expanded polystyrene. A more processed form of expanded corn foam has been developed to overcome some of these limitations.

The world's largest popcorn ball was unveiled in October 2006 in Lake Forest, Illinois. It weighed 3,415 pounds (1,549 kg), measured 8 feet (2.4 m) in diameter, and had a circumference of 24.6 ft (7.5 m).

2.4.2 Health risks Popcorn is included on the list of foods that the <a href=American Academy of Pediatrics recommends not serving to children under four, because of the risk of choking. Special "hull-less" popcorn has been developed that offers an alternative for small children and for people with braces or other dental problems who may otherwise need to avoid popcorn. Microwaveable popcorn represents a special case, since it is designed to be cooked along with its various flavoring agents. One of these common artificial-butter flavorants, diacetyl, has been implicated in causing respiratory ailments. 2.5 Other uses Popcorn, threaded onto a string, is used as a wall or Christmas tree decoration in some parts of North America, as well as on the Balkan peninsula. Some shipping companies have experimented with using popcorn as a biodegradable replacement for expanded polystyrene packing material. However, popcorn has numerous undesirable properties as a packing material, including attractiveness to pests, flammability, and a higher cost and greater density than expanded polystyrene. A more processed form of expanded corn foam has been developed to overcome some of these limitations. The world's largest popcorn ball was unveiled in October 2006 in Lake Forest, Illinois. It weighed 3,415 pounds (1,549 kg), measured 8 feet (2.4 m) in diameter, and had a circumference of 24.6 ft (7.5 m). " id="pdf-obj-22-41" src="pdf-obj-22-41.jpg">

Objective

:

To determine which dimension of a cylinder can hold more

popcorn; 8.5 inch by 11 inch white paper or 11 inch by 8 inch colored paper.

Mathematical Concept : To determine the volume of a cylinder given different height and radius.

  • 1. A piece of white paper, measuring 8.5 inch by 11 inch was rolled along the longer side to form a baseless cylinder that is tall and narrow. The sides were not overlapped and the edges were taped. The following dimensions were measured with a ruler: height, diameter and radius. The data obtained was recorded in Table 1.1 below and on the cylinder. The cylinder was labelled Cylinder A.

Objective : To determine which dimension of a cylinder can hold more popcorn; 8.5 inch by

Actual

Height : 27.90 cm Radius : 3.50 cm Diameter : 7.00 cm Cylinder A
Height : 27.90
cm
Radius : 3.50
cm
Diameter : 7.00
cm
Cylinder A

Replica

  • 2. A piece of colored paper, measuring 11 inch by 8.5 inch was rolled along the shorter side to form a baseless cylinder that is short and stout. The sides were not overlapped and the edges were taped. The following dimensions were measured with a ruler: height, diameter and radius. The data obtained was recorded in Table 1.1 below and on the cylinder. The cylinder was labelled Cylinder B.

Actual Height : 21.60 cm Diameter : 7.00 cm Radius : 4.45 cm Cylinder B Replicahttp://www.mathopenref.com/cylindervolume.html http://www.hivepc.com/calculus/survivalguide/volume.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volume_integral " id="pdf-obj-24-2" src="pdf-obj-24-2.jpg">

Actual

Height : 21.60 cm Diameter : 7.00 cm Radius : 4.45 cm Cylinder B
Height : 21.60 cm
Diameter : 7.00 cm
Radius : 4.45 cm
Cylinder B

Replica

  • 3. In order to make it easier for measurement, I have decided to convert inch into centimetres by using the calculator by pressing [SHIFT], [CONST], [01]

Dimension

Cylinder A

Cylinder B

Height

27.90 cm

21.60 cm

Diameter

  • 7.00 cm

  • 9.00 cm

Radius

  • 3.50 cm

  • 4.50 cm

Actual Height : 21.60 cm Diameter : 7.00 cm Radius : 4.45 cm Cylinder B Replicahttp://www.mathopenref.com/cylindervolume.html http://www.hivepc.com/calculus/survivalguide/volume.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volume_integral " id="pdf-obj-24-48" src="pdf-obj-24-48.jpg">

Reference