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18 September 2012 >Difference between empirical and conceptual paper.

>>seminal paper (the paper that started the theory) Introduction to Communication Research: GOALS FOR TODAY: 1.) What is social science research? patterns of communication of behaviour 2.) Goals of social science research? 4 points 3.) What is the relationship between theory and research? You have to do the research to come up with a theory. Your research must be driven by theory. 4.) what is orgcomm research? 1. What is social science research? >Mainly based on modernist perspective Social science research follows the modernist perspective. How does it do so? +If you subscribe to the modernist perspective, then how do you find answers to your research question? Keyton >> patterns Modernist patterns >> patterns are already there Symbolist patterns >>patterns are created there Why are the patterns already there? Because reality is fixed already, and that the world is predictable because the possibilities are set. RSERCH1 = to do good research so we can see the patterns. WHY CAUSE AND EFFECT PATTERNS? Since its a discoverable world, there is already a corresponding effect to any cause. And this effect will lead to the Truth. Lead to its outcome = it will be effective. Modernist perspective accumulation of knowledge will help you progress // you are after effectiveness. Growth is making sure you know the patterns to push them to their maximum effectiveness. If you really want to be effective, you have to know these things. Communication Networks: >patterns of contact created by the flow of messages according to space time compression >If you are able to compress time and space in transmitting messages, communication is effective.

-disembedding and re-embedding; formal and emergent networks Systems Theory: >> input, throughput, output Patterns of effective organizational behaviour: There is only one pattern. 1.) Relationship of the organization and its environment Systems Theory & Contingency 2.) Organizational culture Scheinn Model 3.) Organizational social structure ^^^putting them together makes up the whole organization 2. Goals of social science research Why do the goals make sense? >to determine the cause or causes of behavior increases the effectiveness >to predict behavior knowledge progresses over time >to explain behavior understand both the predictions; you aim to be effective. The scientific approach -The only way to fulfill the goals of social science research is to conduct research using the scientific approach -The scientific approach follow the principles of (natural or physical) science 1: Research Question > 2:Hypothesis > 3:Refinement > 4:Measurement > 5:Analysis Read up The Enlightenment The Enlightenment >>> Reason (The scientist) We need to start on the Research Question >> Review of Literature Read the literature > develop the research question Principles of science -Replicability of the research -Objectivity of the researcher -Generalizability of the results 3. Theory and research -Theory guides research. Theory: set of related concepts. Every theory has its scope. It focuses on the boundary of the theory. Describe: input, throughput, output. Describe how the information permeates the boundaries as an input. Describe the transformation during the throughput. Describe the output to the environment. Describe the communication behavior of those who give the feedback.

How does theory guide research? It provides us with the concepts to pay attention to. It tells us what relationships to look out for in systems theory. Example: in systems theory: input, throughput, output, feedback 4. Orgcom research RQ research question MAKE PAGE 17. Interpersonal communication of the following RQs 20 September 2012 Backtrack: >Social science research = modernist perspective >All four goals fit the reality of the goal Example: Positive Reinforcement theory (Psychology) = Rewarding the desired behavior will have the subject do it again and again. (Prediction) Explanation: why are the actions done over and over again? Prediction: if this, then that Explanation: why if this, then that? >Because we follow the scientific approach, we need to be guided by theory because that is the scientific research. >Theory shows you the concepts to use and the relationships to look out for. >Theory doesnt tell you the flow of the research. A research paper will have a typical flow. What is organizational communication? Definition: the collective and interactive process of generating and interpreting messages (Stohl, 1995, p.4) Pep squad example: Rule: No girls hurt. <- what they agree on Collective: Everyone in the pep squad has to follow the rule. 1. They surround the girls when they do stretches 2. There are punishments 3. Girls should also know the risk Interactive: Interaction (talking to each other, exchanging ideas, influencing each other) 1. The captain gets mad when a girl falls. 2. They had punishments. You need to have an excuse letter when youre absent Collective and Interactive process: Not everyone agrees, but people should still follow the rule. >You will be stripped off if youre absent.

>There is a meeting. >Posted on the Facebook to make people familiar with the rule. The organization comes up with the message, not everyone can be involved in creating the message but everyone follows it. You dont have to agree but because its followed, it becomes organizational. INTERACTIVE : There are actions and reactions in the actions in the process of crafting the message, implementing the message, and spreading the message. Interpersonal communication: focuses on a one-on-one communicative relationship, both parties know each other in unique ways (Albrecht & Bach, 1997), usually face to face interaction Personal >> what does it mean to have a personal relationship? What will it take? >If both of you share personal stuff with each other. >For example, when you ask a professor how their weekend was, and you expect a personal answer >>If you get the opinion of another in the issue *Usually a one-on-one -usually psych Mass communication: >mass media broadcasting (television and radio), film, print (newspapers, magazines, etc.), and the internet >mass media audiences target audience >mass media messages 25 Sept. 2012 Res1 53-7 (Website name) >Input your names (click on the pencil/edit tool) >Save COMMENTS: >Change your theory because it is too difficult(!!!) NEW ENTRY DUE TOMORROW -possible articles are updated =2002 latest. HOW TO KNOW IF THE THEORY IS ORGCOMM: >Collective or interactive >concepts: messages, feedback, channels/medium, sources or center, audiences or receivers >>if your theory/model doesnt use those then its not an orgcomm theory Conceptual papers = tell you the theory, not how to use the theory Empirical = tells you the method and how the method is used -

Two research methods: >Deductive starts with a theory >Inductive >>difference on how theory is used -Deductive theory guides the research -Inductive research create a theory RSERCH1 = DEDUCTIVE RSERCH2 = INDUCTIVE Overall concern: What steps do I follow to create a research (RQ)? >Research problem >Review of Literature >Create RQ RSERCH1 group: -Decide on a particular research problem that you find interesting OR -Decide on an orgcom theory that you want to explore for this term <Rserch1> 3.) Starting the Review of Literature >The most acceptable source: scholarly journals >Acceptable timeframe: Articles not earlier than 10 years ago (2002) >Seminal articles are always acceptable Other sources for Orgcom: >scholarly books >scholarly websites How can you tell that its -The process of peer reviews >peer review (experts will see if your theory is sound and can it be shared to the world) >scholarly = anything you publish has a theory 4.) Reading a journal article >Two types of articles -Conceptual paper (detailed explanation of the existing theory) -Empirical paper (data) The conceptual paper -The content of a conceptual paper >Offers a new model or theory and/or >Discusses an existing model or theory to support, to extend, or to refute it >In a sense, looks like an extended review of literature >Starts out as a model scholarly?

>>Support = gives more relationships >>Extend = show connection other concepts, stretch the theory, supports >>Refute = *you can never prove a theory right. Instead you find non-support theory, the relationships do not hold The parts >The abstract (start) Usually tells you the purpose of the paper, the authors new theory/model >The body (the argument and conclusion) Refutation = A contradiction of the relationship of the concepts Daft and Lengel = seminal article *based on other studies *this concept goes with this concept Empirical paper >Discusses a research problem *Introduction and review of literature *Always method- it always has 3 parts: a.) Participants, b.) Procedures, c.) Data *Results and discussion *Theory = usually intro or RRL *Conclusion = if this is the connection between the data and theory, so what? >Discusses a theory >Discusses how data were gathered to study the theory >Presents processed data to explore the relationships proposed by the theory >Connects processed data with the theory --If you dont understand the stats, you can skip the Analysis. You can go straight to the discussion. --In Rserch1 you need to know how the theory is applied and the review of literature The empirical paper: Parts (in order of appearance): >Abstract >Introduction >Review of Related Literature >Methods >Discussion >Conclusion >References On the review of literature: 1 conceptual paper, 2 empirical papers(updated, relevant, scholarly) Maximum of two pages Plagiarism Authors take the ideas of others and present them as their own ideas (outright plagiarism) When to cite? ideas, theories, or research *that+ have directly influenced you work (p. 69) When in doubt, CITE! Stealing style:

Stealing one word from the reading can already grant you a 0.0 in Rserch1. Paraphrase: Doesnt use any word of the author except the articles How to cite? APA Manual, 6th edition (Xerox certain chapters of the manual) (2nd printing)

Goals of a good review To show that you know your topic and chosen theory To connect your study to previous studies done using your chosen theory To synthesize what different authors say about the theory To know what scholars already know about the theory and what can still be explored. Source: Neuman, 2007 27 September 2012 Organizational Image, Identity, and Image Stability either find new concepts or change the theory. >>How is it orgcomm? How to write the review of literature: You must know what your theory is all about. The first thing you will write is your theory and your interpretation of it. Make sure your own research has a connection to previous research done in that area. The review of literature is a synthesis. Make sure you know whats out there already so that you dont have to do it again. Show the audience or the reader what has been done. Your research must extend the knowledge. How do I write a good review: Paragraph one would be all about the theory. Look for similarities in terms of their ideas. Find differences. How to combine? Put all the ideas together in one sentence. IT SHOULD BE A SYNTHESIS, NOT A SUMMARY. Synthesis and paraphrase are two different terms. Remember to cite it properly in APA format. Literature should not be older than 2002. // If possible dont include your seminal article. Literature should be from scholarly journals and books = published, scholarly journals, chapters from scholarly books Should be written using the latest APA style Cite your sources Introduction to Quantitative Research Understand the following terms: Construct, Variable, Operationalization, Hypothesis Construct Concepts that are linked to other concepts. theoretical creations that are based on observations but that cannot be observed directly or indirectly (Babbie, 2008, p. 135) They are actually inventions.

Constructs are mental creations (p. 135) Constructs are NOT real but the behaviors that constitute them are real. Modernism/Positivism = POST POSITIVISM (in Research) For example: Dog What will it take to be able to study the concept dog? What does it take to perceive, empirically, a concept? >I must see all the dogs in the past, present, and future.

In order for us to do research we have to make them exist in some way to make them observable. But we only observe parts. Constructs as not observable: observed directly researcher perceives the phenomenon herself by using any of her five senses observed indirectly researcher relies on other peoples perception/experience of the phenomenon for her own perception of it. (Example: I cannot see your dream, but you can make it exist to me by narrating your dream either orally or in written form). based on observations but cannot be observed directly or indirectly researcher + other people in society agree that certain behaviors make up the construct

(Example: you cannot see socialization, but you can observe behaviors regarding socialization = construct) Post-positivist; the construct is not real but the behavior is real. Variables Is a construct Variables can be operationalized Operationalization: what observable behaviors make up the construct. *For your group: >What are the variables in our chosen theory? >How have these variables been operationalized? Conceptual scheme = series of concepts. Evolves to be a theory when you find the empirical or logical data relationship. Construct = series of concept connected together Hypothesis Logical guess between two or more constructs. Null hypothesis: Marked by the letter H followed by zero as a subscript = There is no relationship between the two variables. Alternative hypothesis: marked by the letter H followed by a number.

Types: Directional versus nondirectional *For your group: >What are the hypotheses proposed by your chosen theory?

2 October 2012 Variable Variable defined: anything that has two or more levels (p. 46) Attribute (Babbie, 2008, p. 149): The variations of the variable Example: The variable sex has two variations: male and female (both called attributes) Attributes = variations of the variable (jargon) *For your group: You were already asked to identify the variables in your chosen theory. You now have to identify the attributes for these variables. Media richness theory: Communication medium > face-to-face, voicemail, email, video conferencing, telephonic communication, written memos How to know the attributes: types, properties and characteristics Independent variable (IV) The variable that changes other variables The variable that precedes the other variables or occurs first in time before the other variables (Rea & Parker, 2005, p. 181) Ideally, should be manipulable i.e., something that the researcher can control For survey research, use the term predictor variable (p. 47) It can cause changes but are not really manipulable or controllable Dependent variable (DV) What the predictor variable changes *For your group: -What are the IVs and DVs in your chosen theory? -What are the attributes of each variable? -How have these variables been operationalized? -What are the hypotheses proposed by your chosen theory? ---- (QUIZ 1 UP TO HERE) ---Synthesis Exercise SYNTHESIS: Communication in matrix organizations provides better "information flow" (Sy & D' Annunzio, 2005) through "lateral communication channels (Dunn, 2001; Sy & Cote, 2003). Always read the primary source/original source. What does the matrix design do? It creates faster means of communication through the creation of horizontal communication. (Sy and DAnnunzio, 2005). Creates validated or permitted horizontal communication (Dunn, 2001). Sy and Cote, adds vertical and appropriate recipients.

*Dont forget the page number. *Paraphrase, not quotation.

9 October 2012 REVIEW OF LITERATURE: What do you need to synthesize? >conceptualization (even if they used the same concepts, their conceptualizations are very different) >Look at strategies: similarities, differences. >Make your review of literature good. Answer 2: Variables, look at the concepts. >IV and DV (one of each) >Looking for a hypotheses. >Synthesizing a hypotheses: How each hypotheses of each article are similar and different. >No flowery sorts of style. Straight forward. >Communication Journals Survey Research: Session 1 Why do survey research? Get an overall pattern about a particular group of people, organization, or set of organizations. Obtaining data from a few allows you to say something about many from a few. What data can a survey contain? Respondents report about: Their own behavior Their own perceptions Their attitudes or characteristics Why are all of these self-reports? Youre describing your own behavior to the researcher. Disadvantage: Respondent can just lie or misinterpret the question. While it has its own strengths, it has its own weaknesses. Self-report You report to the researcher exactly what you think and how you perceive the whole world. What do we have to learn? What do we need to know in order to do survey research properly? You have to know why youre doing the survey. Learn about reliability and validity. How to sample properly. What type of survey (in RSERCH1, you will focus on self-administered survey)

Pre-testing. Modifying the research questions. Designing our survey. Designing the questionnaire Writing questions Deciding on the structure (flow) of the questions

How can theory help us? Using your theory choice as a guide: What respondent/particular actions do you want to know about? Respondents self-report about their perceptions What respondent opinions do you want to explore? Respondents self-report about their attitudes or What attitudes or characteristics do you want to characteristics ask about? >>>>>What does the theory want to know?<<<<< Example: Schein Model What they do in organization as far as artifacts are concerned? Data from survey research Respondents self-report about their behavior

Survey Process Scientific method approach

The research question Our overall concern: What steps do I follow to create a research question (RQ)? -Research problem -RRL -survey Crafting an RQ Must be based on your chosen theory? Must be based on your chosen variable? What is the generic format of an RQ for quantitative research? (p. 45, Chapter 3) What is the effect of the IV to the DV? How does the IV influence the DV? What is the relationship of the IV on the DV? To what extent does the IV affect or impact the DV? RQ must be based on whatever it is youve written on your RRL. It must be based on the variables that you said you will focus on. EXERCISE:

How do symmetrical communication programs (based on the public relations model ) influence how public relations are maximized in the organization? How can you tell that a question is not biased? The answer is not embedded in the question. How does the symmetry and asymmetry of communication programs affect how PR is practiced in an organization? What is the effect of symmetrical or asymmetrical communication to public relations in the organization? THURSDAY: Read Babbie. What does conceptualization vs. operationalization How do you come up with operationalized definitions.

16 October 2012 OrgComm Dimensions of OrgComm: Public Relations >Dimensions of Public Relations: PR practice for practitioners, crisis communication management >>Dimensions of Crisis Comm Management: response strategy, ability, crisis typo Dimension of OrgCom: OrgCom Media >Dimensions of OrgCom Media: Media Richness, Social cues dimension, social information processing >>Dimensions(Concepts) of Media Richness: equivocality, uncertainty >>Concepts of Social Info Processing: cohesion, performance Conceptualization: Do you see it the same way as the other? (Do you conceptualize dog the same way B conceptualizes dog).

*Dimensions can never be indicators. *Indicators tell you this is the characteristic of, or what makes them unique >Kitchen is a dimension, then the parts are the indicators What is the difference between a nominal definition and operational definition? Nominal definition just some sort of label or term

Operational definition Being able to use the nominal definition. Going a.) How are you going to observe? b.) What will you observe? c.) How will you interpret? Newcomers (concept): How to operationalize newcomers? >From CLA, from ENG, from CCS >Definitions (nominal): transferees, frosh FROSH: a.) walking with a large group of people, noisy, stop and start in intervals because theyre lost b.) Stand by Andrew, TRANSFEREE: >Definition (nominal): Lost unable to find ones way a.) Stand in the middle of SJ walk (near the tambayan of Santugon), hold their application forms, stops and starts alone, approaches someone and ask for directions b.) Specify come from their home school so they are in their uniforms Your nominal definition must be operationalized. Real definition doesnt exist >Nothings real and I can make it real. Example: Measuring (insert your own variable) -Conceptualization: Specifying dimensions and indicators per dimension -Operationalization: step-by-step description of how the concept will be measured (p. 140) -Where will you find clues regarding the conceptualization and operationalization of your chosen variables? Conceptualization = review of literature; operationalization = method.

Chosen -[ IV, DV -[ Conceptual definition -[ Operational definition >You may do the methods as cited in your review of literature Exercise 2: Connecting these ideas to the RQ *always be consistent *you may synthesize them MAKE EVEN MORE CONNECTIONS: What is the connection among variables, attributes, indicators, and dimensions? Variables and attributes? Attributes are the subcategories of variables. Attributes are the ways in which the variable varies Indicators and variables? Indicators validate the variables by signifying their absence or presence Indicators measure the variable and its attributes ( Indicators and dimensions?

Variables, attributes and dimensions? The variables and attributes tell you the dimension of the study.

--18 October 2012 RECAP: Attributes are variations of the variable. PURPOSE > symmetrical and asymmetrical. Indicators and variables? Indicators measure the variable and its attributes. PURPOSE > symmetrical and asymmetrical Measures the attribute. Variables, attributes, and dimensions? Dimensions can be variables, if the concept is too complex. Chunking the variables is a dimension. How can dimensions be variable >> if they have two or more dimensions. Dimensions can also be an attribute. Example: Kitchen (dirty kitchen and clean kitchen)-dimension. Kitchen can be a variable because it has two dimensions. When is a dimension an attribute? As part of a variable. A dimension is an attribute if it cannot be broken down because that is the variation. Example 1: Variable: Sex Attributes: Male and female Indicator that the survey respondent is male or female? In response to the question that says What is your sex? you just check the box of your gender. Example 2: Variable: employment status Attributes: employed or unemployed Indicators of employment? Indicators of unemployment?

The concept of measurement Measuring: observing the variable empirically (Neuman, 2007, p. 111). Connection between measures and attributes? Each attribute is measured by a measure so that a measure can also be called an indicator. Measures tools that enable the researcher to observe empirical manifestations of the attributes Example: survey question. A dimension is a concept, an indicator is a tool. (Example: indicator of kitchen is a stove and a stove is a tool) Connection between measures and indicators? Indicators are measures Levels of measurement

Nominal Attributes are mutually exclusive and exhaustive (p. 149) Mutually exclusive? The boundaries between the attributes are so distinctive that you can tell this is A or this is B. The operational definition of the attribute will assure that the attributes are so distinct that for a particular variable they will only say that THIS is in the attribute and nothing else. Exhaustive? It covers all possible dimensions (this is where a dimension becomes an attribute). Attributes are marked by All it has is that attributes must be mutually exclusive and exhaustive Ordinal Based on ranking. Some attributes have a greater value in terms of a particular characteristic. Mutually exclusive, exhaustive, hierarchical. Interval Nominal and ordinal

23 October 2012 How do we measure the purpose of communication? >What dimension of communication purpose do we want to measure? Symmetrical (subattributes: two way, internal, one way). What are the indicators of this dimension? Collaboration or cooperation between the public and the org, mutual understnading between public and org, >Operationalization: How do we measure these indicators? a.) What are we going to observe? Development of mutual understanding, how misunderstanding/issue is resolved b.) How will we observe it? Attend crisis management meetings, attend meetings with clients, look at the archives/PR, ask older members of the organization, watch video clippings in news of how the organizations PR tried to communicate with the public, etc. c.) How will we interpret various possible observations? If the said organization has bad reviews or judgment from people, we can say that they failed to maximize their public relations, RECAP: Variable: Cupcake, attribute: lemon, square, iced (they are very different things) The labels of the attributes are very abstract. Excellence Theory: Variable: purpose of communication NOMINAL: Mutually exclusive: There is no overlap. Exhaustiveness: All dimensions are covered to match the characteristic of the respondent. Exercise 3: Write a set of measures, if they will present an attribute that will present the attributes in a mutually exclusive way and exhaustive way. Nominal: Only use abstract levels that directly correspond to the level of the attribute. Why is it a nominal? You will find the characteristics in the operationalization. Labels should only be names. Why do levels matter? Levels of measurement will tell you the level of analysis (test of significance, measure of association) Nominal = as you go upper, you get more precise. It isnt necessarily better because sometimes you have no choice.

If youre able to look at the variable and able to measure at the highest level. If you can do it in the ratio level, then you should do it because you will be able to step down. In quantitative you have to go to the highest. Why measure at the very highest when you dont need it? ORDINAL: They have greater characteristics than the other. Take the characteristics of the nominal level + the other one. INTERVAL: How can you measure? Golf: Variable: Skill Level: -1 -36 Lower handicap. Reporting that level of skill: What does it take for that scale to be an interval level, ordinal level, nominal level? What does it take to slip from minus one to minus two? How do you slip from -2 to -3, -3 to -4? The higher the number the more strokes per hole. If the distance between handicaps are uniformed. What does it mean per handicap? What differentiates the interval from the ratio scale? The difference between -1 and -2 are the same such that -2 and -3 are the same. To be interval, the skill must be the same as the -1 and -2, and -2 and -3. For it to be a 0, there should be a true point zero scale, meaning there is absolutely no skill. That means if youre minus 2, the minus 4 has twice the skill as the minus 2. Ordinal: You say better, if you say rational: Twice as better. Another example: KUMON 200 worksheets per level.

Ordinal: One is better than the other. Interval: One is better than the other based on the uniform distance. Rational: One is better based on how far apart they are from the true point zero wherein the distances between each level are the same. Example: Taekwando belts Ratio: Is there a zero belt? Interval: White and the yellow must be the same as the yellow and the blue? >>Ordinal level. Bra size: Interval. Level of tardiness: 0 absences (absolute zero), 1 absences, 2 absences, 4 absences. = RATIONAL. In terms of your stat, you can have more options. Ratio: Its not just the absolute zero, but it must also qualify with the other levels of measurement. >Which level of measurement makes sense based on the operational definitions?

25 October 2012 Entire Chapter 9, Babbie, and everything discussed at the earliest Quiz 3 = sampling Dr. Sheryl Soriano Reliability and Validity Reliability consistent or consistency Involves consistency of the measure Do the survey questions give stable results over time? Do the survey questionnaire, gather data, and then compute for reliability. Example: We can only see if the ruler is reliable if we use it. A ruler as a measure Reliable only if it remains consistent. Not valid because you dont measure weight using a ruler *For your survey questionnaire to be good, it has to be both valid and reliable. -The instrument itself should not change. Evaluating Reliability Test-retest: Different times of measurement yield highly similar scores? Same survey question, and everytime you repeat it with the same subjects, you get the same results or similar results. Ask survey question now from Person A : Answer is X :: Ask same survey question later from Person A : Answer is Y It should be x, if its y it means its unreliable because the its the same person. Main assumption: Person doesnt change or will not change. Split-Half: Half of the measures of the same construct within the same instrument yield highly similar scores? Divide the questions into two, because they are measuring the same variable. Four questions split in half. 2 questions in Set A, and 2 questions in Set B. We compare the answers to questions 1 and 2, and 3 and 4. We expect to have the same results because they are studying the same variable and they have the same measurement. Can be measured using a statistic called Cronbachs alpha Cronbachs alpha: the closer the correlation coefficient is to 1.0, the more reliable the measure is (Nardi, 2006, p. 63) Survey questions measuring variable C (Q1Q2Q3Q4) <-must be highly correlated-> Survey questions also measuring variable C (Q5Q6Q7Q8) Correlation: degree of association (Levin, Fox, & Forde, 2010, p. 346) When one changes, the other also changes Inter-item different measures of the same construct within the same instrument yields highly similar scores? Survey question 1 measuring variable C <-must be highly correlated-> Survey question 7 also measuring variable C

The same level of measurement depends on how you phrase it. Parallel reliability RSERCH1 Exam1: Set A :: RSERCH1 Exam1: Set B Is Set A as easy as Set B? Different versions of the instrument yield highly similar scores (Nardi, 2006) One question measuring the same variable Just because its consistent doesnt mean its what you are measuring.

Validity accuracy Are the survey questions measuring what they are supposed to measure? Face Validity: Do researchers agree that the survey question is valid? So how can you tell that the researchers agree? Through the review of literature Criterion/Predictive validiy Does the survey question predict a behavior connected to the variable What the survey data is supposed to predict can be correlated with it Depends on the theory: what does theory predict? Its correct to ask for the CGPA; we should raise it. Applies to all kinds of quantitative research If we ask for the CGPA, it means that your CGPA is predictive of your performance. If you have that CGPA, it means you can handle orgcom. Correlating OCM GPA with your frosh GPA. They should correlate. If you can correlate your data with another measure and its the same, then its criterion/predictive validiy. Mediator variable the one in the middle. Mediates the relationship between the IV and the DV. The IV has an impact on the MV and the MV becomes an IV which would later on affect the DV The mediator makes the impact of the IV to the DV greater or lesser Content Does the survey question include all the aspects of the variable? To what might the term aspects refer? Dimensions Survey questions must reflect on all the dimensions of the variable To check, you have to go back to the RRL. Construct validity: After the survey results are collected, the survey question been proven statistically accurate Are you actually really measuring that variable as opposed to this variable? Convergent/Concurrent Are the measures of the same behavior similar to your measure? (V&J) Discriminant Are your measures uncorrelated with the measures of another construct? There should be no correlation because they are measuring different variables. If they correlate highly it means that youre wrong. Reference: Nardi, P.M. (2006). Doing survey research: A guide to quantitative methods. (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson. 30 October 2012

Tuesday Exam 2 (Babbie and Keyton Chapter 9) RECAP: Convergent/concurrent you already know that these articles were accepted by peer review, so it means they measured something right. What you will do is match you questionnaire with theirs. There should be a highly related correlation. Discriminant choose a variable that somewhat similar to yours and then see if indeed your survey questionnaire does not measure that variable. Get another instrument thats validated for your variable, X1. Correlate your own survey questionnaire with the SQ for X1. They shouldnt be highly correlated because theyre not measuring the same variable.

You choose an instrument thats already validated. >Choose what you think should be validated. >Given the theory and the RQ. Choose the RQ that you should follow, and then operationalize the definitions. Sampling Sampling Choosing respondents for your study Kinds of sampling -Probability -Non-probability What is required in order to do probability sampling? Idea 1: Researcher knows the probability that any member of the population will be selected What will the researcher be able to do if s/he used probability sampling? (You can generalize about the population based only on the sample. The only way youre allowed to do that is if you used your probability sampling) Researcher will be able to generalize from the sample to the population

IDEA 1: How is probability computed? Number of times the outcome or event can occur divided by total number of times any outcome or event can occur (Levin, Fox, & Forde, 2010, p. 138) TO translate: The number of times a person can serve as a survey respondent divided by total number of times everyone can serve as survey respondent. The numerator is always one. 1/total number of respondents So what do you need to know in order to do probability sampling? You must know the total number of respondents in the survey. IDEA 2: Generalizability

Researcher will be able to generalize from the sample to the population only if the selection process is random. Introduction to some technical terms in sampling: Population: Sampling frame: Sampling element: Random sampling: GENERAL POPULATION Universe of all cases or units The universe of units to which the survey data will Working population: Operational definition of the general population (Rea & Parker, 2005, p. 159) How do you operationalized: Based on the theory, based on the RQ Who are you interested in studying? Also known as the sampling frame: List of the names of all the possible respondents but should conform to your operational definition. Why is it problematic if you arrange the list alphabetically? Why should it have no pattern? SAMPLING FRAME List of all units in the population The list from which the sample is drawn UNIT OF ANALYSIS The element you want to study via your survey (Answer: The respondent) Example: organization, individual, household, press, release, etc. Also called sampling element RANDOMNESS The population as consisting of people who are different from each other The sample must reflect the same variation You cannot have an exact replica! Pizza example. No sample can be an exact replica of the population. Sampling error. Whatever is happening in the sample is reflective of what is happening in the population. What can you infer from the population, given the data from the sample: It will be the same. Frosh example: You dont have to ask all of them, all you have to do is get a random sample. The sameness of the variation in the sample and the population is called representativeness (Babbie, 20008, p. 210) This can only be achieved through random sampling All samples contain sampling errors SAMPLING SCHEMES Sampling: Drawing probability samples from the working population (R & P, 2005, p. 163) Choosing which part of the population will answer your survey Done according to specific procedures, called sampling schemes

Parameter: any information pertaining to the population Example of a parameter: N N = total number of units in the universe Statistic: any information pertaining to the sample Example of a statistic: n N = total number of samples

SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING: Assign numbers to each element Use Table of Random Numbers (Keyton-Appendix C) Assign numbers to each element of your sampling frame

Choose simple random sample where n = 08

DOWNLOAD AND TABLE OF RANDOM NUMBERS 6 November 2012 Quiz 3 (First slide of last weeks meeting) Sampling scheme = specific procedures that you follow in order to achieve probability sampling; the different kinds of probability sampling SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING: You get the sampling frame (only if the sampling element is an individual) and check it and then randomize it. LIST OF ELEMENTS. MUST HAVE NO ORDER AT ALL, it must be RANDOMIZED. How do you randomize a list? Make sure it has no particular order. You have to disarrange it in some way using a program. Assign a number per element. Look at the random numbers table and pick. Choose simple random sample where n = 08 Look at your N (which is less than 100 so look at the last two digits) Sampling frame is list, big N is a number. Youre not going to say anything about the population, you only say something about the sample. The first number that is part of the n, will be your first element, continue looking at the table until you meet your sample size. No matter what, you wont be able to reserve the variation.

N(109) = 9 and N(110) = 16; N = 25 N(109) = 4 and n(110) = 4; n=08 Systematic Random Sampling

Procedures differ slightly from author to author. n = 08 What should the interval be? 25/8 = 3.125; Divide N by n. The interval should be 3. The decimal is truncated (simply drop the decimal). Pick a number between 1 and 3 (we start anywhere from 1 to 3) Check the random numbers table. You count from the respondent (so in the example you start with 17, and then 20) Circuit or loop sampling. Based on Keyton, the smallest is 50.

Stratified Random Sampling Get the total population and divide the strata with the population. Adding another stratum. Each stratum is a variable. Proportionate stratified random sampling. (!!!) Disproportionate random sampling (Weight the data: expected over actual) CAM/OCM example You may have any number of stratum based on your study. **You need the exact N for both. 8 November 2011 RECAP: In some cases these strata are variables and the sublevels per stratum are their attributes. Cluster Sampling Big populations or when you can only estimate the sample. Examples: villages, countries, cities Also called multistage sampling There are several stages you have to undergo before you get your sample. Sampling within sample. Used when researchers lack a good sampling frame and the cost to reach a sampled element is very high (Neuman, 2007, p. 154). Cluster contains the final sampling elements but is treated temporarily as a sampling unit. How is it done? Sampling element: Unit you want to analyze on your study // Unit of analysis The final sampling element only lives in the last stage of the element.

n = 1,000; N = 10,000 Final sampling element: head of household of a Cityland condominium unit Too difficult to get sampling frame consisting of all condominium dwellers of all Cityland condominiums

Cluster Cityland buildings within Metro Manila Randomly select n buildings within Metro Manila Cluster it by city. Sampling frame will be the cities with Cityland condominiums. Assign a number to a city. Refer to the random numbers table to choose your sample. The first sample will be a sample of cities. Get a sampling frame per city. Your sampling frame will be the list of Cityland condominiums. Make sure that each list are not arranged in any other and assign numbers to each. Sample each building cluster based on a predetermined sample size. Floors within selected Cityland building Randomly select n floors within the selected buildings Sample frame consisting of floors. Final sampling element: head of a household of a unit Randomly select n condominium units within the selected floors. Survey will be answered by heads of household. Your sampling frame will depend on the floors you picked. The household units will be your sampling frame. You randomly sample each floor to get your final sampling element. In every stage you need a sampling frame. You can do cluster sampling and mix it with stratified random sampling. You can pair cluster sampling with the other kinds of sampling. You may stratify to get the percentage. Your sampling frames need to be really accurate. This is where your operational definition comes in. How do you define a unit? Even you didnt go to all Cityland condominiums, you could still generalize. If the sample didnt respond, thats also a response. You may also do another random sampling. You go with the natural clustering of the org. Know the organizational social structure of the org.

Sampling size Does size matter? YES! Sampling size has a lot to do with size. How large? There is no agreement about this. Different authors recommend different strategies. From Rea and Parker Factors to consider in determining sample size: What is your acceptable level of confidence? Level of confidence the risk of error that the researcher is willing to accept in the study (Rea & Parker, 2005, p. 142) 95 percent level of confidence: 5% chance of error The researcher will make incorrect conclusions from the sample 5 times out of 100

In every 100, 5 of those data will not be representative of the population. But only 5 of those.

99 percent level of confidence: 1% chance of error The researcher will make incorrect conclusions from the sample 1 time out of 100. Only one out of the 100 I interviewed will not adequately fit in with the population. Usually medical. Life of death issues. What confidence level is acceptable? Confidence interval: sample means +/- standard deviation Sample mean = average (X) Standard deviation = difference from average Confidence interval: is calculated Confidence interval also called margin of error (Rea & Parker, 2005, p. 143) Example: Keytons +5 or -5 Sampling error = margin of error the degree to which a sample differs from population characteristics on some measurement Greater sampling size, less error. After a certain point, you can no longer decrease your sampling error. To be more accurate, hire a statistician who will use the proper formulas.

From Neuman Some basic rules (neuman, 2007) Sampling ratio: ratio of the size of the sample to the size of the population. Example: If N=50,000 and n=1500 so the sampling ratio is 1500/50000 or 0.03 or 3%. The smaller the population (N = under 1,000), the bigger the sampling ratio. Sample should be around 30% of N. Moderately large populations (N = 10,000), sample should be around 10% of N. Next time: read Keyton 9. 13 November 2012 Quiz 3 November 20, 2012 submission Exercise 3 One week only The Survey Questionnaire You will need to plan for the following: Survey content: What survey questions to ask your respondents? Pre-construction concerns: CD, OD, levels of measurement Your question format The flow of the survey: The sequence of questions Length of your questionnaire The introduction part of the questionnaire Questionnaire pretest

Questionnaire revision *Everyone in the group will do a pretest. Survey Content Choose IV and DV (decide on your final IV and DV) Create CD and OD for both IV and DV Might need to choose which dimensions you want to explore. Will need to define attributes of both IV and DV. Will need to have content validity. Why cant we determine reliability yet? We dont have data yet.

Pre-construction concerns Decide on level of measurement for IV and DV Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Question Format Difference between a close-ended and open-ended questions? Close-ended = youre given the choices already. The answers are expected to be the attributes of the variable, wherein you get the choices from the RRL. (Recommended) [Demanded for RSERCH1] From where do you get the answer choices for close-ended questions? Review of Literature

When are open-ended questions allowed? When you cant see attributes or conceptual definitions yet. When you try to push the boundaries of the theories. The choices are not exhaustive yet.

The Flow of the survey

Basic principles (Rea & Parker, 2005, pp. 35-42): Introductory questions should come first

Related questions should come one after another Sensitive questions should come last Have filter questions if needed Introductory You dont want to intimidate your respondents Must be easy to answer You dont have to think about your answer All of your questions might be non-intimidating but you have to make sure that its needed for your survey. Given my theory, what is a good non-intimidating first question? What can I start with? First two or three questions

Related questions Support Aims to dig deeper Shaped like a funnel because it gets more specific. What do you think your flow should be? A set of questions will be exploring a particular variable. Which one is the first, the second the third?...

Sensitive Questions Sensitive to the respondents feelings, self-worth, self-esteem They would be more inclined to answer the question if its at the latter part. Before you ask such, make sure that its important to your study.

Filter or Screening Questions As a respondent, you possess qualifications to answer the other questions. You need to have experience.

May be introductory. The Introduction Informed consent the respondents know what they are getting into. They know the consequences of a particular study. You = respondent; we/us = researcher 1.) Identity of the researchers (who is conducting the research?) credibility purposes. 2.) The funding agency (Who is paying for the research study?) can reveal motives. 3.) Aims of the research study (Why are we doing this? How will it benefit you?) how will my data be used. 4.) Sampling (How were you chosen for this study?) - motives 5.) Instructions for you

Exercise 3: Who should be the respondents of your survey? Administrative positions, PR practitioners Determine population From where will I get my sampling frame? From the organizations HR department Target audience: YOU ARE WRITING FOR THEM Limitations include: jargon, educational attainment Determine sample and sample size What probability sampling scheme will I use? Stratified random sampling Determine pretest respondents at least one representative per department (depending on the sampling frame) Nominal/Ordinal: Effectivity of public relations. Levels of comparison of effectivity.

20 November 2012 -Either change theory, or change your articles. -Check that your IV-DV should be the same with your groupmates. -Review the articles; they must be published in journal articles. -It must be an OrgComm theory: - Messages, receivers, senders, or feedback, or channel, medium/media -Review your RQs. >Are you sure that your variables are orgcomm? ---

EXERCISE 3: >How would you want your respondent to see your questionnaire? >Arrange questions. >Upload submission, and the hardcopy. (New deadline: December 4) >Look at the rubrics and tell miss if everything was taught.

QUANTITATIVE CONTENT ANALYSIS: Definition Example What DLSU orgcom content can be analyzed? (based on Keyton, p. 246) Whose messages do we very often see in the organization called DLSU (maybe these sources have varying notions)? Chancellor (What has been the content of his messages lately) ITEO When we say sources for Orgcomm, what do we mean? They can be a group (for example, ITEO the department, USG, Discipline Office, Registrar, Accounting). They may be a person (for example, Bro. Ricky). How can DLSU send an external message outside the organization? Through the website. Through the StratCom office (the one who writes the information on the website) Jargons (messages) Channels Media (still photography, moving photography, design) How do the messages reach you? Email. Facebook. USG alerts via text. Posters. Twitter. School newspaper. TV screens. Difference of Media Suspension of classes (Twitter vs Facebook) Sounds Organizational sounds DLSU cheers (Rektikano), alma mater song OCM production projects? systematic, objective, quantitative analysis of message characteristics (Neuendorf, 2002, p. 1) Focuses on messages communication content as the primary subject of the investigation (p. 14) Source Message Channel Receiver Effect model

What OCM production projects can be content analyzed? Posters, brochures, photographs, videos, press releases Common Ground What do survey research and quantitative content analysis have in common? Both use the scientific method. The scientific approach Quantitative content alaysis (QCA) must be guided by the following: An RQ Hypothesis Variables QCA must be characterized by reliability, validity, generalizability, and replicability And so? After learning about survey research, what concepts do we know now that we can apply to learning about QCA? Indicators, variables, dimensions, attributes, operational definitions, measures, EVERYTHING is basically applied to QCA. Start to think of another RQ, based on content. Will your theory allow you to write an open-ended question? What messages were analyzed in this study? Our focus for QCA? -How do we analyze answers to open-ended survey questions? Learning the basic steps for QCA (Keyton, p. 246) Delecting messages to be analyzed Creating procedures for analysis of messages (final output) Coding the messages Interpreting the coded messages For Next Session: (Tuesday) We will NOT take up interaction analysis What is the difference between manifest and latent content? Manifest content directly describes only what the author has said/written (words, etc), while latent content interprets the underlying, or implicit meaning that exists with what the author has written. What is a unit of analysis? Unit of analysis refers to the entity that you are studying; the who or what of your study. The unit of data collection? Representations of the entity that you are describing // attributes of the variable.(Neuendorf) they both define the population Whats a coder? Those who covert the raw data to standardized form, meaning they assigning numerical values to a set of data in order to make analysis simpler and
can be used to quantify both manifest and latent content

What does interrater/intercoder reliability mean? Assessment of the degree to which

different raters/observers give consistent estimates of the same phenomenon.

22 November 2012 Make it really simple Dont make it too long.

4 December 2012 RELIABILITY: Like the survey - Reliability involves consistency of the measure - For the survey: Do the survey questions give stable results over time? - Be very clear. - Operationalize well. - WHAT IS YOUR UNIT OF DATA COLLECTION? - How do you measure the variable? o What is the logical unit of data collection? Intercoder reliability: - The amount of agreement or correspondence among two or more coders (p. 141) - Do coders agree, using your codebook, on coding for your data? - Establishes that more than one individual can use the coding scheme as a measurement tool (p.142) - Anyone can use the codebook, as long as they are trained. - Measured using correlation coefficients. Correlation: - Degree of association. Intercoder reliability coefficients For comparison of two coders: o Raw percent agreement (measure of crude association) o Scotts pi o Spearman rho (p) used only for rank ordinal measures o Pearson r For comparison of two or more coders: o Cohens kappa (K) o Krippendorffs alpha (a) Raw percent agreement = A/N o A number of agreements between two coders o n total number of units the two coders have coded for the test Unit C1 C2 A or D 1 2 2 A 2 2 2 A 3 1 1 A 4 1 1 A 5 1 1 A 6 2 2 A 7 2 2 A 8 2 2 A 9 9 9 A = 1.

Unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

C1 1,5,7,6 1 3 3 3 1 1 1 1

C2 1, 5, 7 1 9 9 9 1 1 1 1

A or D D A D D D A A A A = 0.5

DATA ANALYSIS: Two phases of data analysis: - Data organizing - Statistical analysis ORGANIZING YOUR DATA: -Univariate, bivariate, multivariate terms that describe how many variables a study contains Kinds of data tables: - Frequency distribution a table that organizes survey data for one variable - Contingency table (a.k.a. cross-tabulations or crosstabs) a table that organizes data across two or more variables Per survey question refers to one attribute Does the IV really affect the DV? THURSDAY: Quiz 4, exercise 3. 6 December 2012 Independent variable will always be on top, DV will always be on row. Six decimal places or as far as your calculator can manage. You never round off until the very end. Find the intersection. Different kinds of statistics: - Descriptive statistics - Inferential statistics Descriptive Statistics - Used for univariate studies (Nardi, 2006, pp. 133-139) - Analyze your data per variable. - What do you set up for this? Do frequency distribution. - Are measures of central tendency (p. 133) where most of the scores/data fall per variable. - Weakness: You can only provide information about your sample (n) never about your population (N). = generalizability - Standard Deviation The difference of each value from the mean.

Inferential Statistics - Used for bivariate or multivariate studies - Used to infer or make a conclusion about the population from which the sample was taken (Nardi, 2006) o Only if you employ probability sampling in choosing your sample. o Probability sampling = inferential statistics - If the sample data looks like this, then the population data will probably also look like this. - Chisquare test of significance o What we want to do is to determine if we can accept or reject our null hypothesis. - There is no relationship between IV and DV how come there is a difference in terms of the scores? o Sampling error can be due to sample size (if its too small), you did not randomize your sampling frame. - If we accept the alternative hypothesis? o There are differences because of the relationship. o Therefore your ethnicity can determine how you can vote. Chi-square - set up crosstabs. 1 - Set up chi-square matrix 2 o Remove all the percentages except for the total o Add Fo (survey data) and Fe (you calculate this one) o Total %/100 = total proportion o Total proportion x total column o DO NOT ROUND OFF. - What the matrix only says is that the difference must coincide with the percent; but its not. - Always positive! - X^2 = 178.228 4 get the chi-square - Determine degrees of freedom 3 o Df = (r-1)(c-1) - Look at critical values 4 - If they match table value and chi-square value then you will accept the alternative hypothesis.5 - Null = < table/critical value; Alternative = > table/critical value - 3 decimal places = final final answer

11 December 2012 HOUSEKEEPING: - Bring calculator and several sheets of paper. o A903 o 1:00 3:00 o 12 December 2012 - Exercise 4 o All PDFs must be uploaded by 5:00 PM o December 12, 2012 - Permission to Upload Grades - Grade Consultation Day