Energy Expenditure at Rest & Physical Activity

McArdle, Katch, & Katch Chapter 8

Energy Expenditure at Rest

Basal Metabolic Rate

BMR is rate of energy expenditure fasted, rested and supine conditions in thermoneutral environment.

Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) is rate of energy expenditure when at rest but not basal (> BMR).
BMR proportional to BSA, after age 20  2% & 3% per decade in women and men, respectively  When RMR expressed per unit LBM, no difference  BMR represents largest fraction of TEE in sedentary

 Lower BMR in women can be attributed to woman’s larger percent body fat & smaller muscle mass.Energy Expenditure at Rest  Influence of Body Size Differences in body size usually expressed in terms of body surface area (BSA). average values BMR are 38 kcal/m2 per hour for men and 36 kcal/m2 for women.  From 20-40.  .

Energy Expenditure at Rest  Estimate Resting Daily Energy Expenditure    Estimate kcal expenditure during rest by multiplying one’s surface area from nomogram by appropriate kcal expenditure/m2 per hour by 24 hrs. Also possible to use Harris Bennedict formulas. Estimated values w/i ± 5% measured values. .

absorbing. & assimilating nutrients.Energy Expenditure at Rest Components of Total Daily Energy Expenditure   Physical Activity: 15-30% of TDEE Dietary Induced Thermogenesis (~10% TDEE)    Thermic effect from processes of digesting. Thermogenesis reaches maximum w/i 1 hr post Thermogenesis can vary 10%35% of ingested food energy  Resting Metabolic Rate .

Pregnancy.  RMR of people in tropic climate averages 5-10% higher. .Energy Expenditure at Rest  Factors affecting Total Daily Energy Expenditure   Climate.  RMR in extreme cold can triple.

 Net O2 cost of exercise = exercise VO2 + recovery VO2 – (resting VO2 x time) .Energy Expenditure in Physical Activity  Expression of Energy Expenditure Total (gross) – Resting energy expenditure (REE) = Net energy cost of the activity per se.  Recovery energy included in Total = exercise energy + recovery energy.  Utilization of 1 liter of O2 generates about 5 kcal of energy.

Energy Expenditure in Physical Activity   Energy expended during weight-bearing activities increases proportional to body mass. . There is little relationship between body mass and energy expended during non-weight-bearing activities.

and 2200 kCal for females 15-50 y. Great variability exists because of one’s physical activity.o. average person spends ___% day sedentary. .a.Energy Expenditure in Physical Activity   Average daily Total Energy Expenditure estimated to be 2900 – 3000 kCal for males.

5 mlkg1min-1 .Energy Expenditure in Physical Activity  Classification of Work Factors:  Duration (min) and Intensity (VO2 & kCal)  A MET is a measure of activity intensity & represents an average person’s resting metabolism or VO2 1 MET = 3.

.Energy Expenditure in Physical Activity  Classification of Work  Intensity of Work often related to Heart Rate because of linear relationship to oxygen uptake.

2. . Work Output = Force x Distance  kg  m or ft  lb. 3.Economy & Efficiency of Energy Expenditure   Mechanical Efficiency = Work Output ÷ Energy Input (expenditure). Gross Net Delta  Three efficiency terms: 1.

.Economy & Efficiency of Energy Expenditure    Gross efficiency uses total oxygen uptake. Work Output Energy Expended Above Rest Delta efficiency computes relative energy cost of performing an additional increment of work. Work Output Energy Expended Net efficiency subtracts resting VO2 from total.

and Swimming  Economy is relationship between Energy output Energy input   Greater economy requires less oxygen uptake to perform a task.Energy Expenditure during Walking. Training adjustment that improves economy directly relates to improved exercise performance. . Running.

0 and 5. . and Swimming  Energy Expenditure during Walking   Relationship between walking speed and oxygen uptake essentially linear between speeds of 3. Running. walking becomes less economical and relationship curves in upward direction.0 kilometers per hour (1.9 to 3.1 mph). At faster speeds.Energy Expenditure during Walking.

Running. .Energy Expenditure during Walking. Hand-held weights increases energy cost of walking but may disproportionately elevate systolic blood pressure. and Swimming    Walking on snow and sand requires about twice the energy expenditure of walking on hard surfaces. Energy cost is proportionally larger for larger people.

Cost of running into headwind significantly greater than the reduction with tailwind. Net energy cost of running a given distance is independent of speed (pace). Lengthening stride above the optimum length (and reducing stride frequency) increases VO2 more than shortening below optimum (and increasing stride frequency). .Energy Expenditure during Running     More economical to discontinue walking and begin to run or jog at speeds > 6.5 kmh (4 mph).

Energy must be expended to maintain buoyancy while generating horizontal motion and to overcome drag forces. Total drag consists of: Wave drag  Skin friction drag  Viscous pressure drag  .Energy Expenditure during Swimming    Energy expenditure to swim a given distance is about 4 times greater than to run same distance.

Energy Expenditure during Swimming   Elite swimmers expend fewer calories to swim a given stroke at any velocity. . Women swim a given distance at lower energy cost than men because of greater buoyancy.

. Katch. Essentials of Exercise Physiology 3rd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.. Image Collection. and Victor L. William D.Illustration Reference  McArdle. Frank I. Katch. 2006.

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