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of Crystal Skull” The above statement is what a project manager will probably say somewhere in the middle of a project if there is no risk management in his plan. While the quotation is entertaining on wide screen, the same thing can’t be equally applied in a project, especially when the project manager is you. A risk plays important role on project resolution and risk management determines whether the project is going to be a big hit or be drowned like Titanic. What is risk? What is risk management? Risk is occurrence that comes with negative impact that has a probability to happen. Risk is not a certain occurrence. There are three elements of risk: potential loss, uncertainty, choice / decision than can be done to address that uncertainty and potential loss. There is reward in every risk. Otherwise the job containing the risk should not be done in the first place. To cope with risks inherent in every project, a manager must manage them. Risk management is a process of identifying risk, assessing risk, and taking steps to reduce risk to an acceptable level. Risk Management Steps Identify the risks Analyze. This is done by estimating probability of occurrence and the impact of every risk. Risk exposure is product of probability of occurrence and impact. For example, given 0.5% chance of a million dollar house caught on fire, the risk exposure is $ 5,000 (0.005 X $ 1,000,000). When it is required, ballpark approach of probability estimation can be employed to produce metric. Statistic can be a good source. Rank (prioritize) the risks by probability and impact. Calculate the exposure. Develop risk mitigation and contingency plan for risks with high exposure. Ways to resolve risk Risk Avoidance Completely avoid potential event by reducing the chance to zero. Example: A fabrication yard wants to replace the old maintenance software with new one. The new software provides GPS capability as optional package to provide the yard with greater control. However, since majority of crew are not technologically prepared, at the moment the GPS module is removed from the scope. Risk Reduction Reduce risk though mitigation, anticipation, or contingency plan. Risk Investigation is an effort to improve our knowledge about the risk. This can be done through simulation or prototyping. Risk Transfer the risk to other party that is more prepared. Example: After a structure is constructed, it needs to be delivered to installation site. To protect the company from financial loss, this process is insured or outsourced to specialized vendor. Risk Acceptance Some risks are within acceptable limit. Acceptance can only be used when dealing with risk that is highly likely to happen but has low impact.
Risk Due to technological barrier and IT proficiency issue, the user can not fully use the new application. Mitigation: Prepare the user with basic in operating the software. Train them as much as necessary to build acceptance, confidence and familiarity. There are variations of maintenance plan even for same equipment depending on the maintenance period. There is risk that only some of the maintenance plans are migrated. Mitigation: Create query to compare the number of maintenance plan in the legacy system (equipment by equipment) versus maintenance plans migrated to new system for both UAT and Production. Due to periodic nature of maintenance plan, jobs that fired outside testing period will not be verified during UAT. Example: some job is fired every 6 month while UAT will be conducted for 1 month (max). There if risk that even if the plans successfully migrated to new system, it won’t fire work order because it is not verified during UAT. If this happen, expensive yard equipment and construction project utilizing the equipment will be at risk. Mitigation: Setup monitoring scheme for maintenance plans scheduled to fire work order (plan with period greater than 1 month). This monitoring scheme is designed to be carried out by end user to make sure that every preventive job in master plan fires work order properly. Local management may develop gold plating, a phobia that leads to layers of requirements that may not be necessary. Mitigation: Cost benefit should be able to address it. User’s lack of enthusiasm to fully utilize the application due to the fact that the implementation has been forced. Mitigation: This is very likely to happen, but according to past experience the negative mood will disappear in just few months.
Probability (Scale 1 – 10)
After risks are all identified, special monitoring will be focused for those with high exposure. This topic will be covered in the future article. Introduction to Project Management #1 Every project manager has their own understanding of what project is based on their experience. 10 project managers will probably give 10 different definitions of what project means. Referring to PMBOK Guide (Project Management Body of Knowledge) from Project Management Institute, project is defined as “a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service”. Project management is defined as “Application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements”. Project Resolution Statistic Standish Group 1995 report mentions that only 16.2% of project successfully completed on time and on budget. 52.7% executed with substantially higher cost, and disturbingly 31.1% project cancelled before they get
the longer it tends to run and consequently the costlier it will become. Closing: Formalizing acceptance and project closure. Surprisingly. ACME ALPHA’s operation manager had so far succeeded in delaying the implementation of globally adopted CMMS due to “uniqueness” of the yard in terms of significantly lower manpower cost and cultural as well as technological barrier. Study Case: ACME ALPHA CMMS Implementation ACME ALPHA is a fabrication yard. He made it a requirement that every red flag must be closed or at least upgraded to yellow flag in the next progress report. Initiation Global Project Committee decided that for the ACME ALPHA project. Global sponsor followed up every red flag raised in status report. work package is a subset of a project that can be assigned to a specific part for execution. The bigger the scope of a project. Initiation: During initiation a project is defined and authorized. and repeatedly asked more time for internal consolidation. The in scope and out of scope must be clearly stated for clarity. Monitoring: Regular measurement and progress monitoring. nature of job type (fabrication. job codes divided into activity codes. or simply follows modular engineering design. Execution: Carry out the plan. material handling). Planning Project manager built a project plan with more emphasize to socialization plan. 2 years ago. Study case in this article is a fictional. Division can be by discipline (structural. The other constraints are scope and cost. and development.000. and business user as well IT resources attended bi-weekly meeting. A data conversion module was designed so that the user would find their historical data in the new system without having to worry about reformatting their existing data to fit into new CMMS. Quality of business resources and project management team. It does not represent an actual fact in any companies. cost. a branch of ACME Inc. this number is chilling. Out of 10 yards globally. It is difficult if not impossible to change one of the constraints without affecting the other. still in the same report. Time. Clarity of business objective. the longer the project the bigger the effort to manage it. accomplishment. Corrective action and steering activities is included in this phase. maintained by local software vendor. This phase is important to identify deviation from project plan. electric). large companies perform worse performance compared to their smaller counterparts. Note: PMI® and PMBOK® are registered trademarks of Project Management Institute. What makes it so difficult for a project to be successful? Project execution depends on the following success factors: Involvement from business users and executive management. mechanical. As the pressure from auditor increased. In construction business work breakdown structure. and finally activity codes into work packages. Work Package in Construction Industry There is many ways to describe work package. only 9% of project successfully executed on time and on budget (as opposed to 16. milestone. communication. . “Where are we now? How far are we from completion? How many percent complete is this project?” are common questions typically asked by construction manager or project director. Global operation manager congratulated project management team and business representatives for the successful project. and cost are widely recognized as triple constraints. More time allocated to socialization effort and data migration to address user’s concern on historical data. ACME ALPHA was the only one who still use legacy system. procurement Phases of project management. Business user would have flexibility to repeat UAT as many as they like as long as it is conducted within 2 months frame.2%). a 10 month duration from standard 6 month would be used. Execution The requirement documentation was built addressing business user’s concern. which headquarter is in US. What else does Project Manager manage? Scope. global operation manager decided to force the implementation of new CMMS in ACME ALPHA. quality. Closing A small meeting was held by project manager attended by core team member and business representatives. Risk planning and schedule defined in this stage. Human resource. Managing Project One can define Project Manager as person who manages project constraints in a process to meet project objectives.completed. piping. ACME Inc initiated a program to replace their out of date maintenance software. There is a direct logic in it. In a rare occasion global operation manager visited the yard to demonstrate the importance of the CMMS project. In that meeting. 2012). Monitoring Project manager. planning: Objective and benefit are stated as project justification. time. The logical response to that challenge is to create a divide and conquer approach. In average. local business sponsor. According to Wikipedia (as of October 10. construction. Inc. this is translated to level 3 or 4 job execution. PMI’s definition of project management gives the first constraint: time. The scope was limited to preventive maintenance of large mobile equipment and any other equipment which purchased asset value exceeds USD 50. risk. scope. Why work package? In the construction business. punch lists. as well as subsequent application support plan were highlighted. Tools and infrastructure. Study Case ACME fabrication yard is constructing a pipe rack module deck. It starts with requirement. those questions are not easy ones. Disregarding controversy surrounding Standish group report’s validity. A big project is divided into sub project / job codes. followed up by design. The keyword here is specific. risk management and mitigation. In a project of 10 million man hours. testing.
So we can say that oil price hike exacerbated the situation. beams. approach that fit somewhere in between those two options are chosen. There were other significant economic reasons: the depreciation of US dollar relative to pre-crisis level and oil speculation. particularly in emerging and low income countries. it may be beneficial to share the load into two shops (two work packages).#1: Fabricating piece mark (individual part). In fact.5 + 3 X 0. In cases with material availability problem. The Future of Oil 2007 – 2008 financial crisis is an episode when world saw oil price shot to all time high $147 per barrel. This condition was further worsened by high oil price since oil contributes directly to production cost of fertilizer used for crop cultivation. etc gained popularity. This is where the dilemma lies. In certain situation. So. Alternative form of energy (other than fossil): bio fuel. this work package is 56. Aside from economic.7%.#2: Assembling piece marks Job description: Fabricate frame components.Job description: cut stiffeners. Do not leave it open for months otherwise it will require extra time to maintain and become unmanageable. (4 X 0. Unfavorable weather condition during 2007 led to bad harvest in many countries. Steady growth of economy catalyzed demand for oil and metals. while careless estimation may give false representation of the actual. For example work package M07_B99_001 (Cut Primary Beam) progress status may looks like this: Piece mark Beam_B1 Beam_B21 Beam_B22 Beam_B3 Beam_B41 Beam_B42 Assuming that each beam has same amount of man hour allocation. Work package arrangement is always depends to yard resources. Package to package tonnage comparison approach can be utilized. At the height of oil price.1) / 6 = 56. Tips Work package should be planned in such a way that can be closed in few weeks. can petroleum maintain their market share as per today? Cut (50%) √ √ √ √ Grind (40%) √ √ √ QC inspection (10%) √ √ . contribution of this work package to job code M07_B99 is (MH2 / ΣMH) X 56. Tension in Middle East and North Africa sparked questions about supply disruption.Step #1: Identify the construction sequence. hydrogen. update status. shop / production engineer can start to update the work package status as per actual progress. My recommendation is: yard planner must fit their arrangement to their 3 – 4 weeks foreseeable future. Generally.4 + 2 X 0.This job code progress will then be rolled up to subsequent higher level up to project code. although Saudi’s official commitment to compensate supply shortfall was at certain extent able to calm the market. there were discussions around the world on how oil need to be substituted. and roll up progressOnce the numbers (MH1 – MH5) defined. Rise of biofuel production – in response to higher oil price further boosted food demand. renewable energy is the fastest growing group and expected to supply 14% of total energy consumption in 2035 from 10% in 2008.End product: deck frame installed Step #2: Assign (estimate) man hour into each work package To establish work package’s function as progress tracking. Jobs of the same types are not necessarily to be done in the same work package. Exact calculation of man hour allocation as per fabrication drawing requires extensive resources. cut secondary beam.7% complete. Inflation and economic growth was severely affected by combination of these two factors. End product: beams with stiffeners welded. wind. geopolitical reason further jacked up the already high price. End product: stiffeners. There is no fix guideline on how the yard planners must arrange the work package register.7 %. planner must put weight into each work package. same job can be delivered into two work packages. cut primary beam. The breakdown of activity codes M07_B99 (Fabrication and installation of module 7 deck structure) into work packages may look like this: Work Package No M07_B99_001 M07_B99_002 M07_B99_003 M07_B99_101 M07_B99_201 Work Package Description Cut Stiffener Cut Primary Beam Cut Secondary Beam Fabricate Deck Frame Component M07 Site Installation Man Hour MH1 MH2 MH3 MH4 MH5 Step #3: Execute work package.#3: Site Assembly Job description: Site installation (install frame components on site). algae. Countries which economy relies on government fuel subsidy to stimulate growth took double hit. The official reason of the price hike was demand associated with robust economic growth primarily from emerging markets. Consequently. geothermal.
1000. feedstock. a snapped wire rope during critical lifting may cause millions of dollar for direct loss of material and man hour and penalty associated with delay. 365 day 7. a 600 ton Liebherr crane requires maintenance every 7. fertilizer. liquid fuel is important to facilitate economic activities. ACME yard makes 3. In oil and gas construction facility. it will remain so for long period.600 maintenance job annually. Every industry has ample evident and cases of how an equipment can cause millions of dollar of loss when it failed during critical job. For example. Liquid fuel is mainly used in transportation and industrial sector. plane accident or even simpler engine delay may cause fortune to the airline. 30. 90. Even if petroleum’s substitute as energy is discovered. . most of which are dependent to liquid fuel. the world still needs oil for other reason.The Fact Now let’s look at the fact. stated that fossil fuels are expected to continue supplying much of the energy used worldwide. clean. 90.365 day Annual Maintenance (period) 10 X 48 = 480 10 X 48 = 480 40 X 48 = 1920 15 X 48 = 720 With only time-based maintenance taken into account. So. 500. The world is addicted to oil. polyurethane. Notes EIA stands for Energy information Administration. in their 2011 release of annual report. It is basically existed in products from concrete to toothpaste. Industrial activity depends on machineries. 30. 365 days and every 125. 365 day 7. a statistical and analytical agency of US Department of Energy. Even though the complexity of its relationship with economy is poorly understood. When there is economic activity.Summary Oil exists in every aspect of modern life. This is not to mention loss of future business opportunity due to the damage reputation. Industry as a matter of fact is a direct response to demand. antiseptics and even cosmetics. petroleum contribution is mandatory. plastics. which translates into 300 job / month.2 million barrels / day in 2035. Transportation makes economic activity possible. substituting oil with bio fuel will affect the food supply (both directly and indirectly). Preventive Maintenance and CMMS The importance of preventive maintenance. it releases more CO2 to air than oil. most experts agree that its contribution is significant. Liquid fuels consumption (majority are petroleum based) was estimated to grow from 85. Sample Case ACME is a middle size construction yard that employs 2. from key economic infrastructure component to personal grooming product. 180. 180. 365 day 7. 30.000 T 30 – 70 T 10 – 50 T 1 – 50 T Typical Maintenance (time-based) 7. Without good management. 250. and is a facilitator of international trade. Due to the absence of significant technological advances in this form of energy. In competitive business like aviation. But coal is not a clean fuel. Note that normally mobile equipment has two types of maintenance frequencies: period (time-based) and meter hour. 180. insecticide. relatively cheap Unlimited source of energy Dirty (contain more greenhouse gas than oil) Dependent to feasible geographic location High setup cost High risk Remark It is already the most widely used energy for electricity generation May have environmental impact (ex: dam construction) Cheap Decommissioning cost associated only to nuclear power plant Table 1 – Comparison of petroleum versus other form of energy. Cheapest substitute to replace oil as energy is coal. EIA. Biggest sectors that use oil as energy: transportation and industry are mandatory for the world economy.000 employees. It has various equipment’s in its inventory and following are the biggest types of heavy equipment with corresponding maintenance frequencies: Equipment Type Crawler Crane Hydraulic Crane Overhead Crane Forklift Qty 10 10 40 15 Capacity 100 – 1. Petroleum is used in the production of almost everything in the vicinity of modern life: asphalt. Energy Coal Wind / Hydro Solar Nuclear + Cheaper Renewable. Picture 1 – World Liquid Consumption by Sector (million barrels / day) The graphics shows how big the influence of these two sectors is to the liquid fuel consumption. This substitution is risky and economically costly. In fact it can be used as economic indicator.7 million barrels / day to 112. and it will remain so for a long time.
URANIUM-238 AND THORIUM-232. Experts proposed that the ash be transported back in the empty rakes to collieries from which coal is brought to the power plants. A study of the fly ash slurry at Talcher Thermal Power Station in Orissa revealed the presence of large quantities of metal. 45 kg copper. 365 days and every 200. A 40 ton Caterpillar forklift requires maintenance every 7. lead. yard that I currently worked for is substantially bigger than the ACME case. dozer. Though no soil analysis has been done at Kolaghat. He pointed out that fly ash contained toxic trace elements of metals like antimony. mercury. TNN Aug 8. 30. FLY ASH COULD ALSO CAUSE RADIATION AS COAL CONTAINS NATURAL RADIONUCLIDES LIKE URANIUM-235. 07. Fluoride causes flurosis that damages bone structure in children. At another ash pond site near Sabarmati Thermal Power Plant in Gujarat. KTPS. shall consider the observations of the regulatory authority and furnish its views on the same within a further . 1200. in contrast. lever hoist.42pm IST KOLKATA: This week's fly ash spill-over in the villages adjacent to Kolaghat Thermal Power Station has sparked a campaign to brand the coal by-product a "hazardous waste".6 kg chromium and 11. If 15 per cent of the toxic metals of the 3.85 parts per million (ppm) against the permissible limit of 0. Rigging equipments like chain block. The same thing applies when third party involvement (servicing vendor) is necessary. With this scale of job. Paschim Banga. bronchitis as well as eye and skin ailments including several types of allergy are common among children in the area. compressor. (ii) The regulatory authority shall normally accept the recommendations of the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned. selenium. Grant or Rejection of Prior Environmental Clearance (EC): (i) The regulatory authority shall consider the recommendations of the EAC or SEAC concerned and convey its decision to the applicant within forty five days of the receipt of the recommendations of the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned or in other words within one hundred and five days of the receipt of the final Environment Impact Assessment Report. For comparison. The Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned. When spare part is not currently available. It receives between 400 and 700 work orders of various mechanical equipments (excludes rigging equipment inspection) per week.6 ppm to 1. within one hundred and five days of the receipt of the complete application with requisite documents. 2003. One cannot allow such neglect for ever. lead time should provide window for procurement activity. a study of food crops in National Thermal Power Corporation's Singrauli unit revealed presence of mercury. We have to look at costs and other related factors.2 kg cobalt a day. "The idea seems workable. several varieties of fish including the famed hilsa. shackle and sling normally numbered in thousands. produces 3. The railways are also examining the proposal. Longer lifetime With proper maintenance. A good CMMS enable user to see several weeks / months look-ahead maintenance job. "We don't want the power plant to be shut down. In cases where it disagrees with the recommendations of the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned.5 kg thorium. Decrease in operating cost and downtime. grader. 56 kg zinc. thallium and vanadium. and where Environment Impact Assessment is not required.6 kg uranium. beryllium. Secretary Bankim Datta. 600. except as provided below." KTPS Paribesh Dushan Protirodh Committee Joint Secretary Bishwanath Poria said. "There's a need to label it a hazardous waste. Debate over pollution caused by fly ash Subhro Niyogi. Productivity If you believe that implementation of accounting software helps a company manage cash flow.000 tonne of ash that the plant produced was soaked to the ground every day. 16. have shrunk in numbers. An intimation of this decision shall be simultaneously conveyed to the applicant. 56 kg nickel." said Gana Bijnan Samannay Kendra. 1000. Asthma. In fact a middle sized yard also utilizes man lift." senior WBPDCL officials said. fluorine. excavator. it is mandatory to have CMMS that can kick a work order days before the maintenance date is due. exactly same benefit can also be gained for implementing CMMS. resources and consumable used. and various mobile transporters. provides reliable data for quick and better strategic decision and in turn increasing productivity and decrease man hour loss.1500 meter hours. the adjacent river would receive 208 kg of iron. 1500 meter hours. spare part. The fly ash can then be used instead of sand to fill up the portions that have been mined. Lead time Lead time spares crews enough time to prepare maintenance job. in turn. be disastrous for aqua-marine life in the adjoining Rupnarayan River. West Bengal Power Development Corporation Executive Director (operations) S Mahapatra felt the chemical composition would be no different from the ash produced in other power plants.2 ppm. Doctors in Kolaghat acknowledge that several of their patients have respiratory and skin-related problems that could be linked to fly ash pollution. All we seek is that the source of pollution be checked. tower crane. analysis revealed fluoride content of over 1. 60. 5 kg cadmium. Though the state pollution control board is yet to analyse the fly ash slurry produced by KTPS. Already. the regulatory authority shall request reconsideration by the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned within forty five days of the receipt of the recommendations of the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned while stating the reasons for the disagreement. cadmium. generator. and productivity improvement are few examples of short term expectation of CMMS deployment. 400. OLDER PLANTS LIKE KTPS AND CESC'S TITAGARH ARE THE WORST POLLUTANTS. substantial extension of equipment life time is expected. The number displayed in the above table highlights only ACME’s major equipment. 4.500 tonne of fly ash a day. In short the following explains why we need CMMS: Manage complexity Big number of equipments and specific instruction tied with each type of maintenance job represent complexity of routine. The metal accumulates in the body and causes defects in birth. Scheduling With the sheer number of maintenance volume and different type of resources required for each job. scheduling can be almost impossibly done with regular spreadsheet. Any soaking could. arsenic. therefore.
unless any of these is sequentially dependent on such clearance either due to a requirement of law. Sub-section (ii) MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND FORESTS New Delhi 14th September. by the Central Government or the State or Union territory Level Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA). VALIDITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE (EC): The “Validity of Environmental Clearance” is meant the period from which a prior environmental clearance is granted by the regulatory authority. being undertaken in any part of India1. the following sub-paragraphs shall be inserted. copies of the said notification were made available to the public on 15th September. shall be decided by the regulatory authority.period of sixty days. 1324 (E) dated the 15th September . or scoping. after giving a personal hearing to the applicant. to be constituted by the Central Government in consultation with the State Government or the Union territory Administration concerned under sub-section (3) of section 3 of the Environment (Protection) Act. 2003 . and following the principles of natural justice. was published in the Gazette of India . the validity period shall be limited only to such activities as may be the responsibility of the applicant as a developer. sub-section (ii) vide number S. 2006 and the procedure specified in the notification. all objections and suggestions received in response to the above mentioned draft notification have been duly considered by the Central Government. 5. and Supplementary Form 1A. except in respect of things done or omitted to be done before such supersession. read with clause (d) of sub-rule (3) of rule 5 of the Environment (Protection) Rules. In this regard the regulatory authority may also consult the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee as the case may be. by the State Level Environment Impact Assessment Authority. 2005. in paragraph 3. duly constituted by the Central Government under sub-section (3) of section 3 of the said Act. 2006 Notification S. and Section 3. together with an updated Form 1.a. 60 (E) dated the 27th January. 2003 make provisions for the use of fly ash and fly ash based bricks.O. (v) Clearances from other regulatory bodies or authorities shall not be required prior to receipt of applications for prior environmental clearance of projects or activities. blocks or tiles or aggregates of them in the schedule of approved materials and rates. and cancellation of prior environmental clearance granted on that basis. and the final recommendations of the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned shall be public documents. in the case of Area Development projects and Townships [item 8(b)]. (iv) On expiry of the period specified for decision by the regulatory authority under paragraph (i) and (ii) above. the decision of the regulatory authority. section 3. shall. 9.Extraordinary. Published in the Gazette of India. within three months from the 1st day of September. The prior environmental clearance granted for a project or activity shall be valid for a period of ten years in the case of River Valley projects (item 1(c) of the Schedule). 1986 for the purpose of this notification. (2B) All agencies undertaking construction of roads or fly over bridges including Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORTH). In the said notification. or for necessary technical reasons. (iii) In the event that the decision of the regulatory authority is not communicated to the applicant within the period specified in sub-paragraphs (i) or (ii) above. And whereas. project life as estimated by Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee subject to a maximum of thirty years for mining projects and five years in the case of all other projects and activities. Now. 1986 for imposing certain restrictions and prohibitions on new projects or activities. 1533 Whereas. in accordance with the procedure specified hereinafter in this notification. therefore.O. 1986. 1986 and in supersession of the notification number S. within three months from the 1st day of September.2005 inviting objections and suggestions from all persons likely to be affected thereby within a period of sixty days from the date on which copies of Gazette containing the said notification were made available to the public. Central Public Works Department (CPWD). or decision by the regulatory authority concerned. the applicant may proceed as if the environment clearance sought for has been granted or denied by the regulatory authority in terms of the final recommendations of the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned. The decision of the regulatory authority after considering the views of the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned shall be final and conveyed to the applicant by the regulatory authority concerned within the next thirty days. on such ground. to the start of production operations by the project or activity. Part-II. Part II. a draft notification under sub-rule (3) of Rule 5 of the Environment (Protection) Rules. as applicable. or completion of all construction operations in case of construction projects (item 8 of the Schedule). the Central Government hereby directs that on and from the date of its publication the required construction of new projects or activities or the expansion or modernization of existing projects or activities listed in the Schedule to this notification entailing capacity addition with change in process and or technology shall be undertaken in any part of India only after the prior environmental clearance from the Central Government or as the case may be. (vi) Deliberate concealment and/or submission of false or misleading information or data which is material to screening or scoping or appraisal or decision on the application shall make the application liable for rejection. namely: . or on the expansion or modernization of existing projects or activities based on their potential environmental impacts as indicated in the Schedule to the notification.“”(2A) All agencies including the Central Public Works Department and State Government agencies concerned with utilization of fly ash for construction purposes shall. or screening. in exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) and clause (v) of sub-section (2) of section 3 of the Environment (Protection) Act. However. And whereas. or may be presumed by the applicant to have been granted under sub paragraph (iv) of paragraph 7 above. National Highways Authority of India (NHAI). make provisions in their tender . for Construction projects or activities (item 8 of the Schedule). State Public Works Departments and other State Government Agencies. Rejection of an application or cancellation of a prior environmental clearance already granted. as applicable. This period of validity may be extended by the regulatory authority concerned by a MAXIMUM PERIOD OF FIVE YEARS provided an application is made to the regulatory authority by the applicant within the validity period. 1994. Extraordinary. or appraisal. unless prior environmental clearance has been accorded in accordance with the objectives of National Environment Policy as approved by the Union Cabinet on 18th May. to which the application for prior environmental clearance refers.O.
The cancellation of mining lease shall be decided by the district administration after giving the holder of such lease an opportunity of being heard. [F. [27/8/2003] – Amendments to S. concrete blocks. in exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) and clause (v) of sub-section (2) of section 3 of the Environment (Protection) Act.763 (E) dated 14.O. of India Footnote. the topsoil should be kept or stored separately.AMENDMENTS 1. 1986 (29 of 1986) read with clause (d) of sub-rule (3) of rule 5 of the Environment (Protection) Rules. 1986.O. (3 D) It shall be sufficient compliance of this notification if within twelve months from the date of issue of this notification.No. namely: . In the said notification.”" . (c) in sub. the words “”or a representative of local brick kiln owners association. dated the 5th November.763 (E) dated 14th September.”" shall be inserted. in the preamble. Voids created due to soil borrow area shall be filled up with ash with proper compaction and covered with topsoil kept separately as above.“(5) No agency. blocks and tiles located within a radius of 50 to 100 kilometres of a coal or lignite based thermal power plant comply with the provisions of sub-paragraphs (1) and (2).”". Any deviation from this direction can only be agreed to on technical reasons if the same is approved by Chief Engineer (Design) or Engineer-in-Chief of the concerned agency or organization or on production of a certificate of “Pond ash not available”" from the thermal power plant(s) (TPPs) located within 100 kilometres of the site of construction. in addition to cancellation of consent order issued to establish the brick kiln. within a radius of 100 kilometres of a thermal power plant undertake construction or approve design for construction of roads or flyover embankments in contravention of the guidelines/ specifications issued by the Indian Road Congress (IRC) as contained in IRC specification No. namely: . In the said notification. (b) after sub-paragraph (1). and b. Part II. Now. the competent authority. in paragraph 1. MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND FORESTSNOTIFICATION New De1hi.“” The thermal power plants have to ensure availability of fair quantity of ash to each user including brick kilns.O. Section 3. the words “one hundred kilometres”" shall be substituted. SP: 58 of 2001. And. 1986. in paragraph 2.”". sub-section (ii) vide S. To enable the competent authority to verify the actual use of ash.”". make necessary specifications/guidelines for road or fly over embankments that are not covered by the specifications laid down by the Indian Road Congress (IRC). (29 of 1986) reclamation of sea shall be a permissible method of utilization of fly ash. the marginal heading “”Responsibilities of Thermal Power Plants”" shall be substituted. Part II. 979 (E):. federation.16-2/95HSMD] (Dr.(a) in sub-paragraph (1).paragraphs shall be inserted. namely: -”". Rajagopalan) Joint Secretary to the Govt. “”Subject to the rules made under the Environment (Protection) Act. the words “one hundred kilometres”" shall be substituted. ***** (3B) In case of non-compliance of the provisions of sub-paragraph (1) of paragraph 1. for the words “fifty kilometers”". Utilization of fly ash for reclamation of sea. person or organization shall. the words “”or a combination thereof”" shall be inserted. V. 1164 (E). (f) in sub-paragraph (4). therefore.979(E).documents.Whereas a draft of certain amendments to the Government of India in the Ministry of Environment and Forests notification number S. 1999 (hereinafter referred to as the said notification) which the Central Government proposes to make under sub-section (1) and clause (v) of sub-section (2) of section 3 of the Environment (Protection) Act.763(E) dates 14/9/1999 Dumping and disposal of fly ash discharged from coal or lignite based thermal power plants on land S.9. including those relating to soil borrow area or pit as per sub-paragraph (7) of paragraph 1. shall move the district administration for cancellation of the mining lease.O. And. the thermal power plant shall maintain month-wise records of ash made available to each brick kiln. Sub-section (ii) dated the 6th November. 4. . “”All coal or lignite based thermal power plants shall utilise the ash generated in the power plants as follows: -”". after brackets and letters “”(AIBTMF)”". This certificate shall be provided by the TPP within two working days from the date of making a request for ash. soil or clay mining lease shall not grant such lease or extension of lease or renewal to clay brick. (6) Soil required for top or side covers of embankments of roads or flyovers shall be excavated from the embankment site and if it is not possible to do so. the following paragraph shall be inserted.1999. person or organization shall within a radius of 100 kilometres of a coal or lignite based thermal power plant allow reclamation and compaction of low-lying areas with soil. schedules of approved materials and rates as well as technical documents. 2002 vide S.“”2A.paragraph (1). Extraordinary. 1986 (29 of 1986) read with clause (d) of sub-rule (3) of rule 5 of the Environment (Protection) Rules. namely: . the following sub. In the said notification. whereas copies of the said Gazette were made available to the public on 27th November 2002. 3. the Central Government hereby makes the following amendments to the said notification. (a) for the marginal heading “”Utilisation of ash by Thermal Power Plants”". S. the 27th August 2003. for the words “fifty kilometers”". block or tile manufacturing unit within a radius of one hundred kilometres of the coal or lignite based thermal power plant in cases where the manufacturer does not mix a minimum of 25 per cent by weight of fly ash or pond ash in the manufacture of bricks or blocks or tiles. “”Every coal or lignite based thermal power plant shall take the following steps to ensure the utilisation of ash generated by it. only the minimum quantity of soil required for the purpose shall be excavated from soil borrow area. 2. regulations and specifications laid down by the authorities mentioned in sub. Section 3. Only pond ash shall be used for compaction. (ii) the following shall be added at the end. whereas all the objections and suggestions received from all persons likely to be affected thereby in respect of the said draft notification have been duly considered by the Central Government. panels”". 2002 inviting objections and suggestions from all persons likely to be affected thereby before the expiry of sixty days from the date on which copies of the Gazette containing the said draft amendments were made available to the public. (i) after the words “”products such as cement. namely: . (3C) All authorities sanctioning or renewing any land. manufacturers of clay bricks. after paragraph 2.paragraph (3) of paragraph 3. namely: . the following sub-paragraphs shall be inserted.O.“(1A) . bricks. This would be done as an integral part of embankment project within the time schedule of the project. In the said notification. were published in the Gazette of India. In either case. – The principal notification was published in the Gazette of India.”".O. group. (g) after sub-paragraph (4). (7) No agency. 1986. (b) for the opening words. They shall also ensure that such reclamation and compaction is done in accordance with the bye-laws.
namely:. (2A) The concerned State Government shall be the enforcing and monitoring authority for ensuring compliance of the provisions of sub. used in each construction project. A decision on consent to establish the brick kiln shall be taken by the Pollution Control Board or the Pollution Control Committee. (iii) 75 per cent by 31st August. namely: . brackets and figure “”under para (1)”" the words. and (iv) 100 per cent by 31st August 2007. the following subparagraphs shall be substituted.“”(3A) A decision on the application for manufacture of fly ash bricks. resorts and cottages and the like. (c) for sub-paragraph (2).(i) 50 per cent by 31st August 2004. and tiles and similar other fly ash based products shall be taken within thirty days from the date of receipt of the application by the competent authority. namely: . blocks and tiles. (1B) The provisions of sub-paragraph (1A) shall be applicable to all construction agencies such as Housing Boards and those in the private sector builders of apartments. for the words. (ii) 100 per cent by 31st August 2005. block. 2006. It shall be the responsibility of the construction agencies either undertaking the construction or approving the design or both to ensure compliance of the provisions of sub-paragraph (1A) and to submit such returns as may be called for and compliance reports to the State Government or Union territory Administration”". . (e) after sub-paragraph (3).”". as the case may be. the following sub-paragraphs shall be inserted.“” (2) The authority for ensuring the use of specified quantity of ash as per subparagraph (1) shall be the concerned Regional Officer of the State Pollution Control Board or the Pollution Control Committee.(i) 25 per cent by 31st August 2004. In respect of construction of buildings within a radius of 50 kilometres from a coal or lignite based thermal power plant the following minimum per centage (by volume) of use of bricks. hotels. brackets and figure “”under sub-paragraph (1)”" shall be substituted. (d) in sub-paragraph (3). as the case may be.paragraph (lA). (ii) 50 per cent by 31st August 2005.Every construction agency engaged in the construction of buildings within a radius of fifty to one hundred kilometres from a coal or lignite based thermal power plant shall use fly ash bricks or blocks or tiles or clay fly ash bricks or cement fly ash bricks or blocks or similar products or a combination or aggregate of them in such construction as per the following minimum percentage (by volume) of the total bricks. blocks and tiles shall apply: . as the case may be. within a period of thirty days from the date of receipt of application by it.
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