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tubes; one fluid flows on the inside, the other on the outside.
Any of several devices that transfer heat from a hot to a cold fluid. In many engineering applications, one fluid needs to be heated and another cooled, a requirement economically accomplished by a heat exchanger. In double-pipe exchangers, one fluid flows inside the inner pipe, and the other in the annular space between the two pipes. In shell-and-tube exchangers, many tubes are mounted inside a shell; one fluid flows in the tubes and the other flows in the shell, outside the tubes. Special-purpose devices such as boilers, evaporators, superheaters, condensers, and coolers are all heat exchangers. Heat exchangers are used extensively in fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants, gas turbines, heating and air conditioning, refrigeration, and the chemical industry. See also cooling system. A device used to transfer heat from a fluid flowing on one side of a barrier to another fluid (or fluids) flowing on the other side of the barrier. When used to accomplish simultaneous heat transfer and mass transfer, heat exchangers become special equipment types, often known by other names. When fired directly by a combustion process, they become furnaces, boilers, heaters, tube-still heaters, and engines. If there is a change in phase in one of the flowing fluids— condensation of steam to water, for example—the equipment may be called a chiller, evaporator, sublimator, distillation-columnreboiler, still, condenser, or coolercondenser. Heat exchangers may be so designed that chemical reactions or energygeneration processes can be carried out within them. The exchanger then becomes an integral part of the reaction system and may be known, for example, as a nuclear reactor, catalytic reactor, or polymerize. Heat exchangers are normally used only for the transfer and useful elimination or recovery of heat without an accompanying phase change. The fluids on either side of the barrier are usually liquids, but they may also be gases such as steam, air, or hydrocarbon vapors; or they may be liquid metals such as sodium or mercury. Fused salts are also used as heat-exchanger fluids in some applications. Most often the barrier between the fluids is a metal wall such as that of a tube or pipe. However, it can be fabricated from flat metal plate or from graphite, plastic, or other corrosion-resistant materials of construction.
the available space. the heat transfer medium). One set of these tubes contains the fluid that must be either heated or cooled. cost and the fouling nature of the fluids must be considered. petroleum refineries. refrigeration. it is more likely for the heat exchanger to foul up faster and the small size makes mechanical cleaning of the fouling difficult. and natural gas processing. § Tube thickness: The thickness of the wall of the tubes is usually determined to ensure: § There is enough room for corrosion § That flow-induced vibration has resistance § Axial strength . petrochemical plants. so that they never mix. One common example of a heat exchanger is the radiator in a car. This is because the shell and tube heat exchangers are robust due to their shape. etc. air conditioning. These include: § Tube diameter: Using a small tube diameter makes the heat exchanger both economical and compact. in which the heat source. air-to-liquid. and liquid-to-liquid. usually to extract heat from a medium flowing between two surfaces. They are widely used inspace heating. being a hot engine-cooling fluid.power plants. or they may be in direct contact. Shell and Tube heat exchangers are typically used for high pressure applications (with pressures greater than 30 bar and temperatures greater than 260°C). Shell and tube heat exchanger Shell and tube heat exchangers consist of a series of tubes. longitudinally finned. water.A device used to exchange heat from one medium to another often through metal walls. To prevail over the fouling and cleaning problems. Types of heat exchangers 1. A heat exchanger is usually in the form of a radiator with one fluid flowing inside tubes and the other outside them. The medium may be separated by a solid wall. larger tube diameters can be used. I. A heat exchanger is a device built for efficientheat transfer from one medium to another. There are several thermal design features that are to be taken into account when designing the tubes in the shell and tube heat exchangers. Various forms of heat exchangers are air-to-air. chemical plants. However.e. transfers heat to air flowing through the radiator (i. Thus to determine the tube diameter. The second fluid runs over the tubes that are being heated or cooled so that it can either provide the heat or absorb the heat required. A set of tubes is called the tube bundle and can be made up of several types of tubes: plain.
. which are.§ § § § Availability of spare parts Hoop strength (to withstand internal tube pressure) Buckling strength (to withstand overpressure in the shell) Tube length: heat exchangers are usually cheaper when they have a smaller shell diameter and a long tube length. Thus. Advances in gasket and brazing technology have made the plate-type heat exchanger increasingly practical. One is composed of multiple. There are four main types of tube layout. and inspection. and they are often specified for closed-loop applications such as refrigeration.e. such as dip-brazed and vacuum-brazed plate varieties. § Tube corrugation: this type of tubes. it is practical to ensure that the tube pitch (i. slightly-separated plates that have very large surface areas and fluid flow passages for heat transfer. 2. There are many types of permanently-bonded plate heat exchangers. In HVAC applications. mainly used for the inner tubes. increases the turbulence of the fluids and the effect is very important in the heat transfer giving a better performance. Also. A larger tube pitch leads to a larger overall shell diameter which leads to a more expensive heat exchanger. typically there is an aim to make the heat exchanger as long as physically possible whilst not exceeding production capabilities. § Tube Layout: refers to how tubes are positioned within the shell. § Tube pitch: when designing the tubes. cleaning. Plate heat exchanger Another type of heat exchanger is the plate heat exchanger. Square patterns are employed where high fouling is experienced and cleaning is more regular. the centre-centre distance of adjoining tubes) is not less than 1. thin tubes are difficult to take out and replace. large heat exchangers of this type are called plate-andframe. than the shell and tube heat exchanger. The triangular patterns are employed to give greater heat transfer as they force the fluid to flow in a more turbulent fashion around the piping. when used in open loops. in a given space. square (90°) and rotated square (45°). and . it has to be remembered that long. thin. rotated triangular (60°). triangular (30°). Plate heat exchangers also differ in the types of plates that are used. This stacked-plate arrangement can be more effective. including the space available at the site where it is going to be used and the need to ensure that there are tubes available in lengths that are twice the required length (so that the tubes can be withdrawn and replaced).25 times the tubes' outside diameter. there are many limitations for this. However. these heat exchangers are normally of the gasketed type to allow periodic disassembly.
in the configurations of those plates. special large heat exchangers which pass heat from the primary (reactor plant) system to the secondary (steam plant) system. Phase-change heat exchangers In addition to heating up or cooling down fluids in just a single phase. One example where this has been investigated is for use in high power aircraft electronics 4. All fossil-fueled and nuclear power plants using steam-driven turbines have surface condensers to convert the exhaust steam from the turbines into condensate (water) for re-use. Power plants which have steam-driven turbines commonly use heat exchangers to boil water into steam. To conserve energy and cooling capacity in chemical and other plants. producing steam from water in the process. This is usually a solid to liquid phase due to the small volume difference between these states. This change of phase effectively acts as a buffer because it occurs at a constant temperature but still allows for the heat exchanger to accept additional heat. Distillation set-ups typically use condensers to condense distillate vapors back into liquid. This term can also refer to heat exchangers that contain a material within their structure that has a change of phase. regenerative heat exchangers can be used to transfer heat from one stream that needs to be cooled to another stream that needs to be heated. are called steam generators. 3. Heat exchangers or similar units for producing steam from water are often called boilers or steam generators. heat exchangers can be used either to heat a liquid to evaporate (or boil) it or used as condensers to cool a vapor and condense it to a liquid. where others may have machined fins and/or grooves. reboilers used to heat incoming feed for distillation towers are often heat exchangers. Some plates may be stamped with "chevron" or other patterns. Fluid heat exchangers . such as distillate cooling and reboiler feed pre-heating. In chemical plants and refineries. In the nuclear power plants called pressurized water reactors.
. The entry temperatures of the products can reach up to 1200 °C.) or chemical products (fertilizer. Technical specifications Moving bed heat exchangers have a relatively compact construction. The heating or cooling medium flows through the square tubes. However. Behind the plates are reversing chambers for the cooling or heating medium. the product forms a product column which flows continuously down between the cooling pipes. Medium and product flow in cross countercurrent to each other. The coolers work according to the Moving Bed Principle. This is commonly used for cooling gases whilst also removing certain impurities. The sides of the external tubes are equipped with steel plate strips which hold the product in the shaft. doors that close the side walls can be fitted. Function The cooling or warming of the bulk materials in the Moving bed Cooler happens indirectly. via water. The ends of the tubes are closed with end plates. Construction Moving bed heat exchangers essentially exist of a huge number of square tubes which are arranged in heat exchanger packages one above the other. as for example conveying screws. Applications Moving bed heat exchangers can be used for cooling or warming of all free-flowing bulk materials which correspond to the requirements of the apparatus. 5. Ilmentit etc.). soda etc. Above and under the heat exchanger are feed respectively discharge hoppers.This is a heat exchanger with a gas passing upwards through a shower of fluid (often water). mineral (quartz sand. Moving bed heat exchangers (also moving bed coolers) are stationary heat exchangers for bulk materials for continuous processes in chemical engineering. Because of the working principle they need only a small base. Because of having only few moved parts they have low electrical requirements and are low-maintenance. depending on their application they can build relatively high. The heat exchangers often can be found after rotary kilns and dryers to cool e. To protect the environments or the product quality.g. Problems with noise or dust contamination of the environments do not occur. concerning grain size and angle of repose.e. A discharge bottom with variable openings regulates dwell time and flow rate. thus solving two problems at once. bucket conveyors or similar are downstream systems. thermal oil or steam. I. Different conveyor facilities for bulk materials. It is widely used in espresso machines as an energy-saving method of cooling super-heated water to be used in the extraction of espresso. and the fluid is then taken elsewhere before being cooled.
heat exchangers are most often selected via computer programs. III. but many iterations are typically needed. Although cost is often the first criterion evaluated. particulates or high-solids liquid) Pressure Drops across the exchanger Fluid flow capacity Cleanability. as well as the environment in which the unit must operate. For example. or by equipment vendors. either by system designers. an appropriate selection can be made to optimise the process. River water is often used as cooling water. In order to select an appropriate heat exchanger. maintenance and repair Materials required for construction Ability and ease of future expansion Choosing the right heat exchanger (HX) requires some knowledge of the different heat exchanger types.II. be conducted The mechanics of water flow and deposits are often simulated by computational fluid dynamics or CFD. a kettle HX for pre-heating. These methods confirm the integrity of the plates or tubes to prevent any cross contamination and the condition of the gaskets. there are several other important selection criteria which include: § § § § § § § § § High/ Low pressure limits Thermal Performance Temperature ranges Product Mix (liquid/liquid. a double pipe HX for the „carrier‟ fluid and a plate and frame HX for final cooling. the system designers (or equipment vendors) would firstly consider the design limitations for each heat exchanger type. selection Due to the many variables involved. several differing types of heat exchangers are used for just the one process or system to derive the final product. Fouling is a serious problem in some heat exchangers. who are typicallyengineers. As such. With sufficient knowledge of heat exchanger types and operating requirements. Typically in the manufacturing industry. selecting optimal heat exchangers is challenging. which results in biological debris entering the heat . Hand calculations are possible. Condition monitoring of heat exchanger tubes may through Nondestructive methods such as eddy current testing. Monitoring and maintenance Integrity inspection of plate and tubular heat exchanger can be tested in situ by the conductivity or helium gas methods.
and the impurities in the fluid precipitate onto the surface of the tubes. allowing to optimize the use of chemicals and control the efficiency of cleanings. for most substances. The conventional approach to fouling control combines the “blind” application of biocides and anti-scale chemicals with periodic lab testing. Humans . can lead to an increase in pumping and maintenance costs. This is because impurities are less likely to be dissolved in a cold fluid. This in turn.not to mention the incremental cost of unnecessary treatments. which is made up of deposited layers of chemicals such ascalcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate. This is because. 1. This is because the thermal conductivity of the fouling layer is low. solubility increases as temperature increases. Fouling reduces the cross sectional area for heat to be transferred and causes an increase in the resistance to heat transfer across the heat exchanger. There are however solutions for continuous fouling monitoring In liquid environments. Precipitation of these impurities can be caused by: § § § § Frequent use of the heat exchanger Not cleaning the heat exchanger regularly Reducing the velocity of the fluids moving through the heat exchanger Over-sizing of the heat exchanger Effects of fouling are more abundant in the cold tubes of the heat exchanger than in the hot tubes. such as the Neosens FS sensor. APPLICATION In nature 1. measuring both fouling thickness and temperature.exchanger and building layers. Another common problem is scale. This reduces the overall heat transfer coefficient and efficiency of the heat exchanger. A notable exception is hard water where the opposite is true. Fouling Fouling occurs when a fluid goes through the heat exchanger. decreasing the heat transfer coefficient. This often results in the excessive use of chemicals with the inherent side effects of accelerating system corrosion and increasing toxic waste.
This reduces the overall heat loss in cold waters.The human lungs also serve as an extremely efficient heat exchanger due to their large surface area to volume ratio. causing the warm arterial blood to exchange heat with the cold venous blood. Heat exchangers are used in many industries. 3. In industry Heat exchangers are widely used in industry both for cooling and heating large scale industrial processes. The common types of heat exchangers used in this application are the double pipe heat exchanger as well as the plate and frame heat exchanger. heat exchangers play a vital role in maintaining optimal temperatures within anaerobic digesters so as to promote the growth of microbes which remove pollutants from the waste water. temperature. pressures.Wading birds use a similar system to limit heat losses from their body through their legs into the water. density. while reheating the returning blood. . whales "Countercurrent" heat exchangers occur naturally in the circulation system of fish and whales. chemical composition and various other thermodynamic properties. In the waste water treatment industry. This cools the blood heading to the testis. heat exchangers can be used to recover this heat and put it to use by heating a different stream in the process. 2. viscosity. In many industrial processes there is waste of energy or a heat stream that is being exhausted. Heat exchangers are also present in the tongue of baleen whales as large volumes of water flow through their mouths. its phase. fish. This practice saves a lot of money in industry as the heat supplied to other streams from the heat exchangers would otherwise come from an external source which is more expensive and more harmful to the environment. In species that have external testes (such as humans). some of which include: § § § § Waste water treatment Refrigeration systems Wine-brewery industry Petroleum industry. the artery to the testis is surrounded by a mesh of veins called the pampiniform plexus. Birds. Arteries to the skin carrying warm blood are intertwined with veins from the skin carrying cold blood. The type and size of heat exchanger used can be tailored to suit a process depending on the type of fluid.
CRC Press. as well as reduces the possibility of water entrapped in the fuel freezing in components.4. ISBN 0849309026. heat exchangers are used to take heat from the engine's oil system to heat cold fuel. 2. ^ Kister. Distillation Design (1st Edition ed. are not affected by the problem. 3. a Boeing 777 flying as British Airways Flight 38 crashed just short of the runway. and Green. References:1. In early 2008.). Robert H. E. Heat Exchanges: Selection. Heat Exchangers: Selection. (1988). ISBN 0-07-049479-7. Don W. ISBN 007-034909-6.). (1984). the problem was identified as specific to the Rolls-Royce engine oil-fuel flow heat exchangers. McGraw-Hill. A. ^ Perry. Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook (6th Edition ed. New York: Longman Scientific and Technical. (1992). Other heat exchangers. 4.). ^ Air Pollution Control Orientation Course from website of the Air Pollution Training Institute . In an early-2009 Boeing-update sent to aircraft operators. In aircraft In commercial aircraft.This improves fuel efficiency. Henry Z. Rating and Thermal Design (2nd Edition ed. McGraw-Hill. ^ Saunders. 5. ^ Sadik Kakaç and Hongtan Liu (2002). or Boeing 777 aircraft powered by GE or Pratt and Whitney engines. Design and Construction.
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