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User Guide

RSoft Design Group, Inc. 400 Executive Blvd. • Suite 100 Ossining, NY 10562 Phone: 1•914•923•2164 Fax: 1•914•923•2169 info@rsoftdesign.com www.rsoftdesign.com Copyright © 1999-2008 All Rights Reserved.

Contents

Preface 1

Overview .....................................................................................................................2 Notices .......................................................................................................................................3 Limited Warranty ........................................................................................................3 Copyright Notice .........................................................................................................3 RSoft Design Group™ Trademarks.............................................................................3 Acknowledgments .......................................................................................................3 System Requirements.................................................................................................................3 How to read this manual ............................................................................................................3 What should I read and when?.....................................................................................3 Conventions .................................................................................................................4

Chapter 1: Installation

5

1.A. Main Program Installation..................................................................................................5 1.B. Testing the LaserMOD Installation ....................................................................................6 1.C. What Next?........................................................................................................................9 README File .............................................................................................................9 Examples ...................................................................................................................10 Technical Support & Software Upgrades ..................................................................10

Chapter 2: Physical Models

13

2.A. Introduction.....................................................................................................................13 2.A.1. What is LaserMOD ........................................................................................13 2.A.2. CAD Environment .........................................................................................13 2.A.3 Simulation Techniques ...................................................................................14 2.A.4. Analysis .........................................................................................................15 2.A.5. Feature Summary...........................................................................................16 2.B. Optics ..............................................................................................................................18 2.B.1. Optical Modes................................................................................................18 2.B.2. Photon Rate Equation.....................................................................................19 2.C. Bandstructure ..................................................................................................................21 2.D. Gain.................................................................................................................................24 2.D.1. Free Carrier Gain Model................................................................................25 2.D.2. Many Body Gain Model ................................................................................25 2.E. Carrier Transport .............................................................................................................26 2.E.1. Poisson’s Equation and Charges ....................................................................26 2.E.2. Carrier Continuity Equations..........................................................................29 2.E.3. Lattice Heat Flow Equation............................................................................36 References................................................................................................................................38

Chapter 3: CAD Interface

41

3.A. The CAD Layout Window ...............................................................................................41 3.A.1. The Menubar...................................................................................................43

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Contents • iii

3.A.2. The Top Toolbar .............................................................................................45 3.A.3. The Side Toolbar ............................................................................................46 3.A.4. The Status Bar.................................................................................................47 3.B. Cursor Modes ...................................................................................................................47 3.B.1. Selection Mode ...............................................................................................47 3.B.2. Zoom Mode.....................................................................................................48 3.B.3. Drawing Mode ................................................................................................48 3.C. Common Element Properties............................................................................................49 3.C.1 Geometry Information......................................................................................49 3.C.2 Non Uniform Mesh .........................................................................................50 3.C.3 Material Information .......................................................................................52 C.3.4. Material Library .............................................................................................56 3.D. Quantum Well Region.....................................................................................................57 3.E. DBR Region ....................................................................................................................59 3.F. Optical Grating Region....................................................................................................60 3.G. Electrodes........................................................................................................................61 3.H. Global Parameters ............................................................................................................62 3.I. Symbol Table.....................................................................................................................63 3.J. Bias Table..........................................................................................................................64 3.K. Profile Generation ............................................................................................................67 3.L. Mode Calculation .............................................................................................................67 3.M. Material Gain...................................................................................................................69 3.N. Laser Simulation ..............................................................................................................70 3.O. Plot Generation ................................................................................................................72 3.P. Packaging Effects .............................................................................................................75 3.Q. Scan Variable ...................................................................................................................76

Chapter 4: InGaAs FP broad area (1D) edge emitter

79

4.A. Layout ..............................................................................................................................79 4.A.1. Starting a new file ...........................................................................................79 4.A.2. Drawing the regions........................................................................................80 4.A.3. Defining some usefull symbols.......................................................................81 4.A.4. Setting Region Parameters..............................................................................82 4.A.5. Tiling the regions ............................................................................................87 4.A.6. Saving the layout ............................................................................................88 4.B. Verifying the layout .........................................................................................................89 4.B.1. Defining the nonuniform mesh .......................................................................89 4.B.2. Calculating the alloy profile............................................................................90 4.B.3. Calculating the doping profile.........................................................................92 4.B.4. Calculating the index profile...........................................................................92 4.C. Calculating the mode........................................................................................................93 4.D. Calculating the material gain............................................................................................94 4.E. Setting steady-state bias parameters .................................................................................99 4.F. Steady-state laser simulation...........................................................................................101 4.G. Generating standard plots...............................................................................................102 4.H. Generating custom plots.................................................................................................107 4.I. Generating reports ...........................................................................................................108 4.J. Setting transient-response bias parameters......................................................................109 4.K. Getting the transient-response........................................................................................110 4.L. Getting the frequency-response ......................................................................................111 4.M. Accounting for parasitic effects.....................................................................................113

Chapter 5: InGaAs FP (1D) with Table Gain model and Material Calibration

115

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LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

5.A. Layout ............................................................................................................................115 5.B. Recalculating the material gain ......................................................................................115 5.C. Calibrating the Free-Carrier Gain...................................................................................120 5.D. Calibrating the loss.........................................................................................................125

**Chapter 6: InGaAs FP (1D) with Table Gain model and Self-Heating 129
**

6.A Layout .............................................................................................................................129 6.B Setting the Thermal Boundary Conditions ......................................................................129 6.C. Effects of Self-Heating...................................................................................................131

Chapter 7: InGaAs FP Ridge (2D) Edge Emitter

135

7.A. Layout ............................................................................................................................135 7.A.1. Starting a New File .......................................................................................135 7.A.2. Drawing the Regions ....................................................................................136 7.A.3. Defining Usefull Symbols.............................................................................138 7.A.4. Setting Region Parameters............................................................................139 7.A.5. Tiling the Regions.........................................................................................146 7.A.6. Saving the Layout .........................................................................................149 7.B. Verifying the Layout ......................................................................................................150 7.B.1. Defining the Nonuniform Mesh ....................................................................150 7.B.2. Calculating Parameter Profiles.....................................................................152 7.C. Calculating the Mode .....................................................................................................155 7.D. Calling the BeamPROP Mode Solver ............................................................................156 7.E. Calculating the Material Gain.........................................................................................157 7.F. Setting steady-state bias parameters ...............................................................................161 7.G. Steady-state laser simulation..........................................................................................163 7.H. Plotting the Results ........................................................................................................165 7.I. MultiMode Operation ......................................................................................................171 7.I.1. Mode Calculation and Mesh Observations.....................................................171 7.I.2. Running the Multimode Laser Simulation .....................................................174 7.I.3. Generating Custom L-I Curves for each Mode ..............................................174 7.I.4. Multimode Carrier and Field Distributions ...................................................176

Chapter 8: GaInAsP MQW FP ridge (2D) edge emitter

179

8.A. Material Calibration .......................................................................................................179 8.B: Validation Results .........................................................................................................183 References..............................................................................................................................186

Chapter 9: 1D VSCEL with Self-Heating

187

9.A. Using the DBR Layout Element: ...................................................................................187 9.B. Designing the Cavity:.....................................................................................................191 9.C. Simulating the VCSEL:..................................................................................................195

Chapter 10: 2D VSCEL using FEM

201

10.A. Using FEM:..................................................................................................................201 10.B. Simulating the VCSEL:................................................................................................209

Chapter 11: DFB Introduction and Uniform Grating Example

215

11.A. Introduction..................................................................................................................215 11.B. DFB Layout Plane ........................................................................................................215 11.C. Grating Region .............................................................................................................216

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Contents • v

11.D. Structure Overview ......................................................................................................218 11.E. Creating the Structure in the CAD Environment ..........................................................219 11.F. Setting the Bias Parameters ..........................................................................................221 11.G. View the Mesh .............................................................................................................222 11.H. View the Index Profile .................................................................................................223 11.I. Calculating the Modes ...................................................................................................224 11.J. Running a Simulation ....................................................................................................227 11.K. Plotting Results ............................................................................................................229

Chapter 12: DFB With Two Uniform Gratings and a Phase Shift

231

12.A. Structure Overview ......................................................................................................231 12.B. Creating the Structure in the CAD Environment..........................................................232 12.C. Setting the Bias Parameters ..........................................................................................232 12.D. View the Mesh .............................................................................................................233 12.E. View the Index Profile..................................................................................................234 12.F. Calculating the Modes ..................................................................................................235 12.G. Running a Simulation...................................................................................................238 12.H. Plotting Results ............................................................................................................240

Chapter 13: SOI Introduction and Steady-State Waveguide

243

13.A. Introduction..................................................................................................................243 13.B. Tutorial Overview ........................................................................................................244 References ...............................................................................................................245 13.C. Steady-State Waveguide...............................................................................................245 13.D. Structure Overview ......................................................................................................245 13.E. Creating the CAD Layout.............................................................................................246 13.F. Setting the Bias Parameters ..........................................................................................247 13.G. Viewing the Mesh ........................................................................................................248 13.H. Viewing the Index Profile ............................................................................................249 13.I. Calculating the Modes ...................................................................................................251 13.J. Running the Simulation.................................................................................................252 13.K. Plotting the Simulation Results ....................................................................................254 13.L. Appendix – Relevant Symbols .....................................................................................257

Chapter 14: SOI Transient Waveguide

259

14.A. Transient Waveguide ...................................................................................................259 14.B. Structure Overview.......................................................................................................259 14.C. Setting Time Dependent Bias Parameters ....................................................................260 14.D. Running the Simulation................................................................................................261 14.E. Plotting Results.............................................................................................................262 14.F. Appendix – Relevant Symbols......................................................................................265

Chapter 15: SOI Mach-Zehnder Modulator

267

15.A. Mach-Zehnder Modulator ............................................................................................267 15.B. Structure Overview.......................................................................................................267 15.C. Procedure Overview .....................................................................................................268 15.D. Method 1 ......................................................................................................................269 15.E. Method 2.......................................................................................................................273 15.F. Appendix – Relevant Symbols......................................................................................276

Chapter 16: SOI Y-Branch

279

16.A. 3D Y-Branch ................................................................................................................279

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16.B. Structure Overview.......................................................................................................279 16.C. Running a Simulation...................................................................................................282 16.D. Running a Scan ............................................................................................................284 16.E. 3D Layout – Two Approaches......................................................................................285 16.F. Loss Profiles – Two Results .........................................................................................286 16.G. Appendix – Relevant Symbols.....................................................................................287

Chapter 17: SOI Directional Coupler

289

17.A. 3D Directional Coupler ................................................................................................289 17.B. Structure Overview.......................................................................................................289 17.C. Generating the Launch Mode .......................................................................................290 17.D. Generating the Coupler Profile ....................................................................................292 17.F. Appendix – Relevant Symbols......................................................................................294

Appendix A: Troubleshooting

295

Common LaserMOD mistakes...............................................................................................295 Usage Guidelines for LaserMOD...........................................................................................296

Appendix B: File Formats

299

LaserMOD Data Formats.......................................................................................................299 BeamPROP Data Format .......................................................................................................301 Supported Output Types ..........................................................................................302

Appendix C: RSoft Expressions

307

Valid Arithmetic Operators....................................................................................................307 Built-in Variables...................................................................................................................307 Standard Functions.................................................................................................................308 Additional Functions..............................................................................................................308

Appendix D: Symbol Table Parameters

311

D.1. Global Symbols..............................................................................................................311 D.2. Material Parameters .......................................................................................................312 D.3. Material Library Auxilliary Parameters .........................................................................316 D.4. Bias Point Parameters ....................................................................................................317 D.5. Quantum Well Symbols .................................................................................................318 D.6. Electrode Symbols .........................................................................................................318 References..............................................................................................................................318

Appendix E: Plotting Utilities

321

E.1. WinPLOT........................................................................................................................321 E.2. Simulation Window.........................................................................................................321 E.3. RglPLOT.........................................................................................................................324 Mouse Commands: ..................................................................................................324 Menu Commands:....................................................................................................325 Recognized Files: ....................................................................................................325 bdutil – BeamPROP utility ....................................................................................................326 Syntax ......................................................................................................................326 Options & Usage .....................................................................................................326

Appendix F: Table Gain Model

331

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F.1. Index File Format ...........................................................................................................331 F.2. Data File Format .............................................................................................................332 F.3. Database Availability......................................................................................................332 F.4. Table Gain Model Interface ............................................................................................332 F.5. InGaAs/GaAs standard gain library...............................................................................332 References..............................................................................................................................334

Appendix G: Material Library Data

335

AlAs .......................................................................................................................................335 AlGaAs ..................................................................................................................................338 AlGaAsSb ..............................................................................................................................342 AlGaInAs ...............................................................................................................................347 AlGaInP .................................................................................................................................350 AlGaN....................................................................................................................................354 AlGaN (Wurtzite) ..................................................................................................................358 AlInGaN (Wurtzite) ...............................................................................................................362 AlN ........................................................................................................................................366 AlN (Wurtzite) .......................................................................................................................371 AlP .........................................................................................................................................375 AlSb .......................................................................................................................................378 GaAs ......................................................................................................................................382 GaInAsP.................................................................................................................................385 GaInAsSb...............................................................................................................................389 GaN........................................................................................................................................393 GaN (Wurtzite) ......................................................................................................................397 GaP ........................................................................................................................................402 GaSb ......................................................................................................................................405 InAlGaSb ...............................................................................................................................408 InAs........................................................................................................................................412 InAsSbP .................................................................................................................................415 InGaAs ...................................................................................................................................419 InGaN ....................................................................................................................................422 InGaN (Wurtzite) ...................................................................................................................426 InGaNAs ................................................................................................................................431 InN .........................................................................................................................................435 InN (Wurtzite)........................................................................................................................439 InP..........................................................................................................................................443 InSb........................................................................................................................................447 Oxide......................................................................................................................................450 Polysilicon .............................................................................................................................453 Si ............................................................................................................................................457 References..............................................................................................................................460

Index

463

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LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Preface

LaserMOD is an integrated software package for the design and simulation of semiconductor lasers and active photonic structures. The current version can accomodate Fabry-Perot (F-P) edge emitters, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL), distributed feedback lasers (DFB), and detector applications. LaserMOD is a fully integrated platform with user friendly parametric CAD interface, nonuniform Delauney mesh generator, material libraries, gain and mode calculation utilities, simulation engine, standard and custom plot generation utilities, and versatile graphical viewing utilities. The interface is organized in a sequential manner so as to allow for validation of each step of the design process. Layouts can be verified both graphically and via text reports, waveguiding can be studied, and quantum well gain can be optimized, all before the first laser performance simulation is run. Both steady-state and transient performance can be simulated. The standard characteristics such as L-I, I-V, frequency response, etc… are generated and saved during each run, for easy comparison. Finally, all real and energy space data are stored at every bias point and can be retrieved via a custom plot generation utility, so there is no need for plot selection prior to a simulation run. With the LaserMOD interface, a designer can layout a nearly arbitrary 2D geometric cross-section. If an F-P cavity structure is chosen, then this cross-section is treated as perpendicular to the optical axis and the lasing direction is defined by a cavity length and facet reflectivities. If a VCSEL structure is selected, then the cross-section will span the radial and lasing axis of the structure. In this case, the geometry is treated as a body of revolution, yielding a 3D simulation, albeit cylindrcal symmetry is enforced, DFB’s are simulated in the plane defined by the growth direction and the direction of propagation so as to include longitudinal effects. Finally, photodetectors are simulated in cross-section as F-P’s, though the light is assumed incident from the top of the device. The geometric layout is currently created from a combination of rectangular regions, each specifying a particular material system. Each material is conveniently selected from a pulldown list that reflects every system in the material library, including those added by the user. The material systems commonly found in semiconductor lasers are included with the software. Library parameters may be overriden, region by region, via local symbol tables. Finally, the alloy composition and doping can be varied arbitrarily within each region. Pre-simulation setup includes mesh generation, which is controlled by a default parameters that can be conveniently overriden both globally and locally, region by region. The selection of bias ranges, to drive the simulation, is also conveniently facilitated by a Bias Editor that allows for activation/deactivation of any set of bias points and setting of bias specific simulation options such as transient or steady-state. A variety of mode solvers are included to accommodate both single and multimode structures. In addition to a Ritziteration technique for waveguide modes and an Effective-Index Transfer Matrix Method for 1D VCSELs and DFBs, LaserMOD has been integrated with RSoft’s BeamPROP and FemSIM so that the Beam Propagation Method (BPM) and Finite-Element method (FEM) can also be exploited for waveguide and 2D VCSEL modes solving, respectively. In addition to optical, electronic and thermal transport must be simulated in order to accurately predict semiconductor laser performance. The techniques used in LaserMOD are based on those in Minilase-II, from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. These include a free-carrier 8x8 band K⋅P method for calculating the gain in quantum well regions, rate based carrier capture between bound and continuum (propagating) states in the quantum well, and fully coupled solution of the drift-diffusion equations, with thermionic emission at heterojunctions, and the photon rate

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Preface • 1

equations. Futhermore, a look-up table based gain model has been added which can accommodate user defined models, such as the many-body gain database currently available from Nonlinear Control Strategies (NLCS) www.nlcstr.com. Addition of multiple photon rate equations allows for multi-mode competition and fully coupled solution of the lattice heat equation, with Joule, Thomson, and Peltier sources, provides for analysis of self-heating. Many other models and features, such as interface tunneling and quantum effects, have been and continue to be added to LaserMOD’s capabilities.

Overview

The outline of this manual is as follows: Chapter 1 describes the straightforward procedures for installing the package, and should be read before installation. Chapter 2 provides technical background on the theory and simulation techniques used by the program, along with references. Chapter 3 gives an overview of the software by describing the various aspects of the graphical interface, and how they are used to design and simulate a laser struncture. Chapter 4 demonstrates some of the results that can be generated with the software, by considereing several tutorial examples that are included with the software distribution.

2 • Preface

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Notices

This section has a list of legal and other miscellainous information pertaining to the software.

Limited Warranty

RSoft Design Group, Inc. warrants that under normal use, the physical media (diskette and documentation) will be free of material defects for a period of thirty days from the date of purchase. Upon written notice, RSoft Design Group, Inc. will replace any defective media. No other warranty of any sort, either expressed or implied, is provided with this software. No liability for damage to equipment or data, or any other liability, is assumed by RSoft Design Group, Inc.

Copyright Notice

Copyright © 1999-2006 RSoft Design Group, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Copyright is claimed for both this manual and the software described in it.

**RSoft Design Group™ Trademarks
**

RSoft Design Group, RSoft Inc., RSoft, The RSoft CAD Environment, BeamPROP, FullWAVE, BandSOLVE, GratingMOD, DiffractMOD, FemSIM, LaserMOD, OptSim, LinkSIM, EDFA for Vendors, ModeSYS, Artifex, MetroWAND, SWAT, WinPLOT, and RPlot are trademarks of RSoft Design Group, Inc.

Acknowledgments

IBM is a registered trademark and IBM PC, PS/2, and OS/2 are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. Intel is a trademark of Intel Corporation. Microsoft and MS- DOS are registered trademarks and Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation. All other product names referred to in this document are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective manufacturers.

System Requirements

LaserMOD will run on an IBM compatible personal computer with an Intel Pentium III or higher processor (or AMD equivalent), 256 MB RAM or higher depending on the application, and 250 MB of hard-disk space. A Windows version is available and requires Windows 2000/XP. Additional requirements may exist if Gain Tables are to be installed (see Section 1.C.).

**How to read this manual
**

The following are some guidelines on the contents of this manual and the conventions used within it.

**What should I read and when?
**

You should begin by reading Chapter 1 to ensure that you have correctly installed LaserMOD. Chapter 2 contains a brief summary of some of the theory behind LaserMOD as well as a brief outline of its capabilities. This material may be familiar to most users, but it explains some technical conventions followed in LaserMOD and should be at least skimmed.

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Preface • 3

Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 contain descriptions of the laser design layout and simulation processes. The Tutorial chapters go through several step-by-step examples and describe the various features and options available in the software. It is recommended that you start with the first tutorial and continue on to the last. The Appendicies include such things as a list of material parameters, pre-defined symbol table functions used in the software, command utilities included with the software, file formats, and simulation trouble-shooting procedures.

Conventions

This section describes various conventions concerning the physics, the product names, and the manual. Physics Conventions As with any branch of science, there are a number of concepts in the study of active photonic devices for which there exist several different definitions in the literature. The following are the conventions adopted in LaserMOD. Units The units in LaserMOD are as follows: • • The standard unit of length is measured in microns (µm) unless otherwise specified. The angular unit used is degrees, unless ohterwise specified.

Manual Conventions

A number of typeface and layout conventions are followed in this manual. • • • • • Actions to be performed in the LaserMOD interface are usually indented in bulleted or numbered lists. The names of fields and controls in the GUI dialogs are written in boldface Courier The values of pull-down menus and radio button controls are written in Roman italics. Symbol table variables and formulas, and expressions to be typed into the GUI edit fields are written in Courier. In referring to example LaserMOD files, the installation directory is specified as <rsoft_dir>, and should be replaced with the correct location of your installation. On Windows machines the default installation is c:\RSoft\Bin.

**Product Name Conventions
**

The executable files for the various RSoft product that work with LaserMOD are shown below: Product LaserMOD CAD tool LaserMOD simulation tool BeamPROP simulation tool FemSIM simulation tool Meshgen nu-mesh generator WinPLOT graphing tool RglPLOT graphing tool Windows Name

lasermod.exe lmsim.exe bsimw32.exe femsim.exe meshgen.exe winplot.exe rglplot.exe

4 • Preface

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Chapter 1: Installation

This chapter explains the installation procedure for LaserMOD, and provides a quick example to test the installation.

**1.A. Main Program Installation
**

The installation instructions for the main LaserMOD program can be found in the separate RSoft Installation Guide. Please refer to that document for initial installation.

**Gain Table Users
**

A separate product that works under the LaserMOD platform is a Many-Body Gain model that is in the form of a series of library databases. Each library is a separate product and applies to a different material system. These are created by Nonlinear Control Strategies and are distributed by RSoft (see Appendix D for details).

**Installing Under Windows:
**

To install a Gain Table library under Windows, place the distribution CD, with the desired gain library, in your CDROM. Next, choose Run from the Start Menu and give the command:

x:setup_gt

where x is the drive-letter of your CD-ROM. You will be asked several simple questions, and after providing the necessary information, the software will be installed on your system. • • You will need a significant amount of hard drive space for these installations (0.5GB or more, depending on the material). Each library will be placed in its own subdirectory beneath the

\RSoft\products\lasermod\tablegain directory.

Note that you do not need to be logged in as administrator to perform this task.

**Backing up the Examples
**

LaserMOD comes with a large set of example and tutorial files which are used extensively in the manual. Since it is easy to accidentally overwrite these files in the course of experimenting with the tool, we recommend copying the entire Examples directory in the install directory to another location, perhaps a subdirectory of your own home directory. Then you can perform the exercise and tutorials and retrieve the original versions when necessary. We suggest you do this now. • Windows: Copy the directory <rsoft_dir>\Examples to a suitable location.

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Chapter 1: Installation • 5

**1.B. Testing the LaserMOD Installation
**

Once the installation instructions above are completed, try the following steps to check that the software has been correctly installed. Both CAD and simulation engine should be checked. Start the CAD tool. • Windows: Use the Windows Start Menu to open LaserMOD.

If a error message involving the hardlock key appears, please review the hardlock instructions found in the RSoft Installation Guide. The LaserMOD CAD interface should open. If so, check the simulation engine. 1. 2. Use the File/Open menu command in the CAD interface and choose the file

<rsoft_dir>\Examples\LaserMOD\fp1d\fp1d.las. This file contains a simple 1D F-P laser.

The CAD window should appear as follows:

3.

Hit the Run Simulation icon (the green light). The LaserMOD simulation dialog will appear.

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LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

4.

Hit the OK button. The interface will launch the simulation and a GUI window will appear indicating that a simulation is in progress and that there is no data to display. After about 1-2 minutes, depending on computer speed, a message box will appear indicating that the simulation has completed. Hit Enter to reveal the results. The transient response (left) will appear. Use the View/Show L-I-V menu command to reveal the L-I-V curve (right).

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Chapter 1: Installation • 7

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LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

If both the CAD opens and the simulation runs without error, then the installation has been successful. If not, please review the installation instructions in the previous section and contact RSoft if the problem persists. If an error message similar to “This hardlock key is not licensed for…”, please check that you have replaced any existing key or license file with the one supplied with your RSoft package. Otherwise, please contact RSoft Design Group, Inc. for any further problems or issues. If you receive no errors, then you can proceed to Section 1.C.

1.C. What Next?

At this point, you are ready to begin using LaserMOD.

README File

The file readmelm.txt, which is located in the installation directory, should be read. This file may be viewed in any text editor, such as Windows Notepad. The readme file provides important last minute information about LaserMOD that is not contained in this manual, including new or improved features and options.

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Chapter 1: Installation • 9

Examples

A series of LaserMOD example (.las) files have been included with the software distribution, and reside in subdirectories of \RSoft\examples\LaserMOD. These include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

\dfb_phaseshift\dfb_phaseshift.las

**GaInAsP DFB with 2 grating sections and intervening phase-shift.
**

\dfb_uniform\dfb_uniform.las

**GaInAsP DFB laser with uniform sinusoidal grating.
**

\fp1d\fp1d.las

**InGaAs FP broad area (1D) edge emitter.
**

\fp2d\fp2d.las

**InGaAs FP ridge (2D) edge emitter.
**

\fp2d_ingan\fp2d_ingan.las

**InGaN FP ridge (2D) edge emitter.
**

\fp2d_mqw\fp2d_mqw.las

**GaInAsP MQW FP ridge (2D) edge emitter.
**

\pdsn_pin833\pdsn_pin833.las

**AlGaAs Surface Normal Photodetector.
**

\schottky\schottky.las

**Simple Schottky contact example (electrical).
**

\soi_branch\soi_branch.las

**Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) branch waveguide structure (quasi-3D).
**

\soi_coupler\soi_coupler.las

**Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) directional coupler (quasi-3D).
**

\soi_mz\soi_mz.las

**Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) Mach-Zhender (quasi-3D).
**

\soi_wg\soi_wg.las

**Simple Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) waveguide structure.
**

\vcsel1d\vcsel1d.las

**850nm AlGaAs Oxide Aperature VSCEL (1D using TMM).
**

\vcsel2d_fem\vcsel2d_fem.las

850nm AlGaAs Oxide Aperature VSCEL (2D using FEM).

If the InGaAs980nm gain tables have been installed, then the following additional examples will be present: • •

\fp1d_table\fp1d_table.las

**InGaAs FP broad area (1D) edge emitter with Table Gain model.
**

\fp1d_table_therm\fp1d_table_therm.las

InGaAs FP broad area (1D) edge emitter with self-heating and Table Gain model.

**Technical Support & Software Upgrades
**

Finally, the LaserMOD software comes with one year of maintenance, including technical support and product updates. Updates are released on our web site www.rsoftdesign.com/support every one to three months, and include program corrections as well as new features. To access updates, you must contact RSoft after receiving the software to obtain a username and password. Information regarding each update is located in the README file, which can be accessed on

10 • Chapter 1: Installation

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

the website to determine if you need or want to upgrade, and should be read thoroughly after downloading and installing any update. If you have any questions regarding your maintenance contract, or to renew your maintenance, please contact RSoft Design Group.

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Chapter 1: Installation • 11

Chapter 2: Physical Models

2.A. Introduction

This chapter provides technical information, terminology and notation, journal references, and other pertinent information regarding the use of LaserMOD. The objective of LaserMOD is to provide a general laser diode simulation package (Laser MODeling and Design Software) for use in both industrial R&D and university research applications.

2.A.1. What is LaserMOD

LaserMODTM is a photonic device design tool for simulating optical and electronic properties of semiconductor lasers. LaserMOD combines the most versatile, user-friendly, and easy to learn GUI in the market, with a powerful, robust simulation engine, which provides for the self-consistent solution of electro-thermal transport and optical field propagation. Device applications currently include edge emitting, such as Fabry-Perot type, and vertical surface emitting (VCSEL) lasers. Resulting from ongoing development effort, future releases of this tool will address DFB, SOA and PBG cavity-based lasers. Together with the other component design products from RSoft Design Group, LaserMOD is well positioned to meet the design need for optoelectronic integrated circuits.

2.A.2. CAD Environment

Convenient Layout

LaserMOD shares the same advanced parametric CAD technology that is used by the other component design tools in RSoft Design Group's tool suite, such as BeamPROPTM and FemSIMTM. The GUI is structured to lead the engineer through the design of a semiconductor laser. Convenient layout utilities assist in defining the geometry. Predefined region types such as multiple quantum wells or distributed Bragg reflectors enable quick and intuitive input of the corresponding layers as well as the associated material parameters. Arbitrary profiles for doping or material composition can be defined and verified via designated utilities.

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Chapter 2: Physical Models • 13

**Intuitive Simulation Controls
**

After the layout is completed, the mesh generator creates a non-uniform mesh, which can be controlled via local and global parameters. Isolated computation modules allow the user to analyze aspects of the design before running involved full-scale self-consistent laser simulations. These simulation modules provide customized dialogs to adjust physical models as well as numerical settings. A mode calculation module provides a variety of mode solvers for analyzing the wave guiding properties of the design. Gain computations can be performed for varying temperature and carrier densities allowing for optimization of the active layers. Finally, the interplay of the different aspects of the laser design can be simulated by solving for the optical field propagation and carrier transport self-consistently. A bias table editor provides an intuitive tool to control the bias conditions applied during the full-scale laser simulation. After the simulation is completed or as data becomes available, a post-processing and visualization utility provides a list of standard and customizable plots, which allow for displaying and analyzing the device characteristics.

Simulation Interface

You do not need to be a simulation expert to begin using LaserMOD. After defining a laser structure using the parametric CAD system, starting a simulation can be as easy as clicking on the “Go” icon (green light), and selecting “OK” to accept the default simulation options. These options, which control numerical parameters such as grid spacing and convergence criteria as well as default material and model parameters are automatically given intelligent default values based on the material properties and geometry of the design. The progress of the simulation can be observed in a graphical window that displays results as they become available.

2.A.3 Simulation Techniques

Proven Technology

The simulation capabilities of the package are based on the renowned Minilase-II program, developed at the University of Illinois, in Urbana-Champaign. LaserMOD solves the electro-thermal transport, optical properties, and carrier-photon interactions, using a fully coupled numerical scheme on a spatial discretization of the device geometry specified by the CAD layout. A methodology for carrier transport has been developed and established for silicon device simulation in multiple dimensions that LaserMOD adapts for material systems common to semiconductor lasers, to describe electronic transport through bulk regions, in which active layers may be embedded. The injection current into the active quantum well region determines the carrier densities within bound quantum well states and therefore, the degree of inversion. For carrier transport through bulk semiconductor regions the drift-diffusion system of equations is applied (carrier continuity equations, Poisson’s equation). This set of equations has been extended to an electro-thermal transport model appropriate for describing self-heating effects. LaserMOD includes a complete set of models for carrier mobility, radiative and non-radiative recombination, thermionic emission, quantum corrections, etc.

**Advanced Quantum Models
**

Advanced quantum mechanical models are applied to multiple quantum wells in active regions. Bound states are coupled to classical carrier transport in continuum states via incomplete carrier capture due to carrier-carrier and carrierphonon scattering. A Schroedinger equation determines the charge distribution. The material gain is calculated based on an 8x8 KP bandstructure calculation. Import of gain, spontaneous emission and refractive index data computed based on an advanced many-body gain theory is facilitated through a gain library interface, which enables the use of external models or measured tabulated data.

14 • Chapter 2: Physical Models

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

**Optical Field Propagation
**

The optical field is expanded in terms of eigenmodes. The intensity within these modes is described by photon rate equations, which are solved fully coupled with the electro-thermal transport. A selection of solvers is available for mode calculations, providing an optimal choice for any given structure (Beam Propagation Method, Finite Element Method, Transfer Matrix, Ritz Iteration). The integration with BeamPROP and FemSIM enables LaserMOD to take advantage of their respective mode solving capabilities.

**The Complete Package for Many Applications
**

LaserMOD is complete with material and model parameter libraries for most common compound semiconductors. The tool is capable of simulating 1D cross-sections, appropriate for analyzing broad area lasers or obtaining a quick estimate on the perfomance of more complicated structures, as well as full 2D laser cross-sections, necessary to account for the effects of carrier spreading and optical confinement by a waveguide. LaserMOD can perform full 3D VCSEL simulations quickly by taking advantage of the cylindrical symmetry of the device. Simulations can provide steady-state solutions, for analyzing CW performance, and transient solutions, for analyzing the pulsed or modulated performance of the device. External parasitics such as packaging can be accounted for in calculating the frequency response.

2.A.4. Analysis

LaserMOD provides a complete set of post-processing and visualization capabilities. The visualization utility offers a list of standard plots, which allow for quickly displaying device characteristics of common interest, such as IV, LI, spatial distribution of carriers, modal gain spectrum, energy bands and many others. Access to virtually all simulation data is provided for via customizable plotting features. A variety of plotting utilities is available which allow the user to view the spatially resolved plots from any perspective or cross-section

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Chapter 2: Physical Models • 15

2.A.5. Feature Summary

LaserMOD is complete with standard material libraries, tutorial examples, on-line help, and all simulation and analysis features integrated under a single graphical user interface. Some of the distinctive features are itemized below.

CAD Features

• • • • • • • • • • Designer friendly parametric CAD interface for device layout and selection of all material and simulation parameters Custom material library editor for extending the standard material libraries Local, region by region, material parameter control to override library values without having to edit the library Fully integrated, user controllable, non-uniform grid generator with global and local grid parameter settings. Bias control editor to make driving the simulation easy and versatile Easy selection of simulation options for enabling/disabling physical models Isolated index profile generation, mode calculation, and material gain calculation utilites Custom and standard plot generation utilities Generation of BeamPROP/FemSIM input files and compatabilty with all data files Specification of arbitrary doping and material composition (ex for graded junctions) profiles

Simulation Features

• • • • • • • • • • • • Integration with BeamPROP & FemSIM mode solvers Internal Transfer Matrix and Ritz Iteration mode solvers Transverse and Longitudinal Multi-Mode competition Carrier dependent index variation Models for absorptive and scattering losses Advanced theoretical gain model for single and multiple quantum wells based on 8 band K·P band structure computation Look-Up table based gain model to accomodate input from external models, such as the many body gain database, or measured data Solution of lattice heat flow equation for self-heating effects Models for incomplete carrier capture by the quantum wells Nonlinear solvers for carrier transport Schroedinger equation eigenvalue solver for determining correct quantum well charge distribution Models for spontaneous, stimulated and non radiative carrier recombination

16 • Chapter 2: Physical Models

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

• • •

Bulk and Quantum well current spreading for accurate determination of threshold and efficiency Steady-state simulation mode Transient simulation mode

Analysis Features

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • L-I curve I-V curve Run-time display Optical spectrum Carrier spectrum Near Field Far field Mode profiles Index profiles Modulation/Transient response Frequency response Current contours and vector plots Charge distribution Energy bands Wavefunctions Bandstructure Modal Gain/Loss Custom plots of simulation results as a function of bias condition Custom spatially resolved plots of simulation and output data throughout the device Custom plots of spectrally resolved data

In the following the physical modeling applied to different aspects of the laser simulation and user accessible parameters are discussed in more detail. Optics, bandstructure calculation, gain models, carrier- and thermal transport are described in designated sections.

Physical modeling in LaserMOD is based on the MINILASE II code, which is described in more detail in Ref. [1]. Results obtained using LaserMOD were published in Refs. [2,3]. A general overview of the theory and concepts involved in the simulation of optoelectronic devices is given in Ref. [4].

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Chapter 2: Physical Models • 17

2.B. Optics

The light propagation within a laser structure is determined by the solution of Maxwell’s equations. A set of approximations has been developed, which reduces the computational effort with respect to the full solution for specific cavity structures. Expanding the field in terms of eigenmodes, the slowly varying modal amplitudes are described by photon rate equations. While the photon rate equation approach is universal, a selection of mode solvers offers optimized performance for specific cavity types.

2.B.1. Optical Modes

Optical simulations for edge-emitting lasers are typically separated into tranverse and longitudinal problems.

The first N (specified by user) transverse modes are the solutions of the scalar Helmholtz equation which is solved for the largest eigenvalues via simultaneous iteration or BPM. This yields the 2D (or 1D) spatial field distribution of each transverse mode. The superposition of these fields is then used to determine the nearfield pattern. Thermal perturbations to the field are currently ignored. An odd number (specified by user) of longitudinal modes, centered around the gain peak, are simple Fabry-Perot modes determined by the cavity length, effective index, and wavelength. No longitudinal field distribution is currently calculated. The total number of separate rate equations (modes) considered in the simulation is then the product of the numbers of transverse and longitudinal modes.

The optical modes are determined from the solution of the scalar Helmholtz equation (2.1) via simultaneous iteration,

¢ ¡

**∂2 ∂2 2 + 2 + k02 ε ( x, y ) − neff , m Em ( x, y, z ) = 0 2 ∂x ∂y
**

Em ( x, y, z ) = Em ( x, y ) exp(ik0 neff ,m z )

(

)

**or from the paraxial wave equation via Beam Propagation Method (BPM):
**

¢

E ( x, y, z ) = u ( x, y, z ) exp(ik0 n z )

18 • Chapter 2: Physical Models

¡

£¤¥

£

£¤¥ £

(2.1)

(2.2)

∂2 ∂2 i ∂u ( x, y, z ) + 2 + k 02 ε ( x, y ) − n 2 u ( x, y, z ) = 2 2k 0 n ∂x ∂z ∂y

(

)

(2.3)

(2.4)

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

The eigenvalues are given by the effective index neff,m. The transverse modes are extracted sequentially from the propagating field, E(x,y,z), in the BPM, via a technique known as Imaginary Distance BPM [5]. The field is normalized to the cavity volume. The frequency ω0 with k0=ω0/c for which the mode is solved can be specified via the global symbol table parameter mode_solve_frq in units of eV. If user specified the frequency is kept constant. By default, the frequency is selected to correspond to the quantum well band gap energy. The refractive index with ε=n2, is a material parameter, which can be adjusted by specifying kpmat_DIELOPT in the region symbol table or material file. The temperature dependence of the refractive index is modeled in terms of a linear variation given by material coefficients:

The coefficient

dnr can be adjusted via the material parameter kpmat_dnr_dT. dT

If carrier dependent refractive index variations are selected via the appropriate checkbox in the laser simulation dialog the quantum well refractive index accounts for the index variation induced by the carriers by performing a KramersKronig transformation of the gain spectrum. The mode profile can be solved for once at the beginning of the simulation as governed by the checkbox “Recalculate Mode” of the simulation dialog. If a carrier dependent refractive index model is requested by selecting “Carrier Dep. Index” in the simulation dialog, the mode profile is updated for every bias point.

For VCSEL mode calculations a Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) is employed. While for 1D simulations the index profile in propagation direction is given by the layer sequence, for cylindrical simulations (quasi 3D), the effective index is computed for each numerical layer, by solving for radial and azimuthal modes. The field around a material interface can be decomposed in for- and backward propagating plane waves. The boundary conditions for TE and TM waves at the interface determine the coefficients in one layer as a function of the amplitudes in the prior layer. Written in matrix form, the transfer matrix for the whole structure is given by the product of transfermatrices for the individual layers. The eigenvektors are obtained by applying proper boundary conditions. The refractive index outside the simulation domain can be adjusted via global parameters index_bc_right, index_bc_left, index_bc_top, and index_bc_bottom for the indicated boundaries.

**2.B.2. Photon Rate Equation
**

Optical field propagation and electro-thermal transport are coupled via rate equations for the intensity within each cavity mode:

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

∂t

τ m,ω

= Gm ,ω −

∂S m ,ω

1

spon S m ,ω + Rm,ω ,

(2.6)

©

¨

ε (T ) =

ε (300 K ) +

dnr (T − 300 K ) dT

2

§

¦

(2.5)

Chapter 2: Physical Models • 19

where the spontaneous emission into mode (m,ω) is given by:

spon Rm,ω = dV Em u (ω ) 2

(2.7)

and the modal gain is defined as:

Gm ,ω = dV Em

2

c neff , m

g (ω ) .

(2.8)

Here, g is the material gain, u is the spontaneous emission spectrum.

The losses entering the photon rate equation are the sum of contributions due to light leaving the cavity through the facets, light scattered out of the cavity and absorptive losses

1

τ m ,ϖ

=

1

τ mirror

+

1

τ scatter

+

c neff ,m

αb ,

(2.9)

Scatter losses can be adjusted in the global settings dialog box. The absorptive losses include free-carrier absorption mechanisms such as inter valence band absorption. With coefficients ke/hfca, free-carrier absorption is modeled as a linear function of the respective carrier densities:

α b = dV E m

2

(k

fca e

ne + k hfca nh + α 0 ,

)

(2.10)

The free-carrier absorption coefficients can be adjusted via the material parameters fca_elcoef and fca_hlcoef for electrons and holes, respectively.

The Soref free-carrier absorption coefficients [15] include the additional index perturbation parameters fcn_elcoef and fcn_hlcoef for electrons and holes, respectively. And the exponent for the hole concentration fcn_hlexp.

Quantum well barriers, cladding layers and other non-active regions in semiconductor lasers usually are designed to be transparent at the emission wavelength as given by the effective bandgap of the active layer material. However, while band to band absorption in such layers may vanish, band tail absorption due to phonon assisted transitions or due to disorder induced localized states can lead to background absorption in real world semiconductors. These carrier density independent absorptive losses are accounted for by α0. The constant background absorption α0 is determined by the material parameter bg_absorption.

20 • Chapter 2: Physical Models

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

2.C. Bandstructure

In order to model semiconductor quantum wells, the bandstructure has to be calculated via a KP perturbation theory providing information about the density of states, as well as energy and strength of optical transitions. Currently quantum wells are assumed to be square, and in the case of MQW’s, that they are uncoupled and identical. The default model is an 8x8 band KP calculation with axial approximation. Band gap renormalization is determined via self-consistent solution of the Poisson equation for the Hartree potential and approximative accounting for the exchange potentials using a local density type of approach for a given carrier density in the well.

The bandstructure of quantum well carriers is calculated based on bulk material parameters using a KP method as described in detail in Refs. [6,7,8]. An effective-mass equation is derived for the quantum well structure by considering the barrier as a perturbation of the well material and defines an eigenvalue problem for the envelope wavefunctions:

! ! # ! # " ! ! #

n

2m

2m

On the diagonal of the matrix, the prabolic energy dispersion of the bulk bands of the quantum well material can be found. Due to the confinement potential, coupling to other bands occurs, represented by non-vanishing momentum matrix element Pn,m. It can be shown, that the renormalizations included in Rn,m are dominantly diagonal in the energy bands [6,7].

In our 8x8 band KP method, one conduction and three valence bands are considered including the spin degeneracy. Figure 1 shows a schematic illustration of a bulk bandstructure for AlGaAs. The bandgaps between different energy bands at the gamma point are specified via the material parameters kpmat_G6C_G8V for the fundamental bandgap between the lowes conduction band (En = E6c) and the highest valence bands (E8v), kpmat_G7C_G8V between the next higher conduction band (E7c) and the highest valence band, kpmat_G8C_G8V between the conduction band E8c and the highest valence band, and the gap kpmat_G8V_G7V between valence bands E8v (heavy and light hole) and E7v (split-off band).

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

$

δ n , N En ( y ) +

" "

−

+ PN ,n ( y ) k|| + ey

$

%

2

%

k||2

2

∂2 y

∂y i

+ RN ,n ( y ) ψ n ( y ) = Eψ N ( y ) (2.11)

Chapter 2: Physical Models • 21

lsls

E8c E7c

P‘

Q E6c P

E8v E7v

Figure 2-1: Schematic illustration of AlGaAs band structure near k=0.

The temperature dependence of the bandgaps is described by a Varshni expression. The change of the bandgap with respect to the reference temperature Tref, Tref = 300K if not stated otherwise, is described by:

2 Tref T2 −A Eg (T ) = Eg (Tref ) + A T+B Tref + B

(2.12)

The coefficients for the linear and quadratic behavior, A and B, can be specified for the corresponding bandgap via parameters like kpmat_G6C_G8V_A and kpmat_G6C_G8V_B for the bandgap given by kpmat_G6C_G8V. The Varshni coefficients for the other bandgaps are named correspondingly.

Besides the bandgaps, the offsets between conduction and valence bands of quantum well and barrier material play an important role in determining the optical and transport properties. The material libraries offer two alternative ways to specify these offsets. By setting for the hole affinity kpmat_HLAFF=HLAFF_DISCONT, the hole affinity is calculated based on the specification of the band offsets. Via the parameter DEv_DEg_REF the valence band discontinuity can be specified with respect to a reference material, by default GaAs, as specified by a reference bandgap (Eg_REF) and a reference hole affinity (HLAFF_REF). The hole affinity is given by HLAFF_DISCONT = HLAFF_REF + DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF), as defined in the material libraries, where Eg is the minimum of direct and indirect bandgaps. By selecting kpmat_HLAFF=HLAFF_INTERP in the material library, an interpolated value is used for the hole affinity. The offsets then will result from the differences in hole affinities and bandgaps of quantum well and barrier material.

22 • Chapter 2: Physical Models

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Besides the bandgap parameters, the bulk bandstructure is described by Luttinger parameters, adjustible via the material parameters kpmat_GAMMA1, kpmat_GAMMA2 and kpmat_GAMMA3. Furthermore, the bulk electron mass can be specified via kpmat_MG6C. Its temperature dependence is described by:

3 2 mG 6C (T ) = mG 6C (Tref ) + C (T 3 − Tref ) + Q(T 2 − Tref ) + L(T − Tref )

(2.13)

where the linear (L), quadratic (Q) and cubic (C) coefficient can be adjusted via material parameters kpmat_MG6C_T, kpmat_MG6C_Q and kpmat_MG6C_L. The heavy hole mass is given by kpmat_MHH, the light hole mass by kpmat_MLH, and the mass for the split-off band by kpmat_MSO.

Strain leads to renormalization of the energy bands. As a function of the lattice constants of the strained crystal a with respect to the reference unstrained material aref energy shifts due to shear forces,

!

and hydrostatic strain,

occur as diagonal renormalizations in Equation (2.11). The axial deformation potential b can be adjusted via the material constant kpmat_AXDEF. The hydrostatic deformation acv potential is accessible via kpmat_ACV. c11 and c12 are elastic stiffnes constants, which are given by the material parameters kpmat_C11 and kpmat_C12, respectively. The lattice constants are defined via the material parameter kpmat_LATT. A linear temperature dependence,

a (T ) = a (Tref ) + d a (T − Tref ) ,

where the expansion coefficient can be defined via kpmat_LATT_DT.

The off-diagonal elements in the effective mass equation are expressed in terms of momentum matrix elements P, P‘ and Q. P describes the coupling between conduction and valence bands, via P‘ the conduction band is coupled to higher conduction bands and Q describes the coupling of valence band and higher conduction bands. The diagonal elements in the effective mass equation constitute renormalizations in the bandstructure. The momentum matrix elements can be calculated from experimentally accessible quantities such as Lande factors and effective masses [6,7]:

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Chapter 2: Physical Models • 23

!

#

**m0 P2 P ′2 2m 2 P22 2 P2′2 1 1 − 1 = 20 + − − + 6 A′ mG 6C E6c − E8v E6c − E7 v E8c − E6c E7 c − E6 c 3
**

" &

!

#

δ Ehydro = 2acv 1 −

"

c12 a − aref c11 aref

#

δ Eshear = b 1 + 2

"

c12 a − aref c11 aref

(2.14)

(2.15)

(2.16)

(2.17)

**2m g G 6C P22 P2 P2′2 P′ 2 1 1 − 1 = − 20 − − + + C′ g0 E6c − E8v E6c − E7 v E8c − E6c E7 c − E6c 3
**

! # " &

Here, m0 and g0 are the free electron mass and Lande factor, respectively, mG6C is the mass at the gamma point as defined by Equation (2.13), gG6C is the corresponding Lande factor as given by the material parameter kpmat_LANDE, A‘ and C‘ are determined by the material parameters kpmat_CPRIME and kpmat_APRIME, the energy separation in the denominators are defined in the bandstructure in Figure 1. Furthermore, the momentum matrix elements P and P‘ are defined by:

P = P+ 1

2 δ− P′, 3 E7 c − E7 v

P′ = P′ − 1

2 δ− P 3 E7 c − E7 v

2 δ− P2 = P − P′, 3 E8c − E8v

2 δ− P2′ = P′ + P 3 E8c − E8v

(2.19)

The coefficient δ- can be adjusted via the material parameter kpmat_DELTAMINUS. The remaining coupling between the higher conduction bands and the valence bands Q is entered directly via the material parameter kpmat_QQ.

In our implementation of the KP calculation, the Hermitian form of the effective mass equation is solved after Fourier expansion in the y-direction, which is the growth direction of the heterostructure. The number of plane waves used in this expansion is determined by the input parameter kpband_fourier_comps (=8 by default), which can be specified in the physical data table of the quantum well region. Note, that this parameter significantly influences speed and accuracy of the calculation. The resulting eigenvalue problem is solved for a grid of in-plane momentum vectors k|| as defined by the maximum absolute value kploop_wavevec_max and the number of values kploop_wavevec_num, which can be adjusted in the quantum well physical data table. The grid of in-plane wavevectors should cover the energy range given by the electron and hole quantum well depth. For every in-plane wavevector the full subband spectrum is obtained.

Optical matrix elements are calculated for the TE or TM polarization direction, as has been selected in the gain calculation dialog.

2.D. Gain

Gain is currently restricted to quantum wells regions. Besides a free carrier gain model, which is evaluated during run-time, a table interface is in place allowing access to gain libraries. The database must include real and imaginary parts of the gain and the spontaneous emission, for a range of carrier densities and temperatures (see appendix for database file formats).

24 • Chapter 2: Physical Models

(2.18)

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

**2.D.1. Free Carrier Gain Model
**

Neglecting interactions of carriers with other quasi particles of the semiconductor, the gain g and spontaneous emission u can be written as:

'

u (ω ) =

i, j

dE ψ e ,i ψ h , j

( Bg red )i, j

f e2iD ( E ) f h2, D ( E ) Li , j ( ω − E ) , j

(2.20)

i, j

The collision broadening is modeled through a truncated Lorentzian, which prevents unphysical absorption below the bandedge.

The linewidth broadening is determined by the material parameter regmat_krelaxener.

**2.D.2. Many Body Gain Model
**

The gain database allows the semiconductor laser simulator LaserMOD access to gain, refractive index, and photoluminescence spectra for semiconductor quantum wells, which are calculated by Nonlinear Control Strategies (http://www.nlcstr.com/) using a sophisticated quantum many-body theory. The individual gain libraries are distributed through Rsoft as optional modules for LaserMOD. Based on the information contained in the database, LaserMOD can perform electro/thermal/optical simulations of semiconductor quantum-well lasers. The gain database can be selected as an alternative to the built-in gain model of LaserMOD, providing several advantages in terms of reduced calibration effort and increased predictive capability of the overall simulation.

The data within the database is grouped in a set of libraries providing spectra for different quantum well/barrier material systems and target emission wavelength of the laser. Within a library the gain, refractive index, and photoluminescence spectra are tabulated for varying wavelength, temperature, carrier density, alloy composition of quantum wells/barriers, and quantum well width to allow the user to investigate variations in the active region design.

Comparison of measured photo-luminescence data with calculated spectra enables the user to characterize the sample in terms of deviations from the nominal quantum well/barrier geometry and composition. Furthermore, the inhomogeneous broadening indicating the amount of disorder present in the sample can be extracted for corresponding adjustment of the calculated spectra for further simulations.

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

&

Li , j ( E ) =

(

ωi , j − E ) + ( ∆E / 2 )

2

∆E / 2

2

Θ ( E − Eg )

(2.22)

'

g (ω ) =

dE ψ e , j ψ h , j

( B21 g red )i , j ( fe2,iD ( E ) + f h2, D ( E ) − 1) Li , j ( ω − E ) j

(2.21)

Chapter 2: Physical Models • 25

The microscopic calculation of gain/absorption, refractive index, and photo-luminescence spectra is described in detail in references [9,10,11] and references therein. It is based on solving the semiconductor Bloch equations, i.e. the equations of motions for the reduced density matrix, to obtain the optical susceptibility of the quantum well system. The real part of the susceptibility gives the carrier induced change of the refractive index and the imaginary part gives the gain/absorption. The photo-luminescence is derived from the gain/absorption using the Kubo-Martin-Schwinger relation. Coulomb-induced effects like bandgap renormalization, Coulomb enhancement of the absorption and excitonic resonances are taken into account self-consistently. The electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering processes are calculated in a second Born approximation enabling the prediction of spectral broadening and spectral shifts. The resulting scattering equations take the form of generalized quantum Boltzmann equations.

The many body gain model is selected by checking the corresponding box Look-Up Table Gain Modelin the laser simulation dialog. The name of the library should be entered for the global symbol table_gain_material, for example the library name InGaAs980nm. The library type, standard or custom, is entered for the global symbol run_table_mode. For standard setting, an encrypted library is expected, while the custom mode enables use of other gain data. Disorder induced inhomogeneous broadening of the gain spectrum can be accounted for by specifying a nonzero value for table_gain_inhomog.

2.E. Carrier Transport

A methodology for carrier transport has been developed and established for silicon device simulation in multiple dimensions that LaserMOD adapts for material systems common to semiconductor lasers, to describe electronic transport through bulk regions, in which active layers may be embedded. The injection current into the active quantum well region determines the carrier densities within bound quantum well states and therefore, the degree of inversion. For carrier transport through bulk semiconductor regions the drift-diffusion system of equations is applied (carrier continuity equations, Poisson’s equation). Optionally, a lattice heat equation can be coupled to describe self-heating effects. Transport across hero-interfaces is facilitated via thermionic emission and, optionally, tunneling, allowing for bandgap discontinuities.

Currently, a single 2D laser cross-section is rendered with rectangular semiconductor elements and electrodes. A material system, alloy composition, and doping are selected for each. The cross-section is then digitized with a nonuniform (Delauney) mesh. The transport equations are then solved via Gummel & Newton-Raphson iteration. No selfheating, tunneling, or graded junctions are currently considered.

**2.E.1. Poisson’s Equation and Charges
**

The electric potential Φ is determined by Poisson’s equation:

+ − ∇ ε∇ φ = q n e + n h − N D + N A ,

(

)

(2.23)

where the charges are given by the densities of electrons ne, holes nh, and ionized donors ND+ and acceptors NA-. q is the elementary charge. The static dielectric permittivity ε can be adjusted via the material parameter kpmat_DIELSTAT.

26 • Chapter 2: Physical Models

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Incomplete Ionization

Donors ND and acceptors NA are entered via the designated dialogs of the GUI. If incomplete ionization is activated by setting run_incomplete_ionization to 1 in the global symbol table, the ionized impurities are given by:

The dopant degeneracy factors are typically gD=2 and gA=4. The activation energies for donors ED and acceptors EA are material parameters, which can be adjusted via the material parameters ion_acceptoractiv and ion_donoractiv, respectively. Fe/h are the Fermi energies for electrons and holes, respectively.

**Carrier Distribution and Wavefunctions
**

In quantum wells, the confinement potential leads to localized bound states, while propagating states exist for energies higher than the barrier bandedge. LaserMOD distinguishes between bound states and propagating states. The latter are treated classically using the same approach as used for bulk regions. Quantum mechanical modeling is applied to carriers in bound states. Within an envelope function approximation, the spatial distribution of carriers in the confined direction of the quantum well is described by wavefunctions ψj:

∞

n2 D ( y ) =

j

ψ j ( y)

2

g 2 D , j ( E ) f ( E )dE ,

Em

**which are obtained by solving a 1D Schroedinger equation:
**

2me / h

Here, the growth direction is assumed to be along the y-axis. The bound carrier densities are determined by integrating over the occupation probability as given by the Fermi distribution function f(E) and the density of states g2D,j for subband j, which results from the bandstructure calculation. me/h are the masses for electrons and holes, respectively. While the bulk masses are material parameters, the masses for bound quantum well electrons and holes are determined from the bandstructure as obtained from the KP calculation. The confinement potential for electrons and holes Ve/h contains contributions due to offsets of conduction and valence bands as well as the electric potential. Additionally, carrier density dependent bandgap renormalizations that are derived from a local density approximation for the Coulomb self-

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

!

#

"

−

!

2

&

d2 − Ve / h ( y ) ψ j ( y ) = E jψ j ( y ) , dy 2

1 3

)

(

− NA =

NA E − Fh 1 + g A exp A k BT

02

1 3

)

( 02

+ ND =

ND F − ED 1 + g D exp e k BT

(2.24)

.

(2.25)

(2.26)

(2.27)

Chapter 2: Physical Models • 27

energies, are included in the bandedges. Solving Schroedinger’s equation, subband energies Ej, for subband j, and the respective wavefunctions are obtained. Different levels of self-consistency between the Schroedinger and the Poisson/carrier continuity equation solve can be requested. Per default, the envelope wavefunctions are calculated for the potential as given by the bandgap offsets after the zero bias solution has been obtained. Since the energy bands around the active region are relatively flat above threshold, this is a reasonable approximation for many cases. Self-consistency can be selected by checking the corresponding box in the laser simulation dialog. In the self-consistent mode the wavefunctions are recalculated for every Newton iteration. A compromise might be the recalculation of the wavefunction for every converged solution, which can be selected by specifying true (“1“) for the boolean parameter per_bias_schroedinger in the global symbol table. Note, that the higher degree of self-consistency will override other settings. This is especially true for local settings, which are possible in the advanced symbol table for individual bias points for per_bias_schroedinger and run_schroedinger, which sets the fully self-consistent mode. If a self-consistent calculation is requested, it is advisable to set sim_lhartree=1 to include the electric potential on top of the confinement due to the bandgap discontinuity between well and barrier materials. Since the energy bands above threshold will be relatively flat in the region around the quantum wells, the flag sim_lhartree should be set to 0 if neither self-consistent or per bias solve is performed in order to yield a good approximation.

In quantum wells, the total carrier concentrations is given by the sum of carriers in bound states and propagating continuum states, ne/h = ne/h2D + ne/h3D. The bound carriers are the sum over individual subband contributions. In bulk regions, the carrier densities are related to the Fermi levels by:

where F1/2 is the Fermi integral of order one-half, Fe/h are the Fermi energies of electrons and holes, EC/V are the conduction and valence bandedges. The prefactor defines the effective density of states for electrons and holes.

**Haensch Quantum Correction
**

At heterointerfaces strong band bending can occur, leading to a confinement potential for electrons and holes. The classical representation would lead to strong spikes in the densities, while quantum mechanical considerations predict strongly reduced densities close to the barrier. In order to introduce a quantum mechanical correction to the classical treatment, the conduction and valence density of states near the interface can be epressed as:

eff eff 2 N C / V ' = N C /V 1 − exp(−(d − d 0 ) 2 / λthermal )

(

)

2

5

(2.29)

Here, d is the distance from the interface,

λthermal = 2π

mk BT is the thermal wavelength, d0 is an effective

tunneling length characterizing the barrier penetration of the wavefunctions, which can be adjusted by specifying the material parameter haensch_tunnel_length. This model, suggested by Haensch et al. [12], can be activated via the global boolean parameter run_haensch_model.

28 • Chapter 2: Physical Models

#

"

#

"

#

&

"

n

!

3D e/h

F1/ 2

!

!

m kT = 2 e/h B 2π 2

4

4

3/ 2

± Fe / h EC /V ± Fe / h EC / V eff = N C / V F1/ 2 k BT k BT

(2.28)

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

**2.E.2. Carrier Continuity Equations
**

The carrier concentrations obey continuity equations. In quantum wells, separate continuity equations are solved for bound and continuum states, describing incomplete capture of carriers. Figure 2 illustrates the transport model. Capture due to carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon scattering couples classical propagating bulk and quantum well continuum states to quantum confined bound states. Carriers entering the quantum well in continuum states can pass through or get captured into bound states. For sufficiently fast inter-subband scattering leading to thermalization between the subbands, the occupation of the individual subband occupations can be described by a common Fermi level. This reduces the set of rate equations to a four level system defined by effective rates and density of states, which are the sum of the subband contributions.

q

∂ne2/Dh ∂t

3 ∂ne /Dh

= ±∇J e / h,|| − qR dark − qR stim − qR spon,bound + qRecapture /h

(2.30)

q

∂t

= ±∇J e / h − qR dark − qR spon ,bulk − qRecapture /h

(2.31)

Here, Re/hcapture are the capture rates for electrons and holes, Rdark is the non-radiative recombination rate, Rspon, bound and Rspon, bound are the spontaneous recombination rates for bulk/continuum and bound carriers, and Rstim is the stimulated recombination rate. Je/h and Je/h, || describe currents. For bound states, only carrier flux within the quantum well plane indicated by || has to be considered, since the carrier distribution in the growth direction is determined by the wavefunctions within the confinement potential.

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Chapter 2: Physical Models • 29

Figure 2-2: Schematic illustration of our transport model as applied to quantum well regions. A: bulk drift diffusion current, B: transport into quantum well continuum states, C: carrier capture and escape, D: non-radiative recombination from continuum states, E: radiative (stimulated, spontaneous) and non-radiative recombination from bound quantum well states (taken from Ref. [1]).

**Quantum Well Carrier Capture
**

Capture into and escape from bound states is described by Maser equation type rates for in- and out-scattering. The capture rate Re/hcapture = Re/hcapture, cc + Re/hcapture, ph is the sum of contributions due to carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon scattering:

× (s ecapture ,cc ( E , E ' ) f e3/D ( E )(1 − f e2/ D ( E ' )) − s eescape,cc ( E , E ' )(1 − f e3/D ( E )) f e2/ D ( E ' ) ) /h h h /h h h

3 Recapture ,cc = dE dE ' g e /Dh ( E ) g e2/Dh ( E ' ) × /h

(2.32)

3 Recapture , ph = dE dE ' g e /Dh ( E ) g e2/D ( E ' ) × /h h

× s ecapture , ph ( E , E ' )(n ph + 1) f e3/D ( E )(1 − f e2/ D ( E ' )) − s eescape, ph ( E , E ' )n ph (1 − f e3/D ( E )) f e2/ D ( E ' ) /h h h /h h h

(

)

(2.33)

30 • Chapter 2: Physical Models

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

In general, the scattering coefficients se/hcapture/escape, cc/ph would have to be assumed to depend on the occupation of the involved states to emulate the dynamics, which would result from a quantum kinetic treatment of the scattering process in terms of quantum Boltzmann equations. Following [1], the scattering coefficients are given by constant rates normalized by the final density of states. The rates are inversely proportional to the corresponding material parameters regmat_elelcaptime and regmat_elphcaptime giving the scattering time for electron capture due to electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering. The hole capture is determined by the scattering times as assigned to the material parameters regmat_hlhlcaptime and regmat_hlphcaptime, which determine the hole capture due to hole-hole and hole-phonon scattering, respectively.

Due to emission and absorption of longitudinal optical (LO) phonons, capture due to phonon scattering allows continuum states to interact with energetically non-resonant bound states. In contrast, energy is conserved in Coulomb scattering processes. The phonon occupation number is given by:

−1

! 1 1 3 1 3 1 ! # ! ! #

n ph = exp

" "

k B Tlatt

Here, ωLO is the LO-phonon frequency, which can be specified via the material parameter regmat_hnuloph.

Auger Recombination

The non-radiative recombination Rdark occurs in both bulk and quantum well regions. The rate is the sum of contributions due to Auger and Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) processes. In the Auger process an electron and hole recombine while the corresponding energy is transferred to an additional electron or hole. The Auger recombination is modeled by:

R Auger = C eAuger n e + C hAuger n h n e n h − n i2

(

Here, ni is the intrinsic carrier density. The Auger coefficients are temperature dependent with:

The room temperature Auger coefficients can be adjusted via the material parameters regmat_Augn300 and regmat_Augp600 for electrons and holes, respectively. The temperature dependence is characterized by an activation energy Ee/hAuger,act, which is accessible by setting the material parameters regmat_AugnEact and regmat_AugpEact. The Auger recombination model can be activated via the designated checkbox in the laser simolation dialog.

**Shockley-Read-Hall Recombination
**

The SRH process describes recombination via trap levels. In LaserMOD the corresponding rate is modeled by:

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

0

02

**C eAuger (T ) = C eAuger (300 K ) exp − E eAuger , act /h /h /h
**

0 02

1 1 − k B T k B 300 K

)

)

(

(

&

ω LO

−1

(2.34)

)(

)

(2.35)

(2.36)

Chapter 2: Physical Models • 31

R

SRH

=

SRH τh (

ne nh − ni2 trap trap ne + ne + τ eSRH nh + nh

)

(

)

(2.37)

The lifetimes τnSRH and τpSRH for electrons and holes can be adjusted via the material parameters regmat_SRH_taun and regmat_SRH_taup, respectively. The trap occupations ne/htrap are given by:

The trap energy Etrap is a material parameter, which can be set with respect to the valence bandedge by specifying regmat_Et-Ev300. The SRH recombination model can be actvated via the designated checkbox in the laser simulation dialog.

**Interface Trap Recombination
**

Deep level trap can be especially associated with material interfaces. LaserMOD provides an interface recombination model to account for corresponding effects. Similar to the SRH mode, the interface recombination rate (per surface area) is given by:

R interface − SRH =

ne nh − ni2 1

interface-SRH vh

(n

e

+n

trap e

The interface recombination velocities ve/hinterface-SRH can be adjusted via the material parameters ifrec_vn for electrons and ifrec_vp for holes. The trap occupation is computed using Equation (2.38) using a trap energy Etrap as specified for the material parameter ifrec_Et-Ev300. In order to determine which model settings to use for a given interface between at least two different materials, a priority can be assigned to individual regions by assigning an integer value to ifrec_priority.

Spontaneous Recombination

Radiative recombination processes include spontaneous and stimulated recombination. With Z(ω) being the photon spectral density of states, the spontaneous recombination can be written as:

R spon ,bound = dω Z (ω )u (ω ) ,

where U is the photo-luminescence or spontaneous emission spectrum. While in quantum wells, the photo-luminescence can be derived from the optical matrix elements known from the bandstructure calculation, in bulk regions and for continuum states, a simpler approximate expression is used:

32 • Chapter 2: Physical Models

#

k BT

"

!

trap eff ne / h = N C / V F1 / 2

!

4

± Etrap

EC / V

(2.38)

)+ v

1

interface-SRH e

(n

h

+n

trap h

)

(2.39)

(2.40)

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

R spon ,bulk = B n e n h − n i2

(

)

(2.41)

The Einstein coefficient B is a material parameter, which can be adjusted via regmat_sponrecoef.

Stimulated Recombination

Above laser threshold, stimulated emission is the dominant radiative recombination channel. The stimulated recombination is given by contributions due to photon emission into individual cavity modes (m,ω):

R stim =

m ,ω

S m,ω E m

2

c neff ,m

g (ω )

(2.42)

Here, g(ω) is the gain spectrum determined by a built-in gain model or tabulated data via the gain table database interface (see section 2.D.).

**Carrier Current and Mobility
**

The current densities Je/h in the carrier continuity equations are calculated within the framework of drift-diffusion theory:

J e / h = ± qDe / h∇ne / h + qµ e / h ne / h∇EC /V ± qµ e / h ne / h Pe / h∇T

(2.43)

Here, De/h is the diffusivity, µe/h is the mobility and Pe/h is the thermoelectric power of electrons and holes, respectively. Under non-isothermal conditions, as in self-heating simulations, an additional contribution to the current occurs due to temperature gradients. For Fermi statistics, the diffusivity is related to the carrier mobility via a generalized Einstein relation:

! ! # # "

F−1/ 2

Different models can be selected for the carrier mobility via the global integer parameters el_lowfield_mobility and hl_lowfield_mobility. In a similar way, the behavior of the mobility in high electric fields can be selected via the global integer parameters el_highfield_mobility and hl_highfield_mobility. The mobility is written as:

µ e / h = µ eHF ( E , µ eLFh ) /h /

6

where the high-field mobility is a function of the low-field behavior and the electric field for electrons and holes, respectively.

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

4

De / h

µe / h

=

k BT q

"

F1/ 2

± Fe / h EC / V k BT ± Fe / h EC /V k BT

4

(2.44)

(2.45)

Chapter 2: Physical Models • 33

Constant Mobility

For el_lowfield_mobility = 0, the electron mobility is directly determined by the material parameter kpmat_MOBN0. Similarly, for hl_lowfield_mobility = 0, the hole mobility is directly determined by the material parameter kpmat_MOBP0.

**Temperature Dependent Mobility
**

For el_lowfield_mobility = 1 / hl_lowfield_mobility = 1, a temperature dependence is accounted for using the expression:

δ 0,e / h

1 3 )

The exponent δ0,e/h is given by the material parameters kpmat_MOBN0_exp / kpmat_MOBP0_exp, while µ0,e/h is determined by kpmat_MOBN0 / kpmat_MOBP0 for electrons / holes. The temperature dependence is mostly induced by increased phonon scattering for increased temperature, leading to exponents, which are smaller than zero for most materials.

**Doping and Temperature Dependent Mobility Model
**

A temperature and doping dependent mobility model has been suggested by Arora et al. [13], which was originally developed for Silicon devices and later extended to cover compound materials. Due to impurity scattering, the carrier mobility generally exhibits a dependence on the doping concentration. The lowfield mobility is given by:

Here, Ndop = NA + ND is the total doping concentration. The maximum mobility µ0,e/h and corresponding exponent for the temperature dependence are defined and adjustible as described in the temperature dependent mobility model above. For increasing doping, the mobility approaches the value as given by the minimum mobility µdop,e/h, which can be adjusted via the material parameters arora_elmudop / arora_hlmudop for electrons and holes, respectively. The temperature dependence of this minimum mobility is characterized by exponents δdop, e/h that are accessible by specifying arora_elmudopexp and arora_hlmudopexp. The exponent αe/h and its exponent δα, e/h are accessible via the material parameters arora_eldopexp1 / arora_hldopexp1 and arora_eldopexp2 / arora_hldopexp2. The reference doping

34 • Chapter 2: Physical Models

H

H

G

N ref ,e / h

G

F

F

F

T 300 K

E

δ ref ,e / h

D

F

C

E

1+

E E

N dop

@

B

T αe / h 300 K

9 A F F

8

7

D

C

E

E

F

H

E

G

µ

LF e/h

= µ dop ,e / h

T 300 K

+

H

G

H

G

δ dop ,e / h

D

F

E

F

E

µ 0,e / h

T 300 K

− µ dop ,e / h

T 300 K

D

C

D

C

C

02

µ

LF e/h

= µ 0,e / h

(

T 300 K

(2.46)

δ 0,e / h

δ dop ,e / h δα ,e / h

(2.47)

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

density Nref, e/h with its temperature dependence described by the exponent δref, e/h can be specified via arora_elnref / arora_hlnref and arora_elnrefexp / arora_hlnrefexp.

**High Field Mobility
**

The high field mobility accounts for velocity saturation effects of the carriers. Model selection is facilitated via the global parameters el_highfield_mobility and hl_highfield_mobility controlling the behavior for electrons and holes, respectively. For low field, these effects can be neglected leading to:

**µ eHF ( E , µ eLFh ) = µ eLFh /h / /
**

6 6

(2.48)

for settings el_highfield_mobility = 0 / hl_highfield_mobility = 0. A common model for the highfield behavior of the electron and hole mobility is given by:

This model can be selected by setting el_highfield_mobility = 1 / hl_highfield_mobility = 1. The saturation velocity vsat,e/h for electrons and holes is modeled using:

vsat ,e / h (T ) =

vsat ,e / h (300 K ) a T (1 − asat ) + sat 300 K

The saturation velocity at 300K can be adjusted via the material parameters hfmob_elvsat and hfmob_hlvsat, respectively. The temperature dependence coefficient asat can be adjusted via the parameters hfmob_elvsattemp and hfmob_hlvsattemp. The exponent βe/h in Equation (2.49) is accessible via parameters hfmob_elexp and hfmob_hlexp. In compound semiconductors, the electron mobility may exhibit a local maximum at high electric fields. If this regime is of interest, the following model may be selected for the respective carriers by setting el_highfield_mobility = 2 / hl_highfield_mobility = 2:

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

#

EHF ,e / h

"

!

6

1+

!

E

µ

HF e/h

(E, µ

LF e/h

)=

3 EHF ,e / h 4

6

µ eLFh + /

vsat ,e / h E

(2.51)

T

vsat ,e / h

S

R

Q

βe / h 1 +

R

LF e/h

E

U

µ

Q

P

I

µ eHF ( E , µ eLFh ) = /h /

U

µeLFh /

βe / h

(2.49)

(2.50)

Chapter 2: Physical Models • 35

The field strength EHF,e/h can be adjusted via the material parameters hfmob_elfield0 and hfmob_hlfield0 for electrons and holes.

Material Interfaces

While the electric potential is continuous at material interfaces, leading to a Dirichlet boundary condition, different physical effects have to be considered for the carrier transport. Due to band discontinuities ∆EC / V electrons and holes might encounter an energetical barrier. Carriers with kinetic energy exceeding the barrier height are described via thermionic emission. With A and B indicating wide and narrow gap materials, the current is given by:

W P a R T I Q S P T I Q S V X `

where m*e/h is the carrier mass in the higher bandedge material. For carriers with insufficient energy to cross the interface may underly quantum mechanical tunneling. A simple approach accounts for tunneling by reducing the barrier height as a function of the electric field to reflect increased tunneling probability for increasing electric field strength:

**∆E 'C /V = ∆EC /V − qλtunnel max(0, Ensurf )
**

6 6

the projection of the electric field onto the surface normal at the interface. The integer parameter eff_tunnel_priority is used to govern the precedence of the regions in determining which parameters are used for evaluating the model. The use of the tunneling model can be selected by setting run_barrier_lowering = 1 in the global symbol table.

**2.E.3. Lattice Heat Flow Equation
**

Due to carrier-phonon scattering part of the electronic energy may be transferred to the crystal lattice leading to an increase of the lattice temperature. In LaserMOD a lattice heat flow equation can be solved to describe self-heating effects:

3 ∂T CL + k B (ne + nh ) = ∇ κ L ∇T − S e − S h + H 2 ∂t

i i f d h c

(

)

(2.54)

Here, CL = cL ρ is the heat capacity of the lattice, which is the product of specific heat and material density as given by the material parameters regmat_specific_heat and regmat_material_density. If activated by selecting the check box in the laser simulation dialog, the heat flow equation determining the temperature profile within the device is solved selfconsistently with the carrier transport.

36 • Chapter 2: Physical Models

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

6

6

Here, λtunnel is the effective tunneling length, which is adjustible via the material parameter eff_tunnel_length,

Y

R

b

J e / h , A−> B =

2 * − EC / V , A − EC /V , B − ∆EC /V F F k B me / h − exp e / h , B exp e / h , A 2 3 2π k BT k BT

(2.52)

(2.53)

Ensurf is

e g

Thermal Conductivity

The heat conductivity of the lattice carries a temperature dependence,

where the thermal conductivity at 300K and the exponent δκ L can be adjusted via the material parameters regmat_thermconduct and regmat_thermconduct_exp, respectively.

Energy Flux

The electron and hole energy fluxes are given by:

**Se / h = Pe / hTJ e / h − κ e / h∇T
**

The thermal conductivities of the electon and hole gas are determined by:

6 p 6

κ e / h = ne / h k BT µ e / h Pe / h

Heat Sources

H in Equation (2.54) is the sum of different heat source contributions,

**H = H Joule + H recombination + H transient
**

Heat generation is due to Joule heat,

recombination heat,

H recombination = ( Fe − Fh ) R dark

and an additional heat production rate originating from the transient modulation of the carrier concentration:

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

6

6

H Joule = −

1 J e ∇Fe + J h∇Fh q

(

! #

T κ L (T ) = κ L (300 K ) 300 K

"

δκ L

, (2.55)

(2.56)

(2.57)

(2.58)

)

(2.59)

(2.60)

Chapter 2: Physical Models • 37

The sum of Peltier and Thomson heat,

**H Peltier+Thomson = − J eT ∇Pe − J hT ∇Ph
**

is included in the convective part of the energy fluxes in Equation (2.56)

6 6

**Thermal Boundary Conditions
**

Two different boundary conditions can be associated with the heat flow equation at the electrodes. For elec_thermboundary = none in the physical data symbol table of the electrode region, the contact is treated as a reflective boundary. For elec_thermboundary = dirichlet, a Dirichlet boundary condition is imposed for the lattice temperature. The temperature at the contact is determined by the electrode physical symbol table parameter elec_temperature.

For elec_thermboundary = cauchy in the physical symbal table of the electrode, a Cauchy type boundary condition is imposed at the contact:

κ L n∇ T =

q

Gthermal (T − Tcontact ) A

Here, n is the surface normal at the contact, A is the contact surface area, Gthermal is the heat conductance associated with the electrode and Tcontac, as specified by elec_temperature in the physical data table of the electrode, is the temperature of the heat sink. Thermal properties of regions, which are not included in the simulation domain, can be lumped into the thermal conductivity parameter, which can be specified via elec_thermconduct in the physical data symbol table of the corresponding electrode region.

r

References

[1] Grupen & Hess, IEEE JQE, vol. 34, no. 1, Jan. 1998, pp.120-40, including corrections in IEEE JQE, vol. 34, no. 21, Feb. 1998, p. 384. [2] B. Grote et al. “Quantum-Well Laser Diodes: Temperature and Many-Body Effects”. In: Advanced Simulation and Analysis of Optoelectronic Devices, ed. J. Piprek (2004). [3] B. Grote et al. “Integration of microscopic gain modeling into a commercial laser simulation environment”. In: Physics and Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices XI Proc. SPIE, vol. 4986, ed by M. Osinski, H. Amano, P. Blood, pp. 413-422 (2003) [4] J. Piprek: Semiconductor Optoelectronic Devices (Academic Press 2003).

38 • Chapter 2: Physical Models

f h

e g

H transient = −T

d

**∂Fe ∂ne ∂Fh ∂nh + ∂T ∂t ∂T ∂t
**

c

(2.61)

(2.62)

(2.63)

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

[5] R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, and S. Helfert, "Numerical Techniques for Modeling Guided-Wave Photonic Devices," J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol. 6, p.150 (2000). And references therein. [6] Paul von Allman, Phys. Rev. B, vol. 46, no. 23, Dec. 1992-I, pp.15377-81, [7] Paul von Allman, Phys. Rev. B, vol. 46, no. 23, Dec. 1992-I, pp.15382-86. [8] U. Rossler, "Nonparabolicity and Warping in the Conduction Band of GaAs", Solid State Communications, Vol.49, No.10, pp.943-947 (1984). [9] J. Hader, et al., IEEE Photon Technol. Lett., Vol.14, No.6, p.762 (2002). [10] J. Hader, et al., Sol. Stat. Electron., 47 (3), p.513 (2003). [11] J. Hader, et al., IEEE J. Quantum Electron., Vol.35, No. 12, p.1878 (1999). [12] W. Haensch, T. Vogelsang, R. Kirchner, and M. Orlowski, “Carrier transport near the Si/SiO2 interface of a MOSFET”, Solid-State Electron., vol. 32, p.839, (1989). [13] N.D. Arora, J.R. Hauser, and D.J. Roulston, "Electron and hole mobilities in silicon as a function of concentration and temperature", IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 29, p.292 (1982). [14] W.W. Chow, S.W.Koch, "Semiconductor-Laser fundamentals, Physics of the Gain Materials", Springer, Berlin 1999. [15] R. Soref, B. Bennett, “Electrooptical Effects in Silicon”, IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronic 23, 123 (1987).

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Chapter 2: Physical Models • 39

Chapter 3: CAD Interface

This chapter describes the features of LaserMOD CAD window in detail.

**3.A. The CAD Layout Window
**

In this section, we describe the features of the layout window in which all CAD drawing, editing, launching of simulations, and generating of plots is performed. Recall that after starting up the main program by double clicking on the LaserMOD icon (or selecting LaserMOD from the START menu) the main program window appears as in Fig. 3.1 (the white area will be dark grey until a file is opened). The key components of this window are the client drawing area, the menubar, the top and left toolbars, and the status line. These components are typical of all programs employing a graphical user interface, and their specifics are described in the next sections along with references to additional descriptions in the documentation. Note that each layout created from this interface contains all the necessary information for specifying a laser structure, running a simulation, and extracting plots. No direct editing of files is required.

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Chapter 3: CAD Interface • 41

Figure 3-3: The Main Program Window showing the menubar (top), toolbars (top and left), and status lines (bottom).

The main CAD window is a laser cross-section editor that allows the placement of rectangular elements, though the interior of each rectangle can be profiled in several ways. There are eight types of elements: bulk semiconductor, bulk insulator (oxide), bulk active, taper between 2 bulk materials, (multiple) quantum well/barrier active, (bulk) DBR stack, electrode (electrical/thermal boundary condition), and an optical grating (treated as bulk with respect to its electrothermal properties). Elements are placed by opening a file, selecting the appropriate element type button (draw mode), and then using the mouse to frame an area of the window that the element will fill. Note that the electrode element has a default height of 0.1 µm when it is first placed, and that the QW element thickness will adjust automatically once the well, barrier, and SCH thicknesses are chosen. The DBR element will likewise update its own size based on the layer thicknesses and number of periods chosen. The optical grating will show 2 periods by default. The quantum well element is comprised of separate material systems for the barriers/SCH and well(s). The DBR region is composed of two layers, one each for the "high" and "low" sections of the grating period, as is the optical grating element. Bulk semiconductor, insulator, and active elements each consist of a single material. Specific material parameters and local grid properties are separately adjustable for each element, by right mouse clicking on that element. Global parameters are also available, as is a complete set of default values. In the client drawing area, the user defines the cross-section of the laser. In the case of FP edge emitters, this crosssection is the (X-Y) plane perpendicular to the lasing axis, and for VCSELs, it is the (R-Y) plane that forms the cylindrical diameter of the device (note that the R variable is still identified as X in the status bar). Finally, for DFBs and other longitudinal structures the X direction is the lasing direction and the lateral (ridge width for example) direction of the device is in/out of the screen.

42 • Chapter 3: CAD Interface

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All cross-sections are treated as two dimensional, and can be simulated in their entirety. However, if the structure has a plane of symmetric along its length, this plane should be located about X=0. The simulator can then apply the appropriate boundary conditions to represent the entire structure, while only simulating the right half of the domain, hence reducing simulation time. The setting for this is in the Global Parameters Dialog. Furthermore, the user can choose to simulate a one dimensional version of the structure, which will run faster still, of width determined by the narrowest element straddling X=0. For VCSELs, though the entire diametric cross-section is drawn, only the right half will be simulated (positive R), since VCSELs are assumed to have cylindrical symmetry and are therefore treated as bodies of revolution about X=0. Within this approximation, the simulation results will actually be three dimensional. In addition to the client drawing area, the CAD window is composed of a menubar, two toolbars, and a status bar. The options that they contain are described in the following sub-sections.

3.A.1. The Menubar

The menubar allows the user to access the bulk of the CAD options. Note that some of these options can be accessed via the toolbars as well, and will be described in the next sections. Also, some options have keyboard shortcuts which are shown in parenthesis. The menubar contains the following options:

Under File:

New Open Import Save Save As Close Close All Print Printer Setup Exit

This option creates a new layout. This option opens an existing layout. This option opens an existing layer file. (See Appendix B) This option saves the current layout. This option saves all open layout. This option closes the current layout This option closes all open layouts. This option prints the current layout. This option sets printer related parameters. This option exits from the CAD interface.

Under Edit:

Undo Cut Copy Paste Delete (Ctrl-Z) (Ctrl-X) (Ctrl-C) (Ctrl-V) (Delete)

This option reverses the last change made to the layout . This option moves any selected regions from the layout to the clipboard. This option copies any selected regions from the layout to the clipboard. This option pastes the contents of the clipboard into the current layout. This option deletes selected regions form the layout. This option creates duplicates of any selected regions in the current layout. This option selects all regions in the current layout. This option allows the user to edit the Global Symbol Table, where new variables may be defined and edited. This option allows the user to edit the Bias Table, where electrode current and voltage ranges are determined for the simulation. This option allows the user to edit any of the systems in the material library.

Duplicate Select All Edit Symbols Edit Bias Table Edit Material File

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Under View:

Full In Out Last Redraw Aspect Ratio = 1:1 Aspect Ratio = any

This option sets the viewing domain of the CAD so that the entire structure is visible. This option zooms the CAD interface in by 20%. This option zooms the CAD interface out by 20%. This option sets the viewing domain to the last viewing domain. This option redraws all the regions in the CAD window & recalculates the layout grid. This option enforces a 1:1 (X:Y) aspect ratio for the layout. This option allows the aspect ratio for the layout to float with regional zooming .

Under Options:

Global Settings

This option allows the user to edit the global layout settings.

Under Run:

Tile Regions Generate Mesh Generate Profile Mode Calculation Gain Calculation Simulate Laser Scan Variable

This option tiles the regions, according to their references, to fill the domain . This option generates a Nonuniform Delauney Mesh for the current layout. This option allows the user to generate parameter profiles for the current layout.. This menu allows the user to compute the modes and optical spectrm of the current layout. This option allows the user to compute the gain spectrum, of the quantum wells, for different temperatures and densities. This option allows the user to perform a complete laser simulation, and generate the LIV characteristics and transient response of the current layout. This option allows the user to perform multiple simulation (gain, mode, laser, plot) while varying some parameter.

Under Graph:

View Close All Launch Data Browser Launch Sim Window Generate Plot

This option opens WinPLOT, RSoft’s plotting program. This option closes all open WinPLOTs. This option opens the RSdataBrowser for convenient viewing of all plots. This option opens a plot using the Simulation Window which provides additional plot information such as FWHM and confinement factor. This option allows the user to generate a variety of standard and custom plots from the resulting simulation data.

Under Utility

Parasitics

This utility allows the user to account for chip and packaging parasitics and their affects on the frequency response of the current layout.

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Under Window:

Tile Cascade Arrange Icons Close Close All

This option tiles all open layouts in the CAD window. This option cascades all open layouts in the CAD window. This option arranges multiple design windows when minimzed within the CAD window. This option closes the current layout. This option closes all open layouts.

Under Help

Online Help About LaserMOD

This option opens the online manual. This option opens the Help About dialog box, which contains current version, copyright, and hardlock key information.

**3.A.2. The Top Toolbar
**

The top toolbar contains the following icons: New Circuit Open Circuit Save Circuit Undo Last Change Cut Selection Copy Selection Paste Clipboard Contents Duplicate Selection

This option creates a new layout (same as File Menu option). This option opens an existing layout (same as File Menu option). This option saves the current layout (same as File Menu option). This option reverses the last change made the to layout (same as Edit Menu option). This option cuts the selected region(s) from the layout (same as Edit Menu option). This option copies the selected region(s) from the layout (same as Edit Menu option). This option pastes the contents of the clipboard into the current layout (same as Edit Menu option).. This option copies and then pastes a copy of the selected region(s) into the current layout (same as Edit Menu option). This option sets the viewing domain of the CAD so that the entire structure is visible. (same as View Menu option). This option redraws the layout in the CAD window (same as View Menu option). This option allows the user to select a plot file to open in WinPLOT (same as Graph Menu option). This option opens the RSdataBrowser for convenient viewing of all plots. (same as Graph Menu option). This option opens online help version of the CAD manual (same as Help Menu option).

View Full

Redraw Circuit View Launch Data Browser Online Help

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**3.A.3. The Side Toolbar
**

The side toolbar contains the following icons: Select Mode Zoom Mode

This option allows the user to select regions in the CAD window using the mouse. This option allows the user to zoom in/out in the CAD window. To zoom in, simply click the left mouse button. To zoom out, either right click in the CAD window, or left click and press the Shift key.(same as View Menu options) Setting this option, when adding a region, will cause that region to be a bulk semiconductor. Setting this option, when adding a region, will cause that region to be a bulk insulator. Setting this option, when adding a region, will cause that region to be a bulk active region. Setting this option, when adding a region, will cause that region to have a taper comprised of two bulk materials. Setting this option, when adding a region, will cause that region to be a (multiple) quantum well. Setting this option, when adding a region, will cause that region to be a DBR stack. Setting this option, when adding a region, will cause that region to be an electrode. Setting this option, when adding a region, will cause that region to be an index grating for optical and bulk for electro-thermal properties. This option allows the user to edit the Global Settings (same as Options Menu option). This option opens the Symbol Table where the user to create new variables and modify existing variables. (same as Edit Menu option). This option allows the user to edit the Bias Table, where electrode current and voltage ranges are determined for the simulation (same as Edit Menu option). This option allows the user to edit any of the systems in the material library (same as Edit Menu option). This option tiles the regions, according to their references, to fill the domain library (same as Run Menu option). This option generates a Nonuniform Delauney Mesh for the current layout (same as Run Menu option). This option allows the user to generate parameter profiles for the current layout. (same as Run Menu option). This menu allows the user to compute the modes and optical spectrm of the current layout (same as Run Menu option) This option allows the user to compute the gain spectrum, of the quantum wells, for different temperatures and densities (same as Run Menu option).

Bulk Semiconductor Bulk Insulator Bulk Active Bulk Taper Quantum Well DBR Stack Electrode Optical Grating Edit Global Settings Edit Symbol Table Edit Bias Table

Edit Material File Tile Regions Generate Mesh Generate Profile Calculate Mode Calculate Gain

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Simulate Laser

This option allows the user to perform a complete laser simulation, and generate the LIV characteristics and transient response of the current layout (same as Run Menu option).

Perform Parameter This option allows the user to perform a parameter scan over a variable to Scan see how the simulation results change as a function of that variable. (currently inactive). Generate Plot This option allows the user to generate a variety of standard and custom plots from the resulting simulation data. (same as Graph Menu option).

**3.A.4. The Status Bar
**

The status bar is located on the bottom of the CAD window, and provides information about the current mode of the CAD interface, as well as the coordinates of the mouse in the CAD window.

Figure 3-4: The Status Bar can be found in the bottom portion of the CAD window.

3.B. Cursor Modes

The cursor modes are determined by the first 3 groupings of buttons on the Side Toolbar.

3.B.1. Selection Mode

Selection mode is active when the Select Mode button is depressed.

Selecting

To select one or more elements, simply move the cursor over the element and click on the left mouse button. Additional elements can be added to (or removed from) the selection by holding down the Shift key while left mouse clicking over the new element. When the Shift key is held down, clicking on a component toggles its selection state without affecting other components, otherwise a new selection is initiated as in the first example. Furthermore, once one element is selected, others can be selected in sequence by using the up/down arrow keys. Selecting one or more elements can also be done positioning the arrow cursor at the upper left corner of an imaginary rectangle that completely surrounds the desired components, and press but do not release the left mouse button. Now move the mouse to the lower right corner, until the blue rectangle that is being rubberbanded encompasses the desired set of components, and release the mouse button to complete the selection.

Deselecting

Selected elements can be deselected by moving the cursor to an unoccupied area of the layout window and clicking on the left mouse button.

Moving

Once one or more elements has been selected, they can be operated on in several ways. To move the selection, place the cursor over any one of the elements in the selection, and press but do not release the left mouse button. The selection can now be dragged to the desired location by moving the mouse while holding down the left mouse button as usual

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(note that while moving the selection the handles disappear). To complete the move, simply release the mouse button; the selected elements are redrawn in their new position, and any attached elements are relocated as well.

Resizing

To resize or scale the selection along a particular direction, simply grab the corresponding handle (highlighted block dot on edge of selected item) in any one of the selected elements and move it to the desired position. The selection is then redrawn to reflect the new size.

Canceling

During the motion or rubberbanding phase of any of the above mouse procedures, clicking on the right mouse button or pressing ESC before releasing the left mouse button will cancel the operation in progress (as in the case of the drawing procedures discussed in the previous section).

3.B.2. Zoom Mode

Zoom mode is active when the Zoom Mode button of the Side Toolbar is depressed. A CAD feature that is frequently useful when editing is the ability to zoom in or out around a particular region of the circuit using either the mouse or various menu items. To access the mouse-based zooming features, first place the layout window in Zoom Mode by clicking on the magnifying-glass icon in the toolbar. The icon remains depressed and the status line indicates the mode as usual. Furthermore, the mouse cursor changes to a magnifying-glass shape. When in Zoom Mode, there are several mouse techniques for zooming in or out around a particular area of the layout window. The simplest is to move the cursor to the center of the region about which you want to focus, and click on the left mouse button to zoom in or magnify by 20%. The cross-section will be redrawn enlarged, with the selected position at the center of the window. Repetition of this procedure will naturally yield greater magnification. In order to zoom out or demagnify by 20%, simply hold down the Shift key while pressing the left mouse button. Alternatively, clicking on the right mouse button will achieve the same effect more easily. Another zooming procedure allows you to fill the layout window with a particular portion of the cross-section. To do this, move the cursor to the upper left corner of the rectangular area you want to zoom in on, and press but to not release the left mouse button. Now move the cursor down and to the right until the desired region is bounded by the blue rectangle that is rubberbanded, and release the mouse button to complete the zoom operation. Similarly, zooming out so that the current window is redrawn inside the selecting blue rectangle is accomplished by holding down the Shift key while dragging the selection box with the left mouse button, or by using the right mouse button to do the selecting. In all of the above rubberbanding procedures, the zoom operation can be canceled by clicking on the opposite mouse button or pressing ESC.

3.B.3. Drawing Mode

Drawing mode is active when the Insert Rectangle or Insert Polygon buttons of the side toolbar are depressed. In this mode the cursor will appear as a cross in the client window. Elements can be drawn in this mode only. The type of element placed will depend on which of the Bulk, MQW, Oxide, DBR, or Electrode buttons (Side Toolbar) is depressed. IMPORTANT NOTES ON DRAWING: All regions should be tiled, meaning that the edges of adjacent regions should touch without overlapping, and fill all the space in the simulation domain. Whenever the outer perimeter of the cross-section is not rectangular, additional regions should be added (ex. insulating regions…) to achieve this effect.

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**3.C. Common Element Properties
**

Right mouse clicking on an element, in either of the draw or select modes (but not Zoom mode), will bring up the appropriate element properties dialog box (for example, see Fig. 3.3). Or, if the element is highlighted, clicking the spacebar will invoke the properties dialog. All element properties dialogs have three main sections, the geometrical settings, mesh specification, and material information. The material information is organized into subgroups, which are the specification of material composition itself and other profiles, such as doping, under Set Material and the setting of material and model parameters in a local symbol table accessible via the button Phys. Data. This section is customized for different region types. QW and DBR regions, for example, provide for specification of parameters for two materials. The electrode region is a special case since it is used to define boundary conditions rather than a metallic material. Though Bulk and Oxide Regions share the same Properties Dialog (Fig. 3.3), the major difference between these region types is the fact that no continuity equations will be solved in the oxide since it is assumed to be and insulator. The region type is governed by the symbol reg_regtype="generic", "oxide", “active” "qw", or "sch" in the Physical Data Symbol Table of the element. The regions are enumerated in the order of creation. This number is used for identification of the element in creating references, etc. Several buttons exist along the bottom of the dialog, for convenient access to the Global Symbol Table (Symbols), material library files (Mtrl. Files), and context sensitive help for material parameters (Mtrl. Help) and the dialog itself (Dlg. Help).

Figure 3-5: Properties Dialog for Bulk Types.

3.C.1 Geometry Information

Display Color, Element Height, and Element Width are self-explanatory (units are in microns). The X Ref is the middle of the element and the Y Ref is the lower edge of the element. So the sides of the element are at X+Width/2, X-

Width/2, Y, and Y+Height. The reference position can also be defined by its offset from the reference position of another element. Element # = 0 signifies an absolute position (no offset in that direction). When an auto tile checkbox is selected, any non zero value in the reference element # box will cause the current region to be tiled in x or y, so that it is contiguous with the region it has referenced in that direction. Offsets will be calculated automatically when the tile regions utility is run. Whether a region is auto tiled to the left, right, top, or bottom depends on its initial position

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relative to the referenced region. Electrodes are tiled in a similar fashion, but will also depend on whether the initial position was inside or outside of the referenced region, since (only) electrodes are allowed to overlap. The Properties Dialog also contains Help buttons that brings up this section and the material help sections of the OnLine manual directly.

IMPORTANT NOTES ON TILING: Regions will be initially out of place, prior to tiling, if a reference is used without adjusting the offset.

**3.C.2 Non Uniform Mesh
**

The local grid parameters, Min. Spacing-Left, Min. Spacing-Right, Min. Spacing-Top, and Min. Spacing-Bottom, govern the minimum grid spacing at the left, right, top, and bottom edges of the region, respectively. They can be set individually and default values are provided automatically via the Use Default checkboxes. Additionally, the Max. Spacing-X and Max. Spacing-Y parameters are used to control the largest grid spacing, in that direction, allowed in the region. Furthermore, if a Uniform checkbox is selected, the appropriate Max. Spacing parameter value is used to create a uniform grid along that direction. This behavior is identical in all non-electrode regions (which are not gridded), with the one exception of the Y spacing in the MQW region. Quantum wells and barriers are automatically gridded uniformly, so only one spacing parameter is needed for the wells and one for the barriers. Conceptually, the nonuniform grid begins at the edges of a region with the prescribed minimum spacings, and proceeds inward toward the center, continuously doubling its spacing, until the maximum spacing has been reached (see Fig. 3.4). It can be seen that this will typically lead to an overly constrained problem. During mesh generation, there are three conditions that should be fulfilled in the ideal case: A: The mesh has the specified spacing at the interface B: The mesh spacing does not increase more than by a factor of two between neighboring segments C: The mesh spacing increases to but does not exceed the specified maximum spacing It is not always possible to satisfy all of these constrains. In order to provide for robust meshing performance for the general case, the user can select between two sets of constrains to be enforced, while the third will be ignored. Via the global symbol glob_grid_method you can select between: glob_grid_method = 0 : A and B are enforced glob_grid_method = 1 : A and C are enforced Usually, the default setting of glob_grid_method = 0 produces good meshes concerning the transport part of the simulation. However, sometimes the mode calculation might require to enforce a lower maximum spacing to resolve the profile.

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Figure 3-6: Effect of grid parameters on the grid of a single region.

IMPORTANT NOTES ON GRIDDING: When the edges of multiple regions (not necessarily contiguous) fall along the same line, the smallest of the mimimum spacings from these regions, is used to establish the grid spacing near that line. This leads to a behavior in which adjustment of the local grid parameters, of a particular region, may not actually affect the final grid. In such cases, it is convenient to define global variables in the Symbol Table, and use these as the local grid settings, rather than having to change the local grid parameters for many regions, every time a new grid spacing is desired. A good way of specifying the mesh is to select designated regions for controlling the mesh in x and/or y direction, while setting the spacing to a large default in all others.

Mesh Optimizer

An additional feature of the grid generator is its ability to reduce the density of gridpoints in regions where they are not needed. For example, a vertical heterojunction may be formed in a ridge structure, and an unoptimized mesh would place many gridline along this junction that would extend into the substrate to the edge of the simulation domain. The optimized grid would terminate these gridlines with triangles, so that the gridline density in the substrate, where physical parameters do not vary that much, would be reduced (See Fig. 3.5). This feature is enabled in the Global Parameters dialog, by setting the # of Optimizations to a nonzero integer value.

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Figure 3-7: Optimized Grid, where the # of Optimizations has been set to 3.

3.C.3 Material Information

The material specification is facilitated by a designated dialog, which is invoked by clicking the Set Material button in the Element Properties Dialog. According to the selected material name, default material parameters are loaded from the database. These defaults can be overridden locally in the Symbol Table accessible by clicking the Phys. Data Button.

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Material Data Dialog

Figure 3-8: Material data dialog box

All material parameters are stored in library files, which are selected via the Material System pulldown list in Material Data Dialog. A set of files for standard material systems are provided with the software, but these may be edited and saved as new files. Provided they are saved in the \rsoft\products\lasermod\materials subdirectory, which is created at installation. These new files will then appear automatically in the pull-down list, and be available for use. The following additional information is also required by the program, and is selected from the Material Data Dialog. • • • • •

Alloy X composition is the stoichiometric parameter X in ternary/quarternay compounds. Alloy Y composition is the stochiometric parameter Y in the quarternay compounds. Donors are specified here Acceptors are specified here Trap dens. is currently inactive.

In addition to constant values for the respective regions, profiles can be specified for doping and X/Y-mole fraction. The profile specification is facilitated via a designated dialog, which is invoked by selecting the corresponding profile button.

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Profile Dialog

Figure 3-9: Profile specification dialog box

The profile definition dialog facilitates the specification of spatially varying profiles on top of the constant background as specified in the material data dialog. Multiple profiles can be defined and scrolled through by setting an integer for Number or by increasing/decreasing using the arrow buttons. The profile type can be selected via a pull-down menu. Predefined types can be selected and their parameters can be set using amplitude and scale factor fields. Alternatively, a custom expression can be entered. The specified profile can be added or existing profiles removed from the list using the designated buttons. The resulting profile can be written as:

P( x, y ) = P0 + F1 ( x, y ) ⊕ F1 ( x, y ) ⊕ ........ ⊕ FN ( x, y )

(3.64)

Here, P0 is the constant offset, Fi are added profiles. The operator, ⊕ , is selected in the pull-down menu for merging of the profiles. The following predefined profiles are available and can be applied to the x or y-direction: • • • • • • Constant: Linear:

F ( x) = a F ( x) = 1 if x is within xo of center, else F ( x) = a ( sx)

F ( x) = a ( sx)

Trapezoid: Parabolic: Gaussian:

F ( x) = a ∗ exp(− ( sx) 2 )

F ( x) = a ∗ erf ( sx)

F ( x) = a(1 − ( sx) 2 )

Error function:

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• • •

Complementary error function:

F ( x) = a(1 − erf ( sx) ) F ( x) = a(δ ( x + 1) + δ ( x − 1) )

Delta function on interface (Edge Pulse):

Custom expression as entered in the designated box using normalized coordinates Amplitude a and scaling factor s can be specified in the respective fields of the profile dialog box. x and y are normalized coordinates, which are defined with respect to the region center. From the actual coordinate, x', and the region boundaries, x'max & x'min , the normalized coordinate is derived as:

x=2

′ ′ (xmax − xmin )

(x′ − x′min )

−1

Where "a" represents the profile amplitude (in units of the background) and "s" represents the scale factor. "x0" represents the normalized local origin within the region, so that x0=0 is in the center and x0=+/-1 is at the max/min edge, respectively. Corresponding expressions are used for the y-direction.

IMPORTANT NOTES ON PROFILES: Profiles can be overidden, just as any other material parameter, by specifying that parameter in the Physical Data Table. If profiles fail to appear when expected, this will most likely be the cause.

Physical Data

Figure 3-10: Physical data symbol table.

All region parameters, are accessible via the Phys. Data buttons in the Material Information section of the Element Properties dialogs. Each brings up the local Symbol Table for the region (see Fig. 3.8). Parameters defined in these local tables are only recognized by the table in which they are defined. Parameters defined in the global Symbol Table (accessed from tool bar or pull-down menus) are available to all local tables. Only non-default values are visible in the table. Non-default values in these tables will override their corresponding values in the material library. This allows the user to change any material parameter, region by region, without having to create any additional material library files. All regions have a single Physical Data table, except for the quantum well region, which has two; one for all the wells

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and a second one for all the barriers. Similarly, the DBR regions have two Physical Data Tables, since two materials are needed to specify a grating period. In Fig. 3.8, such a physical data table is shown. The model parameter for the electron Shockley-Read-Hall recombination lifetime (regmat_SRH_taun) has been set to a global symbol, "Global_SRH". All predefined parameters (material parameters) are available from a pulldown list via the Predef Symbol button.

Taper Definition

Figure 3-11: Taper definition dialog

If the bulk region has a Taper, then the Taper Definition Dialog will be enabled (Fig. 3.9). This provides an additional Set Material and Physical Data Table, essentially for the material comprising the exterior of the taper, while the primary material comprises the interior of the Taper. The entire taper fills the region and is constructed from smaller rectangular bulk regions, each of which will be simulated on the self-consistent electro-thermal and optical mesh. So, a taper will substantially increase the number of nodes in the simulation, but may be used to easily render cross-sectional shapes that would otherwise be difficult to construct by manually placing rectangles. The following tapers are available and can be applied to just the left side, right side, or both sides: • • • • • Linear: Power: Ellipse: Lens:

F ( x) = x

F ( x) = x a F ( x) = sqrt (R 2 − a(0.5 − φ ) 2 ) , F ( x) = sqrt (1 − a(0.5 − φ ) 2 )

where R=radius

Custom expression: F(x), is a function of the variable “x” where both x and F are between 0 & 1. The expression is entered in the designated box, which is enabled for this option.

C.3.4. Material Library

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Figure 3-12: Material file editor

The Material Files button brings up an Open File dialog that displays the list of available material files in the library. Selecting one, opens that file with the Material file editor, shown in Fig. 3.10. This is a Symbol Table containing all the material parameters used by the program. The files included with the software contain standard interpolation formula for ternary, AXB(1-X)C and quarternary AXB(1-X)CYD(1-Y) compositions. X and Y are updated automatically by the program so that the correct values for the specified alloy are used in the simulation.

**Material File Names
**

• • File suffix must be .mat. Placed in \rsoft\products\lasermod\materials subdirectory

3.D. Quantum Well Region

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Figure 3-13: Quantum Well Properties dialog box

The quantum well region allows for convenient input of a multiple quantum well stack. The corresponding properties dialog provides for entering additional information that has to be specified to facilitate generation of the desired geometry: • • • • Number of quantum wells Well Thickness Barrier Thickness SCH Thickness (first and last barrier in the region)

Since the quantum well region consists of well and barrier material, two sets of material specification dialogs and physical data symbol tables are provided for. Furthermore, there are a few additional quantum well region parameters currently accessible only through the Physical Data table, that are associated with the KP calculation. The quantum well parameter, “filkp”, defaults to “auto” and will automatically call the KP band calculation on the quantum well region each time the laser simulation is performed. To reduce computation time, the following files are saved in the workspace directory for the current problem: • • • ome.dat dos.dat kp.in

These files will not be recalculated unless the quantum well parameters have changed. This option should only be changed from “auto” if an appropriate set of the above files is provided by the user. The Quantum Well Properties Dialog also contain Help buttons that brings up this section and the material help sections of the OnLine manual directly.

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3.E. DBR Region

Figure 3-14: DBR properties dialog box

Similar to quantum well regions, two materials constitute a DBR region. Alternating layers of the two selected materials form highly reflective mirrors for a VCSEL cavity. Material settings and physical data symbol tables exist twofold and can be accessed by selecting the corresponding buttons. To specify the DBR the following information has to be provided: • • Number of periods of the DBR stack (a non-integer value causes an additional half period of layer 1 to be added to the stack). Thickness of layers 1 and 2, where layer 1 designates the material of the bottom layer of the stack, and layer 2 designates the top (unless a non-interger is specified for # of periods)

Two simulation modes are possible for DBR regions, governed by the checkbox DBR for Index Only: • Full Simulation The DBR region is treated like a stack of bulk regions and meshed accordingly. This mode simulates the full electronic and, if selected, thermal properties of the DBR in addition to the effect of the index profile on the optical modes. • Optical Only The DBR index profile is accounted for in the calculation of the optical properties. To drastically reduce the computational effort, the electrical (and thermal) part of the simulation is performed on an effective bulk region. By eliminating all inner interfaces of the DBR for the transport part, the number of mesh points can be reduced. These bulk material properties are determined from either the top or bottom layer material, as selected via the radial button (which is enabled when the Index DBR box is checked). The DBR Properties Dialog also contains Help buttons that brings up this section and the material help sections of the OnLine manual directly.

IMPORTANT NOTES ON DBR'S:

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The material properties of the effective region, when Optical Only DBR is used, will probably need to be adjusted carefully to obtain comparable results to those generated when the Full DBR simulation is employed.

3.F. Optical Grating Region

Figure 3-15: Grating properties dialog box

Similar to the DBR region, two materials constitute a Grating region. The grating is formed at the interface between these two materials and its shape is determined by selecting a profile from the Grating Profile pull-down list and setting the Period and Left Facet Phase. The number of periods and the right facet phase are then both determined by the width of the region. Certain profiles require an additional parameter, which is enabled as needed. For the Square, Trapezoid, and V-Groove profiles this extra parameter is the Duty Cycle, and for the Lens profile it is the Radius. Material settings and physical data symbol tables exist twofold and can be accessed by selecting the corresponding buttons. The grating is for the index profile only, i.e. just calculation of the optical properties. The electrical (and thermal) part of the simulation is performed on an effective bulk region. These bulk material properties are determined from either the top or bottom layer material, as selected via the radial button. The following profiles may be selected for the grating: • • • • Sin:

F ( x) = sin(φ )

u vt s

Square:

F ( x) =

1, φ < DutyCycle 0, φ > DutyCycle aφ , φ < 0.5 a(1 − φ ), φ > 0.5

s

Sawtooth: Triangle:

F (x) = φ

u vt

F ( x) =

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aφ , φ < 0.5 − DutyCycle

w wx w w w x w

•

Trapezoid:

F ( x) = 1 a(1 − φ ), φ > 0.5 + DutyCycle

y y

•

**1 a(1 − φ ), φ < 0.5 − DutyCycle V-Groove: F ( x ) = aφ , φ > 0.5 + DutyCycle 1
**

Ellipse: Lens:

• • •

( F ( x) = sqrt (R

F ( x) = sqrt 1 − a(0.5 − φ ) 2

2

)

− a(0.5 − φ ) 2

)

Custom expression: F(x), is a function of the variable “x” where both x and F are between 0 & 1. The expression is entered in the designated box, which is enabled for this option.

The Grating Properties Dialog also contains Help buttons that brings up this section and the material help sections of the OnLine manual directly.

3.G. Electrodes

Figure 3-16: Electrode properties dialog box

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The material information specific to electrodes is used for applying boundary conditions at the associated nodes. Note, that a node can belong to an electrode and to a bulk or other region. The following information characterizes the properties electrode: • • • • • • Electrode number - A unique integer starting from 0 and ascending in order used to identify the electrode Metal workfunction Electrode Type Contact Temperature Thermal (Effective) Conductance Thermal Boundary condition

The Electrode Properties Dialog also contains a Help button that brings up this section of the OnLine manual directly.

3.H. Global Parameters

The typical laser and simulation parameters are set in the Global Parameters Dialog (Fig. 3.15). This dialog appears automatically when a new file is created, or whenever the appropriate toolbar button or pulldown menu option is selected. All the following parameters may also be accessed via the Global Symbol Table.

Figure 3-17:

Global parameters dialog box.

Structure Options

• Simulate Half the domain in X (device symmetric about YZ plane at X=0)

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• • • •

Simulate Half the domain in Z (device symmetric about XY plane at Z=0) 1D simulation (assume broad area device with vertical structure taken at X=0) 2D simulation (full XY plane) Cavity type (Fabry-Perot, VCSEL, DFB, PD, Solar Cell, Modulator, and Electrical devices are currently available)

Grid Options

• • • # of Grid Optimization (0 for no optimizations) Show Structure allows plot data to be overlayed on top of the device structure 4 global spacing parameters are used whenever Use Defaults is selected for the local mesh properties.

**Cavity (dependent) Properties
**

• • • • • Cavity Length/Width (microns) Ambient temperature (Kelvin) Waveguide loss (per cm) Reflectivity of Low Reflectivity/Left Side Facet Reflectivity of High Reflectivity/Right Side Facet

Finally, the Global Parameters Dialog contains a Help button which brings up this section of the OnLine manual directly.

3.I. Symbol Table

As stated, the LaserMOD interface is fully parametric. Meaning that variables may be defined and assigned values, or expressions of other variables (see Appendix B. for built in expressions). While the dialog boxes give the User access to the built-in variables, custom variables may be defined via any of the Symbol Tables. The master table, in which variables are seen by all other tables, is called the Global Symbol Table (Fig. 3.16), and is invoked from the Symbol Table toolbar button, or the Edit/Edit Symbols pull-down menu. Variables defined in this table may also be used in most of the dialog boxes (edit controls), in place of fixed values.

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Figure 3-18:

Symbol Table dialog box.

3.J. Bias Table

The Bias Table is accessible from various places in the interface, the toolbar, pull-down menus, and buttons within other dialogs. When invoked the Dialog in Fig. 3.17 appears. Bias points can be added deleted and individual simulation point parameters can be adjusted via the Advanced Table (Fig. 3.18).

Figure 3-19:

Bias table dialog box.

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Actions

• • • • To add a point - click New Bias, adjust the parameters at the top of the dialog, and click Accept Bias. To clear an erroneous data before hitting Accept Bias, click Reject Bias and renter data. To delete a bias point, select the row with the cursor and click Delete Bias. All subsequent points in the table will be shifted and renumbered automatically. To insert a bias point, click New Bias, enter the desired data, and set the Bias # to the value of the point prior to where the new point is to be inserted, and click Accept Bias. All subsequent data will be shifted and renumbered automatically. This may also be accomplished by highlighting an existing point and hitting Duplicate. To edit a bias point, click on the row with the cursor and edit the data as desired. Click Accept Bias when finished. Bias points are activated by setting the leftmost column field to Run, or to " ", if the previous point is active. Bias points are deactivated by setting the leftmost column field to Halt, or to " ", if the previous point is deactivated. Deactivated points are not simulated.

• • •

Data

When a bias point is selected, its data appear in the controls at the top of the dialog. Likewise, the advanced table that will be shown when the Advanced button is clicked will be specific for that point. • • • • • • • • • Bias # identifies this point so that simulation results can be indexed and plots generated on a point by point basis. Elec # is the number of the electrode to which this bias is being applied. This number must match the electrode number set in the Element Properties dialog for that electrode. (see section 3.G.) Value is the applied bias in mA or V. Value of incident light, in the case of PD/Solar Cells, is in mW/cm2. Current/Voltage sets the type of bias The number of intermediate points (ramp points) for the bias point The maximum number of iterations for convergence Time Dep. selects between steady state and transient response. Typically several points together make up a usable transient response, Lo-Hi-Lo for example The edit boxes just below the Time Dep. are for the # of time steps and the size of the time step in ps, respectively [t = N * dt (ps)].

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Advanced

Figure 3-20:

Advanced Table.

The Advanced symbol table, which is associated with each individual bias point, contains additional data specifying simulation options and numerical settings. Furthermore, some global settings can be overridden for individual bias points.

Bias Ramp

Specification of a bias ramp facilitates the set up of a sequence of bias points in a convenient way. Furthermore, use of the bias ramp invokes a prediction algorithm improving convergence and speed. Convergence problems or diverging behavior is detected and handled by a strategy of step size reduction. In addition to the specification of parameters needed for a single bias point, the number of steps (to achieve the requested target voltage/current) or the (voltage/current) step size can be selected using the parameter n_steps or step_size, respectively, in the bias table advanced dialog.

Guidelines

• • • Each electrode present in the circuit must have a zero voltage value bias point listed at the beginning of the table. Activating all the points in the table is done by setting bias point 0 to RUN. Bias values need to be chosen judiciously to allow the simulation to converge, i.e. sufficiently small steps between points.

Finally, the Bias Table Dialog contains a Help button which brings up this section of the OnLine manual directly.

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3.K. Profile Generation

The Generate Profile dialog (Fig. 3.19) allows a parameter to displayed on the spatial grid that digitizes the structure. This useful to verify that the geometry and material parameters have been specified correctly, and should be performed after setting the grid and before simulation. Currently, index, doping, and mole-fraction profiles can be generated and visualized through this dialog. Note, that for visualization a uniform grid is used, which can be adjusted by specifying the number of points in x- and y-direction. There is also a checkbox for saving the index profile for later use by the Optical DBRs. This ensures that the Optical DBRs will have the same index profile as regular DBRs.

Figure 3-21:

Generate Profile dialog box.

All profile data is stored in a workspace subdirectory, which is prefixed by a User specified name. This run prefix will be referred to whenever the Plot Generator is called. The default prefix is "tmp". Finally, the Generate Profile Dialog contains a Help button, which brings up this section of the OnLine manual directly.

3.L. Mode Calculation

There are many parts to a laser simulation, the material gain of the wells, the optical waveguiding, the electronic transport, etc.. Any of these, if poorly designed, may cause the laser to fail. Due to the length of a typical laser simulation, it is useful to perform these design phases individually, before invoking a complete, self-consistent simulation. To this end, the optical problem and the material gain (see next section) problem may be run sepatately in LaserMOD, and it is suggested that these be performed and optimized prior to running the complete simulation.

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Figure 3-22:

Mode Calculation dialog box.

For Fabry-Perot lasers, currently there are three mode solvers available in LaserMOD. The first is a scalar Helmholtz equation direct matrix method based on Ritz subspace iteration, the second is a BPM (Beam Propagation Method) based mode solver that can calculate the scalar or vector modes of the waveguide crossection, and the third is the FEM (Finite Element Method) for 2D F-P lasers. The Ritz iteration method uses the non-uniform mesh as specified for the transport problem. While interpolation issues for the underlying index profile are avoided, additional constrains might be imposed on the non-uniform mesh in order to resolve the mode. The global parameter ritzit_nitvec determines the number of basis vectors used in the subspace iteration. By default, the parameter exceeds the requested number of lateral eigenmodes by 5. If the mode solve fails, this number should be increased. The BPM method operates on a uniform mesh, which can be adjusted independently by setting the number of grid points in the different directions in the appropriate boxes of the mode calculation dialog. Additionally, the BPM technique may require adjustment of the compute step, or the tolerance for the effective index Neff used to determine convergence. The index profile is automatically calculated if BPM is selected, and, it can be determined from this index plot, whether the

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grid resolution needs to be increased. The compute step determines the convergence, and when properly set, the resulting Neff should be insensitive to small changes in this parameter. If the mode solver still fails to converge, after exploring the compute step settings, then reducing the tolerance may allow the mode calculation to converge. For 1D VCSEL cavities and DFB cavities a Transfer Matrix method is used. Both methods operate on a uniform mesh, which can be adjusted in the dialog box specifying the number of grid points in x- and y-direction. For 2D VCSEL, the FEM method is used. In this case the 2nd order elements will be most accurate for predicting the resonace of the mode, but due to efficiency, the 1st order elements are selected by default. 2nd order elements should agree very well with the equivalent 1D VCSEL solved via TMM. Independent of the selected method, the mode solve is performed at the specified frequency. The default behavior is, to track the gain peak for FP and the fundamental cavity mode for VCSEL. If the user supplies a value in the designated box, this value will be kept constant throughout the simulation. All mode data is stored in a workspace subdirectory, which is prefixed by a User specified name. This run prefix will be refered to whenever the Plot Generator is called. The default prefix is "tmp". Finally, the Mode Calculation Dialog contains a Help button, which brings up this section of the OnLine manual directly.

3.M. Material Gain

Calculation of the material gain for the quantum well or bulk active region may be achieved through this dialog (Fig. 3.21), accessible from the toolbar or Run/Gain Calculation pull-down menu. Single or multiple density or temperature points may be tabulated in a single sweep. Select which of these parameters you wish to vary, its starting value, ending value, and number of points in the sweep. The peak value vs the sweep parameter, as well as the family of produced spectra, will be plotted automatically when the simulation completes. If the table gain model is activated, the gain calculation will simply extract the requested data from the gain database.

Figure 3-23:

Material Gain calculation dialog box.

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All material gain data is stored in a workspace subdirectory, which is prefixed by a User specified name. This run prefix will be referred to whenever the Plot Generator is called. The default prefix is "tmp". Finally, the Gain Calculation Dialog contains a Help button, which brings up this section of the OnLine manual directly. IMPORTANT NOTES ON MATERIAL GAIN: The Max. Density is used use for the actual laser simulation or when Recalculate KP is checked in the Simulation Parameters Dialog.

3.N. Laser Simulation

The Simulation Parameters dialog (Fig. 3.22) launches the full laser simulation. All the bias points defined in the bias table are simulated in sequence once this simulation has begun. Prior to hitting OK, the Bias Table may be accessed via the Bias Range button, and the desired bias points may be activated or deactivated (see section on Bias Table). Note that all the points must be simulated the first time, or, if significant changes have been made to the structure or material parameters, or if the grid has changed.

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Figure 3-24:

Simulation Parameters dialog box.

Physical Models

The physical process to be simulated may be selected from this dialog. Please see the Physical Models section for a description of the models. Currently, the following models are available to be selected from the laser simulation dialog: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Impact Ionization Breakdown model for reverse bias Zener Tunneling Breackdown model for reverse bias Self-Heating activates the lattice heat equation and thermal boundary conditions Shockley-Read-Hall Dark recombination Auger Dark recombination Carrier dependent index changes: index is updated and mode is recalculated at every bias Temperature dependence of the index for self-heating simulations, mode is recalculated at every bias. Carrier dependent losses: Activates the free-carrier absorption model, (selected from Free-Carrier pulldown menu) Bulk Spontaneous Emission: activates spontaneous recombination in bulk regions and from continuum states. Bulk Bandgap Renormalization: Activates bandgap shrinkage in bulk regions (always active in quantum wells) Incomplete Ionization Quantum Interface Effects: Activates Haensch model describing reduction of carrier densities in the vicinity of potential barriers. Interface Tunneling: Activates tunneling model for enhancement of current across potential barriers associated with material interfaces Interface (SRH) recombination From the mobility model pull-down menus, various temperature, doping, and field dependencies may be accounted for

Simulation Options

Several checkbox enabled option are available to allow the output of the modal gain at each bias, which incurs a small computational penalty, the automatic recalculation of the Mode, and the automatic recalculation of the K•P data. If unchecked, the currently saved data is used for the simulation. Additional options to control the simulation are: • • • • Recalculate the Pre-Process Material Gain (use if quantum well parameters have changed) Self Consistent Schroedinger solve: enforces self-consistency by resolving for wavefunctions and subband energies for every Newton iteration 3 Options for Mode recalculation; just cold cavity, every steady-state bias, every transient point # Thermal Equalibrium points allows the User to simulate the TEQ (0 bias) point in several steps, each with increasing doping level, until specified levels have been achieved. This may allow the TEQ point to converge for highly doped structures, when all other tricks have failed (currently inactive).

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All simulation data is stored in a workspace subdirectory, which is prefixed by a User specified name. This run prefix will be refered to whenever the Plot Generator is called. The default prefix is "tmp". Finally, the Simulation Parameters Dialog contains a Help button which brings up this section of the OnLine manual directly.

3.O. Plot Generation

When the Generate Plot button on the toolbar or the Graph/Generate Plot menu item is selected, the Generate Plot dialog (Fig. 3.23) will appear. Clicking OK here will generate any plot(s), selected by the check boxes, in a plot directory. Uniform Grid Information, Bias Information, and choice for energy axis do not apply to all the available plots (the <dependencies> are listed next to each option). The options which apply to a range of bias points such as the I-V or L-I curves, or the Transient response, will generally include the data from all bias points that have been simulated to that point. Data from the simulation is stored at every point, in the workspace directory, which stores the results of the most recent simulation. Plots can be generated at any time for any bias point that has been simulated.

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Figure 3-25: Plotting Options dialog box.

If the desired plot is not listed, custom plots can be generated as well. These fall into 3 categories, bias dependent data, spatial data, and energy data. The plot axes in each case are selected from pull-down lists. Display of each of the three custom plot types is enabled by a corresponding checkbox. Furthermore, the data can be modified by and expression in the Operation fields (the axis values are denoted by x or y) (see Fig. 3.24).

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Figure 3-26: Custom Plots dialog box.

Most spatial plots are displayed on a uniform grid, and the resolution and domain of this grid can be set by clicking the Set Grid button, which displays the Uniform Grid Dialog. If the Uniform Mesh checkbox is unchecked, then the RglPLOT utility will be called and data will be displayed on the nonuniform mesh.

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Figure 3-27: Uniform Grid settings dialog box.

In addition to the standard and custom plots, several reports are available and can be displayed by the default text editor when their checkbox is checked. Furthermore, several conveiniences are available for control of the plots. First, there is a quick access to the Bias Editor through the View Bias button, also an additional subtitle may be applied to all plots as a documentation mechanism, and lastly, several plots may be overlayed via the Add to Plot option, which allows the user to specify (or browse for) an existing plot, onto which the new data will be displayed. All simulation data is stored in a workspace subdirectory which is prefixed by a User specified name. To refer to the desired workspace, enter its run prefix in the Generate Plot dialog. Finally, the Generate Profile Dialog contains a Help button which brings up this section of the OnLine manual directly.

IMPORTANT NOTES ON PLOTTING: Currently, LI, IV, and certain other data are never deleted, so that the variation from run to run can be observed. To clear this data, simply check the clear run file option in the Simulation Parameters Dialog. Also, when the spatial domain of the structure changes between plots, clicking the Set Grid button and verifying that All regions are selected, will ensure that the entire domain is plotted.

3.P. Packaging Effects

The frequency response of a device can be affected greatly by the parasitics of the chip and package. To account for these the following model has been icorporated into LaserMOD.

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Figure 3-28: Parasitics equivalent circuit.

Rin is associated with the source and is typically 50 Ohms, while Cp, Lp, and Rp are associated with the packaging, and Rs and Cs are associated with the substrate. These parameters are adjusted from the Package & Chip Parasitics Dialog, accessed via the Utilities / Parasitics... pulldown menu.

Figure 3-29:

Parasitics dialog box.

These effects can be enabled and disabled by simply checking or unchecking the Enable Parasitic Effects checkbox. The results should be immediately appearent when the Frequency Response is replotted via the Plot Generation Dialog. Finally, the Package & Chip Parasitics Dialog contains a Help button which brings up this section of the OnLine manual directly.

3.Q. Scan Variable

Multiple simulations can be run automatically in LaserMOD via the scan variable feature. This allows the user to choose any symbol from the Global Symbol Table and run independent simulations over a range of values for that variable. The range is specified by Starting Value, Ending Value, and Increment (see Fig. 3-28). A prefix must be specified or a

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warning is issued. A scan point number is automatically appended to this prefix, so that each run has its own _plot and _data directories. Furthermore, in addition to scanning a full laser simulation, the mode and gain calculations can be scanned as well. Additionally, once a simulation has been scanned, aggregate custom plots can be generated by repeating the scan but with one of the three (bias, spatial, and energy) plot types selected. The resulting plot will be stored in the same directory as the .las file. Note that the desired settings (plot or simulation) must be set prior to running a scan. For example, the Plot Bias number must be set before running a scan over spatial or energy data.

Figure 3-30:

Scan variable dialog box.

Finally, the Scan Variable Dialog contains a Help button which brings up this section of the OnLine manual directly.

References

[1] T. Tamir, Guided-Wave Optoelectronics, 2nd ed., Springer Verlag, 1990, Heidleberg, Chap. 5. [2] M.L. Majewski & D. Novak, IEEE Microwave & Guided Wave Letters, Vol. 1, No. 9, Sept. 191, pp. 246-8.

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Chapter 4: InGaAs FP broad area (1D) edge emitter

This chapter contains a tutorial describing the layout and simulation of an InGaAs FP broad area (1D) edge emitter. The associated file, fp1d.las, resides in <rsoft_dir>\Examples\LaserMOD\fp1d. This tutorial should be used as the first introduction of LaserMOD to a new use, and will be built upon by the other tutorials.

4.A. Layout

This section describes the procedure for creating the file, fp1d.las. Note that clicking the OK button in the following dialog boxes has the standard action of accepting the settings in that dialog, while clicking the Cancel button reverts to previous settings. These actions may not be stated explicitly in the following, in the interest of brevity, and since the need for these actions will be obvious to the user.

**4.A.1. Starting a new file
**

• • • Open the LaserMOD interface from Start Menu or Desktop Icon. Click the New Structurebutton on the Top Toolbar. The Global Parameters Dialog will appear, as in Fig. 4.1.

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Figure 4-31. Initial start-up dialog. This dialog is also accessible at any time from the Side Toolbar.

**4.A.2. Drawing the regions
**

• • • • • • Select Add Rectangle and click Electrode Region, both on the Side Toolbar. Draw the first electrode near the bottom of the CAD window (note that the height will adjust automatically). Select Bulk Region and draw the first semiconductor region just above the electrode. Select Quantum-Well Region and draw a MQW region. A thin green line will appear in the middle. Select Bulk Region again and draw other semiconductor region above the Quantum Well. Finally, select Electrode Region again, and draw the second electrode at the top of the window. The result should be similar to Fig. 4.2.

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Figure 4-32. Layout after regions are randomly drawn.

**4.A.3. Defining some usefull symbols
**

When a given parameter appears in multiple places, it is convenient to define a variable for it, in the Symbol Table, and then use this variable everywhere in the structure. This allows the value to change automatically, eveywhere the variable is used, by simply updating the variable in the Symbol Table. • • • Open the Symbol Table using the Edit Symbols button on the Side Toolbar. Define Width by clicking New Symbol and give it a value of 1 (in practice this would be the width of the active section in a broad area laser, and much larger than 1). Similarly, define Xcenter and give it a value of 0 (see Fig. 4.3).

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Figure 4-33

**4.A.4. Setting Region Parameters
**

We will be using the previously defined variables to control the width and location of the structure.

1. Right mouse click on the bottom electrode and change the following settings, as in Fig. 4.4. Note that the Y Reference Element # is 0, meaning this region is positioned absolutely. • • • Set Element Width to Width. Set X Ref. to Xcenter. In this tutorial, Y Ref. is assumed to be 0.

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Figure 4-34

2. Right mouse click on the first semiconductor region and change the following settings, as in Fig. 4.5. • • • • • Set Element Width to Width. Set Element Height to 1. Set X Ref. to Xcenter. Set the Y reference Element # to 1. Click the Set Material Button and choose AlGaAs from the Material System pulldown list. Since this is a ternary system, the Alloy X composition must be set; use 0.6. (the Alloy Y composition will be ignored since a quarternay was not selected). • In the Material Data Dialog, set the Acceptors to 1e18 (this sets the doping to p-Type).

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Figure 4-35

3. Right mouse click on the quantum well region and change the following settings, as in Fig. 4.6. Note that the height of the region will adjust automatically so that the well is now centered. • • • • • • • Set Element Width to Width. Set X Ref. to Xcenter. Set Y Reference to Element # to 2. Set Well Thickness to 0.008. Click Qwell: Set Material and select InGaAs, with an

Alloy X composition of 0.2.

Set SCH Thickness to 0.076. Click Barr/SCH: Set Material and select AlGaAs, with an Alloy X

composition of 0.1.

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Figure 4-36

4. Right mouse click on the next semiconductor region and change the following settings, as in Fig. 4.7. • • • • • • Set Element Width to Width. Set Element Height to 1. Set X Ref. to Xcenter. Set the Y reference Element # to 3. Click the Set Material Button and choose AlGaAs from the Material System pulldown list. Set the Alloy X composition to 0.6. In the Material Data Dialog, set the Donors to 5e17 (this sets the doping to n-Type).

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Figure 4-37

5. Finally, right mouse click on the top electrode and change the following settings, as in Fig. 4.8. • • • Set Element Width to Width. Set X Ref. to Xcenter. Set the Y reference Element # to 4.

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Figure 4-38

**4.A.5. Tiling the regions
**

At this point, the layout should look something like Fig. 4.9.

Figure 4-39. Untiled layout.

The regions are now overlapping with each other and must be tiled, meaning that they must form a single rectangle in which the regions are contiguous, non-overlapping, and no gaps exist. Although this can be done manually, if the regions have been refernced to each other, the automatic tiling feature may be invoked. • • • Click the Tile Regions button on the Side Toolbar. Select Full from the View pulldown menu. Click the Redraw button on the Top Toolbar. The layout should now appear as in Fig. 4.10.

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Figure 4-40. Tiled layout.

**4.A.6. Saving the layout
**

To preserve the effort so far, it may be wise to save the layout at this point. • • • Click the Save Structure button on the Top Toolbar and choose a location and file name. Click Save to create the .las file. Any subsequent clicks of the Save Structure button will automatically update this file, while the File menu,Save As option can be used to save the data to a file of a different name.

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**4.B. Verifying the layout
**

Once the CAD layout is established, the corresponding physical layout must be verified. Since the physical geometry is rendered on a nonuniform mesh, the first step is to observe the mesh and make adjustments, if necessary, so that the structure is properly resloved. The discretization of the structure can have profound affects on the simulation results. Once the mesh is established, there are a number of material parameters, such as alloy composition, doping, and refractive index, that can be immediately observed, to verify that the desired structure has in-fact been rendered. It should be noted that for historical reasons, spatial results are plotted on a uniform mesh. This can cause some confusion since the resolution of the displayed results is subject to both meshes, yet only the non-uniform mesh controls the physical resolution of the simulation. All raw data generated in a simulation process, which includes mode and profile generation, will be stored in <prefix>_data, which will be created in the same directory as the .las file. <prefix> denotes the user selected output prefix, and has the value tmp by default. Similarly, all plots are stored in a <prefix>_plot subdirectory. This subdirectory is conveniently accessible by the View buttons on the Top Toolbar.

**4.B.1. Defining the nonuniform mesh
**

Generally, the default grid is a sufficient starting point, however the user may wish to change the grid density in certain places within the simulation region, to more accurately represent rapidly changing physical parameters. The grid remains fixed once the simulation begins, and if the grid settings are changed, the simulation must be restarted from the beginning. In this example the grid density near the contacts will be increased. No hard and fast guidelines exist for adjusting the grid. Generally the grid spacing is reduced by a factor of 2 and the simulation is rerun, until the results become insensitive to further changes in the grid. • Begin by clicking the Generate Grid button on the Side Toolbar. A Winplot window will display the resulting grid. The mouse can be used to zoom in or out by holding the left button down and drawing a box around the region of interest. • • • • • Go back to CAD layout and right click on Region 2 (lower red region) Uncheck the Use Defaults checkbox for the Y direction Change Min. Spacing - Bottom to 0.01. Repeat this procedure on Region 4 (upper red), only this time, change the

Min. Spacing - Top to 0.01.

Regenerate the grid. It should appear as in Fig. 4.11.

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Figure 4-41. Nonuniform mesh for a 1D structure (variation along the vertical, y, direction). The view is zoomed out slightly to include the electrodes, which are not meshed, as they are outside the simulation domain in this example.

**4.B.2. Calculating the alloy profile
**

The alloy X profile can be displayed by clicking the Generate Profile button on the Side Toolbar and selecting Alloy X composition. The uniform mesh parameters can be controlled from this dialog, and if the # of X pts is set to 1, a crosscut along y, at x=0 will be displayed. Otherwise a contour map will be generated. Furthermore, there is a 3D surface plotting utility that is accessible from the View menu of the Simulation Window, via the Show 3D Contour Plot option. It is strongly recommended that the reader reviews the Appendix on Plotting, at this time, since a variety of plotting features are available.

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Figure 4-42. Alloy X profile in contour (left) resulting from a uniform grid setting of 50 x pts and 500 ypts. The cross-cut at any x location (right) can be then be taken by right clicking near the x axis. Similarly for any y location.

Figure 4-43. All plots gererated this way are persistent, and accessible via the View Graphs button on the top toolbar.

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**4.B.3. Calculating the doping profile
**

The impurity ion and net doping profiles can also be displayed by clicking the Generate Profile button on the Side Toolbar. Here we have selected Net Doping, and the # of X pts is set to 1. Note that the p-Type regions are denoted by negative densities.

Figure 4-44. Net Doping profile in contour (left) resulting from a uniform grid setting of 50 x pts and 500 ypts. The cross-cut at any x location (right) can be then be taken by right clicking near the x axis.

**4.B.4. Calculating the index profile
**

The refractive index profiles can also be displayed by clicking the Generate Profile button on the Side Toolbar. Here we have selected Index Profile, and set the # of X pts to 1, and the # of Y pts To 500, in order to resolve the quantum well. Note that had fewer y pts been chosen, the quantun well would not be visible in the plot (uniform mesh), yet it still would be simulatedon the nonuniform mesh.

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Figure 4-45. Index profile in contour (left) resulting from a uniform grid setting of 50 x pts and 500 ypts. The cross-cut at any x location (right) can be then be taken by right clicking near the x axis.

**4.C. Calculating the mode
**

Before lasing can occur, the structure must exhibit an optical mode. In the case of index guiding lasers, if no cold cavity mode results from this step, it may be necessary to change the laser stucture to improve waveguiding. Note that the mode should be recalculated if there is a change made to the grid. This will be done by the full laser simulation if the mode calculation is skipped. Click the Calculate Mode button on the Side Toolbar, and set the # of X pts to 1. The mode in Fig. 4.16 should appear. Typically, this cold cavity mode is used throughout the remainder of the simulation, although option to recalculate it is available from the Laser Simulation dialog. If it is desireable to include the effects of index changes due to self-heating or carrier density, then the mode will automatically be recalculated at each bias. These options are likewise set in the Laser Simulation dialog.

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Figure 4-46. Mode profile in contour (left) resulting from a uniform grid setting of 50 x pts and 500 ypts. The cross-cut at any x location (right) can be then be taken by right clicking near the x axis.

**4.D. Calculating the material gain
**

The next step is to determine the gain behavior of the quantum well as a function of carrier density in the well. For Fabrey-Perot lasers, the lasing frequency will be determined by the location of the peak gain. If the peak is in an undesired location, quantum well parameters will have to be adjusted. To sweep over density, click the Calculate Gain button on the Side Toolbar and adjust the Min. Density to 1e12.

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Figure 4-47. Settings for a gain sweep vs density.

After a few minutes, the simulation will complete, and a plot of the gain spectra will appear as in Fig. 4.18. Zooming may be required to get the exact view in the figure. Additional information has also been calculated however, which can be displayed by going to the View menu in the Simulation Window, and selecting Show Material PL (Fig. 4.19), Show Index Change (Fig. 4.20), and Show Peak Gain (Fig. 4.21). The transparency density can be read from the intersection with the x-axis in the plot of Peak Gain vs Density. Similarly, these plots can be generated by sweeping over temperature. The rest of the laser simulation will be conducted at whatever value is in the Max. Density setting. This makes recalculation of the material gain uneccessary once the simulation resumes, although the option to recalculate is available from the Laser Simulation dialog. Any density value above the transparency level should be appropriate. If the gain calculation is skipped, the default density setting will then be used, which may or may not be above the transparency density. Although, this carrier density is updated during the simulation, the bandstructure is not. Recalculation of the bandstructure is time consuming and tends not to produce noticeable differences in the results. Note that if # Points is 1, then Max. Density will be set equal toMin. Density .

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Figure 4-48. Material gain spectra.

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Figure 4-49. PL spectra.

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Figure 4-50. Index change.

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Figure 4-51. Peak gain vs density.

**4.E. Setting steady-state bias parameters
**

Once it has been determined that some material gain exists, is peaked at the correct wavelength, and that the structure contains a mode, then the laser simulation may begin. A laser simulation is typically driven from thermal equalibrium up to some operating bias condition above threshold. Small steps are taken and the simulation is allowed to reach a steady-state solution at each bias. All data is saved at each bias, for future plot generation, as well as to provide an initial guess for the subsequent bias point. Typically, voltage boundary conditions are used below threshold, and current boundary conditions, above threshold. Generally, the user only needs to specify the endpoints of the range and the minimum number of steps to take, and the program will ramp the bias until the desired range is covered, stepping back as needed until convergence is reached, and then proceding to the next point.

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• • • •

To adjust the bias settings click the Edit Bias Table button on the Side Toolbar. For convenience, the table is automatically populated with several bias points. Add an additional bias point by highlighting bias 1 and clicking the

Duplicate Bias button. . Click Accept.

Now highlight the new bias (bias 2) and click the Advanced button. A local Symbol Table will appear with the simulation parameters for this bias. Increase the value of n_steps to 10. Add a final bias point and set the type to current and value to 25mA

Figure 4-52. Bias editor

Figure 4-53. Advanced table for bias 2.

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**4.F. Steady-state laser simulation
**

Finally, the laser structure is ready to be simulated. Simply click the Simulate Laser button on the Side Toolbar, select the desired physical models, and click OK. We use the default set here, which includes SRH & Auger Recombination, Carrier Dependent Losses (such as intervalenceband scattering), Bulk Spontaneous Recombination, and incomplete ionization.

Figure 4-54

The L-I-V data is plotted in the Simulation Window as the simulation progresses. All data is also saved at each bias point in the <prefix>_data subdirectory (<prefix>=tmp here), for later plot generation. The L-I-V plot is saved in the <prefix>_plot subdirectory. After several minutes, the simulation will finish and a message dialog will appear. Click OK in the message dialog and the results (after zooming) should appear as in Fig. 4.25.

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Figure 4-55

Note that a .run file is generated when a simulation begins. This is essentially an archive of the .las file as it existed when the simulation began (regardless of whether Save was clicked or not).

**4.G. Generating standard plots
**

When the laser simulation has finished the data for all bias points simulated so far will be available for viewing. Due to the large volume of this data, a Plot Generation Utility is used to extract the desired information. • • • Click the Generate Plot button on the Side Toolbar. Click the Set Grid button and change # of X pts to 1 & # of Y pts to 500. Set the Plot Data for Bias # to 2.

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• • • •

Set the Far Field Resolution to 1. Check the Far Field checkbox. Check the Energy Bands checkbox. Check the Charge Carriers checkbox.

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Figure 4-56. Plot utility dialog box

Figure 4-57. Far field vs angle – note that in Set Grid, the #x pts has been set to 1 and #y pts to 500.

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Figure 4-58. Energy bands

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Figure 4-59. Charge carriers

To improve the resolution we need to regenerate the carrier plots, and we also wish to view both holes and electrons on the same plot. • • • • • Click the Generate Plot button on the Side Toolbar again. Click the Set Grid button and change # of Y pts to 4000. After the new plots appear, click the View Editor button on the Top Toolbar of each. Copy the name of the data file in one plot, and paste it just below the data file in the other (In Fig 4.30, tmp_Holes.rsf was pasted just below tmp_Electrons.rsf). Click the View Plot button on the Top Toolbar of each plot.

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Figure 4-60. Holes (green) and Electrons (blue) zoomed in around the quantum well. The distributions reflect the contributions from each of the bound states.

**4.H. Generating custom plots
**

The Plot Generation Utility can also be used to view information that is not contained in the convenient list of standard plots. We will us the custom plot generation feature to observe the lasing frequency as a function of current on contact 0. A wide variety of bias, spatial, and spectral data can be plotted this way. • • • • Click the Generate Plot button on the Side Toolbar Check the Data vs Bias checkbox Click the Set Custombutton. Select Current[0] for the X Axis Parameter and LaserFrequency for the

Y Axis Parameter.

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Figure 4-61. Laser frequency vs bias current

4.I. Generating reports

When the laser simulation has finished several text reports will be available for viewing in your computers default text editor (under WindowsTM, for example, it would be NotepadTM). These include a materials report, a quantum well data report, and a verbose simulation log. • • Click the Generate Plot button on the Side Toolbar. Check the Materials Data checkbox in the Reports section. This provides a region by region listing of all the material parameters used in the simulation. The Quantum Well Data is somewhat cryptic, but contains information from the KP calculation that would not otherwise appear in a plot. The Run Log contains detailed output from the simulator and can be used for debugging if a problem occurs. This log contains information from the last simulation (or mode calc. or profile calc. etc…) and should only be viewed when working with RSoft Design Group tech. support.

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**4.J. Setting transient-response bias parameters
**

An important feature of LaserMOD is its ability to simulate the time-dependent behavior of a laser. This can be done once the steady-state operating point is reached. Typically, a small time-dependent perturbation may be applied around the operating point, and the transient response is recorded. To do this, several time-dependent bias points must be added. • • • To add transient points to the bias settings click the Edit Bias Table button. Add an additional bias point by highlighting bias 2 and clicking the

Duplicate Bias button. Click Accept.

Now highlight the new bias (bias 3), set the value to 25, and choose Current. Click Accept (or click on the highlighted bias) to register these settings. Note that above threshold, it is easier to apply a small perturbation via current rather than voltage. Also, we know from Fig. 4.25 that we are already close to 25 mA, and we need to achieve a steady-state operation at some current level before we can apply a perturbation. In the Advanced Table, set n_steps to 4.

• •

Highlight the bias 3, again and click Duplicate Bias 3 more times. Click Accept. Highlight bias 4, check the Time Dependent checkbox, and set the time step to 5 and the number of steps to 10 (t=5*10). This will give a stable level just before the perturbation is applied. In the Advanced Table delete n_steps.

•

Highlight bias 5, check the Time Dependent checkbox, and set the time step to 5 and the number of steps to 100 (t=5*110). Set the bias value to 25.001. This will give a 550ps perturbation of 1uA. In the Advanced Table delete n_steps.

•

Highlight bias 6, check the Time Dependent checkbox, and set the time step to 5 and the number of steps to 100 (t=5*100). Set the bias value back to 25. This will allow the simulation to return to its pre-perturbation level. In the Advanced Table delete n_steps.

Another usefull (and time-saving) feature of the Bias Editor is that it allows each bias point to be acivated or deactivated for a particular simulation. This is done by highlighting a bias and either double clicking on it to toggle through the options, or directly selecting RUN (activate), " " (same state as previous), or HALT (deactivate) at the top of the dialog. Since for this example, the steady-state simulation has already been run (and material, mesh, and model options have not been changed), we just need to run the transient bias points (and the preceding steady-state point at the level where the transient is applied). • • Highlight bias 0 and set the first field to HALT. Highlight bias 3 and set the first field to RUN.

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Figure 4-62. Bias editor

**4.K. Getting the transient-response
**

The laser's transient response can now be simulated, just as the steady-state run before it. • Simply click the Simulate Laser button on the Side Toolbar, leave the same selection of physical models, and click OK. When completed, the optical response to a 0.001 mA pulse (around a 25 mA operating point) will be displayed in the Simulation Window (Fig. 4.33). • To see the input pulse that was used to drive the laser, simply generate a custom plot of type Data vs Bias, where the x axis is Time and the y axis is Current[0].

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Figure 4-63. Transient response

IMPORTANT NOTE ON TRANSIENT RESPONSE In a transient simulation, if the initial (unperturbed) time steps are not perfectly flat, the frequency response can be affected. In this case, a self-consistent bias point should proceed a transient simulation to avoid any small oscillations in the initial time steps.

**4.L. Getting the frequency-response
**

Once a time dependent simulation has been run, the frequency response of the device can be extracted from the recorded transient response.

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We note that the time for each of the transient bias points, that were set in section 4.J, had been chosen to avoid numerical spikes that can occur when the transient response is Fourier Transformed. Though a laser is a non-linear device, the small size of the perturbation ensures that the Fourier Transform will yield a reasonably accurate frequency response. • All that is required is to click the Generate Plot button and check the

Frequency Response checkbox (uncheck all others) and click OK.

Figure 4-64. Frequency response (where the last column, phase, has been commented out using a”!” at the beginning of the last line in the plot script).

IMPORTANT NOTE ON FREQUENCY RESPONSE The dt variable for every bias point used in a particular transient response should be the same in order to extract a frequency response from it.

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**4.M. Accounting for parasitic effects
**

The frequency response of the intrinsic laser diode can be dramatically affected by parasitics associated with the chip and package. A simple model (Chap. 3, section 3.O) has been incorporated into the frequency response feature to include these effects. • • • • • From the main Utility pulldown menu, select Parasitics (Fig. 4.35). Change Cs to 5. Change Rs to 2. Check the Enable Parasitic Effects checkbox. Regenerate the Frequency Response (Fig. 4.36).

Figure 4-65. Parasitic effects utility dialog

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Figure 4-66. The intrinsic laser response (green), the parasitic response (red), and the total response (blue) are overlayed for comparison. The intersect of each curve with the dashed line represents the 3dB point for each case.

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Chapter 5: InGaAs FP (1D) with Table Gain model and Material Calibration

This chapter contains a tutorial describing the layout and simulation of an InGaAs FP broad area (1D) edge emitter using the Table Gain model. The associated file, fp1d_table.las, resides in <rsoft_dir>\Examples\LaserMOD\fp1d_table. The tutorial in Chapter 4, should be reviewed before beginning this one. This tutorial also demonstrates the procedure for calibrating the material gain in LaserMOD. Please Note: The Gain Tables are licensed separately, so this tutorial example file will not run unless a license for it has been purchased (or requested in the case of evaluation).

5.A. Layout

This tutorial will utilize the same structure that was created in the tutorial of Chapter 4. Copy the file that was generated by the Chapter 4 tutorial and rename it for use in the present tutorial. Open this renamed .las file. No futher layout tasks are necessary.

**5.B. Recalculating the material gain
**

In this section, the material gain will be recalculated, this time with the Table Gain model enabled. Note that Table Gain libraries do not necessarily exist for all the material systems available under the Free-Carrier gain model. Currently, a Table Gain library exists for 980nm InGaAs, and was generated by a Many-Body model. This library is incuded with the LaserMOD distribution (installed separately – see section 1.H). Additional gain libraries for other material systems will be added as they are developed. Each of these libraries is stored in its own subdirectory under \RSoft\products\lasermod\tablegain. • Several Symbol Table variables are used to govern the Table Gain calculation (section 2…). Here, we need only specify table_gain_material = InGaAs980nm in the Global Symbol Table (see Fig. 5.1). If this step is skipped, an error will occur, when the calculation is run, indicating that "none" cannot be found. The other parameters may be left as default. • • To sweep over density, click the Calculate Gain button on the Side Toolbar. The Min. Density should be 1e12 and the Max. Density should be 2e12, as before. Check the Look-Up Table Gain Model checkbox and click OK (Fig. 5.2).

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Figure 5-67. Gobal Symbol Table.

Figure 5-68. Settings for a gain sweep vs density.

After a few minutes, the simulation will complete, and a plot of the gain spectra will appear as in Fig. 5.3. Zooming may be required to get the exact view in the figure. Additional information has also been calculated however, which can be displayed by going to the View menu in the Simulation Window, and selecting Show Material PL (Fig. 5.4), Show Index Change (Fig. 5.5), and Show Peak Gain (Fig. 5.6). The transparency density can be read from the intersection with the x-axis in the plot of Peak Gain vs Density. Similarly, these plots can be generated by sweeping over temperature.

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Note that if # Points is 1, then Max. Density will be set equal toMin. Density .

Figure 5-69. Material gain spectra for several densities, including absorption regime and exiton peaks.

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Figure 5-70. PL spectra.

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Figure 5-71. Index change.

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Figure 5-72. Peak gain vs density.

Finally, it should be noted that activation of the Table Gain Model does not preclude the calculation of the bandstructure via the Free-Carrier gain model, when the laser simulation is run. Other parameters, such as the density of states, are also required for simulation, and these are provided by running the Free-Carrier model.

**5.C. Calibrating the Free-Carrier Gain
**

Material parameter calibration is one of the most difficult procedures in laser simulation, but it cannot be avoided. Due to the large number of material parameters, it becomes necessary to perform this calibration in steps. The first step is the calibration of the gain. Typically, this requires some knowledge of the PL or other measured data for the quantum well region of the laser structure, as grown. Here, we demonstrate this procedure by comparing the Free-Carrier model to the Many-Body model, since the Many-Body model is quite predictive and typically compares well with measured data, without calibration. IMPORTANT NOTE ON DISTRIBUTED GAIN TABLES

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The gain tables distributed with LaserMOD are proprietary and encrypted. Therefore, they cannot be exported directly to separate plots, as all other data in LaserMOD. These tables can only be viewed in the Simulation Window.

1. Repeat the steps of section 5.B., but this time select only 3 density values. Zoom in on the gain region.

Figure 5-73. Many-Body gain spectra for 3 densities. No calibration neccessary.

2. Now recalculate these same points via the Free-Carrier model. • • • Click the Calculate Gain button on the Side Toolbar. Uncheck the Look-Up Table Gain Model checkbox. Change the Run Prefix so that the first set of data will not be lost.

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Figure 5-74. Free-Carrier gain spectra for the same 3 densities - uncalibrated.

3. Zooming in (Fig. 5.9), it can be seen that the gain peak is higher than that predicted by the Many-Body model (Fig. 5.7), and furthermore, it is at the wrong energy. The first step is to reduce the magnitude of the peak gain. This is done by adjusting the broadening energy. • • • Right click on the Quantum Well Region, and click on Qwell: Phys. Data. Add the new symbol, regmat_krelaxener, and set it to 0.08. Rerun the calculation and observe the result in Fig. 5.10.

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Figure 5-75. Close-up of Free-Carrier gain spectra.

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Figure 5-76. Free-Carrier gain spectra for the same 3 densities – after initial calibration.

It can be seen, by comparing Figs. 5.10 with Fig. 5.7, that adjustment of these quantum well parameters has brought the two sets of gain spectra into closer agreement, at least where the magnitude of the peaks is concerned. As for the frequency of the gain peak, this is controlled by the direct bandgap, kpmat_G6C_G8V. This parameter should be adjusted in the material library, since there is an alloy dependence. Note that it is best to save the edited material file to another name, and then refer to this new file in the quantum well region's material pulldown list, so that the original library settings are not lost. There are two auxilliary parameters in each library file that can assist in the calibration of the direct bandgap. These are EgG_BOWING and EgG_LINEAR. Either of these, or some combination of them, may be chosen as the value for kpmat_G6C_G8V. But it should be noted that exact frequency agreement between the Free-Carrier and Many-Body models is not possible, since the Free-Carrier model does not account for the exciton binding energy. IMPORTANT NOTE ON GAIN CALIBRATION

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Calibration of the frequency should be done first, since adjustment of the bandgap will require recalibration of all the parameters discussed above.

**5.D. Calibrating the loss
**

Having obtained roughly the correct magnitude for the gain peak, it is time to run the full laser simulation and perform the remainder of the calibration by adjusting the carrier dependent losses and dark recombinations. Comparing the different gain models to each other will not be sufficient for this part of the calibration, so in lieu of having measured laser performance data, the process can only be described here (see the validation examples for more details). • • • • • • • • Click the Edit Bias Table button on the Side Toolbar. Deactivate bias 4 by setting it to HALT, since the transient response is not needed here. Set Bias 3 to 25 mA. Uncheck all models except the Incomplete Ionization Click Simulate Laser button on the side Toolbar. Check the Clear Run File checkbox to delete any data from previous runs. Check the Recalculate KP checkbox to insure that the calibrated values are used. Check the Recalculate Mode checkbox to insure that the correct mode pattern is used. Note that the mode calculation is performed at the bandedge energy, so changes to the quantum well parameters will affect the mode, and therefore the laser performance. • • • • • Make sure the Look-Up Table Gain Model checkbox is checked, and click OK (Gain Dialog). Note: This calibration can be done with the Free-Carrier model as well When this simulation finishes, rerun it with Auger and SRH recombination enabled When this simulation finishes, rerun it with Carrier-Dependent Losses enabled When this simulation finishes, click the Generate Plot button on the Side Toolbar. Check the Light vs Current checkbox to observe the L-I curves from all runs.

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Figure 5-77. L-I curves with different loss models enabled.

The following parameters can affect both the threashold and the slope efficiency. These can be set in either the material library files, or region by region in the local Physical Data Tables. They should be used to calibrate the slope. It is recommended that global symbols be defined and used for the values of the following parameters in the local tables, so that adjustment need only occur in one place. • • The Free-Carrier loss for electrons, fca_elcoef. The Free-Carrier loss for holes, fca_hlcoef.

The following parameters can be adjusted to affect the threashold. Except for the first one, these can be set in either the material library files, or region by region in the local Physical Data Tables. Once the slope is correct, these can be used to calibrate the threashold. It is recommended that global symbols be defined and used for the values of the following parameters in the local tables, so that adjustment need only occur in one place. • The Waveguide Loss in the Global Parameters dialog (global parameter only).

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• • • •

The Auger recombination parameter for electrons, regmat_Augn300. The Auger recombination parameter for holes, regmat_Augp600. The SRH recombination parameter for electrons, regmat_SRH_taun. The SRH recombination parameter for holes, regmat_SRH_taup.

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Chapter 6: InGaAs FP (1D) with Table Gain model and SelfHeating

This chapter contains a tutorial describing the layout and simulation of an InGaAs FP broad area (1D) edge emitter with Table Gain model and self-heating. The associated file, fp1d_table_therm.las, resides in <rsoft_dir>\Examples\LaserMOD\fp1d_table_therm. Please Note: The Gain Tables are licensed separately, so this tutorial example file will not run unless a license for it has been purchased (or requested in the case of evaluation).

6.A Layout

This tutorial will utilize the same structure that was created in the tutorial of Chapter 5. Copy the file that was generated by the Chapter 5 tutorial to a new directory and rename it for use in the present tutorial. Open this renamed .las file. No futher layout tasks are necessary.

**6.B Setting the Thermal Boundary Conditions
**

Many laser performance characteristics, such as threashold, gain saturation, and lasing frequency depend on temperature. This is due to the change in material parameters that results from an increase in temperature within the laser during operation, and is known as self-heating. To determine the self-heating the temperature profile is needed, which results from solution of the lattice heat equation. Boundary conditions are required to accurately solve this equation. These boundary conditions are set by the metalic contacts. Elsewhere, reflective boundary conditions are applied. In the contacts, the default thermal boundary conditions are Dirichlet, of value equal to the ambient temperature. The reflective boundary condition can also be applied in the contact by setting elec_thermboundary to none. A value of cauchy may be chosen if thermal resistance is to be specified, which is done via the elec_thermconduct parameter. The following symbols can be set either in the Physical Data Table or directly in the Electrode Properties Dialog • • • • • Click on bias contact (electrode 0), and click on Phys. Data. Add the new symbol elec_thermboundary and set it to cauchy. Add the new symbol elec_thermconduct and set it to 0.003. Click on the ground contact (electrode 1), and click on Phys. Data. Add the new symbol elec_thermboundary and set it to none.

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Figure 6-78. Eelectrode boundary conditions for heat sink.

Figure 6-79. Electrode boundary conditions for no heat sink.

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Note that the electrically grounded contact may not necessarily be the one that has heat sinking. This depends on the actual packaging configuration of the device.

**6.C. Effects of Self-Heating
**

Self-heating simulations are generally less stable due to the coupling of an additional differential equation, activation of additional models. So, with some foresight we adjust the Bias Table as follows. • • Open the bias editor and disable Bias 4 (not interested in transient response here) Set bias 3 ramp points to 100 (Fig. 6.3).

Figure 6-80. Bias Table for self-heating.

Run the laser simulation without self-heating. • • Use the set of simulation options depicted in Fig. 6.4., but with the self-heating model unchecked Run the simulation.

Run the laser simulation with self-heating for comparison. • • Go to the Simulation Parameters dialgog. Check the Self-Heating checkbox and run the simulation.

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Figure 6-81. Simulation options for self-heating.

When the simulations have finished, plot the temperature profile in the device. • • • • • • Go to the Plot Generator and click Set Custom. Select LatticeTemperature from the Spatial Data pulldown list. Check the Spatial Data checkbox. Set Plot Data for Bias # to 3. Click Set Grid and apply the settings in Fig. 6.5. Check the Light vs Current (L-I) checkbox in the Standard Plots

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Figure 6-82. Uniform grid settings.

Figure 6-83. Temperature profile along the vertical direction.

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Figure 6-84. Effects of self-heating (green) as compared to no self-heating (blue).

It can be seen from Fig. 6.6 that the L-I curve begins to roll off when the self-heating is accounted for.

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Chapter 7: InGaAs FP Ridge (2D) Edge Emitter

This chapter contains a tutorial describing the layout and simulation of a InGaAs FP ridge (2D) edge emitter. The associated file, fp2d.las, resides in <rsoft_dir>\Examples\LaserMOD\fp2d.

7.A. Layout

This section describes the procedure for creating the file, fp1d.las. Note that clicking the OK button in the following dialog boxes has the standard action of accepting the settings in that dialog, while clicking the Cancel button reverts to previous settings. These actions may not be stated explicitly in the following, in the interest of brevity, and since the need for these actions will be obvious to the user.

**7.A.1. Starting a New File
**

• • • Open the LaserMOD interface from Start Menu or Desktop Icon. Click the New Structurebutton on the Top Toolbar. The Global Parameters Dialog will appear, select 2D Simulation and check

Show Structure , as in Fig. 7.1. This will activate the display of an outline of the device which will be overlaid with mesh and spatial data plots.

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Figure 7-85. Initial start-up dialog. This dialog is also accessible at any time from the Side Toolbar.

**7.A.2. Drawing the Regions
**

In the following, the "Snap & Glue" behavior of the CAD will be used. This is always active, and can be utilized by simply starting to draw the next region close to the top-center position of the previous one (see Fig. 7.2). The CAD will automatically vertically tile regions drawn this way. • • • • • • • Select Add Rectangle and click Electrode Region, both on the Side Toolbar. Draw the first electrode near the bottom of the CAD window (note that the height will adjust automatically). Select Bulk Region and draw the first semiconductor region just above the electrode. Select Quantum-Well Region and draw a MQW region. A thin green line will appear in the middle. Select Bulk Region again and draw a thin semiconductor region above the Quantum Well. Draw a second bulk semiconductor region on top of this one. Select Electrode Region again, and draw the second electrode.

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• •

Select Oxide Region and draw 2 bulk oxide regions, one on either side of the topmost bulk semiconductor region (no auto-tiling will occur). The result should be similar to Fig. 7.3. Click the Select Mode button on the Side Toolbar, since we are done drawing.

Figure 7-86. Vertical "Snap & Glue" feature.

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Figure 7-87. Layout after regions are initially drawn.

**7.A.3. Defining Usefull Symbols
**

When a given parameter appears in multiple places, it is convenient to define a variable for it, in the Symbol Table, and then use this variable everywhere in the structure. This allows the value to change automatically, eveywhere the variable is used, by simply updating the variable in the Symbol Table. • • • • • Open the Symbol Table using the Edit Symbols button on the Side Toolbar. Define Wsub by clicking New Symbol and give it a value of 15. Define Wridge and give it a value of 5. Define Wox and give it an expression of (Wsub-Wridge)/2. Define Xcenter and give it a value of 0 (the table should appear as in Fig. 7.4).

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Figure 7-88

**7.A.4. Setting Region Parameters
**

We will be using the previously defined variables to control the width and location of the structure.

1. Right mouse click on the bottom electrode and change the following settings, as in Fig. 7.5. Note that the Y Reference Element # is 0, meaning this region is positioned absolutely. • • • • Set Element Width to Wsub. Set X Ref. to Xcenter. Set Electrode Number to 1 (this will be the ground bias). In this tutorial, Y Ref. is assumed to be 0.

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Figure 7-89

2. Right mouse click on the first semiconductor region and change the following settings, as in Fig. 7.6. • • • • • Set Element Width to Wsub. Set Element Height to 1. Set X Ref. to Xcenter. Set the Y reference Element # to 1 (may already be set due to "Snap & Glue"). Click the Set Material Button and choose AlGaAs from the Material System pulldown list. Since this is a ternary system, the Alloy X composition must be set; use 0.6. (the Alloy Y composition will be ignored since a quarternay was not selected). • In the Material Data Dialog, set the Donors to 5e17 (this sets the doping to n-Type).

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Figure 7-90

3. Right mouse click on the quantum well region and change the following settings, as in Fig. 7.7. Note that the height of the region will adjust automatically so that the well is now centered. • • • • • • • Set Element Width to Wsub. Set X Ref. to Xcenter. Check that the Y Reference to Element # is 2. Set Well Thickness to 0.008. Click Qwell: Set Material and select InGaAs, with an

Alloy X composition of 0.2.

Set SCH Thickness to 0.076. Click Barr/SCH: Set Material and select AlGaAs, with an Alloy X

composition of 0.1.

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Figure 7-91

4. Right mouse click on the next semiconductor region and change the following settings, as in Fig. 7.8. • • • • • • Set Element Width to Wsub. Set Element Height to 0.05. Set X Ref. to Xcenter. Check that the Y reference Element # is 3. Click the Set Material Button and choose AlGaAs from the Material System pulldown list. Set the Alloy X composition to 0.6. In the Material Data Dialog, set the Acceptors to 1e18 (this sets the doping to p-Type).

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Figure 7-92

5. Right mouse click on the next semiconductor region and change the following settings, as in Fig. 7.9. • • • • • • Set Element Width to Wridge. Set Element Height to 1. Set X Ref. to Xcenter. Check that the Y reference Element # is 4. Click the Set Material Button and choose AlGaAs from the Material System pulldown list. Set the Alloy X composition to 0.6. In the Material Data Dialog, set the Acceptors to 1e18 (this sets the doping to p-Type).

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Figure 7-93

6. Right mouse click on the top electrode and change the following settings, as in Fig. 7.10. • • • • Set Element Width to Wridge. Set X Ref. to Xcenter. Check that the Y reference Element # is 5. Set the Electrode Number to 0 (this will be the applied bias).

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Figure 7-94

7. Right mouse click on the rightmost oxide region and change the following settings, as in Fig. 7.11. • • • • • Set Element Width to Wox. Set Element Height to 1. Set the X reference Element # to 5. Set the Y reference Element # to 4. Click the Set Material Button and note that Oxide is already selected in the

Material System pulldown list.

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Figure 7-95

8. Right mouse click on the remaining oxide region and apply the same settings as in Fig. 7.11.

**7.A.5. Tiling the Regions
**

At this point, the layout should look something like Fig. 7.12.

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Figure 7-96. Untiled layout.

The regions are now overlapping with each other and must be tiled, meaning that they must form a single rectangle in which the regions are contiguous, non-overlapping, and no gaps exist. Although this can be done manually, if the regions have been refernced to each other, the automatic tiling feature may be invoked. • • • Click the Tile Regions button on the Side Toolbar. An "Overlapping Regions" error will occur, ignore it for now. Select Full from the View pulldown menu (see Fig.7.13). With the mouse, drag & drop the top Oxide region (grey – highlighted) anywhere on the left side of the client drawing window (white grided area). Click the Tile Regions button again. The layout should now appear as in Fig. 7.14. When there is a degeneracy as to where to place a relatively referenced region (right side or left side), then the current position of the region is used. That is why dragging the region to the left side of the layout is all that is necessary.

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Figure 7-97. Tiled layout – with overlapped oxide regions.

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Figure 7-98. Tiled layout.

Note that the structure is not to scale. It can be viewed to scale by selecting Aspect Ratio = 1:1 from the View pulldown menu.

**7.A.6. Saving the Layout
**

To preserve the effort so far, it may be wise to save the layout at this point. • • • Click the Save Structure button on the Top Toolbar and choose a location and file name. Click Save to create the .las file. Any subsequent clicks of the Save Structure button will automatically update this file, while the File menu,Save As option can be used to save the data to a file of a different name.

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**7.B. Verifying the Layout
**

Once the CAD layout is established, the corresponding physical layout must be verified. Since the physical geometry is rendered on a nonuniform mesh, the first step is to observe the mesh and make adjustments, if necessary, so that the structure is properly resloved. The discretization of the structure can have profound affects on the simulation results. Once the mesh is established, there are a number of material parameters, such as alloy composition, doping, and refractive index, that can be immediately observed, to verify that the desired structure has in-fact been rendered. It should be noted that for historical reasons, spatial results are plotted on a uniform mesh. This can cause some confusion since the resolution of the displayed results is subject to both meshes, yet only the non-uniform mesh controls the physical resolution of the simulation. All raw data generated in a simulation process, which includes mode and profile generation, will be stored in <prefix>_data, which will be created in the same directory as the .las file. <prefix> denotes the user selected output prefix, and has the value tmp by default. Similarly, all plots are stored in a <prefix>_plot subdirectory. This subdirectory is conveniently accessible by the View buttons on the Top Toolbar.

**7.B.1. Defining the Nonuniform Mesh
**

Generally, the default grid is a sufficient starting point, however the user may wish to change the grid density in certain places within the simulation region, to more accurately represent rapidly changing physical parameters. The grid remains fixed once the simulation begins, and if the grid settings are changed, the simulation must be restarted from the beginning. In this example the grid density near the contacts will be increased. No hard and fast guidelines exist for adjusting the grid. Generally the grid spacing is reduced by a factor of 2 and the simulation is rerun, until the results become insensitive to further changes in the grid. • Begin by clicking the Generate Grid button on the Side Toolbar. A Winplot window will display the resulting grid (Fig. 7.15). The mouse can be used to zoom in or out by holding the left button down and drawing a box around the region of interest.

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Figure 7-99. Default nonuniform mesh for a 2D structure – note that the structure is visible in the background. Only the right half is shown since it is assumed to be symmetric about x=0 (this is set in the Global Parameters dialog).

For efficiency, the mesh can be made coarser in certain places, such as the right side of the domain where there will be small field and carrier density gradients, and near the heterojunction just below the Oxide. Note that eliminating vertical gridlines will significantly improve the speed of the simulation since the quantum wells are solved along each vertical line, and this is computationally intesive. • Go back to CAD layout and open the Global Parameters dialog. Change

Spacing-Right and Spacing-Left to 2. These settings apply to all the regions. Regenerate the mesh to

observe the change. Mesh warnings can be ignored. • • • • Right click on the ridge (region 5) and uncheck the Use Defaults checkbox for X. Change Min. Spacing - Right and Min. Spacing - left to 0.5. Uncheck the Use Defaults checkbox for the Y direction. Change Min. Spacing - Bottom to 0.02. Note that the mesh will not change near this interface. That is because the SMALLEST spacing near a heterojunction is used. Currently, the spacing in the Oxide regions is smaller than 0.02. • Right click on Oxide region 7, uncheck the Use Defaults checkboxes for X & Y, change Min. Spacing - Bottom to 0.02, and Min. Spacing - left to 0.5.

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•

Right click on Oxide region 8, uncheck the Use Defaults checkboxes for Y, and change Min. Spacing - Bottom to 0.02. The X parameters will be greyed out because this region is currently inactive, as it resides in the left half (unsimulated) part of the domain.

• •

**Right click on the thin bulk region just below the Oxide (regions 4), uncheck the
**

Use Defaults checkbox for Y, and change the Min. Spacing - top to 0.02.

Regenerate the grid one last time. It should appear as in Fig. 7.16.

Figure 7-100. Adjusted nonuniform mesh for half domain of a 2D ridge laser.

**7.B.2. Calculating Parameter Profiles
**

A number of parameter profiles can be generated by clicking the Generate Profile button on the Side Toolbar. Here we generate the alloy X, net doping, and index profiles by selecting Alloy X composition, Net Doping, and Index Profile, respectively. The uniform mesh parameters are chosen accoring to feature sizes along each direction. # of X pts is set to 50 (not much variation here) and # of Y pts is set to 500 so that the quantum wells can be resolved. Note that fewer y pts might not resolve the quantun well in the plot (uniform mesh), but the well would still be simulated on the nonuniform

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mesh. In each case, the last profile generated will be saved automatically in the <prefix>_plot subdirectory, and can be viewed at any time by clicking the View Graphsbutton on the Top Toolbar and opening <prefix>_Profile.pcs. It is strongly recommended that the reader reviews the Appendix on Plotting, at this time, since a variety of plotting features are available.

Figure 7-101. Alloy X profile as a contour plot (left). The cross-cut (right) from right clicking on the x axis at x=4.

.

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Figure 7-102. Net Doping profile as a contour plot (left). The cross-cut (right) from right clicking on the x axis at x=1. Note that the p-Type regions are denoted by negative densities.

Figure 7-103. Index profile as a contour plot (left). The cross-cut (right) from right clicking on the x axis at x=4.

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**7.C. Calculating the Mode
**

Before lasing can occur, the structure must exhibit an optical mode. In the case of index guiding lasers, if no cold cavity mode results from this step, it may be necessary to change the laser stucture to improve waveguiding. • Click the Calculate Mode button on the Side Toolbar, and set the # of X pts to 50 and also set # of Y pts to 500. The mode in Fig. 7.20 should appear. Typically, this cold cavity mode is used throughout the remainder of the simulation, although option to recalculate it is available from the Laser Simulation dialog. If it is desireable to include the effects of index changes due to self-heating or carrier density, then the mode will automatically be recalculated at each bias. These options are likewise set in the Laser Simulation dialog.

Figure 7-104. Mode profile as a contour plot (left). The cross-cut (right) from right clicking on the x axis at x=0.

IMPORTANT NOTE ON MODE SOLVING The mode should be recalculated if there is a change made to the grid. This will be done by the full laser simulation if the mode calculation is skipped. However, if the KP is recalculated prior to a full laser simulation, then the mode should also be recalculated. This is not done automatically, and the user should do this by checking the Recalculate Mode checkbox in the Simulation Parameters dialog.

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**7.D. Calling the BeamPROP Mode Solver
**

LaserMOD has been integrated with other tools from RSoft Design Group. Here, the use of BeamPROP is for the calculation of the mode, is demonstrated. • • • • • • Click the Calculate Mode button on the Side Toolbar once again, but this time select the Beam Propagation Method. Notice that several other controls will be enabled. Launch the mode calculation and view its progress by clicking on the BeamPROP process icon on the Taskbar at the bottom of your computer screen. Notice that there are some unphysical features evolving along the center y position. This indicates that the BPM step is too large. Terminate both the BeamPROP and LaserMOD Simulation Windows. Reduce the Z Step size by a factor of 2 and rerun the mode calculation. When it finishes, the results should be nearly (barring discretization error) indistinguishable from those calculated previously. Note that the laterial cross-cut is shown in Fig. 7.21, as where the vertical cross-cut was shown in Fig. 7.20.

Figure 7-105. Mode profile as a contour plot (left). The cross-cut (right) from right clicking on the y axis at y=1.2.

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**7.E. Calculating the Material Gain
**

The next step is to determine the gain behavior of the quantum well as a function of temperature (the density sweep was performed in section 4.D, and will not be repeated here). For Fabrey-Perot lasers, the lasing frequency will be determined by the location of the peak gain. So this procedure can give an indication of the how the laser frequency will drift with temperature. • • • To sweep over temperature, click the Calculate Gain button on the Side Toolbar and select Sweep over Temperature . Set the Min. Density to 2e12. Set the Max. Temperature to 400 and click OK.

Figure 7-106. Settings for a gain sweep vs density.

After a few minutes, the simulation will complete, and a plot of the gain spectra will appear as in Fig. 7.23. Zooming may be required to get the exact view in the figure. Additional information has also been calculated however, which can be displayed by going to the View menu in the Simulation Window, and selecting Show Material PL (Fig. 7.24), Show Index Change (Fig. 7.25), and Show Peak Gain (Fig. 7.26). Note that the peak gain shift dramatically in frequency as well as in amplitude

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Figure 7-107. Material gain spectra.

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Figure 7-108. PL spectra.

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Figure 7-109. Index change.

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Figure 7-110. Peak gain vs temperature.

**7.F. Setting steady-state bias parameters
**

Once it has been determined that some material gain exists, is peaked at the correct wavelength, and that the structure contains a mode, then the laser simulation may begin. A laser simulation is typically driven from thermal equalibrium up to some operating bias condition above threshold. Small steps are taken and the simulation is allowed to reach a steady-state solution at each bias. All data is at each bias, for future plot generation, as well as to provide an initial guess for the subsequent bias point. Typically, voltage boundary conditions are used below threshold, and current boundary conditions, above threshold. Generally, the user only needs to specify the endpoints of the range and the minimum number of steps to take, and the program will ramp the bias until the desired range is covered, stepping back as needed until convergence is reached, and then proceding to the next point.

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• • •

To adjust the bias settings click the Edit Bias Table button on the Side Toolbar. For convenience, the table is automatically populated with several bias points. Add an additional bias point by highlighting bias 1 and clicking the

Duplicate Bias button. Increase the value of ramp steps to 10. Click Accept.

Now highlight the new bias (bias 2) and click the Advanced button. A local Symbol Table will appear with the simulation parameters for this bias. .

Figure 7-111. Bias editor

Figure 7-112. Advanced table for bias 2.

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**7.G. Steady-state laser simulation
**

Finally, the laser structure is ready to be simulated. Since a sweep over gain spectra was just performed, it is wise to recalculate the gain and the mode before simulating the laser. • • • • Click the Edit Symbols button on the Side Toolbar (the following changes could also be made from Gain and Mode calculation dialogs). Delete the run_mode_method symbol (sets the default mode method). Set the run_gain_maxtemp symbol to 300. Click OK. Click the Simulate Laser button on the Side Toolbar, select the desired physical models. We use the default set here, which includes SRH & Auger Recombination, Carrier Dependent Losses (such as intervalenceband scattering), Bulk Spontaneous Recombination, and incomplete ionization. • Check the Recalculate KP and Recalculate Mode checkboxes to insure that the desired settings are in effect during the simulation.

Figure 7-113. Global Symbol table – quick access to parameters and settings.

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Figure 7-114

The L-I-V data is plotted in the Simulation Window as the simulation progresses. All data is also saved at each bias point in the <prefix>_data subdirectory (<prefix>=tmp here), for later plot generation. The L-I-V plot is saved in the <prefix>_plot subdirectory. After several minutes, the simulation will finish and a message dialog will appear. Click OK in the message dialog and the results (after zooming) should appear as in Fig. 7.30.

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Figure 7-115

Note that a .run file is generated when a simulation begins. This is essentially an archive of the .las file as it existed when the simulation began (regardless of whether Save was clicked or not).

**7.H. Plotting the Results
**

When the laser simulation has finished the data for all bias points simulated so far will be available for viewing. Due to the large volume of this data, a Plot Generation Utility is used to extract the desired information. • • • Click the Generate Plot button on the Side Toolbar. Click the Set Grid button and change # of X pts to 50 & # of Y pts to 500. Make sure the Region(s)pulldown is set to All.

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• • • • •

Set the Plot Data for Bias # to 2. Set the Far Field Resolution to 5. Start with a large value here since too fine a resolution may require virtual memory. Check the Far Field checkbox. Check the Energy Bands checkbox. Check the Charge Carriers checkbox.

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Figure 7-116. Plot utility dialog box

The plots in Figs. 7.33-7.39 will result. The default plot utility for 2D spatial data is CPLOT. This utility allows the user to view all 1D cross-cuts of the data by right clicking on an axis at the point of interest. These plots are in the <prefix>_plot subdirectory, and are accessible any time via the View Contours button on the Top Toolbar.

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Figure 7-117. Far field vs angle: contour (left) cross-cut (right).

Figure 7-118. Conduction band: contour (left) cross-cut (right)

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Figure 7-119. Valence band: contour (left) cross-cut (right)

Figure 7-120. Electron Fermi level: contour (left) cross-cut (right)

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Figure 7-121. Hole Fermi level: contour (left) cross-cut (right)

Figure 7-122. Electron density: contour (left) cross-cut (right)

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Figure 7-123. Hole density: contour (left) cross-cut (right)

7.I. MultiMode Operation

LaserMOD uses a separate photon rate equation for each requested mode of the structure. The number of modes requested is the product of # Long./Azym. Modes and # Tran./Radial Modes in the Global Parameters dialog. For Fabrey-Perot lasers, the longitudinal modes are a set of adjacent FP modes closest to the gain peak and the transverse modes are a set of waveguide modes calculated at the quantum well band edge frequency (cold cavity) or near the gain peak if recalculated above threshold. In this section, the FP example of the previous sections, will be reconsidered with 2 transverse modes active; a mode calculation will be performed, observations about the nonuniform mesh will be made, and individual L-I curves for each mode will be generated.

**7.I.1. Mode Calculation and Mesh Observations
**

Typically, the simulation solution variables such as carrier densities and electrostatic potential vary gradually over the device (QW not withstanding). So a rather course mesh will actually not degrade the simualtion results, while improving simulation speed. In this section we examine an exception to this that users studying mode competition should be aware of. The optical field of higher modes may require a finer mesh to properly resolve, since the oscillations of the field intensity contribute to the confinement factor. • • • Go to the Mode Calculation dialog and set # Transverseto 2. Perform a mode calculation using the default solver. Notice that in the Message area of the Simulation Window, the confinement factors for each mode are displayed, and are nearly identical here. Also, the mode intensity profile that is displayed is that of the highest mode calculated. • Click on View Contours on the Top Toolbar and open both the mode files

<prefix>__Mode[0,0].pcs and <prefix>_Mode[1,0].pcs.

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Figure 7-124. Fundamental mode: contour (left) cross-cut (right)

Figure 7-125. First order mode: contour (left) cross-cut (right)

Though subtle in Fig. 7.40, it is dramatically clear in Fig. 7.41 that the mesh is not properly resolving the mode profiles. Reruning the mode calculation with more uniform grid points will not help. This is the price of a coarse nonuniform mesh. • • • • Refine the mesh in the ridge by right clicking on region 5. Check the Uniformcheckbox for X Set Max. X Spacing to 0.25. Regenerate the mesh (Fig. 7.42). Note that the mesh warning can be ignored, or alleviated

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by setting the Min. Spacing - Left to 0.25 in the Oxide region (region 7). • • Recalculate the modes. Note that the new confinement factors are about the same as the old. Reopen the results from View Contours. (Fig. 7.43).

Figure 7-126. Coarse mesh (left) and refined mesh (right)

Figure 7-127. Fundamental mode on refined mesh: contour (left) cross-cut (right)

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Figure 7-128. First order mode on refined mesh: contour (left) cross-cut (right)

From the results calculated on the coarse grid, it can be seen from the cross-section of the first excited mode that the intensity is not represented very well and that still higher modes may not be accurately represented at all. If the confinement factors are different for the finer mesh results, then the finer mesh should be used for the simulation. Fortunately, in this example, the confinement factors are about the same, so the coarse mesh will be sufficient for simulating mode competition.

**7.I.2. Running the Multimode Laser Simulation
**

Having determined that the original simulation grid should be sufficient for multimode competition, return the settings in region 5 to their original values and launch the full laser simulation. • • • • Uncheck the Uniform checkbox and set the X spacings back to 0.5. Go the the Simulation Parameters dialog. Check the Recalculate Mode and Clear Run Filecheckboxes. Click OK.

After a few minutes, the simulation will finish, but no kink will be visible. To discover why this is, the individual L-I curves for each mode need to be plotted. The Simulation Window only reveals the total light output of the device.

**7.I.3. Generating Custom L-I Curves for each Mode
**

The Plot Generation Utility can also be used to view information that is not contained in the convenient list of standard plots. We will us the custom plot generation feature to observe the L-I curve for each individual mode. A wide variety of bias, spatial, and spectral data can be plotted this way. • • Click the Generate Plot button on the Side Toolbar Check the Data vs Bias checkbox.

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• •

Click the Set Custombutton. Select Current[0] for the X Axis Parameter and ModePower[0,0] for the

Y Axis Parameter.

The L-I curve for the fundamental mode will be plotted. Repeat this for the first order mode. • • • • • Click the Generate Plot button on the Side Toolbar Check the Data vs Bias checkbox. Click the Set Custombutton. Select Current[0] for the X Axis Parameter and ModePower[1,0] for the

Y Axis Parameter.

This time, also check the standard plot checkbox for Light vs Current.

Three plots have now been generated under the WinPLOT utility. It is more informative to compare all three data sets on a single plot. • • • Choose the standard L-I plot and click the View Editor button on the Top Toolbar (this option is also available from the Window pulldown menu. Repeat this for the other two plots. Copy the data file names from any two of the plots into the third, for example:

<prefix>_LI.rsf <prefix>_ModePower[0,0]_vs_Current[0].rsf <prefix>_ModePower[1,0]_vs_Current[0].rsf

•

Click the View Plot button.

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Figure 7-129. Total (blue), fundamental mode (green), and first order mode (red) L-I curves.

It appears from Fig. 7.45, that the contribution to the device output, from the first order mode, is significant. Furthermore, since the threshold are approximately the same, no kink in the net L-I curve should be visible.

**7.I.4. Multimode Carrier and Field Distributions
**

Due to the contribution of the higher order mode, several other outputs of the simulation now become interesting to look at, including spatial distribution of the carriers and multimode nearfield and farfield. • • • • • • Click the Generate Plot button on the Side Toolbar. Set the Far Field Resolution to 2 (memory permitting). Check the Far Field checkbox. Check the Charge Carriers checkbox Set the Plot Data for Bias # to 3, and click OK. Open the nearfield results from View Contours on the Tob Toolbar.

IMPORTANT NOTE ON FARFIELD PLOTTING

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When the farfield is calculated, it is necessary to extend the half-domain results to full domain, that is if the half domain feature is being used. Since the nearfield is calculated automatically when a farfield is generated, the extension to full domain is also automatic. However, to see it (when half domain is simulated) the nearfield must be opened from the saved data. If it is generated as a standard plot, only the half domain nearfield will be shown.

Figure 7-130. Multimode nearfield: contour (left) cross-cut along x (right)

Figure 7-131. Multimode farfield: contour (left) cross-cut along x (right)

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Figure 7-132. Electron distribution: contour (left) cross-cut along the quantum well (right)

Figure 7-133. Hole distribution: contour (left) cross-cut along the quantum well (right)

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Chapter 8: GaInAsP MQW FP ridge (2D) edge emitter

This chapter contains a tutorial describing a simulation validation for a GaInAsP MQW FP ridge (2D) edge emitter. The associated file, fp2d_mqw.las, resides in <rsoft_dir>\Examples\LaserMOD\ fp2d_mqw.

8.A. Material Calibration

The ability of any commercial laser simulator to predict the performance of an actual device rests not only on the rigor of the models used, but on the accuracy of the input material parameters. Since material system properties typically vary between growth processes, a calibration cycle is necessary before simulated results will match those of the measured device. LaserMOD has a wide variety of material parameters, all of which have reasonable default values. In this section we discuss which ones are the most important to adjust in order to match with measured data. In practice, only a small subset of the material parameters need to deviate from their default values. This calibration cycle should be performed on a simple device structure, preferably using a 1D simulation, if possible. Once simulation and measured results for a simple structure agree, it is reasonable to assume that changes in the geometry and operational bias of the device will also be accurately simulated, provided the calibrated material values are used. In this way, CAD simulations are used to optimize old designs and explore new ones, prior to fabrication. The example used here is a Fabry-Perot laser structure with 6 GaInAsP multiple quantum wells. The example resides in the FP1D_MQW subdirectory and it utilizes the GaInAsP.mat for the wells and barriers. Measured data is available for this structure [1] and a study of the gain model calibration for both the default K·P and Table Gain models has been performed [2]. Several variables have been defined in the global symbol table (see Fig. 8.1) for convenience. Only a couple of these will be varied during the course of this calibration. They are

CarrLossP Ea Ebroad KT KTref QWAugerP QWSRH

carrier dependent losses such as IVBA, for holes activation energy collision broadening halfwidth thermal voltage reference thermal voltage hole Auger coefficient SRH relaxation time in the quantum wells, for holes and electrons

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Figure 8-134. Symbol Table for example fp1d_mqw.

In addition to the above processes which affect both the slope efficiency and the trheshold current, several other parameters (see Appendix on Material Parameters) may be important to consider when doing calibrations. These include energy gap and its temperature dependence (the "A" coefficient is most important) which affect the spectral location of the gain peak, spontaneous recombination which affects both threashold and slope efficiency, and the waveguide loss which (see global parameters dialog box) effects the threshold.

**The temperature dependence of the Auger coefficient has been described in the literature [1] as
**

C p (T ) = C 0 exp

Ea Ea − kT0 kT

and has been considered there as the dominant mechanism for controling the threashold current. An alternative viewpoint [2] is that a the collision broadening, which has a complicated temperature and density dependence, is a better fitting parameter. A model for this dependence available through the table gain model, but a built in model is not available in the current version. The Ebroad parameter will be varied to approximate this dependence.

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(1)

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Figure 8-135. LI curves for different stages in calibration process for T=313K.

In Fig. 8.2, the solid curve represents all the default values in the material library. The long dashes represent all default values except that the Ebroad has been increased to 60 meV. The effects of these two different broadenings can be seen in the gain spectra of Fig. 8.3. The short dashed curve, results from increasing the Auger coefficent for holes (C0 specifically) and good agreement with the literature is achieved. All other parameters remain at their default levels.

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Figure 8-136. Gain spectra with different broadening halfwidths.

A second calibration point (see Fig. 8.3) is taken at a temperature of 333K. The solid line results from simply reruning the KP and Laser Simulations at the new temperature. The Auger coefficient adjusts according to (1) automatically due to the parametric nature of the software, but this is insufficient to match to measured data. Several approaches are possible, a stronger temperature dependence for the Auger recombination can be chosen or some of the other parameters listed above may be adjusted, but these would need to be adjusted at each new temperature as well. Instead, only Ebroad is increased (to 80meV) which represents the higher collision broadening with higher temperature. Once again, good agreement with the measured data is obtained. At this point is can be seen that with the appropriate broadening model (which can be programed parametrically in the symbol table or achieved through the Table Gain) no further calibration is necessary and device performance at new temperatures should now be predictable via simulation.

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Figure 8-137. LI curves for different stages in the calibration for T=333K.

8.B: Validation Results

This section contains the device layout and validation results.

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Figure 8-138. CAD layout of the laser cross-section, showing 6 wells and Oxide confinement regions (not to scale).

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Figure 8-139. Peak material gain as a function of carrier density at 6 selected temperatures (after material calibration). Experimental data is shown with solid lines, while the circles show the points calculated by LaserMOD.

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Figure 8-140. Light - Current curves for the laser at 6 selected temperatures (after material calibration). Experimental data is shown with solid lines, while the circles show the points calculated by LaserMOD.

References

[1] J.Piprek, P.Abraham, and J.E. Bowers, "Self-Consistent Analysis of High Temperature Effects on Strained-Layer Multiquantum-Well InGaAsP-InP Lasers", IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 36, pp. 366-374, 2000. [2] B. Grote, et. al. "Integration of microscopic gain modeling into a commercial laser simulation environment", submitted to Photonics West 2003 conference proceedings.

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Chapter 9: 1D VSCEL with SelfHeating

LaserMOD can simulate VCSELs. Furthermore, a number of other features important to VCSEL simulation, such as self-heating and tunneling at semiconductor heterojunctions, are among the simulation capabilities. This chapter contains a tutorial describing the use of DBR elements in the device layout and the simulation of an example 1D AlGaAs MQW VCSEL with GaAs/AlGaAs DBRs. The associated file, vcsel1d.las, resides in <rsoft_dir>\Examples\LaserMOD\vcsel1d. This example will have self-heating activated and the roll-off of the L-I curve will be shown.

**9.A. Using the DBR Layout Element:
**

To facilitate the layout of typical VCSEL’s, a new element has been added, the DBR region. This is essentially a shortcut to defining a stack of alternating bulk layers. This element allows the specification of the material system, alloy, doping, and profiling of each layer individually. The profiles can be used to create graded transitions between the layers and this usage will be described here. See chapter 3 for more detail on the DBR layout element. Please note that in the following, capital X,Y will denote alloy composition while lower case x,y will denote spatial dimension. • Open vcsel1d.las. Though it shows the full 2D diametric cross-section, the simulation will be 1D and therefore, the narrowest element in the domain (that crosses the y-axis) will be used to determine the width (radius) used in the simulation. In this case, it will be the oxide aperture. Further note that the simulation for VCSEL’s is carried out in cylindrical coordinates, so the x dimension is actually the radius, and the structure is assumed to be revolved about the y axis. Right click on either the top or bottom DBR region.

•

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Figure 141. DBR Region Properties Dialog

•

The number of periods and the thickness of each layer are specified. The color can be chosen independently as well. “Nperiod” is a user variable that has been defined in the global symbol table. If a non-integer value for # of periods is given, then an additional half period is added to the stack. Since each DBR is composed of 2 layers; Bottom Layer governs the bottom portion of each period and Top Layer governs the top portion. As a result, it can be seen that the layer specifications (thickness and material) must be inverted between the top and bottom DBRs in order to create a symmetric cavity. It is convenient to invert the colors as well, so that the same color represents the same material in each DBR. The thicknesses have been parameterized based on the index values from the material database and the design wavelength of the cavity. Right click on one of the layer buttons and notice that the standard dialog for setting material parameters appears.

•

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Figure 142. Set Material and Alloy X Profile Dialogs. The Trapezoid profile is convenient for representing a DBR layers that have graded interfaces. An average alloy composition is set and then half the peak to peak value is given as the profile amplitude (“+” for one of the layers and “–“ for the other, essentially representing the splicing together of two trapezoids, one upright and one inverted.

•

Notice that an alloy profile has been specified for X. This is used to create a linear grade between the layers. Click the profile button and notice that a Trapezoid profile has been used. Each of the 2 layers has its own trapezoid profile, which extends from some average alloy value (.55) to either the maximum (.9) or minimum (.2) alloy value. The normalized size of the flat part of a trapezoid is specified by Center yo (or xo). Close the dialogs and generate an index profile. Notice the effect of the trapezoid.

•

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Figure 143. Index Profile near the quantum wells, showing the grading at the DBR interfaces and SCH region.

Note on “DBR for index only”: This option is enabled by a checkbox in the DBR region dialog. It tells the program to simulate the DBR stack as a uniform bulk region (not heterojunctions). This speeds up the simulation dramatically since fewer mesh points are required. Only the refractive index profile will preserve the layer structure specified by the DBR, allowing the mode solver to properly calculate the properties of the cavity. Furthermore, when this option is enabled, the nonuniform mesh, which is now course in the DBRs may not be able to resolve the fast oscillations of the field. Instead the envelop of the intensity will be displayed there. There are files in the _data directory that contain the original field with fast oscillations.

Note on the display window: In the Profile Generation Dialog there is a SetGrid button. If 1 xpoint is specified, a single cut along the y axis will be plotted. For 2 or more xpoints, the simulation window will display the X-Y cross-section of the device (where X is the direction along the radius of the cylinder), along with a white outline of the structure, which is superimposed. To disable the outline, uncheck the “Show Structure” button in the Global Parameters Dialog. Right click on the X axis to see a cut of the index profile. You can toggle between contour display and cut display by right clicking near an axis. Zooming can be performed in either display mode by using the left button to draw a box around the region of interest. If a display is zoomed, then the unzoomed view may be recoverd by a single right mouse click. The resolution of these plots can be set in the Profile Generation Dialog.

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**9.B. Designing the Cavity:
**

To design a VCSEL it is convenient to know both the material gain spectrum and the transmission spectrum of the cavity. Each peak in the transmission spectrum corresponds to a potential longitudinal mode of the VCSEL. The dominant mode has the longest cavity lifetime and should align with the gain peak. The gain calculation for VCSELs is performed in the same way as with FP laser structures. Performing a gain calculation and comparing the gain peak the main cavity mode will quickly identify if the design will lase. This simple procedure can be used to design the VCSEL cavity, prior to running a full laser simulation. • Click the “Calculate Mode” button on the side toolbar. As many modes as you select in the Global Parameters, along with there transmission spectra, will be saved to files after this calculation. The highest mode calculated will be displayed in the simulation window.

Figure 144. Mode Calculation Dialog.

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Figure 145. Result of mode calculation with Index Only DBRs. Since the nonuniform mesh is course away from the quantum wells, only the envelope of the mode is utilized there. Shown inset is the mode overlap with the index profile.

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Figure 146. By contrast, the mode calculation with full DBRs produces the more typical field profile, as well as a far more time consuming simulation.

• •

Go to the “View Graphs” button on the top toolbar and open the Transmission spectrum plot that was just generated (in _plot directory). Perform a gain calculation using the “Calculate Gain” button on the side toolbar.

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Figure 147. Gain calculation dialog

• •

Go to the “View Graphs” button on the top toolbar and open the Gain spectrum (in _plot directory). The result may be superimposed with the transmission spectrum above to facilitate cavity design. This overlay is done by opening both plots side by side and going to the View Edit Mode of Windplot. Copy the data file of one plot to the edit window of the other. You will need to use the /sy option after the gain file name so that both data sets will be visible on the same scale.

Figure 148. How to overlay plots using the Winplot script editor (see RPLOT.pdf or WinPLOT Help). The last line was cut and paste from the script editor window of the Material Gain plot.

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•

Observe the small resonance (blue) in the center of the stop band and that it has been aligned closely with the peak of the gain (green)

Figure 149. Resulting plot from the script shown in Fig. 8.

**9.C. Simulating the VCSEL:
**

It should be noted that the electrodes in this example have the standard configuration for self-heating, one has a Cauchy condition allowing heat flux to a heat sink with some effective thermal conductivity while the other boundary is allowed to float. • • First, run the full laser simulation by clicking the “Simulate Laser” button on the side toolbar. Do not use self-heating, since these results will be used for later comparison. Now, rerun the full laser simulation with self-heating. Make sure Auger and carrier dependent losses are also enabled (see below).

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Figure 150. Simulation Dialog

•

Go to the Plot Generation Dialog and generate a standard L-I curve. Both runs will be shown, with selfheating (blue) and without (green). Notice the roll-off of the L-I curve due to temperature detuning between the cavity resonance and the gain peak.

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Figure 151. L-I curves for both with (blue) and without (green) self-heating model enabled.

•

Generate “MaxTemp” vs Current (Custom Bias Data plot). Recall that Custom plots are enabled via checkboxes and the “Plot For Bias#” must be set for Custom Spatial and Energy plots

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Figure 152. Maximum Lattice temperature in the device as a function of bias (current).

•

Use the Gain generation Dialog to sweep the gain over this temperature range. Overlay these with the Optical Spectrum (standard plot), as before, to observe the detuning.

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Figure 153. Red shift of the material gain with temperature and location of the lasing mode. While a good indicator of thermal rolloff, the actual roll-off will depend on spatial distribution of carriers and temperature as well as other factors, such as shifting of the resonance due to temperature and carriers.

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Chapter 10: 2D VSCEL using FEM

This chapter extends the concepts of the previous chapters with a tutorial describing the simulation of an example 2D Oxide-Aperture MQW VCSEL with GaAs/AlGaAs DBRs. The associated file, vcsel2d_fem.las, resides in <rsoft_dir>\Examples\LaserMOD\vcsel2d_fem. This example will demonstrate the use of the FEM (finite element method) mode solver to determine VCSEL cavity modes. One effect of this multi-mode simulation will be to demonstrate kink in the L-I curve, which indicates a switch in the dominant lasing mode.

**10.A. Using FEM:
**

Layout and cavity design are the same as before (see Chap. 9), specifically, the material gain spectrum and the transmission spectrum generated by the TMM solver are used to design the VCSEL. Only when a reasonable design has been achieved should the FEM solver be invoked. This is due to the simulation time as well as the need for an initial guess of the resonant frequency. • • • Open vcsel2d_fem.las In the Global Settings select 1D Click the “Calculate Mode” button on the side toolbar. Set the “Mode Wavelength” to “default”, select TMM for the mode solver, set #xpts=1 and increase the # y points. Click OK

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Figure 154. Mode calculation for 1D TMM version of the problem

•

Go to the “Output – Show Spectrum” menu option of the simulation window to see the Transmission spectrum plot that was just generated.

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Figure 155. Spectrum Plot and resonant mode at 871nm.

• •

From the transmission peak in the stop band (see Fig. 2) we get the initial guess for the “Mode Wavelength” needed by the FEM solver (0.871). Close and reopen the file to reset it to the original parameters. Note that 0.86 is entered in the “Wavelength” rather than 0.871. This is because, to save some time, we are going to use 1st order elements, which will give the correct mode profiles but not the correct resonances (a much finer mesh would have to be used for 1st order elements to give converged resonances). The more rigourous alternative, albeit still slower, would be to use 2nd order elements (with 30 x points and an initial guess of 0.871). This will give both the correct profiles and resonances.

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Figure 156. Mode calculation parameters for 1st order FEM simulation

•

Select #azimuthal mode =2 for the mode calculation since the fundamental VCSEL mode is typically HE11, which occurs at L=1 (not L=0). With these settings, 1 radial modes for each L number will be calculated. (One FEM calculation produeces all requested radial modes for a single azimuthal #, so here, two FEM calculations will automatically be performed) Observe the PML (perfectly matched layer) settings. Typically the domain must be extended by the thickness of the PML since the PML should only exist outside the device. For index guided structures, the side PML is not needed. Finally, note that the “Min Div/Layer” setting insures a min # of points per layer. Since the mesh is nonuniform, the spacings can vary dramatically, and while interfaces are included automatically, this setting insures that there are enough points within each region to resolve the variation in the field there. Click Show FEM Mesh to the mesh.

•

•

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•

Click OK. The simulation will take some time…FemSIM will be running in the background. The unsorted modes will be saved to the _data directory, one file for each field component of each mode. These can be conveniently viewed with the RsdataBrowser.

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Figure 157. Cylindrical cross-section of the fundamental radial mode for L=0.

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Figure 158. Cylindrical cross-section of the fundamental radial mode for L=1.

•

The number of modes saved is given by the # of eigenvalues specified. The program then sorts these modes, first by lowest cavity loss, and then by resonant wavelength. The requested number of azimuthal and radial modes are then taken from this sorted set, and saved in the _plot directory (as is the case for all other mode solvers). This is the final group of modes used in the full laser simulation.

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Figure 159. Mode 0 used in simulation

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Figure 160. Mode 1 used in simulation

**10.B. Simulating the VCSEL:
**

Simulate the VCSEL as before. As long as the mode settings don’t change, the mode calculation will not be repeated. • Run the full laser simulation by clicking the “Simulate Laser” button on the side toolbar. For the purposes of this tutorial, an extra bias point, Bias 8, has been added to drive the simulation to 20 mA.

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Figure 161. Simulation parameters.

•

Notice the roll-off in the slope of the L-I curve. There are several possible causes; thermal roll-off (but self-heating is not active here), Kink due to multimode competition, or in this case, saturation due to spatial hole burning.

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Figure 162. L-I-V curve for VCSEL – added bias point (#8) for 20mA operation

•

Generate optical spectra at bias 7 & 8 using the Standard Plot in the Plot Generation Dialog. They both show the same dominant mode, so this roll-off is not due to kink.

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Figure 163. Optical Spectrum at 20mA. Only 1 mode is lasing.

•

To see which mode is lasing generate the individual L-I curves for each mode using the custom bias data plot for mode power.

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Figure 164. L-I curve for Mode 0 (left) and Mode 1 (right) which is below threshold.

•

To explain the source of the roll-off, generate the charge densities for Bias 8. A large spatial hole can be observed for both electrons and holes

Figure 165. Cylindrical cross-section of electron distribution (left) and cross-cut along the radius at the quantum well (right) showing strong spatial hole burning. A similar situation exists for holes.

•

Finally, it is desirable to see the nearfield and farfield of the device. Go to the Plot Generator dialog again and check Nearfield and Farfield. Note the settings in the dependency area; x-z plane has been checked and a position given just above the top facet. Click OK.

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Figure 166. Nearfield (left) and farfield (right) showing the lasing mode(s), which in this case, is Mode 0.

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Chapter 11: DFB Introduction and Uniform Grating Example

This tutorial will first give the background for the DFB cavity simulation and then proceed to give the basic layout and simulation of a uniform grating Distributed Feedback Laser (DFB). It is a hypothetical example, for demonstration purposes. • • • See file DFB_uniform.las . A new “grating” region will be introduced. The simulation plane will now be comprised of the growth (y) and lasing (x) directions. Note that x was previously used to define a waveguide’s lateral dimension for FP lasers, and the radial dimension for VCSEL’s. Resulting laser performance, including optical spectra above and below threshold, will be plotted and examined.

•

11.A. Introduction

• • Distributed feedback (DFB) lasers employ longitudinal gratings to achieve a superior mode selectivity, frequency stability, and sidemode suppression ratio (SMSR). Of interest in a DFB laser simulation are the effects of various grating profiles, facet reflectivity and phase, and longitudinal carrier distribution. These, along with the standard electro-thermal transport effects, help to determine the laser’s performance with temperature, injection current, and modulation frequency LaserMOD’s DFB module therefore allows the user to describe the geometry of single or multi-section lasers with nearly arbitrary grating profiles, facet reflectivity and phase, and to calculate the gain and mode spectra of the cavity prior to running a full laser simulation

•

**11.B. DFB Layout Plane
**

• • • For FP lasers, the waveguide cross-section is simulated, as defined by the growth direction (y) and the wavegide’s lateral direction (x). Lasing is perpendicular to the layout. For VCSEL’s the diametric cross-section is simulated, as defined by the growth direction (y) and the radius (x). Lasing is along the y direction. For DFB’s, the longitudinal cross-section is simulated, as defined by the growth direction (y) and the waveguide’s longitudinal direction (x). Lasing is now along the x direction. DFB simulations are always 2D. Note that the optical confinement factor for the waveguide mode can be accounted for by setting the

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“Confinement Scaling Factor” to <1 in the Simulation Parameters dialog. This will cause the lasing threshold to be higher. This factor can be determined by performing a mode calculation on waveguide cross-section (FP layout).

Figure 167. Typical geometries for FP, VCSEL, and DFB cavities.

**11.C. Grating Region
**

• • • A new region, similar to the DBR region, is provided in LaserMOD to handle grating sections. Geometry and meshing are the same as with other regions. The grating is defined by its period, length, and starting phase. The number of periods therefore, depends on the length and period. Note that the length of the grating is determined by the value in the Element Width field, due to the orientation of the layout.

Figure 168. Grating dialog

•

A variety of built-in grating profiles are available, including sin, square, triangle, sawtooth, trapezoid, custom, and V-groove (not shown below).

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Figure 169. Several of the grating profiles that can be specified in the software

• • •

The custom grating option (a parapolic profile is shown last in Fig. 3, as an example, in the above fig.) allows the user to create a nearly arbitrary profile. The gratings are formed at the interface between two different materials, each selected independently by the user (bottom layer and top layer). Finally, the phase at the left facet is specified explicitly, while the phase at the right facet is then determined by; the left facet phase, the length, and the period. Typically, it is desirable to specify the facet phases, the number of periods, and the period size. The grating length (entered in the Element Width field) can then be determined from [Right Phase – Left Phase + Number Periods*Period Size].

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Figure 170. Control of facet phase.

**11.D. Structure Overview
**

The structure used will be a single section DFB with uniform grating, a single QW, and Ohmic contacts at the top and bottom. It will be implemented in GaInAsP, and operate near 1550nm. The grating is located at the interface between the bottom cladding and substrate layers. Global symbols will be defined below to specify the phase of the grating at the right facet. The phase at the left facet is a given explicitly in the grating parameters dialog. Controlling the phase at both facets simultaneously only requires the definition of an additional symbol, for left facet phase, to be used in the grating parameters dialog. The grating length (Element Width) is then [Right Phase – Left Phase + Number Periods*Period Size]. Left Phase will not be used below (=0).

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Figure 171. Layout of Uniform grating example.

**11.E. Creating the Structure in the CAD Environment
**

Use the following sequence to create this file from scratch. • Open the CAD layout window, click the New Structure button and set the following parameters.

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Figure 172. Global Parameters Dialog

• Variable

D Dc Dg H Length Ndop Nper PDop Period Phase Xo Yo

**Define the following symbols in the Global Symbol Table for convenience Value
**

0.1 0.15 0.18 Dc Nper*Period 5e+017

Description Active layer (QW & SCH) thickness Bottom cladding layer thickness Grating modulation depth Top cladding thickness Cavity (=grating) length n-type doping # periods in the grating p-type doping Grating period in um Grating phase (deg) at right facet x reference y reference

**300+Phase/360 5e+17
**

0.244 0 0 0

• • • • •

Draw the bottom Eelectrode (# 1). This is done by clicking the RECT button on the side toolbar, and selecting the region type (BIAS button) from the grouping formed by the next 6 buttons. Draw a Bulk Region (# 2) to represent the bottom substrate (BULK button). Draw a Grating Region (# 3) (GRAT button). Draw a Bulk Region (# 4) to represent the (ungrated) portion of the bottom cladding. Draw a Quantum Well Region (# 5) to represent the active layer. (MQW button).

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• • • •

Draw a Bulk Region (# 6) to represent the top cladding. Draw a final Bulk Region (# 7). Draw the top Electrode (#8). Right click on each region and enter the corresponding values from the following table. The remaining settings will be left as default. Width Height x ref. (y ref.)

Length Length

Region # Electrode Group #

y ref. to Elem. #

Material System* (X,Y)

Donors*

Acceptors*

1 2

1 --

-1

Xo (Yo) Xo

0 1

-GaInAsP (0,0)

-NDop

-0

3 Top: Bot: 4

--

Length

Dg

Xo

2

GaInAsP (.29,.61) (0,0)

NDop

0

--

Length

Dc-Dg/2

Xo

3

GaInAsP (.29,.61)

NDop

0

5 Well: Barr: SCH: 6

--

Length

Xo 0.008 0.01 (D-0.008)/2

4

GaInAsP (.24,.79) (.29,.61) (.29,.61)

0

0

--

Length

H

Xo

5

GaInAsP (.29,.61)

0

PDop

7

--

Length

1

Xo

6

GaInAsP (0,0)

0

PDop

8

0

Length

--

Xo

7

--

--

--

*In Set Material dialog for each layer • •

Finally, click the Tile Regions button on the side tool bar. It may also be convenient to select View/Full from the main menu.

**11.F. Setting the Bias Parameters
**

In order to drive the simulation, the voltage or current on each contact must be specified. 0 volts are applied to each by default. Open the Bias Table and add bias points as shown below.

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Figure 173. Bias Editor

• •

Highlight each bias and click the Advanced button. Add the symbol, n_steps, and set a value, say 4. (i.e. 4 simulation points between this bias’ value and that of the previous bias). This will improve the resolution of all the performance curves such as L-I and I-V. Note that all spatial data (on the mesh) and spectral data are only saved when the simulation reaches the value specified at each bias point in the table…not at the intermediate points specified by n_steps. If any bias has trouble converging, this parameter may be increased.

•

**11.G. View the Mesh
**

The mesh can be by clicking the Generate Mesh button on the side toolbar. But first, set a uniform grid in the x direction. • Set a uniform grid by picking any region that spans the domain width, region #2 for example. Right click on region #2 (a region’s # is shown in the lower left status bar, when selected) and check the Uniform box in the x Grid section. The following mesh should result.

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Figure 174. Simulation mesh for DFB example

**11.H. View the Index Profile
**

It is good practice to verify that the correct structure has been specified by clicking the Generate Profile button on the side toolbar. A variety of profiles can be tested, here we examine the Index Profile. The result below comes from zooming in on the left facet.

Figure 175. Profile generation dialog

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Figure 176. Index profile – zoomed in on a few periods

**11.I. Calculating the Modes
**

It may be interesting to observe the cavity mode of the grating before proceeding with the simulation. Click the Calculate Mode button on the side toolbar. This will also produce a cold cavity spectrum that can help determine if the grating is working as intended. Note the mode is determined with resolution according to the number of (x,y) points specified, but the result is then interpolated onto the non-uniform mesh on which the electro-thermal transport is solved. Therefore, the mode profile will follow the envelope of the intensity wherever the mesh is not fine enough to resolve the fast oscillations. • Define plot_energy_grid = 1000, plot_energy_max=1.24/1.5, and plot_energy_min=1.24/1.6 in the global symbol table to center the spectrum between 1.5um and 1.6um.

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Figure 177. Mode calculation dialog

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Figure 178. Fundamental mode (left) and cross-cut along the quantum well (right)

• • • • •

Perform a gain calculation to determine where to place the modes. The transmission peaks on either side of the stop-band are most likely to lase. Which one depends on where gain is placed and on the facet phase. Open the Transmission Spectrum plot (generated during mode calculation) from the yellow icon on the LaserMOD toolbar Click the “View Editor” button on the Winplot toolbar Add the line “tmp_Gain_5.rsf/sy5e-4” to the end of the script Click “View Plot” button to see the transmission (blue) and gain spectra (green) overlaid

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Figure 179. Transmission spectrum overlaid with material gain

**11.J. Running a Simulation
**

Finally, the device performance can be assessed by clicking the Simulate Laser button on the side toolbar. • Choose 4 longitudinal modes in the Global Parameters dialog and perform a full laser simulation

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Figure 180. Simulation Dialog

• •

The L-I-V curve should appear as the simulation progresses. Note that the optical confinement factor for the waveguide mode can be accounted for by setting the “Confinement Scaling Factor” to <1 in the Simulation Parameters dialog. This will cause the lasing threshold to be higher. This factor can be calculated by performing a mode calculation on the appropriate waveguide structure using (FP laser simulation) in a separate file.

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Figure 181. L-I-V curve for 4 mode simulation of uniform DFB

**11.K. Plotting Results
**

All the simulation data has been saved in the <Run Prefix>_data\ subdirectory, during the simulation. Use the Generate Plot utility to view desired results. The plots generated by this post-process will be stored in the <Run Prefix>_plot\ subdirectory, where they can be viewed any time. However, if the same plot is generated, but for a different bias point, the old one will be overwritten. A variety of standard plots are available, as well as 3 categories of custom plots; data vs bias (LI, IV, etc…) spatial data (mode, index, etc…), and energy data (gain, loss, etc…). Note that spatial and energy data are saved only at the bias values explicitly specified in the Bias Table, while the bias data is saved at intermediate points as well. • • When the simulation is done, all spatial, spectral, and device performance data can be extracted and plotted for each simulated bias point. To generate a mode spectrum below threshold, check “Optical Spectrum” in the Plot Generation dialog and enter a 1 in the “Plot Data for Bias #” box. Repeat for bias 3.

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Figure 182. Optical spectrum below (left) and above (right) the lasing threshold

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Chapter 12: DFB With Two Uniform Gratings and a Phase Shift

This tutorial will focus on the basic layout and simulation of a Distributed Bragg Reflector Laser (DBR). It is a hypothetical example, for demonstration purposes. The uniform grating tutorial should be studied before proceeding with this one. • • • See file DFB_phaseshift.las . Multiple “grating” regions will be employed. The simulation plane will now be comprised of the growth (y) and lasing (x) directions. Note that x was previously used to define a waveguide’s lateral dimension for FP lasers, and the radial dimension for VCSEL’s. Resulting laser performance, including optical spectra above and below threshold, will be plotted and examined.

•

**12.A. Structure Overview
**

The structure used will be a single section DFB with 2 uniform gratings separated by a pi/2 phase shift (i.e. a DBR laser). It contains a single QW and Ohmic contacts at the top and bottom. It will be implemented in GaInAsP, and operate near 1550nm. The grating is located at the interface between the bottom cladding and substrate layers.

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Figure 183. Layout of DFB with central phase shift

**12.B. Creating the Structure in the CAD Environment
**

Make a copy of the example in generated in the uniform grating DFB tutoria. Use the following sequence to modify that file. • Variable

Lcav Length Lgrat Nper

Add/Modify the following symbols in the Global Symbol Table. Value Period/2 2*Lgrat+Lcav Nper*Period 150+Phase/360 Description Length of phase shift region Device length Cavity (=grating) length # periods in each grating

• • • • •

Duplicate region #2 to get region #9. Set region #9’s height to Dg and width to Lcav. Set its y ref to 2. Change the width of region #3 to Lgrat, and its x ref to #9 and y ref to #2. Duplicate region #3 to get region #10. Finally, click the Tile Regions button on the side tool bar. The two grating may be overlapping. Drag region #10 to the left side of the layout and retile. It may also be convenient to select View/Full from the main menu.

**12.C. Setting the Bias Parameters
**

The same Bias Table may be used.

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Figure 184. Bias Editor

**12.D. View the Mesh
**

The mesh can be by clicking the Generate Mesh button on the side toolbar. But first, remove the uniform grid in the x direction. • Right click on region #2 and uncheck the Uniform box in the x Grid section. The following mesh should result.

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Figure 185.Nonuniform simulation mesh

**12.E. View the Index Profile
**

It is good practice to verify that the correct structure has been specified by clicking the Generate Profile button on the side toolbar. A variety of profiles can be tested, here we examine the Index Profile. The result below comes from zooming in on x=0. Note #x pts. should now be 20*Nper (2 grating regions).

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Figure 186. Index profile showing the central phase shift and several periods to either side.

**12.F. Calculating the Modes
**

It may be interesting to observe the cavity mode of the grating before proceeding with the simulation. Click the Calculate Mode button on the side toolbar. This will also produce a cold cavity spectrum that can help determine if the grating is working as intended. Note the mode is determined with resolution according to the number of (x,y) points specified, but the result is then interpolated onto the non-uniform mesh on which the electro-thermal transport is solved. Therefore, the mode profile will follow the envelope of the intensity wherever the mesh is not fine enough to resolve the fast oscillations. • Define plot_energy_grid = 1000, plot_energy_max=1.24/1.5, and plot_energy_min=1.24/1.6 in the global symbol table to center the spectrum between 1.5um and 1.6um.

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Figure 187. Mode calculation settings for fundamental mode

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Figure 188. Mode profile (left) and cross-cut along quantum well (right) of fundamental mode

• • • • •

Perform a gain calculation to determine where to place the modes. The transmission peaks on either side of the stop-band are most likely to lase. Which one depends on where gain is placed and on the facet phase. Open the Transmission Spectrum plot (generated during mode calculation) from the yellow icon on the LaserMOD toolbar Click the “View Editor” button on the Winplot toolbar Add the line “tmp_Gain_5.rsf/sy5e-4” to the end of the script Click “View Plot” button to see the transmission (blue) and gain spectra (green) overlaid

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Figure 189. Transmission spectrum and material gain. Note the FP resonance in the middle of the stop-band. This is due to the central phase shift.

**12.G. Running a Simulation
**

Finally, the device performance can be assessed by clicking the Simulate Laser button on the side toolbar. • Choose 4 longitudinal modes in the Global Parameters dialog and perform a full laser simulation

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Figure 190. Simulation settings

• •

The L-I-V curve should appear as the simulation progresses. Note that the optical confinement factor for the waveguide mode can be accounted for by setting the “Confinement Scaling Factor” to <1 in the Simulation Parameters dialog. This will cause the lasing threshold to be higher. This factor can be calculated by performing a mode calculation on the appropriate waveguide structure using (FP laser simulation) in a separate file.

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Figure 191. L-I-V curve for 4 mode simulation

**12.H. Plotting Results
**

All the simulation data has been saved in the <Run Prefix>_data\ subdirectory, during the simulation. Use the Generate Plot utility to view desired results. The plots generated by this post-process will be stored in the <Run Prefix>_plot\ subdirectory, where they can be viewed any time. However, if the same plot is generated, but for a different bias point, the old one will be overwritten. A variety of standard plots are available, as well as 3 categories of custom plots; data vs bias (LI, IV, etc…) spatial data (mode, index, etc…), and energy data (gain, loss, etc…). Note that spatial and energy data are saved only at the bias values explicitly specified in the Bias Table, while the bias data is saved at intermediate points as well. • • When the simulation is done, all spatial, spectral, and device performance data can be extracted and plotted for each simulated bias point. To generate a mode spectrum below threshold, check “Optical Spectrum” in the Plot Generation dialog and enter a 1 in the “Plot Data for Bias #” box. Repeat for bias 3.

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Figure 192. Optical spectrum below (left) and above (right) lasing threshold. Note that the central FP resonance (middle of the stop-band) is the preferred lasing mode. This can be seen by comparing the wavelength of each peak with Fig. 7.

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Chapter 13: SOI Introduction and Steady-State Waveguide

This tutorial introduces the use of LaserMOD to simulate modulators based on thermal and carrier dependent index effects. A steady-state SOI waveguide example is also examined here in detail. This tutorial should be studied before moving on to subsequent examples.

13.A. Introduction

What follows is a series of tutorials that demonstrate the use of LaserMOD to simulate active waveguide devices in which the performance is governed primarily by free-carrier and/or thermo-optic effects found in semiconductors. These processes are of interest in a wide variety of devices, such as modulators and switches, used in photonic integrated circuits (PICs). They are present in a variety of material systems, though these tutorials will examine mainly Silicon on Insulator (SOI) structures. Justification • • • • • Silicon photonics has received much attention since it promises the advantage of monolithic integration with electronics (EPIC) Modulators are key components of optical communication systems, traditionally implemented using electro-optic materials like lithium niobate or fabricated from III-V semiconductor compounds Silicon modulators exploit the index change associated with free-carrier absorption, but suffer from slow operating speeds Physics based simulation can assist in improving the performance of such devices [1]. Inclusion of carrier-transport gives a more accurate assessment of the thermo-optic effects when dealing with semiconductor systems

Physics Summary • • Fully-couple solution of Poisson, carrier-continuity, and lattice heat equations Complex index update based on free-carrier absorption/electro-refraction and thermo-optic coefficients. Carrier effect coefficients may include free-carrier absorption, Burnstein-Moss band filling, and coulombic effects (bandgap renormalization) while pure-field based electro-optic effects such as Franz-Keldysh (or QCSE), Pockel, and Kerr effects are not explicitly included and are assumed small in the materials/structures of interest. Drude and Soref Models for free-carrier absorption/electro-refraction are available [2] Internal or external optical solvers available

• •

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• • • • • • •

See Fig. 1

General Procedure Layout device cross-section in LaserMOD Simulate the device up to desired operating bias, with desired models enabled Use internal mode solvers to assess effective indecies Use LaserMOD Plot Generator to analytically Post-Process cross-section results into device performance characteristics Or, export a complex index profile to an external solver, such as BeamPROP, to perform numerical 3D propagation Or, scan over set of parameterized cross-sections in LaserMOD, and export a set of index profiles to describe a complex 3D structure, which can then be simulated in BeamPROP, or other passive device tool from Rsoft Design Group.

Figure 193. Schematic of Modulator Simulation Flow

**13.B. Tutorial Overview
**

The tutorials are designed sequentially to take the user from simple layout through advanced 3D simulation. • • Introduction: This chapter SOI Steady-State Waveguide: Layout of a waveguide cross-section and Steady-State simulation with freecarrier effects. This chapter

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• • • •

SOI Time Dependent Waveguide: Transient simulation of a waveguide with free-carrier effects. Chapter 14. SOI Mach-Zehnder Modulator: Two methods, (i) Post-Processing and (ii) BeamPROP, to determine the device performance of a Mach-Zehnder Modulator with free-carrier effects. Chapter 15. SOI Y-Branch: Exporting 3D index profiles to BeamPROP and simulation of a Y-Branch with free-carrier effects. Chapter 16. SOI Directional Coupler: Exporting 3D index profiles to BeamPROP and simulation of a directional coupler with thermo-optic effects. Chapter 17.

References

[1] RSoft Design Group, “Simulation of Carrier Dependent Absorption Effects in Silicon Optical Waveguide Devices”, presented Photonics West, San Jose, CA, Jan. 2005. [2] R. Soref, B. Bennett, “Electrooptical Effects in Silicon”, IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronic 23, 123 (1987).

**13.C. Steady-State Waveguide
**

This tutorial will focus on the basic layout and simulation of an active waveguide in which the carrier- dependent index profile is of interest. It is a hypothetical example, for demonstration purposes. • • • See file SOI_wg.las No gain regions are present and self-heating will be disabled, so only electronic transport will be simulated Carrier-dependent index effect will be enabled, which will automatically update the index and invoke a mode calculation at every bias point. This will cause the effective index of the structure to be calculated and saved at each point. Resulting carrier and index profiles will be plotted and examined

•

**13.D. Structure Overview
**

The structure used will be a simple ridge waveguide with top and side Ohmic contacts, implemented in Silicon on Insulator (SOI), where the insulator is silica. Device operation will be considered at 1550nm.

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Figure 194. Waveguide cross-section

**13.E. Creating the CAD Layout
**

Use the following sequence to create this file from scratch. • • Variable

EpsOx Hbuf Hridge Hsub Ndop Pdop Wridge Wsub Welec Xo

Open the CAD layout window, click the New Structure button and select 2D Simulation. The rest of the settings should be OK Define the following symbols in the Global Symbol Table for convenience Value

1.45*1.45 0.5 1 1 1e+017 1e+017

Description Insulator Dielectric Buffer layer height Ridge height Substrate height n-type doping p-type doping Ridge width Substrate width Ground electrode width x reference

2 15

1 0

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•

Draw 3 Oxide Regions (# 1,2,3) to represent the buffer and regrown silica. This is done by clicking the RECT button on the side toolbar, and selecting the region type (OX button) from the grouping formed by the next 6 buttons. Draw 2 Bulk Regions (# 4,5) to represent the silicon slab and ridge. (BULK button) Draw 3 Electrode Regions (# 6,7,8) to represent bias and ground contacts. (BIAS button) Right click on each region and enter the corresponding values from the following table. The remaining settings will be left as default. Width

Wsub

• • •

**Region # Electrode Group #
**

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -----0 1

Height Hbuf

x ref. Xo --Xo Xo Xo

-Wsub/2 +Welec/2

x ref. to y ref. to Elem. # Elem. # 0 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 1 4 5 5

Material System* Oxide Oxide Oxide Si1550 Si1550 ----

Donors* 0 0 0 0 Ndop ----

Acceptors* 0 0 0 PDop 0 ----

Wsub/2- Hridge Wridge/2 Wsub/2- Hridge Wridge/2 Wridge Wsub Wridge Welec

Hridge Hsub ----

8

1

Welec

Wsub/2Welec/2

*In Set Material dialog •

Finally, click the Tile Regions button on the side tool bar. Note that the Regions 2 and 3 will overlay – giving a warning. Simply drag the top one (Region 3) to the left of Region 4 and click Tile Regions once more. It may also be convenient to select View/Full from the main menu. Additionally, since the Oxide material represents a generic insulator, it is probably desirable to override the default dielectric value. This is done by defining and setting “kpmat_DIELOPT” = EpsOx in the Physical Data Table of each Oxide Regions.

• •

**13.F. Setting the Bias Parameters
**

In order to drive the simulation, the voltage or current on each contact must be specified. 0 volts are applied to each by default. Open the Bias Table and observe the default settings. These should be sufficient.

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Figure 195. Bias parameters for steady-state

•

Highlight bias 1 and increase the value of ramp pts to add more simulation points (say 10) between 0V and 1V (these points are distributed between the highlighted bias’ value and the value of the previous bias. This will improve the resolution of all the performance curves such as L-I and I-V. Note that all spatial data (on the mesh) is only saved when the simulation reaches the value specified at each bias point in the table…not at the intermediate points.

**13.G. Viewing the Mesh
**

The mesh can be by clicking the Generate Mesh button on the side toolbar. The default settings should give the following result.

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Figure 196. Default mesh (full-domain)

**13.H. Viewing the Index Profile
**

It is good practice to verify that the correct structure has been specified by clicking the Generate Profile button on the side toolbar. A variety of profiles can be tested, here we examine the Index Profile.

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Figure 197. Profile generation dialog, Index settings

•

View the different cross-cuts of the profile by right clicking along either axis. The unormalized values will be displayed. Note that the full domain is displayed, even thought the simulation is on the right half…due to symmetry. If different biases were applied to the ground electrodes the symmetry would be broken and the full domain would need to be simulated.

Figure 198. Index profile

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**13.I. Calculating the Modes
**

These devices are waveguides. It is therefore prudent to observe that a propagating mode exists before proceeding with the modulator simulation. Click the Calculate Mode button on the side toolbar and specify the wavelength of interest, 1.55µm.

Figure 199. Mode calculation settings (scalar)

•

View the different cross-cuts of the mode by right clicking along either axis. The unormalized values will be displayed. Again, the full domain is displayed, even thought the simulation is on the right half. Note that the plot grid is uniform and set by the #x pts & #y pts prior to clicking OK. This uniform grid is populated via interpolation from the simulation (nonuniform mesh), so if parts of the simulation mesh are too course, the plot may appear piecewise linear there, regardless of the uniform mesh resolution.

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Figure 200. Mode profile

**13.J. Running the Simulation
**

Finally, the device performance can be assessed by clicking the Simulate Laser button on the side toolbar. Since we are not actually simulating a laser, no light will be generated in the device, but the diode behavior will be shown. Enable the models shown. Enabling Carrier Dependent Index will invoke a mode calculation at all bias points.

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Figure 201. Simulation Parameters

Figure 202. I-V curve (no light generated)

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**13.K. Plotting the Simulation Results
**

All the simulation data has been saved in the <Run Prefix>_data\ subdirectory, during the simulation. Use the Generate Plot utility to view desired results. The plots generated by this post-process will be stored in the <Run Prefix>_plot\ subdirectory, where they can be viewed any time. However, if the same plot is generated, but for a different bias point, the old one will be overwritten. A variety of standard plots are available, as well as 3 categories of custom plots; data vs bias (LI, IV, etc…) spatial data (mode, index, etc…), and energy data (gain, loss, etc…). Note that spatial and energy data are saved only at the bias values explicitly specified in the Bias Table, while the bias data is saved at intermediate points as well. • • • From the Generate Plot dialog select Charge Carriers, Data vs Bias, and Spatial Data. Choose Plot Data for Bias # 1, since this is the highest bias simulated. Click the Set Custom button and select EffectiveIndex[0] (mode 0) for the Bias Data and RefractiveIndexImag for the Spatial Data, since this will reflect the loss.

Figure 203. Standard and Custom Plot settings

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Figure 204. Effective index of the mode as a function of applied voltage (left) and current through the device (right), which was obtained by setting the x-Axis parameter in the custom settings dialog to Current[0].

•

Observe the change in the EffectiveIndex[0] due to the presence of carriers (decreases nearly monotonically with current through the device). This is the mechanism behind electro-refractive (ER) modulators, since this controls the optical path length of the waveguide. Now view the cross-cuts of the RefractiveIndexImag and Charge Carrier profiles.

•

Figure 205. Imaginary part of the index (loss) shown in contour (left) and cross-cut through the ridge (right).

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Figure 206. Electron density (left) and cross-cut through the ridge (right)

•

Notice that the Electron Density and Imaginary Refractive Index profiles have similar (albeit inverted) shapes, indicating that the electrons dominate the loss in this structure. This is the mechanism behind electro-absorptive (EA) modulators, since this controls the loss of the waveguide.

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**13.L. Appendix – Relevant Symbols
**

Temperature effect parameters - Electrode Physical Data Table: Variable Value elec_temperature elec_thermboundary elec_thermconduct glob_temp Description Temperature of contact

**none, dirichlet, cauchy Boundary condition type
**

0.003

Effective thermal conductivity of contact (including packaging)

Temperature effect parameters - Material Data: Variable Value (Si) regmat_thermconduct 1.31

Description Thermal conductivity of the region Exponent in model Change in index with temp.

regmat_thermconduct_exp -1.03 kpmat_dnr_dT 0.00013182

**Carrier effect parameters - Material Data: Variable Value (Si) fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef fcn_elcoef fcn_hlcoef fcn_hlexp
**

8.5e-018 6e-018 -8.8e-022 -8.5e-018 0.8

Description Electron absorp change coef (Da) Hole absorp change coef (Da) Electron index change coef (Dn) Hole index change coef (Dn) Hole exponent for index change (Soref Model)

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Chapter 14: SOI Transient Waveguide

This tutorial demonstrate the use of LaserMOD to simulate the transient behavior of a SOI waveguide.

**14.A. Transient Waveguide
**

This tutorial will continue from where Tutorial SOI-T1 left off. The focus here will be on using the transient simulation of the waveguide to assess the potential frequency response of a device constructed from it. • • • See file SOI_wg.las Additional bias points will be added to examine the transient behavior Custom responses will be generated post-process, to assess frequency performance

**14.B. Structure Overview
**

The structure used will be a simple ridge waveguide with top and side Ohmic contacts, implemented in Silicon on Insulator (SOI), where the insulator is silica. Device operation will be considered at 1550nm.

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Figure 207. Waveguide cross-section

**14.C. Setting Time Dependent Bias Parameters
**

Open the Bias Table and add new bias points as shown. This will create a delta-function perturbation around the steadystate operating point studied in the previous tutorial. • • • • Highlight the last bias point (bias 1) and click New Bias 3 times, and then Accept Bias. Highlight bias 2, check Time Dependent at the top of the dialog and set t=50*10ps. This gives a time step of 50ps and 10 steps. Also, set the Value to 1V, i.e. the operating point. Highlight bias 3, check Time Dependent at the top of the dialog and set t=50*1ps. Also, set the Value to 1.1V. This creates a small perturbation around the operating point of 1V. Highlight bias 4, check Time Dependent at the top of the dialog and set t=50*400ps. Also, set the Value to 1V. This give the simulation time to return to the operating point.

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Figure 208. Bias settings for transient simulation

**14.D. Running the Simulation
**

The transient performance will now be assessed when the simulation is run. But there are a few things to note first. • In the Bias Table the steady-state points do not need to be rerun (unless the previous tutorial has not yet been run), although it does not hurt. They can be disabled by setting bias 0 to HALT and bias 2 (the first transient point) to RUN. In this case, a steady-state simulation must have been previously run on the structure, so that the initialization data will be present in the <Run Prefix>_data\ directory. In the Simulate Laser dialog, enable Recalculate Mode(s) for all Transient. This will cause the mode to be recalculated at every time step, thus the effective index will be recorded for all time. Since the effective index gives the phase change of the waveguide and the phase determines the performance for many types of devices, the change in effective index vs time will allow computation of the device’s frequency response. In the Simulate Laser dialog make sure Carrier Dependent Index is enabled. The optical output of the device will be plotted as the simulation runs, this will be zero since no photons have been generated.

•

•

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Figure 209. Transient simulation settings

**14.E. Plotting Results
**

All the simulation data has been saved in the <Run Prefix>_data\ subdirectory, during the simulation. Use the Generate Plot utility to view desired results. The plots generated by this post-process will be stored in the <Run Prefix>_plot\ subdirectory, where they can be viewed any time. However, if the same plot is generated, but for a different bias point, the old one will be overwritten. A variety of standard plots are available, as well as 3 categories of custom plots; data vs bias (LI, IV, etc…) spatial data (mode, index, etc…), and energy data (gain, loss, etc…). Note that spatial and energy data are saved only at the bias values explicitly specified in the Bias Table, while the bias data is saved at intermediate points as well. These intermediate points include all the time steps as well (spatial/energy data are not saved for all time). • From the Generate Plot dialog select Transient Response, Frequency Response and Custom Resp. The last one tells the program to use custom settings to generate the responses, rather than the default, which is optical output power, and would give a trivial result.

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Figure 210

•

In the Set Custom dialog choose Bias Data settings as shown below. The x Axis Parameter is used for normalization of the frequency response but is irrelevant for the transient response. Note that since Spatial Data and Energy Data are not stored for all time, they are irrelevant here.

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•

Also, the background value of EffectiveIndex[0] has been subtracted off to give a better view of the transient response, by setting “3.3941-y” in the y Operation field. It is easy to see where this number comes from, by generating the plot without this modification.

Figure 211

Figure 212. Transient response without background (just the perturbation) is shown left, and the corresponding frequency response, normalized by the current, is shown right.

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**14.F. Appendix – Relevant Symbols
**

Temperature effect parameters - Electrode Physical Data Table: Variable Value elec_temperature elec_thermboundary elec_thermconduct glob_temp Description Temperature of contact

**none, dirichlet, cauchy Boundary condition type
**

0.003

Effective thermal conductivity of contact (including packaging)

Temperature effect parameters - Material Data: Variable Value (Si) regmat_thermconduct 1.31

Description Thermal conductivity of the region Exponent in model Change in index with temp.

regmat_thermconduct_exp -1.03 kpmat_dnr_dT 0.00013182

**Carrier effect parameters - Material Data: Variable Value (Si) fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef fcn_elcoef fcn_hlcoef fcn_hlexp
**

8.5e-018 6e-018 -8.8e-022 -8.5e-018 0.8

Description Electron absorp change coef (Da) Hole absorp change coef (Da) Electron index change coef (Dn) Hole index change coef (Dn) Hole exponent for index change (Soref Model)

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Chapter 14: SOI Transient Waveguide • 265

Chapter 15: SOI Mach-Zehnder Modulator

This tutorial demonstrate the use of LaserMOD to simulate an SOI Mach-Zehnder modulator.

**15.A. Mach-Zehnder Modulator
**

This tutorial will build on what was discussed in Tutorials SOI-T1 and SOI-T2. The focus here will be on using the simulation results from a waveguide with carrier-dependent index to generate the response of a Mach-Zehnder modulator constructed from multiple sections of that waveguide. • • • See files SOI_wg.las and SOI_mz.ind An analytic expression for the optical output of a Mach-Zehnder modulator will be used in the post-process plot generation to assess device performance. An alternate numerical approach will be presented as well. This relies on the integration between LaserMOD and BeamPROP, and a license for both tools will be required.

**15.B. Structure Overview
**

The cross-sectional structure (left graphic below) will be a simple ridge waveguide with top and side Ohmic contacts, implemented in Silicon on Insulator (SOI), where the insulator is silica. Device operation will be considered at 1550nm. The topology of the device (right graphic below) is a standard Mach-Zehnder modulator with a bias applied to one arm so as to cause a difference in the optical path length (and phase) between the branches. LaserMOD will be use to simulate the waveguide cross-sections as a function of bias, and BeamPROP will be used to simulate the propagation.

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Chapter 15: SOI Mach-Zehnder Modulator • 267

Figure 213. Waveguide x-y plane cross-section (left) and device topology in x-z plane (right). While the waveguide cross-section is the same everywhere along the modulator, the bias conditions for each branch will differ, causing their optical pathlength to change, driving the device between constructive (ON-State) and destructive (OFF-State) interference at its output port.

**15.C. Procedure Overview
**

There are two ways to get the device performance; the first relies purely on the LaserMOD results and clever application of post-process plot generation, while the second relies on the integration of LaserMOD and BeamPROP. In the second case, index profiles for each waveguide section, at a given bias, are passed between the simulation tools, creating a 3D structure that rigorously accounts for carrier effects. The need for this second approach will be justified more clearly in Chapters 16 & 17, but here we take advantage of the simplicity of the present structure to lay the groundwork.

Method 1:

• • Run a steady-state simulation of the waveguide, as in Chapter 13. Use the post-process plot generator to apply the following formula for the transmitted light power of an idealized Mach-Zehnder modulator. Since the effective index has been calculated for all bias points (V), the formula needs only the identification of the effective index at the OFF-state voltage (Vo) to generate the full performance characteristics of the device.

Method 2:

• • • Run a steady-state simulation of the waveguide, as in Chapter 13. Layout a 3D User Profile based Mach-Zehnder topology in RSoft CAD, (see manual for RSoft CAD Layout), or refer to the example file provided (SOI_mz.ind). Each steady-state simulation will produce an <Run Prefix>.ipf file which can be accessed by name from each waveguide in the topology layout. Here, two will be used, one for the ON-state bias and one for the

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OFF-state. In the ON-state, the same index profile (at 0V) will be applied to all waveguide segments in the topology, so no optical path length difference will exist. In the OFF-state, a second index profile (.ipf file at some finite volatge) will be applied to one of the arms of the modulator, creating destructive interference at the output. Here, for convenience, we will exploit Method 1 to determine the ON-state voltage, but in general, all voltages can be scanned over, via a script, to determine the ON-state purely numerically.

15.D. Method 1

A similar procedure is used as in Chapter 13, except for the following modifications. • • In the Bias Table enable only the steady-state bias points (0 & 1) and highlight bias 1. Increase ramp pts to 50, so we get good resolution for the device characteristic. Open the Simulate Laser button and make sure Carrier Dependent Index is enabled. The optical LIV curve of the device will be plotted as the simulation runs, but the output light will be zero since no photons have been generated.

Figure 214. Saved L-I-V plot

All the simulation data has been saved in the <Run Prefix>_data\ subdirectory, during the simulation. So if the simulation window has been closed, use the Generate Plot utility to view desired results, or open the L-I-V curve via the View Graph icon on the top toolbar. •

Add the following variables to the Global Symbol Table. Note that these can be varied and plots can be regenerated, without having to rerun the simulation.

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Chapter 15: SOI Mach-Zehnder Modulator • 269

Variable

K0 L Neff_OFF Neff_ON

Value

(2*pi/1.55)*(180/pi) 3000 3.3936 3.3938

Description Free-space wavevector in degrees Length of biased branch Effective index for OFF-state (~1V) Effective index for ON-state (~0V)

•

The effective indecies of the ON and OFF-states can be determined as follows. In the Generate Plot dialog disable all plots except for Data vs Bias. In the Set Custom dialog choose Bias Data settings as shown below.

Figure 215. Neff vs Voltage settings

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Figure 216. Effective index vs voltage

•

Neff_ON can be now read off of Fig. 4, and used to determine Neff_OFF. Use the phase formula above to determine the index difference required for a π phase change (where λ=1.55µm and L=3000µm). It should be ~2e-4. See table above for final values. Finally, the device characteristics can be determined. In the Set Custom dialog choose Bias Data settings as shown below. This is the full formula for the optical transmission through the modulator. Fig. 6 shows the first linear control regime.

•

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Chapter 15: SOI Mach-Zehnder Modulator • 271

Figure 217. Mach-Zehnder transfer characteristic via post-process plotting

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Figure 218. Normalized transmission vs voltage of Mach-Zehnder modulator comprised of the waveguide under study. The first regime where ~linear control over this device is possible occurs at ~8.5-9V.

15.E. Method 2

A similar procedure is used as in Tutorial SOI-T1, except for the following modifications. • • • In the Global Parameters dialog, uncheck Use Half Domain in x, so the full domain index profiles will be generated. In the Global Symbol Table add a variable, V, and set it to 1. In the Bias Table enable only the steady-state bias points (0 & 1) and highlight bias 1. In the Advanced dialog, increase n_steps to 50, so we insure accurate convergence at each point. Set the value of bias 1 to V. This will be needed for scanning.

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Chapter 15: SOI Mach-Zehnder Modulator • 273

Figure 219. Variable for bias voltage

•

Open the Perform Parameter Scan dialog and select the settings as shown below.

Figure 220. Scan bias

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•

The scan will create <Scan Output Prefix>00.ipf and <Scan Output Prefix>01.ipf, which are the index profiles at 0V (ON-state) and 1V (OFF-state), respectively. It will also create <Scan Output Prefix>.ind, which is a BeamPROP file that already refers to these profiles. Either open <Scan Output Prefix>.ind and, by cutting and pasting the waveguide segments, create a Mach-Zehnder modulator, or just open file SOI_mz.ind. With a BeamPROP opened, calculate a mode to use as the launch field: (a) in the Launch Dialog choose fiber mode & y-position=1, (b) in the Mode Dialog goto Mode Options and set Neff Min=3 and Neff Max=4, and (c) set the same <Scan Output Prefix> before clicking OK. Close and reopen the file to reset it for a propagation (all profiles should be <Scan Output Prefix>00.ipf, i.e. User 1). Run a propagation. This should produce ON-state results since each branch refers to a the same profile.

•

•

Figure 221. ON-state propagation at 0V.

•

Right click on either branch and change the profile to <Scan Output Prefix>01.ipf (i.e. User 2). Rerun the propagation to produce OFF-state results.

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Chapter 15: SOI Mach-Zehnder Modulator • 275

Figure 222. OFF-state propagation at 1V.

**15.F. Appendix – Relevant Symbols
**

Temperature effect parameters - Electrode Physical Data Table: Variable Value elec_temperature elec_thermboundary elec_thermconduct glob_temp Description Temperature of contact

**none, dirichlet, cauchy Boundary condition type
**

0.003

Effective thermal conductivity of contact (including packaging)

Temperature effect parameters - Material Data: Variable Value (Si) regmat_thermconduct 1.31

Description Thermal conductivity of the region Exponent in model Change in index with temp.

regmat_thermconduct_exp -1.03 kpmat_dnr_dT 0.00013182

Carrier effect parameters - Material Data:

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Variable fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef fcn_elcoef fcn_hlcoef fcn_hlexp

Value (Si)

8.5e-018 6e-018 -8.8e-022 -8.5e-018 0.8

Description Electron absorp change coef (Da) Hole absorp change coef (Da) Electron index change coef (Dn) Hole index change coef (Dn) Hole exponent for index change (Soref Model)

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Chapter 15: SOI Mach-Zehnder Modulator • 277

Chapter 16: SOI Y-Branch

This tutorial demonstrate the use of LaserMOD to simulate an SOI Y-branch.

16.A. 3D Y-Branch

This tutorial will build on what was discussed in Tutorials SOI-T1 through SOI-T3. The focus here will be on examining a case where the combined LaserMOD and BeamPROP approach is needed due to lack of availability of an analytic expression to be used in the plot post-processor. • • See file SOI_branch.las Two approaches will be examined, one where the same profile is used everywhere and the BeamPROP layout controls the 3D structure, and a second, where multiple slices are generated and no additional topological layout is required

**16.B. Structure Overview
**

The cross-sectional structure (top graphic) will be a double ridge waveguide with variable separation. It will have top and side Ohmic contacts, and be implemented in Silicon on Insulator (SOI), where the insulator is silica. Device operation will be considered at 1550nm. The topology of the device, as shown in Fig. 2, is a Y-branch comprised of a single profile, while alternatively (Fig. 3) the same Y-branch may be comprised of multiple profiles along z, each generated by lasermod with a different separation. Both methods will be examined here. LaserMOD will be used to simulate the waveguide cross-sections as a function of position along the propagation direction (z), and BeamPROP will be used to simulate the propagation through these topologies.

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Chapter 16: SOI Y-Branch • 279

Figure 223. Waveguide cross-section at some z position after the Y-Branch split.

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Figure 224. Topology as implemented with a single profile and 2 waveguides in BeamPROP

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Chapter 16: SOI Y-Branch • 281

Figure 225. Same structure but implemented with 5 LaserMOD slices (each with a different separation). Each slice contains the full Y-Branch profile for a particular z position, so the objects in this figure a merely place-holders for these profiles.

**16.C. Running a Simulation
**

Open file SOI_branch.las and then click on Global Symbol Table. Change the value of “Sep”, and for each value generate a mesh and a mode. Here are some examples for Sep=0.5 (left graphics) and Sep=2.5 (right graphics). Each value of Sep represents a different slice along z (propagation direction) and together they comprise a 3D profile which can be ported to BeamPROP.

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Figure 226. Waveguide cross-section (top), mesh (middle), and mode profiles (bottom) at separations of 0.5µm (left) and 2.5µm (right).

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Chapter 16: SOI Y-Branch • 283

**16.D. Running a Scan
**

Click on Perform Parameter Scan. Run the scan as shown below to generate a series of slices along z. The resulting files are <Scan Output Prefix>00.ipf - <Scan Output Prefix>05.ipf along with an aggregate BeamPROP file <Scan Output Prefix>.ind.

Figure 227. Scan settings for 5 slices, each with a different separation, starting with perfect overlap of the 2 ridges (i.e. a profile of the waveguide before the branch splits)

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**16.E. 3D Layout – Two Approaches
**

As stated there are two ways the resulting files can be used. Shown below are the topologies generated by the scan and corresponding index profiles along the propagation plane. The two-waveguide topology (left) results from manually laying out tilted waveguides in RSoft CAD, and attaching the first index profile (single waveguide profile) to each of them. Simply specify (+/-)2.5 as the x-position at the end of each waveguide. Note that the corresponding index along the propagation plane is much smoother, having no jagged interfaces. The index profiles shown here (Fig. 6) were generated by BeamPROP, using the Contour XZ display option at a y-cut = 2. While the advantages the two waveguide method are obvious, it has a disadvantage which will be revealed in the next section.

Figure 228. x-z plane topologies (top) and index profiles (bottom) at y=2 (through the ridge) showing the two waveguide approach (left) and the five slice approach (right).

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Chapter 16: SOI Y-Branch • 285

**16.F. Loss Profiles – Two Results
**

In each of the above cases the loss profiles can also be generated using BeamPROP’s compute loss calculation. Doing this once at the beginning and once at end of the Y-branch, for each layout method, we see that the two layouts give the same results at the beginning, but not at the end. This is because the lateral current spreading breaks the symmetry with respect to the center of each waveguide. Hence, just using a single profile may not be an accurate option. Furthermore, the jaggedness of the multiple slice approach can be alleviated by simply using a sufficiently large number of slices.

Figure 229. Index/loss profiles at the end of the Y-Branch

Figure 230. Index/loss profiles at the beginning of the Y-Branch

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**16.G. Appendix – Relevant Symbols
**

Temperature effect parameters - Electrode Physical Data Table: Variable Value elec_temperature elec_thermboundary elec_thermconduct glob_temp Description Temperature of contact

**none, dirichlet, cauchy Boundary condition type
**

0.003

Effective thermal conductivity of contact (including packaging)

Temperature effect parameters - Material Data: Variable Value (Si) regmat_thermconduct 1.31

Description Thermal conductivity of the region Exponent in model Change in index with temp.

regmat_thermconduct_exp -1.03 kpmat_dnr_dT 0.00013182

**Carrier effect parameters - Material Data: Variable Value (Si) fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef fcn_elcoef fcn_hlcoef fcn_hlexp
**

8.5e-018 6e-018 -8.8e-022 -8.5e-018 0.8

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Chapter 16: SOI Y-Branch • 287

Chapter 17: SOI Directional Coupler

This tutorial demonstrate the use of LaserMOD to simulate an SOI Directional Coupler.

**17.A. 3D Directional Coupler
**

This tutorial will build on what was discussed in Tutorials SOI-T1 through SOI-T3 by adding the thermoptic effect. The focus here will be on examining a directional coupler in which the coupling length is temperature controlled. In semiconductors, due to carrier transport, there are internal sources of heat in addition to those applied at the contacts. Simulation of the full electro-thermal transport in the device cross-section promises more accurate assessment of temperature dependent index effects, including thermal cross-talk from adjacent contacts and self-heating. Either analytic post-processing or the combined LaserMOD and BeamPROP approach may be applied as before. • • See file SOI_coupler.las See file SOI_coupler.ind

**17.B. Structure Overview
**

The cross-sectional structure will be a double ridge waveguide with an Ohmic contact on the top of each ridge and on the bottom substrate. It will be implemented in Silicon on Insulator (SOI), where the insulator is silica. Device operation will be considered at 1550nm. The topology of the device is a standard directional coupler. Only a single index profile need be ported to BeamPROP since the coupler has an extruded topology. LaserMOD will be use to simulate the waveguide cross-section, and BeamPROP will be used to simulate the propagation through the device.

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Chapter 17: SOI Directional Coupler • 289

Figure 231. Cross-section of ridge waveguide coupler

**17.C. Generating the Launch Mode
**

In order to see the coupling effect, we must first generate the mode of the single-waveguide structure to use as a launch field. So, the simulation must be run twice, once with one of the ridges present, and once with both. To create the appropriate launch field for BeamPROP, use the following steps. • • • Open file SOI_coupler.las. Setting the left ridge’s material to “Oxide” and set the region type to insulator (mesh and mode of resulting structure are shown in Fig. 2). Run the full simulation. This will generate the corresponding single-ridge index profile for BeamPROP Open file SOI_coupler.ind and perform a mode calculation. You will have to set the launch field to Gaussian. Also, set launch x position=2 and launch y position=1 to speed up the process. Set the run prefix to “tmp”. This will save a file called tmp.m00. Close both .ind and .las files without saving, to return them to their original settings.

•

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Figure 232. Mesh (left) and mode profile (right) when left ridge has same properties as oxide

Figure 233. Simulation settings

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Chapter 17: SOI Directional Coupler • 291

**17.D. Generating the Coupler Profile
**

To create the full coupler profile, simply rerun the full laser simulation. • • • Open file SOI_coupler.las again. Note that the Generate Aggregate .ind File box is checked in the Perform Parameter Scan dialog, so file are conveniently copied the the problem directory. Run the full simulation, making sure both Self-Heating and Temperature Dependent Index are enabled. This will generate the full coupler profile for the BeamPROP propagation. Verify that the temperature has perturbed the index profiles by clicking the Generate Plot button and selecting Spatial Plot, and LatticeTemp in the Set Custom Dialog. Also plot the RefractiveIndexReal. Results due to a 1V bias applied to the top electrodes are shown below. The temperature and index profiles are shown with cross-cut’s of each taken at y~1.4um.

Figure 234. Lattice temperature profile in contour (left) and cross-cut (right)

Figure 235. Index perturbation due to temperature. Difficult to see in contour (left) but clearly visible in cross-cut at y=1.4µm.

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• • •

Open file SOI_coupler.ind again an run a propagation. Finally, repeat all previous steps in sections C. & D. but without self-heating enabled. Observe (see Fig. 6) the difference in coupling length due to the temperature dependent index perturbation.

Figure 236. Unperturbed coupling (left) and shortened coupling length (right) due to temperature dependent index.

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Chapter 17: SOI Directional Coupler • 293

**17.F. Appendix – Relevant Symbols
**

Temperature effect parameters - Electrode Physical Data Table: Variable Value elec_temperature elec_thermboundary elec_thermconduct glob_temp Description Temperature of contact

**none, dirichlet, cauchy Boundary condition type
**

0.003

Effective thermal conductivity of contact (including packaging)

Temperature effect parameters - Material Data: Variable Value (Si) regmat_thermconduct 1.31

Description Thermal conductivity of the region Exponent in model Change in index with temp.

regmat_thermconduct_exp -1.03 kpmat_dnr_dT 0.00013182

8.5e-018 6e-018 -8.8e-022 -8.5e-018 0.8

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Appendix A: Troubleshooting

This appendix contains some suggestions about what to do if problems arise during a simulation. Some guidelines are also presented for minimizing the occurance of problems.

**Common LaserMOD mistakes
**

Below is a list of common mistakes that can lead to simulation errors, inaccuracies, or non-convergence.

Symptom Oscillations in first time steps of transient response or noisy spikes appear in the frequency response. Unphysically linear section of spatial plots Can't find steady state solution Results for a given structure are different even though nothing has changed except the LaserMOD version. QW parameters are changed and KP is rerun, but expected changes in the simulation results are not present.

Possible Cause / Solution Add another steady state bias point before the first transient bias point (may also need to enable full self-consistency for this new point). Refine the mesh. Add bias points or increase # steps for existing bias points. Check with RSoft Design Group to see if the default settings in the program or material library files have been updated. Make sure the mode has been recalculated since the bandedges have changed and therefore the frequency at which the mode is calculated may be different. For significant changes, especially in the mesh or quantum well parameters, the simulation must be rerun from bias 0. Starting from a higher bias will not work. Similarly, the enabling of certain models requires starting at bias 0. Check that kpmat_DIELOPT is not defined in the Physical Data tables of the DBR, which causes the profiles to be overridden. Nonuniform grid not properly resolved in DBRs.

Structural/Material parameters have changed and the simulation crashes right away. Index profile doesn't seem to change regardless of settings in User Profile for alloy. DBR performance changes with uniform grid.

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Appendix A: Troubleshooting • 295

**Usage Guidelines for LaserMOD
**

Below is a summary list of the important notes distributed throughout the manual. These can help act as guidelines for both layout and simulation of devices in LaserMOD.

IMPORTANT NOTE ON SYMBOLS All user defined symbols that must be available everywhere, should be defined here. User symbols defined in the local tables, are only available for use in that table.

IMPORTANT NOTE ON MODE SOLVING The mode should be recalculated if there is a change made to the grid. This will be done by the full laser simulation if the mode calculation is skipped. However, if the KP is recalculated prior to a full laser simulation, then the mode should also be recalculated. This is not done automatically, and the user should do this by checking the Recalculate Mode checkbox in the Simulation Parameters dialog. When solving modes with beamprop, it is important to be aware of convergence to an unphysical solution, i.e. discontinuities along interfaces that should not be there.

IMPORTANT NOTES ON DRAWING: All regions should be tiled, meaning that the edges of adjacent regions should touch without overlapping, and fill all the space in the simulation domain. Whenever the outer perimeter of the cross-section is not rectangular, additional regions should be added (ex. insulating regions…) to achieve this effect.

IMPORTANT NOTES ON TILING: Regions will be initially out of place, prior to tiling, if a reference is used without adjusting the offset.

IMPORTANT NOTES ON GRIDDING: When the edges of multiple regions (not necessarily contiguous) fall along the same line, the smallest of the mimimum spacings from these regions, is used to establish the grid spacing near that line. This leads to a behavior in which adjustment of the local grid parameters, of a particular region, may not actually affect the final grid. In such cases, it is convenient to define global variables in the Symbol Table, and use these as the local grid settings, rather than having to change the local grid parameters for many regions, every time a new grid spacing is desired. A good way of specifying the mesh is to select designated regions for controlling the mesh in x and/or y direction, while setting the spacing to a large default in all others.

IMPORTANT NOTES ON PROFILES: Profiles can be overidden, just as any other material parameter, by specifying that parameter in the Physical Data Table. If profiles fail to appear when expected, this will most likely be the cause.

IMPORTANT NOTES ON DBR'S: The material properties of the effective region, when Optical Only DBR is used, will probably need to be adjusted carefully to obtain comparable results to those generated when the Full DBR simulation is employed.

IMPORTANT NOTES ON MATERIAL GAIN:

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The Max. Density is used use for the actual laser simulation or when Recalculate KP is checked in the Simulation Parameters Dialog.

IMPORTANT NOTES ON PLOTTING: Currently, LI, IV, and certain other data are never deleted, so that the variation from run to run can be observed. To clear this data, simply check the clear run file option in the Simulation Parameters Dialog. Also, when the spatial domain of the structure changes between plots, clicking the Set Grid button and verifying that All regions are selected, will ensure that the entire domain is plotted.

IMPORTANT NOTE ON DISTRIBUTED GAIN TABLES The gain tables distributed with LaserMOD are proprietary and encrypted. Therefore, they cannot be exported directly to separate plots, as all other data in LaserMOD. These tables can only be viewed in the Simulation Window.

IMPORTANT NOTE ON GAIN CALIBRATION Calibration of the frequency should be done first, since adjustment of the bandgap will require recalibration of all the parameters discussed above. For multimode operation, results will be more sensitive to the mesh since a higher modes may required a finer mesh in order to be properly resolved.

IMPORTANT NOTE ON FARFIELD PLOTTING When the farfield is calculated, it is necessary to extend the half-domain results to full domain, that is if the half domain feature is being used. Since the nearfield is calculated automatically when a farfield is generated, the extension to full domain is also automatic. However, to see it (when half domain is simulated) the nearfield must be opened from the saved data. If it is generated as a standard plot, only the half domain nearfield will be shown.

IMPORTANT NOTE ON FREQUENCY RESPONSE The dt variable for every bias point used in a particular transient response, should be the same in order to extract a frequency response from it.

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Appendix A: Troubleshooting • 297

Appendix B: File Formats

This appendix contains the file formats used by LaserMOD and other RSoft device design tools. Because many of the data files are compatible, the tools can receive as input, the output results of other tools. This is one of the mechanisms through which LaserMOD has been integrated with the rest of the device tool suite. Except where noted, all files are in ASCII text format. For further information, contact RSoft.

**LaserMOD Data Formats
**

The following files include the data and script files for graphs that are displayed during simulation or post simulation via any of the plotting utilities (see Appendix E) that work with LaserMOD. Additionally, the list includes raw data formats, mesh formats, plot formats used specifically by LaserMOD, as well as input file formats used by LaserMOD and other tools. Additional information is available in the WinPLOT (RPlot) manual distributed with all RSoft tools.

File Extension <prefix>.mat <prefix>.msh <prefix>.las <prefix>.run <prefix>.pcs <prefix>.rsf <prefix>.ind <prefix>.ipf <prefix>.dat <prefix>.txt <prefix>.eng <prefix>.nod <prefix>.liv

Description Material files (see Appendix G) Nonuniform Mesh files LaserMOD input files Backup of current .las file being simulated WinPLOT scripts LaserMOD plot data (R-Soft Format) (same as .m##) BeamPROP input files BeamPROP index files Generic data Generic text, used for reports Energy space raw data Node (spatial) raw data L-I-V (bias space) raw data

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Appendix B: File Formats • 299

<prefix>.log <prefix>.gain

Log file (text) Index file for gain tables, characterizes the data provided in the same dir.

<prefix>.matgain_eng ENG file for material gain <prefix>.m## <prefix>.fmn <prefix>.cer <prefix>.cep <prefix>.cex <prefix>.cez <prefix>.vec

BeamPROP (.m##) mode file, ## passed via "specifier" argument BeamPROP frequency monitor file radial component in x-y (diametric) plane phi component in x-y (diametric) plane x component in x-z (facet) plane z component in x-z (facet) plane Vector plot info

.las and .ind are proprietary formats.

Raw data formats are not currently documented – Contact RSoft for more information.

**Mesh File Format
**

# of nodes # of polygons First polygon (4 columns = v1 v2 v3 v4) … Last polygon First node's coordinates (2 columns = X Y) … Last node's coordinates

v# is an integer from 0 to # of nodes, and indicates the node ID for this vertex. if v4 = -1 then this polygon is a triangle, else it is a rectangle. X & Y are double values The first node is node 0. Nodes follow sequential by ID, one node per row

**Spectral Input File Format
**

Users can now specify a Reflectivity Spectra File name for each Facet Reflectivity in the Global Parameters Dialog. The file format is:

/rn,a,b/nx0/ls1

<#pts> <min Lambda (um)> <max Lambda (um)> 0 OUTPUT_REAL <ref @ min lambda>

<ref @ next lambda> <ref @ next lambda>

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. . . <ref @ max lambda>

**Input Layer File Format
**

The layers of an epitaxial structure may be conveniently specified via a .txt file. This file can be imported to the LaserMOD CAD vai the File/Import menu option, where it will automatically be converted to a .las file. The format of this input file is as follows: each row (or combination of rows in the case of gratings, dbr’s, and mqw’s) will become an element of the specified type, material, alloy, and doping. Material system is the name (AlGaAs for example) of a .mat file. Doping is typically in exponential notation and is (+) for n-type and (-) for p-type. Entries of each row are separated by a space or tab. See ReadmeLM.txt for an example.

Element Type # Periods Material System elec bulk graT graB dbrT dbrB well barr

Alloy X 0 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1

Alloy Y Thickness (um) Doping (cm-3) 0 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 0-1 positive # positive # positive # positive # positive # positive # positive # positive # 0 +/- (n/p type) +/- (n/p type) +/- (n/p type) +/- (n/p type) +/- (n/p type) +/- (n/p type) +/- (n/p type)

1 1

none any

1 or more any 1 or more any 1 or more any 1 or more any 1 or more any 1 or more any

**BeamPROP Data Format
**

The following is taken from the BeamPROP manual, Appendix B. The correct syntax for this file format is:

/rn,a,b/nx0/ls1 /r,qa,qb Nx Xmin Xmax Zpos Output_Type Optional_Data Ny Ymin Ymax

Data1(Xmin, Ymin) … Data(Xmax, Ymin)

…

Data(Xmin, Ymax) …

…

Data(Xmax, Ymax)

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Appendix B: File Formats • 301

The first several lines of the field file are WinPLOT directives, and though required for WinPLOT use, can be considered as comments and ignored for all other uses. They begin with a slash (‘/’) character and can be identified and parsed by that characteristic. Also, note that this format describes a function as (x,y,z0). However, note that these coordinates do not have to correspond to the coordinates actually used in a simulation, and are only local to the data file. The parameters shown above are:

Parameter

Nx Xmin Xmax Zpos Output_Type Ny Ymin Ymax Optional_Data

Description

Number of data points in the X direction. The X coordinate of the first data point. The X coordinate of the last data point. The Z coordinate where the function was calculated. The sub format of the data. This field can be one of the values discussed below. Number of data points in the Y direction. This line is only required for a 3D Output_Type. The Y coordinate of the first data point. This line is only required for a 3D Output_Type. The Y coordinate of the last data point. This line is only required for a 3D Output_Type. These parameters are not required, but are used in special cases. For instance, if the field is a result of a mode calculation, there are two optional fields containing the real and imaginary parts of the mode effective index.

**Supported Output Types
**

The supported output types can be divided into two main groups: those that are a function of one coordinate, and those that are a function of two coordinates.

**Functions of one coordinate (X)
**

These values of Output _Type correspond to functions of one variable, and therefore the second non-directive line which contains information about the Y coordinate is not needed. In addition, only one column of data is present, except for the special cases noted below.

• OUTPUT_AMPLITUDE

This output type indicates that the data contained in the file corresponds to the amplitude of a field.

• OUTPUT_REAL

This output type indicates that the data contained in the file corresponds to the real part of a field.

• OUTPUT_IMAG

This output type indicates that the data contained in the file corresponds to the imaginary part of a field.

• OUTPUT_REAL_IMAG

This output type indicates that the data contained in the file corresponds to both the real and imaginary parts of a field. The data is presented in two columns; the first contains the real part of the field, and the second the imaginary part of the field.

• OUTPUT_AMP_PHASE

302 • Appendix B: File Formats

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This output type indicates that the data contained in the file corresponds to both the amplitude and phase of a field. The data is presented in two columns; the first contains the amplitude of the field, and the second the phase.

**Function of two coordinates (X,Y)
**

These values of Output _Type correspond to functions of two variables, and therefore the second non-directive line which contains information about the Y coordinate is needed. In addition, only one column of data is present per Y value, except for the special cases noted below.

• OUTPUT_AMPLITUDE_3D

This output type indicates that the data contained in the file corresponds to the amplitude of a field.

• OUTPUT_REAL_3D

This output type indicates that the data contained in the file corresponds to the real part of a field.

• OUTPUT_IMAG_3D

This output type indicates that the data contained in the file corresponds to the imaginary part of a field.

• OUTPUT_REAL_IMAG_3D

This output type indicates that the data contained in the file corresponds to both the real and imaginary parts of a field. The data is presented in two columns per Y value; the first contains the real part of the field, and the second the imaginary part of the field.

• OUTPUT_AMP_PHASE_3D

This output type indicates that the data contained in the file corresponds to both the amplitude and phase of a field. The data is presented in two columns per Y value; the first contains the amplitude of the field, and the second the phase.

**Example Field Files
**

In order to better illustrate the field file format, several examples are given. In each case, a function will be given, and then a corresponding data file.

Example 1:

**The following file contains the real-valued function ƒ(x)=x2 over the domain x
**

/rn,a,b/nx0/ls1 11 0.00 0.01 0.04 0.09 0.16 0.25 0.36 0.49 0.64 0.89 1.00 0 1 0 OUTPUT_REAL

[0,1] with x=0.1:

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Appendix B: File Formats • 303

/rn,a,b/nx0/ls1 11 0 1 0 OUTPUT_REAL_IMAG 0.000 0.001 0.008 0.027 0.064 0.125 0.216 0.343 0.512 0.729 1.000 0.00 0.01 0.04 0.09 0.16 0.25 0.36 0.49 0.64 0.89 1.00

/rn,a,b/nx0/ls1 /r,qa,qb 5 3 1 0 2 1 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.000 1.000 1.250 1.500 1.750 2.000 0 OUTPUT_REAL_3D

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

/rn,a,b/nx0/ls1 /r,qa,qb 5 3 1 0 2 1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0 OUTPUT_REAL_IMAG_3D

1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75

304 • Appendix B: File Formats

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Example 4: The following file contains the complex-valued function ƒ(x,y)=x+iy over the domain x x=0.25 and y [0,1] with x=0.5

Example 3: The following file contains the real-valued function ƒ(x,y)=xy over the domain x x=0.25 and y [0,1] with x=0.5

[1,2] with

Example 2: The following file contains the complex-valued funciton ƒ(x)=x2+ix3 over the domain x x=0.1:

[0,1] with

[1,2] with

2.00

0.0

2.00

0.5

2.00

1.0

Note that every other column contains imaginary data.

**Mode Field File Format
**

Mode field files are generated by the simulation program when one or more modes are calculated. These files have the extension *.m##, where ## is the mode number. Their default format is identical to the field file format described above for the OUTPUT_REAL_IMAG or OUTPUT_REAL_IMAG_3D case. This default can be changed via the output options dialog. Note that for mode field files, the optional fields in the field file format documented above are used, with the two optional fields containing the real and imaginary parts of the mode effective index. The effective index information is also stored and displayed in the corresponding *.p## graph file that is generated.

**Refractive Index and Loss Profile File Formats
**

Refractive index or loss profile files are generated by the simulation program when the index or loss profile is calculated. These files have the extensions *.ipf and *.lpf, respectively. They contain the real or imaginary part of the refractive index as a function of the transverse coordinates. Their format is similar to the field file format for the OUTPUT_REAL or OUTPUT_REAL_3D case.

**Index (*.ind) File Format
**

Index files are generated by the CAD program and used as input to the simulation program. They can also be generated manually using any ASCII text editor. These files have the extension *.ind. They contain information describing the waveguide circuit and any related parameters, as well as information controlling the simulation. The index file begins with a list of variable assignments of the form "name=value" which correspond to the information in the symbol table of the CAD program. While this information is normally changed via the CAD program, it can be useful to edit this list manually in order to alter or delete existing variable definitions, as well as add new ones. This can also be accomplished on the command line of the simulation. However limitations on the length of the command line can make it necessary to edit the index file. The remainder of the index file consists of lists of records describing the waveguide components, pathways, and monitors that have been defined via the CAD program. Contact RSoft for further information on the format of these records.

**Graph File Format
**

The graphs that are displayed during simulation are saved as WinPLOT command files with extensions .p*. The general format of these files is documented in the WinPLOT manual. The following table lists some of the WinPLOT command files which may be generated by BeamPROP, and shows the file extension followed by the data each one graphs:

File Extension <prefix>.pcs <prefix>.psl <prefix>.pct <prefix>.pct <prefix>.pcy

Description The standard display with slices plus monitor The slice data, <prefix>.###, displayable as slices The slice data, <prefix>.###, displayable as a surface plot The slice data, <prefix>.###, displayable as a contour map The YZ slice data, <prefix>.y##, displayable as a contour map

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Appendix B: File Formats • 305

<prefix>.pmr <prefix>.pmn <prefix>.pfd <prefix>.pfr <prefix>.pft <prefix>.p## <prefix>.ppf <prefix>.ppl <prefix>.psc <prefix>.pne <prefix>.pds

The monitor data, <prefix>.mon, rotated as in the standard display The monitor data, <prefix>.mon, graphed normally The field output data <prefix>.fld The far field output data <prefix>.far The calculated mode spectrum <prefix>.fft The calculated mode field <prefix>.m## The refractive index profile <prefix>.ipf The material loss profile <prefix>.lpf The parameter scan data <prefix>.scn The mode effective index scan data <prefix>.nes The derivative of mode effective index scan data <prefix>.der produced by

DISPERSE.EXE

306 • Appendix B: File Formats

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Appendix C: RSoft Expressions

As noted elsewhere, virtually any numeric input field in any RSoft product can accept an analytical expression involving pre-defined and user-defined variables which are defined in the symbol table. In this appendix, we discuss the form that these expressions can take, the allowed operators, and the built-in functions that are available. Expressions are written in the common form accepted by most programming languages (e.g. C or Fortran), and can include numbers, variables, arithmetic operators, and function calls. They are currently limited in length to 64 characters. Note that if an operator or function required by your application is not listed below, please contact RSoft and we will attempt to add it to the next release.

**Valid Arithmetic Operators
**

Valid operators for RSoft expressions, listed in order or precedence, are: Operator Description

^ * / + -

exponentiation multiplication division addition subtraction

Parenthesis can be used as usual to group operations and override this precedence. Note that when evaluating expressions, earlier versions of BeamPROP considered the precedence of exponentiation to be the same as that of multiplication and division (which is higher than that of addition and subtraction). With Version 3.0, exponentiation now has a higher precedence. Also note that the mathematical constants pi and e are pre-defined for use in expressions. These variable names can not be overridden and should not be used as user-defined symbols.

Built-in Variables

RSoft supports several built-in variables. These variables may be used in the symbol table, or in any numeric field within the software. These variable names should be avoided when creating your own variables to avoid conflict. Variable Value

inf c e infinity 2.9979246e014 µμm/s 2.718281828

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Appendix C: RSoft Expressions • 307

pi true false yes no default

3.141592653 1 0 1 0 infinity

Standard Functions

RSoft expressions support many of the standard function calls found in programming languages, as well as several functions useful in the context of defining waveguide profiles or tapers. The standard functions are: Function Description

abs(x) exp(x) log(x) sqrt(x) cos(x) sin(x) tan(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) erf(x) erfc(x) ceil(x) floor(x) round(x) min(x1,x2,…) max(x1,x2,…)

absolute value exponential natural logarithm square root cosine sine tangent inverse cosine inverse sine inverse tangent error function complementary error function truncate up to next higher integer truncate down to next lower integer round to nearest integer minimum of arguments in list maximum of arguments in list

Additional Functions

These functions are not standard functions used elsewhere, but are available to allow for the creation of certain structures.

• u(x)

This is the unit step function, defined as

308 • Appendix C: RSoft Expressions

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0

w wx

x<0

u ( x) = 0.5 x = 0 1 x>0

•

um(x)

y

This is a variation of u(x), defined as

um( x) = 0 x = 0 1 x>0

•

up(x)

wx y

This is a variation of u(x), defined as

up( x) = 1 x = 0 1 x>0

• clip(x)

This function is defined as

clip( x) = x 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 1 x >1

•

step(x)

**This function is a periodic step function, defined as
**

x y

step( x) =

and is periodically extended outside this range. This function is useful for defining grating structures or segmented waveguides. •

step2(x,a)

This function is a variation of step(x), where the duty cycle can be controlled by the second argument a. It is defined as

x y

step 2( x, a) =

and is periodically extended outside this range. The parameter a must be between 0 and 1. This function is useful for defining grating structures or segmented waveguides. •

sign(x)

This function returns the sign of the argument x. It is defined as

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

w

wx

y

w

w

wx

y

0 x<0

0 x<0

0 x<0

1 0 ≤ x < 0.5 0 0.5 < x < 1

{ x ∈ [0,1)}

1 0≤ x<a 0 a < x <1

{ x ∈ [0,1)}

Appendix C: RSoft Expressions • 309

•

if(x,a,b)

This is the logical if() function which can be read as “if |x| >= 5, then a, else b”. It is defined as

•

slabneff(p,m,lambda,nc,ns,nf,h)

This special function computes the effective index of a 3-layer slab waveguide mode. The arguments are: Argument Description

p m lambda nc ns nf h •

polarization(0=TE, 1=TM) mode number(0=fundamental) free space wavelength (µμ) cover index substrate index film or guiding layer index thickness of film or guiding layer

ranseq(int seed, int i)

This deterministic function returns a “random” result for a given pair of arguments. A typical use would be to define one or more seed variables in the symbol table, and then use this function within a waveguide with the same i index variable. This allows two or more fields within the segment to be correlated. Changing the seeds within the symbol table will result in different random numbers. The distribution is linear between -0.5 and 0.5, and several special seeds are recognized: 0 returns 0.0, -1 returns 0.5, and -2 returns -0.5.

• ranline(int seed, double corlen, double z)

This is a deterministically random function of a continuous variable z with a correlation-length of corlen. The seed variable behaves like ranseq().

310 • Appendix C: RSoft Expressions

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Appendix D: Symbol Table Parameters

This Appendix itemizes the various built-in parameters indigenous to each Symbol Table employed by LaserMOD. As stated, these tables comprise a two level heirarchy, headed by a global Symbol Table, in which parameters may be defined that can be seen by all tables. And two categories of local Symbol Tables in which paramters may be defined, but cannot be seen by other tables. These are the Physical Data tables, for material and region parameters, and Advanced tables, for bias point parameters. The following is the list of symbols which are defined in the symbol table by LaserMOD. They correspond to the options which are set via the GUI. They are provided for two reasons: • • When creating user-defined variables, you should avoid using these variable names as you can inadvertently change aspects of the simulation. Advanced users who wish to control aspects of LaserMOD via the symbol table can edit these symbols directly. This is identical to using the GUI.

D.1. Global Symbols

All built-in global symbols have a corresponding control in the graphical interface dialogs, and do need to be edited directly from a symbol table. Usefull Global Symbols that currently do not have a corresponding control in the GUI are listed in the following table. If these are typed into the Global Symbol Table, they will be understood by the program.

n_energy_grid fixed_mode_frq fp_mode_frq glob_grid_method index_bc_top index_bc_bottom index_bc_left index_bc_right run_table_mode

# points in energy grid 1 = fixed trans. mode freq. fixed long. mode freq. 0 (default) or 1 (max. spacing control) refractive index at boundary refractive index at boundary refractive index at boundary refractive index at boundary custom or standard library

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Appendix D: Symbol Table Parameters • 311

table_gain_material table_gain_inhomog table_gain_shift

path to subdirectory in \tablegain inhomogeneous broadening (meV) additional frequency shift (eV)

IMPORTANT NOTE ON SYMBOLS All user defined symbols that must be available everywhere, should be defined here. User symbols defined in the local tables, are only available for use in that table.

D.2. Material Parameters

All material library parameters are described in this section. They can be edited via the Material Library Editor Dialog or they can be overriden in a given region by typing the particular symbol (as it appears below) into the Physical Data Table of that region. In the case of quantum well regions, the barriers and well each have their own Physical Data Table, as do the different layers in the DBR region (unless only the optical properties are being simulated, in which case all other parameters are taken from the Layer 1 Physical Data Table).

Parameter Symbol:

arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef fcn_elcoef fcn_hlcoef

Description: exponent of Arora model denominator for elec. exponent for temp. dep. of denominator exponent min. elec. mobility in Arora model exponent of temp. dep. of min. elec. mobility ref. doping density for elec. mobiltiy exponent of temp. dep. for ref. doping for elec. exponent of Arora model denominator for elec. exponent for temp. dep. of denominator exponent min. hole mobility in Arora model exponent of temp. dep. of min. hole mobility ref. doping density for hole mobiltiy exponent of temp. dep. for ref. doping for holes constant background absorption effective length for tunneling mode region priority (which region's length to use at interface) free carrier absorption for elec. free carrier absorption for holes free carrier index change for elec. free carrier index change for holes

Units: --m^2/(V*s) -1/m^3 ---m^2/(V*s) -1/m^3 -1/cm nm -cm^2 cm^2 cm^3 cm^3

312 • Appendix D: Symbol Table Parameters

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fcn_hlexp haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1

free carrier index change – exponent for holes effective length for Haensch model critical field for high field elec. mobility model elec. saturation velocity in high field mobility model temp. coef. for elec. in high field mobility model critical field for high field hole mobility model hole saturation velocity in high field mobility model temp. coef. for holes in high field mobility model trap energy for interface recombination model region priority (which region's length to use at interface) recombination velocity for elec. recombination velocity for holes acceptor activation energy donor activation energy hydrostatic deformation potential a_c - a_v Gamma6C block renormalization coefficient axial deformation potential b elastic modulus c11 @300K elastic modulus c12 @300K Lande factor renormalization coefficient spin orbit coupling between G15v and G15c optical dielectric const. @300K (E_LO< ω <Eg) static dielectric const. @300K energy gap E(G6c) - E(G8v) @300K parameter A in Varshni expression parameter B in Varshni expression E(G7c) - E(G8v) @4.2 K parameter A in Varshni expression parameter B in Varshni expression E(G8c) - E(G7c) parameter A in Varshni expression parameter B in Varshni expression split off gap: E(G8v) - E(G7v) parameter A in Varshni expression parameter B in Varshni expression Luttinger parameter at 5K

-nm V/m m/s -V/m m/s -eV -m/s m/s eV eV eV -eV 10^11dyn/cm^2 10^11dyn/cm^2 -eV eo eo eV --eV --eV --eV ----

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix D: Symbol Table Parameters • 313

kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime

Luttinger parameter at 5K Luttinger parameter at 5K hole affinity Lande factor at Gamma6 @4K lattice constant @ 300K Temp. dep. (da/dT) of lattice constant electron effective mass at Gamma6 @300K linear term in temperature dependence quadratic term in temperature dependence cubic term in temperature dependence DOS HH mass DOS LH mass electron mobility @300K exponent for electron mobility hole mobility @300K exponent for hole mobility SO mass electron DOS mass at the X valley Q = <Gamma15v | p | Gamma15c> E(X6c) - E(G8v) @300K parameter A in Varshni expression parameter B in Varshni expression temp. dep. index coef. el phon-assist. Auger coef. @300K (Cn) activation energy for Auger recom. for elec. hl Auger coef.@600K (Cp) activation energy for Auger recom. for holes etrap-Ev level @300K (trap engy-SRH model) el capture time (1/Cn*NT, NT=trap density) el capture time (1/Cp*NT, NT=trap density) coulomb enhancement from k.p coulomb enhancement factor from k.p spacing on energy grid 3D average elec energy 3D average hole energy elec-elec capture time

--eV -Angstrom Angstrom/K mo 1/K 1/K^2 1/K^3 mo mo m^2/(V*s) -m^2/(V*s) -mo mo eV*A eV --1/K m^6/s eV m^6/s eV eV s s

eV eV eV s

314 • Appendix D: Symbol Table Parameters

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac

elec-elec scattering time elec-phonon capture time elec-phonon scattering time hole-hole capture time Hole-hole scattering time Hole-phonon capture time Hole-phonon scattering time h*nu-LOphonon (flat dispersion) cuttoff phonon freq. ~0 Qwell transition broadening energy (∆E) LO optical to acoustic decay (phonon rate eqn.)

s s s s s s s

eV

regmat_material_density mass density for thermal models regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct

1/cm^3 A/(cm^2*K^2) eV W*s/(g*K) m^3/s s W/(K*cm) --

Richardson constant for QW lateral transport scattering energy range specific heat spontaneous recomb. coeff. (bulk, ~0) LO phonon lifetime thermal conductivity

regmat_thermconduct_exp exponent for thermal model

**Additional Parameters for Wurtzite Systems (above are for Zinc Blend): Parameter Symbol:
**

wz_latt_a wz_latt_c wz_Eg wz_Eg_A wz_Eg_B wz_split_cr wz_split_so wz_mel_a wz_mel_c wz_A1 wz_A2 wz_A3 wz_A4 wz_A5

Description: Lattice constant along a Lattice constant along c Direct energy gap Energy gap coef A Energy gap coef B Crystal field splitting Spin orbit splitting Electron effective mass along a Electron effective mass along c Luttinger Parameter Luttinger Parameter Luttinger Parameter Luttinger Parameter Luttinger Parameter

Units: A (300K) A (300K) eV (300K) eV/K K eV eV mo mo ------

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Appendix D: Symbol Table Parameters • 315

wz_A6 wz_P2 wz_P1 wz_D1 wz_D2 wz_D3 wz_D4 wz_C13 wz_C33 wz_defc_a wz_defc_c wz_Psp wz_e13 wz_e33

Luttinger Parameter Optical matrix element Optical matrix element Deformation potential Deformation potential Deformation potential Deformation potential elastic modulus c13 @300K elastic modulus c33 @300K Hydrostatic deformation potential along a Hydrostatic deformation potential along c Spontaneous polarization Piezo-electric polarization Piezo-electric polarization

-eV eV eV eV eV eV 10^11dyn/cm^2 10^11dyn/cm^2 eV eV C/m^2 C/m^2 C/m^2

The temperature dependence of the energy gaps is assume to obey theVarshni expresssion: Eg(T) = Eg(300) + A(T/(1.0 + B/T) - Tref/(1.0 + B/Tref)) Tref = 300K

**D.3. Material Library Auxilliary Parameters
**

Most parameters in the ternary and quarternary material libraries are extracted through linear interpolation from corresponding binary material values taken from the standard literature and texts. This tends to be rather inaccurate in the case of direct energy gap for some material systems such as GaInAsP. For this reason, different alloy interpolation formulae for the direct energy gap (kpmat_G6C_G8V = Eg_BOWING) have been taken from the literature [1], although the linearly interpolated value is still available (kpmat_G6C_G8V = Eg_LINEAR). Note that the following may not be present in all .mat files.

Eg_BOWING Eg_LINEAR

Eg with bowing parameters Eg as linearly interpolated

Additionally, all materials in the library have been adjusted to use band-discontinuity ratio to determine the hole affinity (kpmat_HLAFF = HLAFF_DISCONT), although the linearly interpolated value (kpmat_HLAFF = HLAFF_LINEAR) is also available. The following are now defined in each material library file

DEv_DEg_REF Eg

dEvb/dEg (valence band discont) min. of direct and indirect gaps

316 • Appendix D: Symbol Table Parameters

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Eg_REF HLAFF_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR

1.424 (GaAs bandgap) 5.494 (GaAs hole affin.) HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(EgEg_REF) (interp. from binary data – see below)

In general, users may replace the alloy interpolation formulae in the library (.mat) files (or create new ones) to suit their needs. However, this is currently limited by the "kpmat_" parameters to the following interpolation schemes as specified by the following material parameter.

Interpolation_Scheme

(Library ID – see below)

Library ID's are determined from the following table (the ID strings below are the allowed values for the Interpolation_Scheme parameter).

Type:

BINARY TERNARY QUARTERNARY

Library ID: "AB" "AxB1_xC" "AxB1_xCyD1_y"

Formula: none A(x)B(1-x)C A(x)B(1-x)C(y)D(1-y)

Interpolation: none x*AC + (1-x)*BC x*y*AC + (1-x)*(1y)*BD + (1-x)*y*BC + x*(1-y)*AD x*y*AD + y*(1-x)*BD + (1-y)*CD x*AD + y*BD + (1-xy)*CD

QUARTERNARY_I QUARTERNARY_II

"AxyBy_xyC1_yD" "AxByC1_x_yD"

[A(x)B(1-x)](y)C(1y)D A(x)B(y)C(1-x-y)D

**D.4. Bias Point Parameters
**

All bias point symbols are available through the Advanced Symbol Table (one for each bias point) but need not be accessed directly, as all pertinent symbols have a corresponding control in the Bias Table Editor Dialog. Usefull Bias Symbols that currently do not have a corresponding control in the GUI are listed in the following table. If these are typed into the Advanced Symbol Table, they will be understood by the program.

sim_llatticetemp sim_lhartree n_steps step_size

local control of self-heating enable Hartree potential # steps in bias ramp current/voltage step in ramp

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Appendix D: Symbol Table Parameters • 317

**D.5. Quantum Well Symbols
**

Most region symbols have a corresponding control in the graphical user interface. Some usefull region symbols, specifically for quantum well regions, that currently do not have a corresponding control in the GUI are listed in the following table. If these are typed into the Physical Data Table for a quantum well, they will be understood by the program.

kploop_wavevec_max kploop_wavevec_num kpband_basis_vecs kpband_fourier_comps kpband_self_consist kpband_spin_split kpband_axial_aprx postkp_cbrange postkp_vbrange elem_barr_depth

magnitude of KP k vector (01) # KP k vector points KP basis vectors = 8 or 14 KP fourier components self-consistent ShroedingPoisson solve in KP use spin-splitting (y/n) use axial approx. (y/n) energy range in CB for KP energy range in VB for KP penetration depth into barrier as a fraction of well width

D.6. Electrode Symbols

Most region symbols have a corresponding control in the graphical user interface. Some usefull region symbols, specifcally for electrode regions, that currently do not have a corresponding control in the GUI are listed in the following table. If these are typed into the Physcial Data Table in an electrode region, they will be understood by the program.

elec_thermconduct elec_thermboundary

thermal conductivity for the contact thermal boundary condition

References

[1] O. Madelung, "Semiconductors – Basic Data", 2nd Ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996. [2] S.L. Chuang, “Optical Gain of Strained Wurtzite GaN Quantum-Well Lasers,” IEEE JQE, Vol. 32, No. 10, OCT. 1996 p.1791. [3] I. Vurgaftmana, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” JAP, Vol. 89, No. 11, 1 June 2001, pp. 5815-75.

318 • Appendix D: Symbol Table Parameters

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[4] J. Piprek: Semiconductor Optoelectronic Devices (Academic Press 2003).

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Appendix D: Symbol Table Parameters • 319

Appendix E: Plotting Utilities

This Appendix describes the the plotting programs and utilities available with LaserMOD. Furthermore there is a command line utility, bdutil, that is employed by LaserMOD for converting the nearfield into the farfield. It has additional functionality which its described here for completeness.

E.1. WinPLOT

Winplot is a self-contained, script driven, plotting program for displaying a variety of raw data files, and manipulating that data for viewing. Use WinPLOT to display all plots, zoom in on a region of the plot, adjust the data, or display static 3D surface plots. To open a file with WinPLOT, select the yellow, View Graphs, button on the top toolbar of the interface, or from the Graph pulldown menu option, View Graph. NOTE: A separate, comprehensive manual for this program, \RSoft\docs\Rplot.pdf, is provided with the software distribution and is also accessible via the OnLine Help button on the WinPLOT toolbar or pulldown menu, when the program is running. Please refer to this manual for more information on WinPLOT. Also, WinPLOT has been improved recently to include a wide variety of 3D and crosscutting capabilities. For this reason the use of CPLOT (a separate plotting utility distributed with older versions of LaserMOD) has been discontinued.

E.2. Simulation Window

The simulation window, which is automatically invoked when any simulation is launched from the CAD, has several useful properties that make it desirable for the display of saved data, as well. This can be accessed via the Graph/Launch Sim Window menu option. The properties include the reporting of the FWHM and confinement factors in the text area at the bottom of the window.

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Appendix E: Plotting Utilities • 321

Figure 237. Contour plot of fundamental mode - half domain

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Figure 238. Vertical cross-cut of the fundamental mode, showing FWHM and 1/e width in the report window

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Appendix E: Plotting Utilities • 323

Figure 239. Zoomed in region of fundamental mode, showing the confinement factor of the data within this region (in both cylindrical and cartesian systems) in the report window.

E.3. RglPLOT

RglPLOT is a self-contained plotting program, for displaying and manipulating surface plots in 3D. It is based on OpenGLTM and the useful feature of this program is that all angles and zoom scales of the data are under direct mouse control. Furthermore, this is the only utility that allows viewing of the data as it exists on the nonuniform mesh. All other utilties interpolate onto a uniform mesh for viewing. Use RglPLOT to display dynamic (mouse driven) 3D surface plots.

Mouse Commands:

Right Mouse Click Right Mouse Drag (up/down) Left Mouse Drag Left Mouse Double Click Popup Menu (click X in upper right corner to close menu) Zoom (in/out) – default Rotate – default Reset to default view and mouse behavior

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Menu Commands:

File Left Mouse Right Mouse View Shapes Help Open Data File (2 selections are requested for Non-Uniform Mesh) Set Left Mouse Behavior Set Right Mouse Behavior Viewing Options Displays Predefined Shapes or File Data Displays these options

Recognized Files:

*.msh *.dat *.m *.n *.fld *.ipf *.ind *.rsf *_Profile.rsf *_table.txt Non-Uniform Mesh File Data File For Non-Uniform Mesh RSoft Mode File RSoft Mode File RSoft Field File RSoft Profile File RSoft CAD File LaserMOD Contour File (same as .m) LaserMOD Profile File (same as .ipf) LinkSIM Stokes Parameter File

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Appendix E: Plotting Utilities • 325

**bdutil – BeamPROP utility
**

The bdutil utility performs several calculations within the LaserMOD program, and is included in the installation as a separate executable that the user can also perform these calculations separately. The utility can calculate the overlap integral between two fields, grating coefficients, the field size, and the far field projection. This utility is designed to work with the RSoft file formats as outlined in Appendix B. Depending on the type of calculation to be performed, the utility accepts one or more data files, calculates the requested information, and then outputs the new data either as a set of numbers or a new data file. The options for each switch will be examined, and then several examples will be given to illustrate these options.

Syntax

bdutil supports the following syntax and options:

usage: bdutil -i [options] input-file-name1 [input-file-name2 [weight-file]] bdutil -k [options] mode-file1 mode-file2 index-file1 index-file2 bdutil -s [options] input-file-name bdutil -f [options] input-file-name output-file-name options: -? -i -wx<range> -wy<range> -sq1 -k -s -rp# -rt# -tx# -ty# -f# -fa -da# -l# -n# -r help - prints this message power or overlap integral calculation (1 or 2 files) select window in x (<range> = #,#) select window in y (<range> = #,#) square field 1 in overlap integral coupling coefficient calculation field size calculation rotate field in phi rotate field in theta translate field in x translate field in y far field calculation: #=distance far field calculation: intensity versus angle override default angular spacing for above set wavelength (default=1.0) set refractive index (default=1.0) automatically resize far field domain

Options & Usage

bdutil can perform several types of calculations. These include overlap integrals, grating coupling coefficients, spot size, field transformations, and far field projections. These calculations and supported options are listed below.

Overlap Integrals:

-i

This switch indicates that an overlap integral should be performed. The correct syntax for this option is:

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bdutil –i [options] input-file1-name1 [input-file-name2 [weight-file]] • -wx<range> -wy<range>

As with any integration, careful attention needs to be given to the limits of integration used. By default, the utility uses the limits of integration which are given in the data files as coordinate ranges. If the files do not lie in the same range, the utility calculates the integral over the area where the files overlap in the coordinate space. The options –wx and –wy, however, allow for a calculation with custom limits of integration. •

-sq1

This option squares the first field before calculating an overlap integral. There are several combinations of input data files which this switch accepts, and the utility performs different calculations in each case. For the purposes of this discussion, it is assumed that the files contain only one coordinate, but the definitions can simply be generalized for files which contain two coordinates. Also, please note that these integrals are normalized. There are three different calculations which the utility can perform: 1. If one data file is given which contains a function integrals of the form

x2

f (x) ƒ(<i>x</i>), the utility calculates three

S ( x) = h( x)dx

x1

where

**h(x) <i>h</i>(<i>x</i>)is equal to f (x) ƒ(<i>x</i>),
**

2 4

f (x) |ƒ(<i>x</i>)|<sup>2</sup>, and f (x) |ƒ(<i>x</i>)|<sup>4</sup>,. Since f (x) ƒ(<i>x</i>) can be a complex function, the value of the integral of h( x) = f ( x) <i>h</i>(<i>x</i>) = ƒ(<i>x</i>) contains both a real and imaginary part.

2. If two data files are given which contain functions f (x ) ƒ(<i>x</i>) and g (x ) <i>g</i>(<i>x</i>) respectively, the utility calculates the overlap integral of these functions. This is defined by

x2

f ( x) g * ( x)dx

x2

2

x2

x1

x1

where the asterisk denotes the complex conjugate. The program returns values for both

**S (x) <i>S</i>(<i>x</i>) and S (x) |<i>S</i>(<i>x</i>)|<sup>2</sup>. Since a complex conjugate is
**

taken, the order in which the files are input is important. 3. If a weight function σ (x ) σ(<i>x</i> is given in addition to two data files, the utility calculates the overlap integral using the form

2

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Appendix E: Plotting Utilities • 327

f ( x) f ( x)dx

*

g ( x) g ( x)dx

*

S ( x) =

x1 1 1 2

x2

f ( x)σ ( x) g * ( x)dx

x1

x1

where the asterisk denotes the complex conjugate. The program returns values for both

**S (x) <i>S</i>(<i>x</i>) and S (x) |<i>S</i>(<i>x</i>)|<sup>2</sup>. Since a complex conjugate is
**

taken, the order in which the files are input is important.

2

**eg. To calculate the integral of a function range of (-3,2):
**

bdutil –i –wx-3,2 field.fld

f (x) ƒ(<i>x</i>), contained in a file field.fld over a

eg. To calculate the overlap integral between two data files, field1.fld and field2.fld, with the default limits of integration and also squaring the first field:

bdutil –i –sq1 field1.fld field2.fld

eg. To calculate the overlap integral between two data files, field1.fld and field2.fld, with a weight file, weight.fld, over the range (-2.3, 6.1), use the command:

bdutil –i –wx-2.3,6.1 field1.fld field2.fld weight.fld

Coupling Coefficients: -k

This switch calculates the coupling coefficient, kappa, between two modes traveling in opposite directions in a grating. The correct syntax for this calculation is:

bdutil -k [options] mode-file1 mode-file2 index-file1 index-file2

At this time, there are no valid options for this switch. This switch requires four files to be input: two index profiles corresponding to the peak and mean index perturbation of the grating and two mode files which correspond to the two modes being studied. These files need to be in the file format specified in Appendix B for index profiles (.ipf) and mode files (.m00) respectively. They can be produced directly with rSoft software or through any other means as long as the file format is correct. eg. To calculate the coupling coefficient between a forward mode, mode1.m00, and a backward mode, mode2.m00, in a grating with a peak index profile of index1.ipf and a mean index profile of index2.ipf:

bdutil -k mode1.m00 mode2.m00 index1.ipf index2.ipf

The utility will produce both the real and imaginary parts of kappa, as well as the effective index of the grating. Kappa is defined as:

+∞ +∞

k κ= 0 4neff , µ

−∞

−∞ +∞ −∞

(n

2 2

* − n12 ) ξvtξ µ t dxdy * ξ µ tξ µt dxdy

+∞ −∞

328 • Appendix E: Plotting Utilities

f ( x) f ( x)dx

*

x2

2

x2

g ( x) g ( x)dx

*

S ( x) =

x1 1 1 2

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

where n1 is the mean index and n2 is the peak index. The calculated number is a dimensionless form of the above expression, in which the k 0 <i>k<sub>0</sub></i> factor is not present. This is consistent with the book: Raman Kashyap, “Fiber Bragg Gratings,” Academic press, 1998, pp.143, equation (4.3.6). It is also consistent with the paper: P. Correc, “Coupling Coefficients for Trapezoidal Gratings,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. QE-24, No. 1, 1988, pp.8, equation (1), (2) and (3). For more information on the coupling coefficient and background on coupled mode theory used, see the document

KAPPA.DOC located in the C:\ rsoft\docs directory.

**Field Size Calculation: -s
**

This switch calculates the 1/e height and width of a field. Its correct syntax is

bdutil -s [options] input-file-name

This switch returns the 1/e height and width in microns. For example, the 1/e width and height of a mode file mode.m00 can be found using the command:

bdutil –s mode.m00

**Field Transformations: -rp#, -rt#, -tx#, or -ty#
**

These switches either rotate a field or translate the center coordinate of a field. Note that you can combine any number of these 4 options in one command. The correct syntax for these switches is:

bdutil –r/t [options] input-file-name output-file-name

**These four switches, and their uses are:
**

• -rp#

This switch tilts the input field by the angle phi given in degrees so that it will propagate at an angle of phi in the XZ plane. Phi is measured from the Z axis.

• -rt#

This switch tilts the input field by the angle theta given in degrees so that it will propagate at an angle of theta in the YZ plane. Theta is measured from the Z axis.

• -tx#

**This switch translates the center of the input field in X by the given number of microns.
**

• -ty#

This switch translates the center of the input field in Y by the given number of microns.

e.g. To tilt the file mode.m00 in the XZ plane by 30 degrees and save the result in the file mode_tile.m00:

bdutil –rp30 mode.m00 mode_tile.m00

e.g. To translate the file mode.m00 by 3 microns in the X direction, and 2 microns in the Y direction and save the result in the file mode2.m00:

bdutil –tx3 –ty2 mode.m00 mode2.m00

**Far Field Calculation: -fa, –f#, or -f
**

These switches calculate the far field projection of field file via a Fourier transform. The correct syntax for these switches is:

bdutil –f [options] input-file-name output-file-name

These three switches calculate the far field in different manners, and can have associated options:

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Appendix E: Plotting Utilities • 329

•

–fa

This switch produces a plot of Intensity vs. Angle. This calculation is done via a Fourier integral. The utility also produces values for the beam divergence of the full angle at both the 1/e intensity as well as the ½ intensity. By default, the angular resolution of the Fourier transform is calculated directly from the range of data in the input file. To override this angular resolution, the option -da# can be used to specify a custom angular spacing.

• –f#

This switch calculates the field at a distance of # microns. This calculation is performed via the FFT-BPM method that propagates one step whose length is equal to the value of #. The option –r can be used to increase the boundary size if the field diverges outside of the boundary specified in the input file. •

-f

This switch calculates the intensity of the far field in k-space via a Fourier integral. For these switches, there are also global options which allow greater control over the calculation. They are:

• -l#

This option sets the wavelength in microns to be used for the propagation. By default, this value is set to be equal to 1µm.

• -n#

This option sets the refractive index that the field is propagated through. By default, it is assumed the field propagates through air, and therefore this value defaults to 1.

eg. the far field projection of a field file field.fld given as intensity as a function of angle with an angular resolution of 0.1 degrees at a wavelength of 1.55 µμm in a material with a refractive index of 1.5 can be saved in a file field2.fld:

bdutil –fa –da.1 –l1.55 –n1.5 field.fld field2.fld

**eg. The field profile for the above case after a distance of 100 µμm:
**

bdutil –f100 –r –l1.55 –n1.5 field.fld field2.fld

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Appendix F: Table Gain Model

This Appendix describes file formats required for the Look-Up Table Gain model. These files must be obtained for a sufficient range of carrier density and temperature for each desired alloy composition of the quantum well material system. These must include the real and imaginary parts of the gain spectra and the spontaneous emission spectra. An index file that identifies all the present data files should also be included. All table gain data & index files are stored in \RSoft\products\lasermod\tablegain. Currently an InGaAs 980 database is availablie in resides in \RSoft\products\lasermod\tablegain ingaas980nm when installed.

**F.1. Index File Format
**

The index file must be named "table.index" and have 7 columns: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. file name temperature (K) 2D density (cm-2) wavelength at which peak gain occurs (nm) 1 if file contains the real part of the gain, 0 otherwise 1 if file contains the imaginary part of the gain, 0 otherwise 1 if file contains the spontaneous emission, 0 otherwise

for example: rsoft300re10.00_0.050 rsoft300re10.00_0.100 rsoft300re10.00_0.170 rsoft300im10.00_0.050 rsoft300im10.00_0.100 rsoft300im10.00_0.170 rsoft300sp10.00_0.050 rsoft300sp10.00_0.100 rsoft300sp10.00_0.170

300 0.050e+12 1576 1 0 0 300 0.100e+12 1576 1 0 0 300 0.170e+12 1576 1 0 0 300 0.050e+12 1576 0 1 0 300 0.100e+12 1576 0 1 0 300 0.170e+12 1576 0 1 0 300 0.050e+12 1545 0 0 1 300 0.100e+12 1545 0 0 1 300 0.170e+12 1545 0 0 1

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Appendix F: Table Gain Model • 331

**F.2. Data File Format
**

All data files consist of two columns: wavelength (nm) in column 1 and data value in column 2. The units for the real and imaginary parts of the gain are both cm-1, and for the spontaneous emission they are eV-1m-3s-1. The wavelength should range from the longest (loweste energy) in the first row, to shortest (highest energy) in the last row of the file.

F.3. Database Availability

Although the Table Gain Model can accomodate any user defined gain data, LaserMOD has been validated with such a database derived from an advanced many-body gain model supplied by

Nonlinear Control Strategies 1001 East Rudasill Rd. Tucson, AZ 85718 Phone: (520) 544-2745 www.nlcstr.com

Users may purchase such a database for their specific geometry and material system. Contact RSoft Design Group (see title page) for more information.

**F.4. Table Gain Model Interface
**

The table gain interface allows access to gain, refractive index and photo-luminescence data from advanced many body calculations (gain libraries computed by Nonlinear Control Strategies) or experimental data. The use of the table gain model is requested by marking a corresponding check box in the laser simulation dialog. The global symbol table parameter table_gain_material indicates the directory the data can be found within the tablegain directory. If run_table_mode=standard, an encrypted standard library is expected. ASCII data can be used by setting run_table_mode=custom. Inhomogeneous broadening can be applied to the table data by specifying a non-zero value for table_gain_inhomog giving the FWHM of the Gaussian used in the convolution integral. Refer to Chapter 2 for details.

**F.5. InGaAs/GaAs standard gain library
**

The Gain Library is a database system that allows the semiconductor laser simulator LaserMOD access to gain, refractive index, and photo-luminescence spectra for semiconductor quantum wells, which are calculated by Nonlinear Control Strategies (http://www.nlcstr.com/) using a sophisticated quantum many-body theory. The individual gain libraries are distributed through Rsoft as optional modules for LaserMOD. Based on the information contained in the database, LaserMOD can perform electro/thermal/optical simulations of semiconductor quantum-well lasers. The gain database can be selected as an alternative to the built-in gain model of LaserMOD, providing several advantages in terms of reduced calibration effort and increased predictive capability of the overall simulation.

The data within the database is grouped in a set of libraries providing spectra for different quantum well/barrier material systems and target emission wavelength of the laser. Within a library the gain, refractive index, and photoluminescence spectra are tabulated for varying wavelength, temperature, carrier density, alloy composition of quantum wells/barriers, and quantum well width to allow the user to investigate variations in the active region design.

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Comparison of measured photo-luminescence data with calculated spectra enables the user to characterize the sample in terms of deviations from the nominal quantum well/barrier geometry and composition. Furthermore, the inhomogeneous broadening indicating the amount of disorder present in the sample can be extracted for corresponding adjustment of the calculated spectra for further simulations.

The microscopic calculation of gain/absorption, refractive index, and photo-luminescence spectra is described in detail in references 1-4 below and references therein. It is based on solving the semiconductor Bloch equations, i.e. the equations of motions for the reduced density matrix, to obtain the optical susceptibility of the quantum well system. The real part of the susceptibility gives the carrier induced change of the refractive index and the imaginary part gives the gain/absorption. The photo-luminescence is derived from the gain/absorption using the Kubo-Martin-Schwinger relation. Coulomb-induced effects like bandgap renormalization, Coulomb enhancement of the absorption and excitonic resonances are taken into account self-consistently. The electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering processes are calculated in a second Born approximation enabling the prediction of spectral broadening and spectral shifts. The resulting scattering equations take the form of generalized quantum Boltzmann equations.

Figure F-240. Measured (green) and calculated (blue) on-wafer PL spectra at low densities. Measured (black dots) and calculated (red) inverted semiconductor gain spectra at different carrier densities. Structure: In0.19Ga0.81As with GaAs barriers.

The InGaAs 980nm Gain Library contains gain/refractive index/spontaneous emission spectra for InGaAs quantum wells embedded in GaAs barriers. The data is tabulated for Indium concentrations ranging from 8% to 24% and quantum well widths ranging from 8nm to 20nm targeting a laser emission wavelength of 980nm. The spectra cover temperature variations from 275K to 500K and variations of the carrier concentration up to 2×1013 cm-2 sheet density.

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Appendix F: Table Gain Model • 333

Figure F-241. Fundamental transition wavelengths as a function of well width and Indium composition for materials contained in the InGaAs980nm Gain Library.

References

[1] J. Hader, et al., IEEE Photon Technol. Lett., Vol.14, No.6, 762 (2002) [2] J. Hader, et al., Sol. Stat. Electron., 47 (3), 513 (2003) [3] J. Hader, et al., IEEE J. Quantum Electron., Vol.35, No. 12, 1878 (1999) [4] W.W. Chow, S.W.Koch, "Semiconductor-Laser fundamentals, Physics of the Gain Materials”, Springer, Berlin 1999.

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Appendix G: Material Library Data

This chapter contains a listing of all the material data (.mat files) distributed with LaserMOD. These reside in <rsoft_dir>\products\lasermod\materials. Unless otherwise specified, these parameters are from [1]. Wurtzite parameters come mainly from [4]. Several local or auxilliary variables are typically defined in the material files to clearify the parametric expressions. These are otherwise not recognized by the simulation, and can vary from file to file. By convention, these variables are either capitalized or contain the word "help" somewhere in the name. Additionally, the alloy parameters (capital) X and Y are provided in each file for convenience. From the material file editor, a user can adjust the alloy composition and immediately observe the resulting values for the entire parameter set. The simulation does this automatically when it loads material data.

AlAs

The default material parameters for AlAs are stored in AlAs.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp

0.33 min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) 6.084 5.494 AB 0 0 1 0 0.001 0

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Appendix G: Material Library Data • 335

arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V

5.46E+23 -3 0.448 0 0.001 0 3.84E+23 -3 0 3 0 2.00E-18 1.30E-17 1 400000 72000 0.44 400000 90000 0.59 0.5*Eg 0 40 40 0.005 0.005 -8.11 -1.7 -1.5 12.02 5.7 0.02 -0.15 8.16 10.06 3.018

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kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT regmat_Augn300

-0.0006 190 4.6 -0.0006 204 0.15 0 0 0.28 0 0 3.45 0.68 1.29 HLAFF_DISCONT 1.3 5.6603 2.91E-05 0.15 0 0 0 0.81 0.16 0.02 -2.1 0.04 -2.24 0.3 0.71 6.26 2.161 -0.000886 1007 0.00014628 0

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Appendix G: Material Library Data • 337

regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp

0 0 0 0.9 5.00E-07 5.00E-07 1.32 1.00E+16 0.001 0.0516 0.0516 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 0.036 500000000 0.026 0.1 3.76 1 0.01 0.45 2.00E-16 1.00E-12 0.91 -1.25

AlGaAs

The default material parameters for AlGaAs are stored in AlGaAs.mat. EgG_BOWING1 is from [2].

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DEv_DEg_REF

0.33 X*8.16+(1-X)*10.89 X*9.92+(1-X)*13.59 min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) 1.424+1.087*X+0.438*X^2 X*3.018+(1-X)*1.424+X*(1-X)*(1.31*X-0.127) X*3.018+(1-X)*1.424 1.905+0.1*X+0.16*X^2 X*2.161+(1-X)*1.911 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) X*6.084+(1-X)*5.494 5.494 AxB1_xC 0 0 X*1.0+(1-X)*0.394 0 X*10e-4+(1-X)*500e-4 0 X*5.46e23+(1-X)*0.6e23 -3 X*0.448+(1-X)*0.38 0 X*10e-4+(1-X)*20e-4 0 X*3.84e23+(1-X)*1.48e23 -3 0 3 0 2.00E-18 1.30E-17 1 400000

DielOpt_0 DielOpt_1

Eg EgG_BOWING EgG_BOWING1 EgG_LINEAR EgX_BOWING EgX_LINEAR Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0

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Appendix G: Material Library Data • 339

hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF

72000 0.44 400000 90000 0.59 0.5*Eg 0 40 40 0.005 0.005 X*-8.11+(1-X)*-8.33 X*-1.7+(1-X)*-1.7 X*-1.5+(1-X)*-1.7 X*12.02+(1-X)*11.9 X*5.7+(1-X)*5.38 X*0.02+(1-X)*-0.017 X*-0.15+(1-X)*-0.085 DielOpt_1 X*10.06+(1-X)*13.18 EgG_BOWING X*-6.00e-04+(1-X)*-5.30e-04 X*190+(1-X)*204 X*4.6+(1-X)*4.417 X*-6.00e-04+(1-X)*-4.00e-04 X*204+(1-X)*240 X*0.15+(1-X)*0.16 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.28+(1-X)*0.34 X*0.00e+00+(1-X)*0.00e+00 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*3.45+(1-X)*6.85 X*0.68+(1-X)*2.1 X*1.29+(1-X)*2.9 HLAFF_DISCONT

340 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime

X*1.3+(1-X)*-0.44 X*5.6603+(1-X)*5.6533 X*2.91e-05+(1-X)*3.36e-05 X*0.15+(1-X)*0.0634 X*0.00e+00+(1-X)*-1.20e-05 X*0.00e+00+(1-X)*0.00e+00 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.81+(1-X)*0.55 X*0.16+(1-X)*0.08 X*0.02+(1-X)*0.85 X*(-2.1)+(1-X)*(-2.1) X*0.04+(1-X)*0.04 X*(-2.24)+(1-X)*(-2.2) X*0.3+(1-X)*0.165 X*0.71+(1-X)*0.85 X*6.26+(1-X)*6.26 EgX_BOWING X*-8.86e-04+(1-X)*-4.60e-04 X*1007+(1-X)*204 X*14.628e-5+(1-X)*16.425e-5 X*0.00e+00+(1-X)*1.00e-48 0 X*0.00e+00+(1-X)*2.00e-41 0 X*0.9+(1-X)*0.75 X*5.00e-07+(1-X)*5.00e-07 X*5.00e-07+(1-X)*5.00e-07 X*1.32+(1-X)*1.32 X*1.00e+16+(1-X)*1.00e+16 X*0.001+(1-X)*0.001 X*0.0516+(1-X)*0.0516 X*0.0516+(1-X)*0.0516 X*1.00e-13+(1-X)*1.00e-13 X*1.00e-13+(1-X)*1.00e-13 X*1.00e-13+(1-X)*1.00e-13 X*1.00e-13+(1-X)*1.00e-13

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Appendix G: Material Library Data • 341

regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp

X*5.00e-14+(1-X)*5.00e-14 X*5.00e-14+(1-X)*5.00e-14 X*5.00e-14+(1-X)*5.00e-14 X*5.00e-14+(1-X)*5.00e-14 X*0.036+(1-X)*0.036 X*5.00e+08+(1-X)*5.00e+08 X*0.026+(1-X)*0.026 X*0.1+(1-X)*0.1 X*3.76+(1-X)*5.318 X*1+(1-X)*1 X*0.01+(1-X)*0.01 X*0.45+(1-X)*0.327 X*2.00e-16+(1-X)*2.00e-16 X*1.00e-12+(1-X)*1.00e-12 1/(X/0.91+(1-X)/0.44+X*(1-X)*30) -1.25

AlGaAsSb

The default material parameters for AlGaAsSb are stored in AlGaAsSb.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg EgG_AlAsSb EgG_AlGaAs EgG_AlGaSb EgG_BOWING EgG_GaAsSb EgG_LINEAR EgG_X EgG_Y EgX_AlAsSb EgX_AlGaAs EgX_AlGaSb EgX_BOWING

0.35 min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) YY*3.018+(1-YY)*2.3-0.8*YY*(1-YY) XX*3.018+(1-XX)*1.424-(1.31*XX-0.127)*XX*(1-XX) XX*2.3+(1-XX)*0.726-(1.22*XX-0.044)*XX*(1-XX) (EgG_X+EgG_Y-0.48*XX*(1-XX)*YY*(1-YY))/(XX*(1XX)+YY*(1-YY)) YY*1.424+(1-YY)*0.726-1.43*YY*(1-YY) X*Y*3.018+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.726+(1-X)*Y*1.424+X*(1-Y)*2.3 XX*(1-XX)*((1-YY)*EgG_AlGaSb+YY*EgG_AlGaAs) YY*(1-YY)*(XX*EgG_AlAsSb+(1-XX)*EgG_GaAsSb) YY*2.161+(1-YY)*1.63-0.28*YY*(1-YY) XX*2.161+(1-XX)*1.911-0.055*XX*(1-XX) XX*1.63+(1-XX)*1.0325-0*XX*(1-XX) (EgX_X+EgX_Y-0.807*XX*(1-XX)*YY*(1-YY))/(XX*(1-

342 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

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XX)+YY*(1-YY))

EgX_GaAsSb EgX_LINEAR EgX_X EgX_Y Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X XX Y YY arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp

YY*1.911+(1-YY)*1.0325-1.2*YY*(1-YY) (1-X)*Y*1.911+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.0325+X*Y*2.161+X*(1-Y)*1.63 XX*(1-XX)*((1-YY)*EgX_AlGaSb+YY*EgX_AlGaAs) YY*(1-YY)*(XX*EgX_AlAsSb+(1-XX)*EgX_GaAsSb) 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) X*Y*6.084+X*(1-Y)*5.23+(1-X)*Y*5.494+(1-X)*(1-Y)*4.786 5.494 AxB1_xCyD1_y 0 min(1-1.e-8,max(1.e-8,X)) 0 min(1-1.e-8,max(1.e-8,Y)) (1-X)*Y*0.394+(1-X)*X*(1-Y)*0.5+X*Y*1.0+X*(1-Y)*0.5 0 (1-X)*Y*0.05+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.01+X*Y*0.001+X*(1-Y)*0.005 0 (1-X)*Y*6e22+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1e23+X*Y*5.46e+023+X*(1Y)*1e+023 -3*(1-X)*Y-0*(1-X)*(1-Y)-3*X*Y-0*X*(1-Y) 0.38*(1-X)*Y+0.5*(1-X)*(1-Y)+0.448*X*Y+0.5*X*(1-Y) 0 0.002*(1-X)*Y+0.01*(1-X)*(1-Y)+0.001*X*Y+0.005*X*(1-Y) 0 1.48e23*(1-X)*Y+1e23*(1-X)*(1Y)+3.84e+023*X*Y+1e+023*X*(1-Y) -3*(1-X)*Y-0*(1-X)*(1-Y)-3*X*Y-0*X*(1-Y) 0 3 0 2.00E-18 1.30E-17 1 400000 72000 0.44

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Appendix G: Material Library Data • 343

hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF

400000 90000 0.59 0.5*Eg 0 40 40 (1-X)*Y*0.03+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.03+X*Y*0.01+X*(1-Y)*0.0425 (1-X)*Y*0.006+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.02+X*Y*0.05+X*(1-Y)*0.147 -8.33*(1-X)*Y-8.3*(1-X)*(1-Y)-8.11*X*Y-5.9*X*(1-Y) 2*kpmat_PP2 -2*(1-X)*Y-2*(1-X)*(1-Y)-1.5*X*Y-1.35*X*(1-Y) (1-X)*Y*11.9+(1-X)*(1-Y)*8.842+X*Y*12.02+X*(1-Y)*8.769 (1-X)*Y*5.38+(1-X)*(1-Y)*4.026+X*Y*5.7+X*(1-Y)*4.341 0 -0.085 (1-X)*Y*13.3225+(1-X)*(1-Y)*14.5924+X*Y*10.1124+X*(1Y)*11.56 (1-X)*Y*13.18+(1-X)*(1-Y)*15.69+X*Y*10.06+X*(1-Y)*12.04 EgG_BOWING -5.30e-04*(1-X)*Y-4.17e-4*(1-X)*(1-Y)-0.0006*X*Y0.00042*X*(1-Y) (1-X)*Y*204+140*(1-X)*(1-Y)+190*X*Y+140*X*(1-Y) (1-X)*Y*4.417+(1-X)*(1-Y)*3.106+4.6*X*Y+3.5*X*(1-Y) (1-X)*Y*-4.00e-04-4.17e-4*(1-X)*(1-Y)-0.0006*X*Y0.00042*X*(1-Y) (1-X)*Y*240+(1-X)*(1-Y)*140+X*Y*204+X*(1-Y)*140 (1-X)*Y*0.16+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.76+X*Y*0.15+X*(1-Y)*0.15 0 0 (1-X)*Y*0.34+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.76+X*Y*0.28+X*(1-Y)*0.67 0 0 (1-X)*Y*6.85+(1-X)*(1-Y)*13.4+X*Y*3.45+X*(1-Y)*5.18 (1-X)*Y*2.1+(1-X)*(1-Y)*4.7+X*Y*0.68+X*(1-Y)*1.19 (1-X)*Y*2.9+(1-X)*(1-Y)*6.0+X*Y*1.29+X*(1-Y)*1.97 HLAFF_DISCONT

344 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_P2 kpmat_PP2 kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT kpmat_interpolP regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e

(1-X)*Y*-0.44+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-7.88+X*Y*1.3+X*(1-Y)*-0.44 (1-X)*Y*5.6533+(1-X)*(1-Y)*6.0959+X*Y*5.6603+X*(1Y)*6.1355 (1-X)*Y*3.36e-05+(1-X)*(1-Y)*4.72e-5+X*Y*2.91e-005+X*(1Y)*2.6e-005 (1-X)*Y*0.0634+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.0396+X*Y*0.15+X*(1-Y)*0.14 -1.20E-05 0 0 (1-X)*Y*0.55+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.28+X*Y*0.81+X*(1-Y)*0.94 (1-X)*Y*0.08+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.05+X*Y*0.16+X*(1-Y)*0.14 (1-X)*Y*0.85+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.3+X*Y*0.02+X*(1-Y)*0.02 (1-X)*Y*(-2.1)+(1-X)*(1-Y)*(-2.1)+X*Y*(-2.1)+X*(1-Y)*(-1.8) (1-X)*Y*0.04+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.12+X*Y*0.04+X*(1-Y)*0.046 (1-X)*Y*(-2.2)+(1-X)*(1-Y)*(-2.1)+X*Y*(-2.24)+X*(1-Y)*(-2.2) (1-X)*Y*0.165+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.13+X*Y*0.3+X*(1-Y)*0.29 (1-X)*Y*0.85+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.87+X*Y*0.71+X*(1-Y)*0.92 (1-X)*Y*28.8+(1-X)*(1-Y)*27.0+X*Y*21.1+X*(1-Y)*18.7 -1.94*(1-X)*Y-1.63*(1-X)*(1-Y)-0.48*X*Y-0.56*X*(1-Y) 6.26 EgX_BOWING (1-X)*Y*-4.60e-04+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-2.76e-04+X*Y*-0.000886+X*(1Y)*-0.00039 (1-X)*Y*204+(1-X)*(1-Y)*94+X*Y*1007+X*(1-Y)*140 (1-X)*Y*16.425e-5+(1-X)*(1-Y)*3.1324e4+X*Y*0.00014628+X*(1-Y)*0.000119 1 (1-X)*Y*1.00e-48+(1-X)*(1-Y)*2e-042+X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*1e-044 0 (1-X)*Y*2.00e-41+(1-X)*(1-Y)*3e-042+X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*1e-044 0 0.5*Eg 5.00E-07 5.00E-07 X*Y*1.32+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.32+(1-X)*Y*1.32+X*(1-Y)*1.32 X*Y*1.00e+16+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.00e+16+(1-X)*Y*1.00e+16+X*(1Y)*1.00e+16 X*Y*0.001+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.001+(1-X)*Y*0.001+X*(1-Y)*0.001

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Appendix G: Material Library Data • 345

regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp thermconduct_help thermconduct_help2

X*Y*0.0516+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.0516+(1-X)*Y*0.0516+X*(1Y)*0.0516 X*Y*0.0516+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.0516+(1-X)*Y*0.0516+X*(1Y)*0.0516 X*Y*1.00e-13+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.00e-13+(1-X)*Y*1.00e-13+X*(1Y)*1.00e-13 X*Y*1.00e-13+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.00e-13+(1-X)*Y*1.00e-13+X*(1Y)*1.00e-13 X*Y*1.00e-13+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.00e-13+(1-X)*Y*1.00e-13+X*(1Y)*1.00e-13 X*Y*1.00e-13+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.00e-13+(1-X)*Y*1.00e-13+X*(1Y)*1.00e-13 X*Y*5.00e-14+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.00e-14+(1-X)*Y*5.00e-14+X*(1Y)*5.00e-14 X*Y*5.00e-14+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.00e-14+(1-X)*Y*5.00e-14+X*(1Y)*5.00e-14 X*Y*5.00e-14+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.00e-14+(1-X)*Y*5.00e-14+X*(1Y)*5.00e-14 X*Y*5.00e-14+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.00e-14+(1-X)*Y*5.00e-14+X*(1Y)*5.00e-14 (1-X)*Y*0.035+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.0297+X*Y*0.036+X*(1-Y)*0.036 X*Y*5.00e+08+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.00e+08+(1-X)*Y*5.00e+08+X*(1Y)*5.00e+08 X*Y*0.026+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.026+(1-X)*Y*0.026+X*(1-Y)*0.026 X*Y*0.1+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.1+(1-X)*Y*0.1+X*(1-Y)*0.1 (1-X)*Y*5.318+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.614+X*Y*3.76+X*(1-Y)*4.26 1 X*Y*0.01+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.01+(1-X)*Y*0.01+X*(1-Y)*0.01 (1-X)*Y*0.327+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.25+X*Y*0.45+X*(1-Y)*0.45 (1-X)*Y*2.00e-16+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1e-016+X*Y*2e-016+X*(1-Y)*2e016 X*Y*1.00e-12+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.00e-12+(1-X)*Y*1.00e-12+X*(1Y)*1.00e-12 1/(thermconduct_help+thermconduct_help2) (1-X)*Y*(-1.25)+(1-X)*(1-Y)*(-1.1)+X*Y*(-1.25)+X*(1-Y)*(-1.2) (1-X)*Y/0.44+(1-X)*(1-Y)/0.33+X*Y/0.91+X*(1-Y)/0.57 X*(1-X)*(Y*30+(1-Y)*34)+Y*(1-Y)*(X*65+(1-X)*63)

346 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

AlGaInAs

The default material parameters for AlGaInAs are stored in AlGaInAs.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg EgG_BOWING Eg_HELP EgG_LINEAR Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat

0.28 min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) 0.36+2.093*X*Y+0.629*(Y-X*Y)+0.577*X*Y*X*Y+Eg_HELP 0.436*(Y-X*Y)*(Y-X*Y)+1.013*X*Y*(Y-X*Y)-2.0*X*Y*(YX*Y)*(1-Y) X*Y*3.018+(Y-X*Y)*1.424+(1-Y)*0.354 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) X*Y*6.084+(Y-X*Y)*5.494+(1-Y)*5.224 5.494 AxyBy_xyC1_yD 0 0 X*Y+(Y-X*Y)*0.394+(1-Y)*0.32 0 X*Y*0.001+(Y-X*Y)*0.05+(1-Y)*0.1 0 X*Y*5.46e23+(Y-X*Y)*6e22+(1-Y)*1.1e24 -3 X*Y*0.448+(Y-X*Y)*0.38+(1-Y)*0.46 0 X*Y*0.001+(Y-X*Y)*0.002+(1-Y)*0.002 0 X*Y*3.84e23+(Y-X*Y)*1.48e23+(1-Y)*1.1e23 -3 0 3*Y+7*(1-Y) 0 2E-18 1.3E-17 1 400000 72000

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 347

hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE

0.44 400000 90000 0.59 0.5*Eg 0 40 40 0.005 0.005 -8.44*X*Y-8.33*(Y-X*Y)-(1-Y)*6.08 -1.7*X*Y-1.7*(Y-X*Y)-4*(1-Y) -1.5*X*Y-1.7*(Y-X*Y)-(1-Y)*1.8 12.02*X*Y+11.9*(Y-X*Y)+8.33*(1-Y) 5.7*X*Y+5.38*(Y-X*Y)+4.53*(1-Y) 0.02*X*Y-0.017*(Y-X*Y)-0.01*(1-Y) -0.15*X*Y-0.085*(Y-X*Y)-(1-Y)*0.085 8.16*X*Y+10.89*(Y-X*Y)+12.25*(1-Y) 10.06*X*Y+13.18*(Y-X*Y)+14.6*(1-Y) Eg_BOWING -0.0006*X*Y-0.00053*(Y-X*Y)-0.000594*(1-Y) 190*X*Y+204*(Y-X*Y)+535*(1-Y) 4.6*X*Y+4.417*(Y-X*Y)+4.39*(1-Y) -0.0006*X*Y-0.0004*(Y-X*Y)-0.0004*(1-Y) 204*X*Y+240*(Y-X*Y)+250*(1-Y) 0.15*X*Y+0.16*(Y-X*Y)+0.24*(1-Y) 0 0 0.28*X*Y+0.34*(Y-X*Y)+0.371*(1-Y) 3e-5*(1-Y) 0 3.45*X*Y+6.85*(Y-X*Y)+20.4*(1-Y) 0.68*X*Y+2.1*(Y-X*Y)+8.3*(1-Y) 1.29*X*Y+2.9*(Y-X*Y)+9.1*(1-Y) HLAFF_DISCONT 1.3*X*Y-0.44*(Y-X*Y)-14.8*(1-Y)

348 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime

5.6603*X*Y+5.6533*(Y-X*Y)+6.0583*(1-Y) 2.91e-5*X*Y+3.36e-5*(Y-X*Y)+3e-5*(1-Y) 0.15*X*Y+0.0634*(Y-X*Y)+0.0221*(1-Y) -0.000012*(Y-X*Y) -0.000000005*(1-Y) -0.00000000006*(1-Y) 0.81*X*Y+0.55*(Y-X*Y)+0.4*(1-Y) 0.16*X*Y+0.08*(Y-X*Y)+0.026*(1-Y) 0.02*X*Y+0.85*(Y-X*Y)+2.65*(1-Y) -2.1*X*Y-2.1*(Y-X*Y)-1.57*(1-Y) 0.04*X*Y+0.04*(Y-X*Y)+0.046*(1-Y) -2.24*X*Y-2.2*(Y-X*Y)-2.3*(1-Y) 0.3*X*Y+0.165*(Y-X*Y)+0.103*(1-Y) 0.71*X*Y+0.85*(Y-X*Y)+0.32*(1-Y) 6.26 2.161*X*Y+1.911*(Y-X*Y)+2.28*(1-Y) -0.000886*X*Y-0.00046*(Y-X*Y)-0.00035*(1-Y) 1007*X*Y+204*(Y-X*Y) X*Y*14.628e-5+(1-X)*Y*16.425e-5+(1-Y)*22.88e-5 1e-48*(Y-X*Y)+5.53e-43*(1-Y) 0 2e-41*(Y-X*Y) 0 0.9*X*Y+0.75*(Y-X*Y)+0.177*(1-Y) 0.0000005 0.0000005 1.32 1E+16 0.001 0.0516 0.0516 1E-13 1E-13 1E-13 1E-13 5E-14

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 349

regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp thermconduct_help

5E-14 5E-14 5E-14 0.036 500000000 0.026 0.1 3.76*X*Y+5.318*(Y-X*Y)+5.667*(1-Y) 1 0.01 0.45*X*Y+0.327*(Y-X*Y)+0.352*(1-Y) 2E-16 1E-12 1/thermconduct_help -1.25*X*Y-1.25*(Y-X*Y)-1.2*(1-Y) X*Y/0.91+(Y-X*Y)/0.44+(1-Y)/0.27+X*Y*(Y-X*Y)*30+X*Y*(1Y)*80+(Y-X*Y)*(1-Y)*78.8

AlGaInP

The default material parameters for AlGaInP are stored in AlGaInP.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_BOWING Eg_GaInP Eg_LINEAR Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1

0.395 min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) (up(X)-up(X-0.6))*0.6*X+(up(X-0.6)-um(X-1.0))*0.36+Eg_GaInP 1.35+0.643*Y+0.786*Y^2 X*Y*3.62+(1-X)*Y*2.78+(1-Y)*1.344 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) X*Y*6.054+(1-X)*Y*6.054+(1-Y)*5.684 5.494 AxyBy_xyC1_yD 0 0 Y*0.8+(1-Y)*0.42

350 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS

0 Y*10e-4+(1-Y)*400e-4 0 Y*44e23+(1-Y)*3e23 Y*(-0.71)+(1-Y)*(-3.25) Y*0.85+(1-Y)*0.62 0 0.001 0 Y*10e23+(1-Y)*4.87e23 -3 0 Y*3+(1-Y)*7 0 2E-18 1.3E-17 1 400000 72000 0.44 400000 90000 0.59 0.5*Eg 0 40 40 0.005 0.005 X*Y*-8.83+(1-X)*Y*-8.83+(1-Y)*-6.31 X*Y*-1.7+(1-X)*Y*-1.7+(1-Y)*-2 X*Y*-1.8+(1-X)*Y*-1.8+(1-Y)*-1.7 X*Y*18.83+(1-X)*Y*14.05+(1-Y)*10.11 X*Y*6.71+(1-X)*Y*6.203+(1-Y)*5.61 X*Y*0.02+(1-X)*Y*0.02+(1-Y)*-0.017 X*Y*-0.085+(1-X)*Y*-0.085+(1-Y)*-0.085

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 351

kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A

X*Y*7.54+(1-X)*Y*9.11+(1-Y)*9.66 X*Y*9.8+(1-X)*Y*11.11+(1-Y)*12.5 Eg_BOWING X*Y*-4.10e-04+(1-X)*Y*-4.10e-04+(1-Y)*-4.46e-04 X*Y*0+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-Y)*204 X*Y*5.09+(1-X)*Y*5.24+(1-Y)*4.64 X*Y*0.00e+00+(1-X)*Y*0.00e+00+(1-Y)*0.00e+00 X*Y*0+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-Y)*0 X*Y*0+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-Y)*0.07 X*Y*0+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-Y)*0 X*Y*0+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-Y)*0 X*Y*0.01+(1-X)*Y*0.08+(1-Y)*0.108 X*Y*0.00e+00+(1-X)*Y*0.00e+00+(1-Y)*0.00e+00 X*Y*0+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-Y)*0 X*Y*3.47+(1-X)*Y*4.05+(1-Y)*4.95 X*Y*0.06+(1-X)*Y*0.49+(1-Y)*1.65 X*Y*1.15+(1-X)*Y*1.25+(1-Y)*2.35 HLAFF_DISCONT X*Y*2+(1-X)*Y*2+(1-Y)*1.48 X*Y*5.4635+(1-X)*Y*5.4505+(1-Y)*5.869 X*Y*5.00e-06+(1-X)*Y*5.00e-06+(1-Y)*2.96e-05 X*Y*0.2+(1-X)*Y*0.18+(1-Y)*0.075 X*Y*0.00e+00+(1-X)*Y*0.00e+00+(1-Y)*0.00e+00 X*Y*0.00e+00+(1-X)*Y*0.00e+00+(1-Y)*-8.00e-08 X*Y*0+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-Y)*0 X*Y*0.51+(1-X)*Y*0.67+(1-Y)*0.58 X*Y*0.21+(1-X)*Y*0.17+(1-Y)*0.12 X*Y*0.006+(1-X)*Y*0.016+(1-Y)*0.54 Y*(-1.6)+(1-Y)*(-2.0) X*Y*0.045+(1-X)*Y*0.0135+(1-Y)*0.015 Y*(-1.98)+(1-Y)*(-2.0) X*Y*0.465+(1-X)*Y*0.465+(1-Y)*0.21 X*Y*0.25+(1-X)*Y*0.25+(1-Y)*0.32 X*Y*6.26+(1-X)*Y*6.26+(1-Y)*6.26 X*Y*2.505+(1-X)*Y*2.27+(1-Y)*2.44 X*Y*-3.20e-04+(1-X)*Y*-6.20e-04+(1-Y)*-3.50e-04

352 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp thermconduct_help

X*Y*0+(1-X)*Y*460+(1-Y)*0 X*Y*10.605e-5+(1-X)*Y*8.625e-5+(1-Y)*9.207e-5 X*Y*5.53e-43+(1-X)*Y*5.53e-43+(1-Y)*5.53e-43 0 X*Y*0.00e+00+(1-X)*Y*0.00e+00+(1-Y)*0.00e+00 0 X*Y*0.37+(1-X)*Y*1.3+(1-Y)*0.65 X*Y*5.00e-07+(1-X)*Y*5.00e-07+(1-Y)*5.00e-07 X*Y*5.00e-07+(1-X)*Y*5.00e-07+(1-Y)*5.00e-07 X*Y*1.32+(1-X)*Y*1.32+(1-Y)*1.32 X*Y*1.00e+16+(1-X)*Y*1.00e+16+(1-Y)*1.00e+16 X*Y*0.001+(1-X)*Y*0.001+(1-Y)*0.001 X*Y*0.0516+(1-X)*Y*0.0516+(1-Y)*0.0516 X*Y*0.0516+(1-X)*Y*0.0516+(1-Y)*0.0516 X*Y*1.00e-13+(1-X)*Y*1.00e-13+(1-Y)*1.00e-13 X*Y*1.00e-13+(1-X)*Y*1.00e-13+(1-Y)*1.00e-13 X*Y*1.00e-13+(1-X)*Y*1.00e-13+(1-Y)*1.00e-13 X*Y*1.00e-13+(1-X)*Y*1.00e-13+(1-Y)*1.00e-13 X*Y*5.00e-14+(1-X)*Y*5.00e-14+(1-Y)*5.00e-14 X*Y*5.00e-14+(1-X)*Y*5.00e-14+(1-Y)*5.00e-14 X*Y*5.00e-14+(1-X)*Y*5.00e-14+(1-Y)*5.00e-14 X*Y*5.00e-14+(1-X)*Y*5.00e-14+(1-Y)*5.00e-14 X*Y*0.036+(1-X)*Y*0.036+(1-Y)*0.036 X*Y*5.00e+08+(1-X)*Y*5.00e+08+(1-Y)*5.00e+08 X*Y*0.026+(1-X)*Y*0.026+(1-Y)*0.026 X*Y*0.1+(1-X)*Y*0.1+(1-Y)*0.1 X*Y*2.4+(1-X)*Y*4.138+(1-Y)*4.81 X*Y*1+(1-X)*Y*1+(1-Y)*1 X*Y*0.01+(1-X)*Y*0.01+(1-Y)*0.01 X*Y*0.477+(1-X)*Y*0.313+(1-Y)*0.311 X*Y*2.00e-16+(1-X)*Y*2.00e-16+(1-Y)*2.00e-16 X*Y*1.00e-12+(1-X)*Y*1.00e-12+(1-Y)*1.00e-12 1/thermconduct_help X*Y*(-1.25)+(1-X)*Y*(-1.3)+(1-Y)*(-1.5) X*Y/1.3+(1-X)*Y/0.77+(1-Y)/0.68+X*Y*(1-X)*Y*30+X*Y*(1Y)*77+(1-X)*Y*(1-Y)*19.9

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 353

AlGaN

The default material parameters for AlGaN are stored in AlGaN.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0

0.3 min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) X*8.134+(1-X)*7.334 5.494 AxB1_xC 0 0 X*0.66+(1-X)*0.66 X*0.81+(1-X)*0.81 X*0.0295+(1-X)*0.0295 X*-1.02+(1-X)*-1.02 X*1e+23+(1-X)*1e+23 X*3.02+(1-X)*3.02 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*3+(1-X)*3 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*1+(1-X)*1 X*221000+(1-X)*221000 X*191000+(1-X)*191000 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*221000+(1-X)*221000

354 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT

X*191000+(1-X)*191000 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.5*Eg+(1-X)*0.5*Eg X*0+(1-X)*0 X*40+(1-X)*40 X*40+(1-X)*40 X*0.02+(1-X)*0.02 X*0.17+(1-X)*0.17 X*-2.6+(1-X)*3 X*-1.7+(1-X)*-1.7 X*-1.9+(1-X)*-2.2 X*30.4+(1-X)*29.3 X*16+(1-X)*15.9 X*0.02+(1-X)*0.02 X*-0.15+(1-X)*-0.15 X*5.35+(1-X)*5.35 X*8.9+(1-X)*8.9 X*4.9+(1-X)*3.299 X*-0.000593+(1-X)*-0.000593 X*600+(1-X)*600 X*10+(1-X)*10 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*10+(1-X)*10 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.019+(1-X)*0.017 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*1.92+(1-X)*2.67 X*0.47+(1-X)*0.75 X*0.85+(1-X)*1.1 HLAFF_DISCONT X*1.3+(1-X)*1.3 X*4.38+(1-X)*4.5 X*0.0000035+(1-X)*0.0000035

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 355

kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_P2 kpmat_PP2 kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT kpmat_interpolP kpmat_wurtzite regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime

X*0.25+(1-X)*0.15 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*1.2+(1-X)*0.8 X*0.33+(1-X)*0.18 X*0.1461+(1-X)*0.1461 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.0015+(1-X)*0.0015 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.47+(1-X)*0.29 X*0.53+(1-X)*0.5 X*27.1+(1-X)*25 X*0.76+(1-X)*-0.92 X*6.26+(1-X)*6.26 X*6+(1-X)*4.52 X*-0.000593+(1-X)*-0.000593 X*600+(1-X)*600 X*0.0000575+(1-X)*0.0000575 0 0 X*1e-46+(1-X)*1e-46 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.5*Eg+(1-X)*0.5*Eg X*0.000000001+(1-X)*0.000000001 X*0.000000001+(1-X)*0.000000001 X*1.32+(1-X)*1.32 X*1e+16+(1-X)*1e+16 X*0.001+(1-X)*0.001 X*0.0516+(1-X)*0.0516 X*0.0516+(1-X)*0.0516 X*1e-13+(1-X)*1e-13 X*1e-13+(1-X)*1e-13 X*1e-13+(1-X)*1e-13

356 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp wz_A1 wz_A2 wz_A3 wz_A4 wz_A5 wz_A6 wz_C13 wz_C33 wz_D1 wz_D2 wz_D3 wz_D4 wz_Eg wz_Eg_A wz_Eg_B wz_P1 wz_P2 wz_Psp wz_defc_a

X*1e-13+(1-X)*1e-13 X*5e-14+(1-X)*5e-14 X*5e-14+(1-X)*5e-14 X*5e-14+(1-X)*5e-14 X*5e-14+(1-X)*5e-14 X*0.091+(1-X)*0.091 X*500000000+(1-X)*500000000 X*0.026+(1-X)*0.026 X*0.1+(1-X)*0.1 X*6.15+(1-X)*6.15 X*1+(1-X)*1 X*0.01+(1-X)*0.01 X*0.49+(1-X)*0.49 X*1.1e-14+(1-X)*1.1e-14 X*1e-12+(1-X)*1e-12 X*1.3+(1-X)*1.3 X*-0.28+(1-X)*-0.28 X*-6.56+(1-X)*-6.56 X*-0.91+(1-X)*-0.91 X*5.65+(1-X)*5.65 X*-2.83+(1-X)*-2.83 X*-3.13+(1-X)*-3.13 X*-4.86+(1-X)*-4.86 X*10.6+(1-X)*10.6 X*39.8+(1-X)*39.8 X*-3+(1-X)*-3 X*3.6+(1-X)*3.6 X*8.82+(1-X)*8.82 X*-4.41+(1-X)*-4.41 X*3.42+(1-X)*3.42 X*-0.000909+(1-X)*-0.000909 X*830+(1-X)*830 X*14+(1-X)*14 X*14+(1-X)*14 X*-0.029+(1-X)*-0.029 X*-4.08+(1-X)*-4.08

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 357

wz_defc_c wz_e13 wz_e33 wz_latt_a wz_latt_c wz_mel_a wz_mel_c wz_split_cr wz_split_so

X*-4.08+(1-X)*-4.08 X*-0.35+(1-X)*-0.35 X*1.27+(1-X)*1.27 X*3.189+(1-X)*3.189 X*5.185+(1-X)*5.185 X*0.2+(1-X)*0.2 X*0.2+(1-X)*0.2 X*0.019+(1-X)*0.019 X*0.014+(1-X)*0.014

AlGaN (Wurtzite)

The default material parameters for AlGaN Wurtzite are stored in AlGaN_wz.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption

0.3 wz_Eg 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) X*8.292+(1-X)*7.31 5.494 AxB1_xC 0 0 X*1.16+(1-X)*0.66 X*0.86+(1-X)*0.81 X*0.0298+(1-X)*0.0295 X*-1.82+(1-X)*-1.02 X*1e+23+(1-X)*1e+23 X*3.78+(1-X)*3.02 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0

358 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V

X*3+(1-X)*3 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*1+(1-X)*1 X*447000+(1-X)*221000 X*217000+(1-X)*191000 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*447000+(1-X)*221000 X*217000+(1-X)*191000 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.5*Eg+(1-X)*0.5*Eg X*0+(1-X)*0 X*40+(1-X)*40 X*40+(1-X)*40 X*0.47+(1-X)*0.17 X*0.02+(1-X)*0.02 X*3+(1-X)*3 X*-1.7+(1-X)*-1.7 X*-2.2+(1-X)*-2.2 X*39.6+(1-X)*39 X*13.7+(1-X)*14.5 X*0.02+(1-X)*0.02 X*-0.15+(1-X)*-0.15 X*4.6+(1-X)*5.35 X*8.5+(1-X)*8.9 X*3.299+(1-X)*3.299 X*-0.000593+(1-X)*-0.000593 X*600+(1-X)*600 X*10+(1-X)*10 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*10+(1-X)*10 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.017+(1-X)*0.017

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 359

kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_P2 kpmat_PP2 kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT kpmat_interpolP kpmat_wurtzite regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun

X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*2.67+(1-X)*2.67 X*0.75+(1-X)*0.75 X*1.1+(1-X)*1.1 HLAFF_DISCONT X*1.3+(1-X)*1.3 X*4.5+(1-X)*4.5 X*0.0000047+(1-X)*0.0000035 X*0.15+(1-X)*0.15 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.8+(1-X)*0.8 X*0.18+(1-X)*0.18 X*0.0684+(1-X)*0.1461 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.0014+(1-X)*0.0015 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.29+(1-X)*0.29 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*25+(1-X)*25 X*-0.92+(1-X)*-0.92 X*6.26+(1-X)*6.26 X*4.52+(1-X)*4.52 X*-0.000593+(1-X)*-0.000593 X*600+(1-X)*600 X*0.0000575+(1-X)*0.0000575 0 1 X*1e-46+(1-X)*1e-46 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.5*Eg+(1-X)*0.5*Eg X*0.000000001+(1-X)*0.000000001

360 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp wz_A1 wz_A2 wz_A3 wz_A4 wz_A5 wz_A6 wz_C13 wz_C33 wz_D1 wz_D2

X*0.000000001+(1-X)*0.000000001 X*1.32+(1-X)*1.32 X*1e+16+(1-X)*1e+16 X*0.001+(1-X)*0.001 X*0.0516+(1-X)*0.0516 X*0.0516+(1-X)*0.0516 X*1e-13+(1-X)*1e-13 X*1e-13+(1-X)*1e-13 X*1e-13+(1-X)*1e-13 X*1e-13+(1-X)*1e-13 X*5e-14+(1-X)*5e-14 X*5e-14+(1-X)*5e-14 X*5e-14+(1-X)*5e-14 X*5e-14+(1-X)*5e-14 X*0.11+(1-X)*0.091 X*500000000+(1-X)*500000000 X*0.026+(1-X)*0.026 X*0.1+(1-X)*0.1 X*3.23+(1-X)*6.15 X*1+(1-X)*1 X*0.01+(1-X)*0.01 X*0.6+(1-X)*0.49 X*1.1e-14+(1-X)*1.1e-14 X*1e-12+(1-X)*1e-12 X*2.85+(1-X)*1.3 X*-0.164+(1-X)*-0.28 X*-3.95+(1-X)*-6.56 X*-0.27+(1-X)*-0.91 X*3.68+(1-X)*5.65 X*-1.84+(1-X)*-2.83 X*-1.95+(1-X)*-3.13 X*-2.91+(1-X)*-4.86 X*10.8+(1-X)*10.6 X*37.3+(1-X)*39.8 X*-3+(1-X)*-3 X*3.6+(1-X)*3.6

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 361

wz_D3 wz_D4 wz_Eg wz_Eg_A wz_Eg_B wz_P1 wz_P2 wz_Psp wz_defc_a wz_defc_c wz_e13 wz_e33 wz_latt_a wz_latt_c wz_mel_a wz_mel_c wz_split_cr wz_split_so

X*9.6+(1-X)*8.82 X*-4.8+(1-X)*-4.41 X*6.28+(1-X)*3.42-X*(1-X)*1.3 X*-0.001799+(1-X)*-0.000909 X*1462+(1-X)*830 X*14.5+(1-X)*14 X*14.5+(1-X)*14 X*-0.081+(1-X)*-0.029 X*-4.08+(1-X)*-4.08 X*-4.08+(1-X)*-4.08 X*-0.5+(1-X)*-0.35 X*1.79+(1-X)*1.27 X*3.112+(1-X)*3.189 X*4.982+(1-X)*5.185 X*0.28+(1-X)*0.2 X*0.32+(1-X)*0.2 X*-0.164+(1-X)*0.019 X*0.019+(1-X)*0.014

AlInGaN (Wurtzite)

The default material parameters for AlInGaN Wurtzite are stored in AlInGaN_wz.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp

0.3 wz_Eg 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) X*8.292+Y*6.243+(1-X-Y)*7.31 5.494 AxByC1_x_yD 0 0 X*1.16+Y*0.68+(1-X-Y)*0.66 X*0.86+Y*-0.94+(1-X-Y)*0.81 X*0.0298+Y*0.0774+(1-X-Y)*0.0295 X*-1.82+Y*-6.39+(1-X-Y)*-1.02

362 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V

X*1e+23+Y*1e+23+(1-X-Y)*1e+23 X*3.78+Y*8.05+(1-X-Y)*3.02 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*3+Y*3+(1-X-Y)*3 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*1+Y*1+(1-X-Y)*1 X*447000+Y*52000+(1-X-Y)*221000 X*217000+Y*136000+(1-X-Y)*191000 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*447000+Y*52000+(1-X-Y)*221000 X*217000+Y*136000+(1-X-Y)*191000 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 0.5*Eg X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*40+Y*40+(1-X-Y)*40 X*40+Y*40+(1-X-Y)*40 X*0.02+Y*0.02+(1-X-Y)*0.02 X*0.17+Y*0.17+(1-X-Y)*0.17 X*3+Y*3+(1-X-Y)*3 X*-1.7+Y*-1.7+(1-X-Y)*-1.7 X*-2.2+Y*-2.2+(1-X-Y)*-2.2 X*39.6+Y*22.3+(1-X-Y)*39 X*13.7+Y*11.5+(1-X-Y)*14.5 X*0.02+Y*0.02+(1-X-Y)*0.02 X*-0.15+Y*-0.15+(1-X-Y)*-0.15 X*4.6+Y*8.4+(1-X-Y)*5.35 X*8.5+Y*15.3+(1-X-Y)*8.9 X*3.299+Y*3.299+(1-X-Y)*3.299

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 363

kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_P2 kpmat_PP2 kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B

X*-0.000593+Y*-0.000593+(1-X-Y)*-0.000593 X*600+Y*600+(1-X-Y)*600 X*10+Y*10+(1-X-Y)*10 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*10+Y*10+(1-X-Y)*10 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0.017+Y*0.017+(1-X-Y)*0.017 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*2.67+Y*2.67+(1-X-Y)*2.67 X*0.75+Y*0.75+(1-X-Y)*0.75 X*1.1+Y*1.1+(1-X-Y)*1.1 HLAFF_DISCONT X*1.3+Y*1.3+(1-X-Y)*1.3 X*4.5+Y*4.5+(1-X-Y)*4.5 X*0.0000047+Y*0.0000035+(1-X-Y)*0.0000035 X*0.15+Y*0.12+(1-X-Y)*0.15 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0.8+Y*0.5+(1-X-Y)*0.8 X*0.18+Y*0.17+(1-X-Y)*0.18 X*0.0684+Y*0.3138+(1-X-Y)*0.1461 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0.0014+Y*0.0015+(1-X-Y)*0.0015 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0.29+Y*0.29+(1-X-Y)*0.29 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*25+Y*25+(1-X-Y)*25 X*-0.92+Y*-0.92+(1-X-Y)*-0.92 X*6.26+Y*6.26+(1-X-Y)*6.26 X*4.52+Y*4.52+(1-X-Y)*4.52 X*-0.000593+Y*-0.000593+(1-X-Y)*-0.000593 X*600+Y*600+(1-X-Y)*600

364 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

kpmat_dnr_dT kpmat_interpolP kpmat_wurtzite regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp wz_A1

X*0.0000575+Y*0.0000575+(1-X-Y)*0.0000575 0 1 X*1e-46+Y*1e-46+(1-X-Y)*1e-46 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 0.5*Eg X*0.000000001+Y*0.000000001+(1-X-Y)*0.000000001 X*0.000000001+Y*0.000000001+(1-X-Y)*0.000000001 X*1.32+Y*1.32+(1-X-Y)*1.32 X*1e+16+Y*1e+16+(1-X-Y)*1e+16 X*0.001+Y*0.001+(1-X-Y)*0.001 X*0.0516+Y*0.0516+(1-X-Y)*0.0516 X*0.0516+Y*0.0516+(1-X-Y)*0.0516 X*1e-13+Y*1e-13+(1-X-Y)*1e-13 X*1e-13+Y*1e-13+(1-X-Y)*1e-13 X*1e-13+Y*1e-13+(1-X-Y)*1e-13 X*1e-13+Y*1e-13+(1-X-Y)*1e-13 X*5e-14+Y*5e-14+(1-X-Y)*5e-14 X*5e-14+Y*5e-14+(1-X-Y)*5e-14 X*5e-14+Y*5e-14+(1-X-Y)*5e-14 X*5e-14+Y*5e-14+(1-X-Y)*5e-14 X*0.11+Y*0.073+(1-X-Y)*0.091 X*500000000+Y*500000000+(1-X-Y)*500000000 X*0.026+Y*0.026+(1-X-Y)*0.026 X*0.1+Y*0.1+(1-X-Y)*0.1 X*3.23+Y*6.81+(1-X-Y)*6.15 X*1+Y*1+(1-X-Y)*1 X*0.01+Y*0.01+(1-X-Y)*0.01 X*0.6+Y*0.32+(1-X-Y)*0.49 X*1.1e-14+Y*1.1e-14+(1-X-Y)*1.1e-14 X*1e-12+Y*1e-12+(1-X-Y)*1e-12 X*2.85+Y*0.45+(1-X-Y)*1.3 X*-0.164+Y*-0.28+(1-X-Y)*-0.28 X*-3.95+Y*-9.28+(1-X-Y)*-6.56

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 365

wz_A2 wz_A3 wz_A4 wz_A5 wz_A6 wz_C13 wz_C33 wz_D1 wz_D2 wz_D3 wz_D4 wz_Eg wz_Eg_A wz_Eg_B wz_P1 wz_P2 wz_Psp wz_defc_a wz_defc_c wz_e13 wz_e33 wz_latt_a wz_latt_c wz_mel_a wz_mel_c wz_split_cr wz_split_so

X*-0.27+Y*-0.6+(1-X-Y)*-0.91 X*3.68+Y*8.68+(1-X-Y)*5.65 X*-1.84+Y*-4.34+(1-X-Y)*-2.83 X*-1.95+Y*-4.32+(1-X-Y)*-3.13 X*-2.91+Y*-6.08+(1-X-Y)*-4.86 X*10.8+Y*9.2+(1-X-Y)*10.6 X*37.3+Y*22.4+(1-X-Y)*39.8 X*-3+Y*-3+(1-X-Y)*-3 X*3.6+Y*3.6+(1-X-Y)*3.6 X*9.6+Y*8.82+(1-X-Y)*8.82 X*-4.8+Y*-4.41+(1-X-Y)*-4.41 X*6.28+Y*1.89+(1-X-Y)*3.42 X*-0.001799+Y*-0.000245+(1-X-Y)*-0.000909 X*1462+Y*642+(1-X-Y)*830 X*14.5+Y*14.6+(1-X-Y)*14 X*14.5+Y*14.6+(1-X-Y)*14 X*-0.081+Y*-0.032+(1-X-Y)*-0.029 X*-4.08+Y*-4.08+(1-X-Y)*-4.08 X*-4.08+Y*-4.08+(1-X-Y)*-4.08 X*-0.5+Y*-0.57+(1-X-Y)*-0.35 X*1.79+Y*0.97+(1-X-Y)*1.27 X*3.112+Y*3.548+(1-X-Y)*3.189 X*4.982+Y*5.703+(1-X-Y)*5.185 X*0.28+Y*0.12+(1-X-Y)*0.2 X*0.32+Y*0.12+(1-X-Y)*0.2 X*-0.164+Y*0.041+(1-X-Y)*0.019 X*0.019+Y*0.001+(1-X-Y)*0.014

AlN

The default material parameters for AlN are stored in AlN.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT

0.3 min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF)

366 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV

8.134 5.494 AB 0 0 0.66 0.81 0.0295 -1.02 1.00E+23 3.02 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 221000 191000 0 221000 191000 0 0.5*Eg 0 40 40 0.02 0.17 -2.6

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 367

kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0

-1.7 -1.9 30.4 16 0.02 -0.15 5.35 8.9 4.9 -0.00059 600 10 0 0 10 0 0 0.019 0 0 1.92 0.47 0.85 HLAFF_DISCONT 1.3 4.38 3.50E-06 0.25 0 0 0 1.2 0.33 0.1461 0 0.0015

368 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_P2 kpmat_PP2 kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT kpmat_interpolP kpmat_wurtzite regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac

0 0.47 0.53 27.1 0.76 6.26 6 -0.00059 600 5.75E-05 0 0 1.00E-46 0 0 0 0.5*Eg 1.00E-09 1.00E-09 1.32 1.00E+16 0.001 0.0516 0.0516 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 0.091 5E+08 0.026 0.1

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 369

regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp wz_A1 wz_A2 wz_A3 wz_A4 wz_A5 wz_A6 wz_C13 wz_C33 wz_D1 wz_D2 wz_D3 wz_D4 wz_Eg wz_Eg_A wz_Eg_B wz_P1 wz_P2 wz_Psp wz_defc_a wz_defc_c wz_e13 wz_e33 wz_latt_a wz_latt_c wz_mel_a wz_mel_c wz_split_cr wz_split_so

6.15 1 0.01 0.49 1.10E-14 1.00E-12 1.3 -0.28 -6.56 -0.91 5.65 -2.83 -3.13 -4.86 10.6 39.8 -3 3.6 8.82 -4.41 3.42 -0.00091 830 14 14 -0.029 -4.08 -4.08 -0.35 1.27 3.189 5.185 0.2 0.2 0.019 0.014

370 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

AlN (Wurtzite)

The default material parameters for AlN Wurtzite are stored in AlN_wz.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0

0.3 wz_Eg 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) 8.292 5.494 AB 0 0 1.16 0.86 0.0298 -1.82 1.00E+23 3.78 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 447000 217000 0 447000

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 371

hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT

217000 0 0.5*Eg 0 40 40 0.17 0.02 3 -1.7 -2.2 39.6 13.7 0.02 -0.15 4.6 8.5 3.299 -0.00059 600 10 0 0 10 0 0 0.017 0 0 2.67 0.75 1.1 HLAFF_DISCONT 1.3 4.5 4.70E-06

372 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_P2 kpmat_PP2 kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT kpmat_interpolP kpmat_wurtzite regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime

0.15 0 0 0 0.8 0.18 0.0684 0 0.0014 0 0.29 0 25 -0.92 6.26 4.52 -0.00059 600 5.75E-05 0 1 1.00E-46 0 0 0 0.5*Eg 1.00E-09 1.00E-09 1.32 1.00E+16 0.001 0.0516 0.0516 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 1.00E-13

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 373

regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp wz_A1 wz_A2 wz_A3 wz_A4 wz_A5 wz_A6 wz_C13 wz_C33 wz_D1 wz_D2 wz_D3 wz_D4 wz_Eg wz_Eg_A wz_Eg_B wz_P1 wz_P2 wz_Psp wz_defc_a

1.00E-13 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 0.11 5E+08 0.026 0.1 3.23 1 0.01 0.6 1.10E-14 1.00E-12 2.85 -0.164 -3.95 -0.27 3.68 -1.84 -1.95 -2.91 10.8 37.3 -3 3.6 9.6 -4.8 6.28 -0.0018 1462 14.5 14.5 -0.081 -4.08

374 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

wz_defc_c wz_e13 wz_e33 wz_latt_a wz_latt_c wz_mel_a wz_mel_c wz_split_cr wz_split_so

-4.08 -0.5 1.79 3.112 4.982 0.28 0.32 -0.164 0.019

AlP

The default material parameters for AlP are stored in AlP.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption

0.6 min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) 6.054 5.494 AB 0 0 0.8 0 0.001 0 4.4E+24 -0.71 0.85 0 0.001 0 1E+24 -3 0

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 375

eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V

3 0 2E-18 1.3E-17 1 400000 72000 0.44 400000 90000 0.59 0.5*Eg 0 40 40 0.005 0.005 -8.83 -1.7 -1.8 18.83 6.71 0.02 -0.085 7.54 9.8 3.62 -0.00041 0 5.09 0 0 0 0 0 0.01

376 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e

0 0 3.47 0.06 1.15 HLAFF_DISCONT 2 5.4635 0.000005 0.2 0 0 0 0.51 0.21 0.006 -1.6 0.045 -1.98 0.465 0.25 6.26 2.505 -0.00032 0 0.00010605 5.53E-43 0 0 0 0.37 0.0000005 0.0000005 1.32 1E+16 0.001

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 377

regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp

0.0516 0.0516 1E-13 1E-13 1E-13 1E-13 5E-14 5E-14 5E-14 5E-14 0.036 500000000 0.026 0.1 2.4 1 0.01 0.477 2E-16 1E-12 1.3 -1.25

AlSb

The default material parameters for AlSb are stored in AlSb.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y

(HLAFF_LINEAR-HLAFF_REF)/(Eg-Eg_REF) min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) 3.6 + Eg 5.494 AB 0 0

378 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME

0.5 0 0.005 0 1.00E+23 0 0.5 0 0.005 0 1.00E+23 0 0 3 0 2.00E-18 1.30E-17 1 400000 72000 0.44 400000 90000 0.59 0.5*Eg 0 40 40 0.0425 0.147 -5.9 2*kpmat_PP2 -1.35 8.769 4.341 -0.017

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 379

kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_P2 kpmat_PP2

-0.085 11.56 12.04 2.3 -0.00042 140 3.5 -0.00042 140 0.15 0 0 0.67 0 0 5.18 1.19 1.97 HLAFF_DISCONT -0.44 6.1355 2.60E-05 0.14 -1.20E-05 0 0 0.94 0.14 0.02 -1.8 0.046 -2.2 0.29 0.92 18.7 -0.56

380 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT kpmat_interpolP regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph

6.26 1.63 -0.00039 140 0.000119 1 1.00E-44 0 1.00E-44 0 0.75 5.00E-07 5.00E-07 1.32 1.00E+16 0.001 0.0516 0.0516 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 0.036 5E+08 0.026 0.1 4.26 1 0.01 0.45 2.00E-16 1.00E-12

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 381

regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp

0.57 -1.2

GaAs

The default material parameters for GaAs are stored in GaAs.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat

0.33 min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) 5.494 5.494 AB 0 0 0.394 0 0.05 0 6E+22 -3 0.38 0 0.002 0 1.48E+23 -3 0 3 0 2E-18 1.3E-17 1 400000 72000

382 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE

0.44 400000 90000 0.59 0.5*Eg 0 40 40 0.005 0.005 -8.33 -1.7 -1.7 11.9 5.38 -0.017 -0.085 10.89 13.18 1.424 -0.00053 204 4.417 -0.0004 240 0.16 0 0 0.34 0 0 6.85 2.1 2.9 HLAFF_DISCONT -0.44

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 383

kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime

5.6533 3.36E-05 0.0634 -1.2E-05 0 0 0.55 0.08 0.85 -2.1 0.04 -2.2 0.165 0.85 6.26 1.911 -0.00046 204 0.000164 1E-48 0 2E-41 0 0.75 5E-07 5E-07 1.32 1E+16 0.001 0.0516 0.0516 1E-13 1E-13 1E-13 1E-13 5E-14

384 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp

5E-14 5E-14 5E-14 0.036 5E+08 0.026 0.1 5.318 1 0.01 0.327 2E-16 1E-12 0.44 -1.25

GaInAsP

The default material parameters for GaInAsP are stored in GaInAsP.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg EgG_BOWING EgG_LINEAR Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp

0.47 min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) 1.35+0.668*X-1.068*Y+0.758*X^2+0.078*Y^2-0.069*X*Y0.322*X^2*Y+0.03*X*Y^2 X*Y*1.424+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.344+(1-X)*Y*0.354+X*(1-Y)*2.78 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) X*Y*5.494+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.684+(1-X)*Y*5.224+X*(1-Y)*6.054 5.494 AxB1_xCyD1_y 0 0 X*Y*0.394+X*(1-Y)*0.8+(1-X)*Y*0.32+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.42 0 X*Y*500e-4+X*(1-Y)*10e-4+(1-X)*Y*0.1+(1-X)*(1-Y)*400e-4 0

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 385

arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT

X*Y*0.6e23+X*(1-Y)*44e23+(1-X)*Y*11e23+(1-X)*(1-Y)*3e23 X*Y*(-3)*X*(1-Y)*(-0.71)+(1-X)*Y*(-3)+(1-X)*(1-Y)*(-3.25) X*Y*0.38+X*(1-Y)*0.85+(1-X)*Y*0.46+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.62 0 X*Y*20e-4+X*(1-Y)*10e-4+(1-X)*Y*20e-4+(1-X)*(1-Y)*10e-4 0 X*Y*1.48e23+X*(1-Y)*10e23+(1-X)*Y*1.1e23+(1-X)*(1Y)*4.87e23 -3 0 3*X+(1-X)*7 0 2E-18 1.3E-17 1 400000 72000 0.44 400000 90000 0.59 0.5*Eg 0 40 40 0.005 0.005 X*Y*-8.33+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-6.31+(1-X)*Y*-6.08+X*(1-Y)*-8.83 X*Y*-1.7+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-2+(1-X)*Y*-4+X*(1-Y)*-1.7 X*Y*-1.7+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-1.7+(1-X)*Y*-1.8+X*(1-Y)*-1.8 X*Y*11.9+(1-X)*(1-Y)*10.11+(1-X)*Y*8.33+X*(1-Y)*14.05 X*Y*5.38+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.61+(1-X)*Y*4.53+X*(1-Y)*6.203 X*Y*-0.017+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-0.017+(1-X)*Y*-0.01+X*(1-Y)*0.02 X*Y*-0.085+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-0.085+(1-X)*Y*-0.085+X*(1-Y)*-0.085 X*Y*10.89+(1-X)*(1-Y)*9.66+(1-X)*Y*12.25+X*(1-Y)*9.11 X*Y*13.18+(1-X)*(1-Y)*12.5+(1-X)*Y*14.6+X*(1-Y)*11.11

386 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_QQ

EgG_BOWING X*Y*-5.30e-04+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-4.46e-04+(1-X)*Y*-5.94e-04+X*(1Y)*-4.10e-04 X*Y*204+(1-X)*(1-Y)*204+(1-X)*Y*535+X*(1-Y)*0 X*Y*4.417+(1-X)*(1-Y)*4.64+(1-X)*Y*4.39+X*(1-Y)*5.24 X*Y*-4.00e-04+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.00e+00+(1-X)*Y*-4.00e-04+X*(1Y)*0.00e+00 X*Y*240+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0+(1-X)*Y*250+X*(1-Y)*0 X*Y*0.16+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.07+(1-X)*Y*0.24+X*(1-Y)*0 X*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0+(1-X)*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*0 X*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0+(1-X)*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*0 X*Y*0.34+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.108+(1-X)*Y*0.371+X*(1-Y)*0.08 X*Y*0.00e+00+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.00e+00+(1-X)*Y*3.00e-05+X*(1Y)*0.00e+00 X*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0+(1-X)*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*0 X*Y*6.85+(1-X)*(1-Y)*4.95+(1-X)*Y*20.4+X*(1-Y)*4.05 X*Y*2.1+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.65+(1-X)*Y*8.3+X*(1-Y)*0.49 X*Y*2.9+(1-X)*(1-Y)*2.35+(1-X)*Y*9.1+X*(1-Y)*1.25 HLAFF_DISCONT X*Y*-0.44+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.48+(1-X)*Y*-14.8+X*(1-Y)*2 X*Y*5.6533+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.869+(1-X)*Y*6.0583+X*(1-Y)*5.4505 X*Y*3.36e-05+(1-X)*(1-Y)*2.96e-05+(1-X)*Y*3.00e-05+X*(1Y)*5.00e-06 X*Y*0.0634+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.075+(1-X)*Y*0.0221+X*(1-Y)*0.18 X*Y*-1.20e-05+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.00e+00+(1-X)*Y*0.00e+00+X*(1Y)*0.00e+00 X*Y*0.00e+00+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-8.00e-08+(1-X)*Y*-5.00e-09+X*(1Y)*0.00e+00 X*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0+(1-X)*Y*-6e-11+X*(1-Y)*0 X*Y*0.55+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.58+(1-X)*Y*0.4+X*(1-Y)*0.67 X*Y*0.08+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.12+(1-X)*Y*0.026+X*(1-Y)*0.17 X*Y*0.85+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.54+(1-X)*Y*2.65+X*(1-Y)*0.016 X*Y*(-2.1)+X*(1-Y)*(-1.6)+(1-X)*Y*(-1.57)+(1-X)*(1-Y)*(-2) X*Y*0.04+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.015+(1-X)*Y*0.046+X*(1-Y)*0.0135 X*Y*(-2.2)+X*(1-Y)*(-1.98)+(1-X)*Y*(-2.3)+(1-X)*(1-Y)*(-2) X*Y*0.165+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.21+(1-X)*Y*0.103+X*(1-Y)*0.465 X*Y*0.85+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.32+(1-X)*Y*0.32+X*(1-Y)*0.25 X*Y*6.26+(1-X)*(1-Y)*6.26+(1-X)*Y*6.26+X*(1-Y)*6.26

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 387

kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax

X*Y*1.911+(1-X)*(1-Y)*2.44+(1-X)*Y*2.28+X*(1-Y)*2.27 X*Y*-4.60e-04+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-3.50e-04+(1-X)*Y*-3.50e-04+X*(1Y)*-6.20e-04 X*Y*204+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0+(1-X)*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*460 X*Y*16.425e-5+X*(1-Y)*8.625e-5+(1-X)*Y*22.88e-5+(1-X)*(1Y)*9.207e-5 X*Y*1.00e-48+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.53e-43+(1-X)*Y*5.53e-43+X*(1Y)*5.53e-43 0 X*Y*2.00e-41+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.00e+00+(1-X)*Y*0.00e+00+X*(1Y)*0.00e+00 0 X*Y*0.75+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.65+(1-X)*Y*0.177+X*(1-Y)*1.3 X*Y*5.00e-07+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.00e-07+(1-X)*Y*5.00e-07+X*(1Y)*5.00e-07 X*Y*5.00e-07+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.00e-07+(1-X)*Y*5.00e-07+X*(1Y)*5.00e-07 X*Y*1.32+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.32+(1-X)*Y*1.32+X*(1-Y)*1.32 X*Y*1.00e+16+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.00e+16+(1-X)*Y*1.00e+16+X*(1Y)*1.00e+16 X*Y*0.001+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.001+(1-X)*Y*0.001+X*(1-Y)*0.001 X*Y*0.0516+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.0516+(1-X)*Y*0.0516+X*(1-Y)*0.0516 X*Y*0.0516+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.0516+(1-X)*Y*0.0516+X*(1-Y)*0.0516 X*Y*1.00e-13+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.00e-13+(1-X)*Y*1.00e-13+X*(1Y)*1.00e-13 X*Y*1.00e-13+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.00e-13+(1-X)*Y*1.00e-13+X*(1Y)*1.00e-13 X*Y*1.00e-13+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.00e-13+(1-X)*Y*1.00e-13+X*(1Y)*1.00e-13 X*Y*1.00e-13+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.00e-13+(1-X)*Y*1.00e-13+X*(1Y)*1.00e-13 X*Y*5.00e-14+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.00e-14+(1-X)*Y*5.00e-14+X*(1Y)*5.00e-14 X*Y*5.00e-14+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.00e-14+(1-X)*Y*5.00e-14+X*(1Y)*5.00e-14 X*Y*5.00e-14+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.00e-14+(1-X)*Y*5.00e-14+X*(1Y)*5.00e-14 X*Y*5.00e-14+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.00e-14+(1-X)*Y*5.00e-14+X*(1Y)*5.00e-14 X*Y*0.036+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.036+(1-X)*Y*0.036+X*(1-Y)*0.036 X*Y*5.00e+08+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.00e+08+(1-X)*Y*5.00e+08+X*(1Y)*5.00e+08

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regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp thermconduct_help thermconduct_help2

X*Y*0.026+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.026+(1-X)*Y*0.026+X*(1-Y)*0.026 X*Y*0.1+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.1+(1-X)*Y*0.1+X*(1-Y)*0.1 X*Y*5.318+X*(1-Y)*4.138+(1-X)*Y*5.667+(1-X)*(1-Y)*4.81 X*Y*1+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1+(1-X)*Y*1+X*(1-Y)*1 X*Y*0.01+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.01+(1-X)*Y*0.01+X*(1-Y)*0.01 X*Y*0.327+X*(1-Y)*0.313+(1-X)*Y*0.352+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.311 X*Y*2.00e-16+(1-X)*(1-Y)*2.00e-16+(1-X)*Y*2.00e-16+X*(1Y)*2.00e-16 X*Y*1.00e-12+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.00e-12+(1-X)*Y*1.00e-12+X*(1Y)*1.00e-12 1/(thermconduct_help+thermconduct_help2) X*Y*(-1.25)+(1-X)*Y*(-1.2)+X*(1-Y)*(-1.3)+(1-X)*(1-Y)*(-1.5) X*Y/0.44+X*(1-Y)/0.77+(1-X)*Y/0.27+(1-X)*(1-Y)/0.68 X*(1-X)*(Y*78.8+(1-Y)*19.9)+Y*(1-Y)*(X*21.6+(1-X)*34)

GaInAsSb

The default material parameters for AlInGaN Wurtzite are stored in AlInGaN_wz.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg EgG_BOWING EgG_GaAsSb EgG_GaInAs EgG_GaInSb EgG_INTERP EgG_InAsSb EgG_X EgG_Y Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_INTERP HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X XX

0.35 min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) (EgG_X+EgG_Y-0.6*XX*(1-XX)*YY*(1-YY))/(XX*(1XX)+YY*(1-YY)) YY*1.424+(1-YY)*0.726-1.43*YY*(1-YY) XX*1.424+(1-XX)*0.354-0.477*XX*(1-XX) XX*0.726+(1-XX)*0.1737-0.415*XX*(1-XX) X*Y*1.424+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.1737+(1-X)*Y*0.354+X*(1-Y)*0.726 YY*0.354+(1-YY)*0.1737-0.67*YY*(1-YY) XX*(1-XX)*((1-YY)*EgG_GaInSb+YY*EgG_GaInAs) YY*(1-YY)*(XX*EgG_GaAsSb+(1-XX)*EgG_InAsSb) 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) X*Y*5.494+X*(1-Y)*4.786+(1-X)*Y*5.224+(1-X)*(1-Y)*4.7637 5.494 AxB1_xCyD1_y 0 min(1-1.e-8,max(1.e-8,X))

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Appendix G: Material Library Data • 389

Y YY arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11

0 min(1-1.e-8,max(1.e-8,Y)) X*Y*0.394+X*(1-Y)*0.5+(1-X)*Y*0.32+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.32 0 X*Y*0.05+X*(1-Y)*0.01+(1-X)*Y*0.1+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.1 0 X*Y*6e22+X*(1-Y)*1e23+(1-X)*Y*1.1e24+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.1e24 -3*X*Y-0*X*(1-Y)-3*(1-X)*Y-3*(1-X)*(1-Y) 0.38*X*Y+0.5*X*(1-Y)+0.46*(1-X)*Y+0.46*(1-X)*(1-Y) 0 0.002*X*Y+0.01*X*(1-Y)+0.002*(1-X)*Y+0.002*(1-X)*(1-Y) 0 1.48e23*X*Y+1e23*X*(1-Y)+1.1e23*(1-X)*Y+1.1e23*(1-X)*(1-Y) -3*X*Y-0*X*(1-Y)-3*(1-X)*Y-3*(1-X)*(1-Y) 0 3*X+(1-X)*7 0 2.00E-18 1.30E-17 1 400000 72000 0.44 400000 90000 0.59 0.5*Eg 0 40 40 X*Y*0.03+X*(1-Y)*0.03+(1-X)*Y*0.01+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.01 X*Y*0.006+X*(1-Y)*0.02+(1-X)*Y*0.001+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.0007 -8.33*X*Y-8.3*X*(1-Y)-6.08*(1-X)*Y-7.3*(1-X)*(1-Y) 2*kpmat_PP2 -2*X*Y-2*X*(1-Y)-1.8*(1-X)*Y-2*(1-X)*(1-Y) X*Y*11.9+X*(1-Y)*8.842+(1-X)*Y*8.33+(1-X)*(1-Y)*6.847

390 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0

X*Y*5.38+X*(1-Y)*4.026+(1-X)*Y*4.53+(1-X)*(1-Y)*3.735 X*Y*-0.017+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-0.017+(1-X)*Y*-0.01+X*(1-Y)*0.02 X*Y*-0.085+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-0.085+(1-X)*Y*-0.085+X*(1-Y)*-0.085 X*Y*13.3225+X*(1-Y)*14.5924+(1-X)*Y*12.3904+(1-X)*(1Y)*16.00 X*Y*13.18+X*(1-Y)*15.69+(1-X)*Y*14.6+(1-X)*(1-Y)*17.7 EgG_BOWING -5.30e-04*X*Y-4.17e-4*X*(1-Y)-5.94e-4*(1-X)*Y-3.2e-4*(1-X)*(1Y) X*Y*204+140*X*(1-Y)+535*(1-X)*Y+170*(1-X)*(1-Y) X*Y*4.417+X*(1-Y)*3.106+(1-X)*Y*4.39+(1-X)*(1-Y)*3.141 X*Y*-4.00e-04-4.17e-4*X*(1-Y)-4e-4*(1-X)*Y-3.2e-4*(1-X)*(1-Y) X*Y*240+X*(1-Y)*140+(1-X)*Y*250+(1-X)*(1-Y)*170 X*Y*0.16+X*(1-Y)*0.76+(1-X)*Y*0.24+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.392 0 0 X*Y*0.34+X*(1-Y)*0.76+(1-X)*Y*0.371+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.81 0 0 X*Y*6.85+X*(1-Y)*13.4+(1-X)*Y*20.4+(1-X)*(1-Y)*34.8 X*Y*2.1+X*(1-Y)*4.7+(1-X)*Y*8.3+(1-X)*(1-Y)*15.5 X*Y*2.9+X*(1-Y)*6.0+(1-X)*Y*9.1+(1-X)*(1-Y)*16.5 HLAFF_DISCONT X*Y*-0.44+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-0.44+(1-X)*Y*-14.8+X*(1-Y)*-7.88 X*Y*5.6533+X*(1-Y)*6.0959+(1-X)*Y*6.0583+(1-X)*(1Y)*6.4794 X*Y*3.36e-05+X*(1-Y)*4.72e-5+(1-X)*Y*3.00e-05+(1-X)*(1Y)*3.48e-005 X*Y*0.0634+X*(1-Y)*0.0396+(1-X)*Y*0.0221+(1-X)*(1Y)*0.0135 -1.20E-05 0 0 X*Y*0.55+X*(1-Y)*0.28+(1-X)*Y*0.4+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.43 X*Y*0.08+X*(1-Y)*0.05+(1-X)*Y*0.026+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.015 X*Y*0.85+X*(1-Y)*1.3+(1-X)*Y*2.65+(1-X)*(1-Y)*7.0 X*Y*(-2.1)+X*(1-Y)*(-2.1)+(1-X)*Y*(-1.57)+(1-X)*(1-Y)*(-1.66) X*Y*0.04+X*(1-Y)*0.12+(1-X)*Y*0.046+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.085

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 391

kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_P2 kpmat_PP2 kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT kpmat_interpolP kpmat_wurtzite regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime

X*Y*(-2.2)+X*(1-Y)*(-2.1)+(1-X)*Y*(-2.3)+(1-X)*(1-Y)*(-1.95) X*Y*0.165+X*(1-Y)*0.13+(1-X)*Y*0.103+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.19 X*Y*0.85+X*(1-Y)*0.87+(1-X)*Y*0.32+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.25 X*Y*28.8+X*(1-Y)*27.0+(1-X)*Y*21.5+(1-X)*(1-Y)*23.3 -1.94*X*Y-1.63*X*(1-Y)-2.9*(1-X)*Y-0.23*(1-X)*(1-Y) X*Y*6.26+(1-X)*(1-Y)*6.26+(1-X)*Y*6.26+X*(1-Y)*6.26 X*Y*1.911+X*(1-Y)*1.0325+(1-X)*Y*2.28+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.63 X*Y*-4.60e-04+X*(1-Y)*-2.76e-04+(1-X)*Y*-3.50e-04+(1-X)*(1Y)*-3.2e-04 X*Y*204+X*(1-Y)*94+(1-X)*Y*93+(1-X)*(1-Y)*170 X*Y*16.425e-5+X*(1-Y)*3.1324e-4+(1-X)*Y*22.88e-5+(1-X)*(1Y)*4.8e-4 1 X*Y*1.00e-48+X*(1-Y)*2e-042+(1-X)*Y*5.53e-43+(1-X)*(1Y)*5e-038 0 X*Y*2.00e-41+X*(1-Y)*3e-042+(1-X)*Y*0.00e+00+(1-X)*(1Y)*5e-038 0 0.5*Eg X*Y*5.00e-07+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.00e-07+(1-X)*Y*5.00e-07+X*(1Y)*5.00e-07 X*Y*5.00e-07+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.00e-07+(1-X)*Y*5.00e-07+X*(1Y)*5.00e-07 X*Y*1.32+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.32+(1-X)*Y*1.32+X*(1-Y)*1.32 X*Y*1.00e+16+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.00e+16+(1-X)*Y*1.00e+16+X*(1Y)*1.00e+16 X*Y*0.001+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.001+(1-X)*Y*0.001+X*(1-Y)*0.001 X*Y*0.0516+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.0516+(1-X)*Y*0.0516+X*(1Y)*0.0516 X*Y*0.0516+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.0516+(1-X)*Y*0.0516+X*(1Y)*0.0516 X*Y*1.00e-13+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.00e-13+(1-X)*Y*1.00e-13+X*(1Y)*1.00e-13 X*Y*1.00e-13+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.00e-13+(1-X)*Y*1.00e-13+X*(1Y)*1.00e-13 X*Y*1.00e-13+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.00e-13+(1-X)*Y*1.00e-13+X*(1Y)*1.00e-13 X*Y*1.00e-13+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.00e-13+(1-X)*Y*1.00e-13+X*(1Y)*1.00e-13 X*Y*5.00e-14+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.00e-14+(1-X)*Y*5.00e-14+X*(1-

392 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

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Y)*5.00e-14

regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp

X*Y*5.00e-14+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.00e-14+(1-X)*Y*5.00e-14+X*(1Y)*5.00e-14 X*Y*5.00e-14+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.00e-14+(1-X)*Y*5.00e-14+X*(1Y)*5.00e-14 X*Y*5.00e-14+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.00e-14+(1-X)*Y*5.00e-14+X*(1Y)*5.00e-14 X*Y*0.035+X*(1-Y)*0.0297+(1-X)*Y*0.03+X*(1-Y)*0.025 X*Y*5.00e+08+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.00e+08+(1-X)*Y*5.00e+08+X*(1Y)*5.00e+08 X*Y*0.026+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.026+(1-X)*Y*0.026+X*(1-Y)*0.026 X*Y*0.1+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.1+(1-X)*Y*0.1+X*(1-Y)*0.1 X*Y*5.318+X*(1-Y)*5.614+(1-X)*Y*5.667+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.775 X*Y*1+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1+(1-X)*Y*1+X*(1-Y)*1 X*Y*0.01+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.01+(1-X)*Y*0.01+X*(1-Y)*0.01 X*Y*0.327+X*(1-Y)*0.25+(1-X)*Y*0.352+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.209 X*Y*2.00e-16+X*(1-Y)*1e-016+(1-X)*Y*2.00e-16+(1-X)*(1Y)*5e-017 X*Y*1.00e-12+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.00e-12+(1-X)*Y*1.00e-12+X*(1Y)*1.00e-12 1/(thermconduct_help+thermconduct_help2) X*Y*(-1.25)+(1-X)*Y*(-1.2)+X*(1-Y)*(-1.1)+(1-X)*(1-Y)*(0) X*Y/0.44+X*(1-Y)/0.33+(1-X)*Y/0.27+(1-X)*(1-Y)/0.17

GaN

The default material parameters for GaN are stored in GaN.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1

0.3 min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) 7.334 5.494 AB 0 0 0.66

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 393

arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS

0.81 0.0295 -1.02 1.00E+23 3.02 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 221000 191000 0 221000 191000 0 0.5*Eg 0 40 40 0.02 0.17 3 -1.7 -2.2 29.3 15.9 0.02 -0.15

394 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_P2 kpmat_PP2 kpmat_QQ

5.35 8.9 3.299 -0.00059 600 10 0 0 10 0 0 0.017 0 0 2.67 0.75 1.1 HLAFF_DISCONT 1.3 4.5 3.50E-06 0.15 0 0 0 0.8 0.18 0.1461 0 0.0015 0 0.29 0.5 25 -0.92 6.26

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 395

kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT kpmat_interpolP kpmat_wurtzite regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph

4.52 -0.00059 600 5.75E-05 0 0 1.00E-46 0 0 0 0.5*Eg 1.00E-09 1.00E-09 1.32 1.00E+16 0.001 0.0516 0.0516 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 0.091 5E+08 0.026 0.1 6.15 1 0.01 0.49 1.10E-14 1.00E-12

396 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp wz_A1 wz_A2 wz_A3 wz_A4 wz_A5 wz_A6 wz_C13 wz_C33 wz_D1 wz_D2 wz_D3 wz_D4 wz_Eg wz_Eg_A wz_Eg_B wz_P1 wz_P2 wz_Psp wz_defc_a wz_defc_c wz_e13 wz_e33 wz_latt_a wz_latt_c wz_mel_a wz_mel_c wz_split_cr wz_split_so

1.3 -0.28 -6.56 -0.91 5.65 -2.83 -3.13 -4.86 10.6 39.8 -3 3.6 8.82 -4.41 3.42 -0.00091 830 14 14 -0.029 -4.08 -4.08 -0.35 1.27 3.189 5.185 0.2 0.2 0.019 0.014

GaN (Wurtzite)

The default material parameters for GaN Wurtzite are stored in GaN_wz.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF

0.3

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 397

Eg Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp

wz_Eg 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) 7.31 5.494 AB 0 0 0.66 0.81 0.0295 -1.02 1.00E+23 3.02 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 221000 191000 0 221000 191000 0 0.5*Eg 0 40 40

398 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH

0.17 0.02 3 -1.7 -2.2 39 14.5 0.02 -0.15 5.35 8.9 3.299 -0.00059 600 10 0 0 10 0 0 0.017 0 0 2.67 0.75 1.1 HLAFF_DISCONT 1.3 4.5 3.50E-06 0.15 0 0 0 0.8 0.18

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 399

kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_P2 kpmat_PP2 kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT kpmat_interpolP kpmat_wurtzite regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph

0.1461 0 0.0015 0 0.29 0 25 -0.92 6.26 4.52 -0.00059 600 5.75E-05 0 1 1.00E-46 0 0 0 0.5*Eg 1.00E-09 1.00E-09 1.32 1.00E+16 0.001 0.0516 0.0516 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 0.091

400 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp wz_A1 wz_A2 wz_A3 wz_A4 wz_A5 wz_A6 wz_C13 wz_C33 wz_D1 wz_D2 wz_D3 wz_D4 wz_Eg wz_Eg_A wz_Eg_B wz_P1 wz_P2 wz_Psp wz_defc_a wz_defc_c wz_e13 wz_e33 wz_latt_a wz_latt_c wz_mel_a

5E+08 0.026 0.1 6.15 1 0.01 0.49 1.10E-14 1.00E-12 1.3 -0.28 -6.56 -0.91 5.65 -2.83 -3.13 -4.86 10.6 39.8 -3 3.6 8.82 -4.41 3.42 -0.00091 830 14 14 -0.029 -4.08 -4.08 -0.35 1.27 3.189 5.185 0.2

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 401

wz_mel_c wz_split_cr wz_split_so

0.2 0.019 0.014

GaP

The default material parameters for GaP are stored in GaP.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0

0.6 min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) 6.054 5.494 AB 0 0 0.8 0 0.001 0 4.4E+24 -0.71 0.85 0 0.001 0 1E+24 -3 0 3 0 2E-18 1.3E-17 1 400000

402 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF

72000 0.44 400000 90000 0.59 0.5*Eg 0 40 40 0.005 0.005 -8.83 -1.7 -1.8 14.05 6.203 0.02 -0.085 9.11 11.11 2.78 -0.00041 0 5.24 0 0 0 0 0 0.08 0 0 4.05 0.49 1.25 HLAFF_DISCONT

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 403

kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime

2 5.4505 0.000005 0.18 0 0 0 0.67 0.17 0.016 -1.6 0.0135 -1.98 0.465 0.25 6.26 2.27 -0.00062 460 0.00008625 5.53E-43 0 0 0 1.3 0.0000005 0.0000005 1.32 1E+16 0.001 0.0516 0.0516 1E-13 1E-13 1E-13 1E-13

404 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp

5E-14 5E-14 5E-14 5E-14 0.036 500000000 0.026 0.1 4.138 1 0.01 0.313 2E-16 1E-12 0.77 -1.3

GaSb

The default material parameters for GaSb are stored in GaSb.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp

(HLAFF_INTERP-HLAFF_REF)/(Eg-Eg_REF) min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) 4.06 + Eg 5.494 AB 0 0 0.5 0 0.01 0 1.00E+23 0

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 405

arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B

0.5 0 0.01 0 1.00E+23 0 0 3 0 2.00E-18 1.30E-17 1 400000 72000 0.44 400000 90000 0.59 0.5*Eg 0 40 40 0.03 0.02 -8.3 2.0*kpmat_PP2 -2 8.842 4.026 -0.017 -0.085 14.5924 15.69 0.726 -0.00042 140

406 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_P2 kpmat_PP2 kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT kpmat_interpolP

3.106 -0.00042 140 0.213 0 0 0.76 0 0 13.4 4.7 6 HLAFF_DISCONT -7.88 6.0959 4.72E-05 0.0396 -1.20E-05 0 0 0.28 0.05 1.3 -2.1 0.12 -2.1 0.13 0.87 27 -1.63 6.26 1.0325 -0.00048 94 0.000313 1

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 407

regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp

2.00E-42 0 3.00E-42 0 0.5*Eg 5.00E-07 5.00E-07 1.32 1.00E+16 0.001 0.0516 0.0516 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 0.0297 5E+08 0.026 0.1 5.614 1 0.01 0.25 1.00E-16 1.00E-12 0.33 -1.1

InAlGaSb

The default material parameters for InAlGaSb are stored in InAlGaSb.mat.

408 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_BOWING Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300

(1-X-Y)*0.584+X*0.46+Y*1.014 min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) -0.47*X*Y-0.43*X*(1-X-Y)-0.42*Y*(1-X-Y) 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) (1-X-Y)*4.7637+X*5.9+Y*4.786 5.494 A1_x_yBxCyD 0 0 (1-X-Y)*0.32+X*0.5+Y*0.5 (1-X-Y)*0+X*0+Y*0 (1-X-Y)*0.1+X*0.005+Y*0.01 (1-X-Y)*0+X*0+Y*0 (1-X-Y)*1.10e+24+X*1.00e+23+Y*1.00e+23 (1-X-Y)*-3+X*0+Y*0 (1-X-Y)*0.46+X*0.5+Y*0.5 (1-X-Y)*0+X*0+Y*0 (1-X-Y)*0.002+X*0.005+Y*0.01 (1-X-Y)*0+X*0+Y*0 (1-X-Y)*1.10e+23+X*1.00e+23+Y*1.00e+23 (1-X-Y)*-3+X*0+Y*0 (1-X-Y)*0+X*0+Y*0 (1-X-Y)*3+X*3+Y*3 (1-X-Y)*0+X*0+Y*0 (1-X-Y)*2.00e-18+X*2.00e-18+Y*2.00e-18 (1-X-Y)*1.30e-17+X*1.30e-17+Y*1.30e-17 (1-X-Y)*1+X*1+Y*1 (1-X-Y)*400000+X*400000+Y*400000 (1-X-Y)*72000+X*72000+Y*72000 (1-X-Y)*0.44+X*0.44+Y*0.44 (1-X-Y)*400000+X*400000+Y*400000 (1-X-Y)*90000+X*90000+Y*90000 (1-X-Y)*0.59+X*0.59+Y*0.59 (1-X-Y)*0.5*Eg+X*0.5*Eg+Y*0.5*Eg

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 409

ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q

(1-X-Y)*0+X*0+Y*0 (1-X-Y)*40+X*40+Y*40 (1-X-Y)*40+X*40+Y*40 (1-X-Y)*0.01+X*0.0425+Y*0.03 (1-X-Y)*0.0007+X*0.147+Y*0.02 (1-X-Y)*-7.3+X*-5.9+Y*-8.3 2*kpmat_PP2 (1-X-Y)*-2+X*-1.35+Y*-2 (1-X-Y)*6.847+X*8.769+Y*8.842 (1-X-Y)*3.735+X*4.341+Y*4.026 (1-X-Y)*-0.017+X*-0.017+Y*-0.017 (1-X-Y)*-0.085+X*-0.085+Y*-0.085 (1-X-Y)*16+X*11.56+Y*14.5924 (1-X-Y)*17.7+X*12.04+Y*15.69 (1-X-Y)*0.1737+X*2.3+Y*0.726+EgG_BOWING (1-X-Y)*-0.00032+X*-0.00042+Y*-0.000417 (1-X-Y)*170+X*140+Y*140 (1-X-Y)*3.141+X*3.5+Y*3.106 (1-X-Y)*-0.00032+X*-0.00042+Y*-0.000417 (1-X-Y)*170+X*140+Y*140 (1-X-Y)*0.392+X*0.15+Y*0.213 (1-X-Y)*0+X*0+Y*0 (1-X-Y)*0+X*0+Y*0 (1-X-Y)*0.81+X*0.67+Y*0.76 (1-X-Y)*0+X*0+Y*0 (1-X-Y)*0+X*0+Y*0 (1-X-Y)*34.8+X*5.18+Y*13.4 (1-X-Y)*15.5+X*1.19+Y*4.7 (1-X-Y)*16.5+X*1.97+Y*6 HLAFF_DISCONT (1-X-Y)*-0.44+X*-0.44+Y*-7.88 (1-X-Y)*6.4794+X*6.1355+Y*6.0959 (1-X-Y)*3.48e-05+X*2.60e-05+Y*4.72e-05 (1-X-Y)*0.0135+X*0.14+Y*0.0396 (1-X-Y)*-1.20e-05+X*-1.20e-05+Y*-1.20e-05 (1-X-Y)*0+X*0+Y*0

410 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_P2 kpmat_PP2 kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT kpmat_interpolP regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime

(1-X-Y)*0+X*0+Y*0 (1-X-Y)*0.43+X*0.94+Y*0.28 (1-X-Y)*0.015+X*0.14+Y*0.05 (1-X-Y)*7+X*0.02+Y*1.3 (1-X-Y)*-1.66+X*-1.8+Y*-2.1 (1-X-Y)*0.085+X*0.046+Y*0.12 (1-X-Y)*-1.95+X*-2.2+Y*-2.1 (1-X-Y)*0.19+X*0.29+Y*0.13 (1-X-Y)*0.25+X*0.92+Y*0.87 (1-X-Y)*23.3+X*18.7+Y*27 (1-X-Y)*-0.23+X*-0.56+Y*-1.63 (1-X-Y)*6.26+X*6.26+Y*6.26 (1-X-Y)*0.63+X*1.63+Y*1.0325 (1-X-Y)*-0.00032+X*-0.00039+Y*-0.000475 (1-X-Y)*170+X*140+Y*94 (1-X-Y)*0.00048+X*0.000119+Y*0.00031324 1 (1-X-Y)*5.00e-38+X*1.00e-44+Y*2.00e-42 (1-X-Y)*0+X*0+Y*0 (1-X-Y)*5.00e-38+X*1.00e-44+Y*3.00e-42 (1-X-Y)*0+X*0+Y*0 (1-X-Y)*0.5*Eg+X*0.75+Y*0.5*Eg (1-X-Y)*5.00e-07+X*5.00e-07+Y*5.00e-07 (1-X-Y)*5.00e-07+X*5.00e-07+Y*5.00e-07 (1-X-Y)*1.32+X*1.32+Y*1.32 (1-X-Y)*1.00e+16+X*1.00e+16+Y*1.00e+16 (1-X-Y)*0.001+X*0.001+Y*0.001 (1-X-Y)*0.0516+X*0.0516+Y*0.0516 (1-X-Y)*0.0516+X*0.0516+Y*0.0516 (1-X-Y)*1.00e-13+X*1.00e-13+Y*1.00e-13 (1-X-Y)*1.00e-13+X*1.00e-13+Y*1.00e-13 (1-X-Y)*1.00e-13+X*1.00e-13+Y*1.00e-13 (1-X-Y)*1.00e-13+X*1.00e-13+Y*1.00e-13 (1-X-Y)*5.00e-14+X*5.00e-14+Y*5.00e-14 (1-X-Y)*5.00e-14+X*5.00e-14+Y*5.00e-14 (1-X-Y)*5.00e-14+X*5.00e-14+Y*5.00e-14

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Appendix G: Material Library Data • 411

regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp

(1-X-Y)*5.00e-14+X*5.00e-14+Y*5.00e-14 (1-X-Y)*0.025+X*0.036+Y*0.0297 (1-X-Y)*500000000+X*500000000+Y*500000000 (1-X-Y)*0.026+X*0.026+Y*0.026 (1-X-Y)*0.1+X*0.1+Y*0.1 (1-X-Y)*5.775+X*4.26+Y*5.614 (1-X-Y)*1+X*1+Y*1 (1-X-Y)*0.01+X*0.01+Y*0.01 (1-X-Y)*0.209+X*0.45+Y*0.25 (1-X-Y)*5.00e-17+X*2.00e-16+Y*1.00e-16 (1-X-Y)*1.00e-12+X*1.00e-12+Y*1.00e-12 (1-X-Y)*0.17+X*0.57+Y*0.33 (1-X-Y)*0+X*-1.2+Y*-1.1

InAs

The default material parameters for InAs are stored in InAs.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop

0.35 min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) 5.224 5.494 AB 0 0 0.32 0 0.1 0 1.1E+24 -3 0.46 0 0.002

412 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B

0 1.1E+23 -3 0 7 0 2E-18 1.3E-17 1 400000 72000 0.44 400000 90000 0.59 0.5*Eg 0 40 40 0.005 0.005 -6.08 -4 -1.8 8.33 4.53 -0.01 -0.085 12.25 14.6 0.354 -0.000594 535 4.39 -0.0004 250

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Appendix G: Material Library Data • 413

kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun

0.24 0 0 0.371 0.00003 0 20.4 8.3 9.1 HLAFF_DISCONT -14.8 6.0583 0.00003 0.0221 0 -0.000000005 -6E-11 0.4 0.026 2.65 -1.57 0.046 -2.3 0.103 0.32 6.26 2.28 -0.00035 0 0.0002288 5.53E-43 0 0 0 0.177 0.0000005

414 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime

0.0000005 1.32 1E+16 0.001 0.0516 0.0516 1E-13 1E-13 1E-13 1E-13 5E-14 5E-14 5E-14 5E-14 0.036 500000000 0.026 0.1 5.667 1 0.01 0.352 2E-16 1E-12 0.27 -1.2

regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp

InAsSbP

The default material parameters for InAsSbP are stored in InAsSbP.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_BOWING Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT

X*0.35+Y*0.58+(1-X-Y)*0.6 min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) -0.58*X*Y-0.101*X*(1-X-Y)-1.2*Y*(1-X-Y) 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF)

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 415

HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV

X*5.224+Y*(0.1737+4.59)+(1-X-Y)*5.684 5.494 A1_x_yBxCyD 0 0 X*0.32+Y*0.32+(1-X-Y)*0.42 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0.1+Y*0.1+(1-X-Y)*0.04 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*1.10e+24+Y*1.10e+24+(1-X-Y)*3.00e+23 X*-3+Y*-3+(1-X-Y)*-3.25 X*0.46+Y*0.46+(1-X-Y)*0.62 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0.002+Y*0.002+(1-X-Y)*0.001 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*1.10e+23+Y*1.10e+23+(1-X-Y)*4.87e+23 X*-3+Y*-3+(1-X-Y)*-3 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*7+Y*3+(1-X-Y)*7 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*2.00e-18+Y*2.00e-18+(1-X-Y)*2.00e-18 X*1.30e-17+Y*1.30e-17+(1-X-Y)*1.30e-17 X*1+Y*1+(1-X-Y)*1 X*400000+Y*400000+(1-X-Y)*400000 X*72000+Y*72000+(1-X-Y)*72000 X*0.44+Y*0.44+(1-X-Y)*0.44 X*400000+Y*400000+(1-X-Y)*400000 X*90000+Y*90000+(1-X-Y)*90000 X*0.59+Y*0.59+(1-X-Y)*0.59 X*0.5*Eg+Y*0.5*Eg+(1-X-Y)*0.5*Eg X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*40+Y*40+(1-X-Y)*40 X*40+Y*40+(1-X-Y)*40 X*0.01+Y*0.01+(1-X-Y)*0.04 X*0.001+Y*0.0007+(1-X-Y)*0.0057 X*-6.08+Y*-7.3+(1-X-Y)*-6.31

416 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0

X*-4+Y*-0.46+(1-X-Y)*-2 X*-1.8+Y*-2+(1-X-Y)*-1.7 X*8.33+Y*6.847+(1-X-Y)*10.11 X*4.53+Y*3.735+(1-X-Y)*5.61 X*-0.01+Y*-0.017+(1-X-Y)*-0.017 X*-0.085+Y*-0.085+(1-X-Y)*-0.085 X*12.25+Y*16+(1-X-Y)*9.66 X*14.6+Y*17.7+(1-X-Y)*12.5 X*0.354+Y*0.1737+(1-X-Y)*1.344+EgG_BOWING X*-0.000594+Y*-0.00032+(1-X-Y)*-0.000446 X*535+Y*170+(1-X-Y)*204 X*4.39+Y*3.141+(1-X-Y)*4.64 X*-0.0004+Y*-0.00032+(1-X-Y)*0 X*250+Y*170+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0.24+Y*0.392+(1-X-Y)*0.07 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0.371+Y*0.81+(1-X-Y)*0.108 X*3.00e-05+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*20.4+Y*34.8+(1-X-Y)*4.95 X*8.3+Y*15.5+(1-X-Y)*1.65 X*9.1+Y*16.5+(1-X-Y)*2.35 HLAFF_DISCONT X*-14.8+Y*-0.44+(1-X-Y)*1.48 X*6.0583+Y*6.4794+(1-X-Y)*5.869 X*3.00e-05+Y*3.48e-05+(1-X-Y)*2.96e-05 X*0.0221+Y*0.0135+(1-X-Y)*0.075 X*0+Y*-1.20e-05+(1-X-Y)*0 X*-5.00e-09+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*-8.00e-08 X*-6.00e-11+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0.4+Y*0.43+(1-X-Y)*0.58 X*0.026+Y*0.015+(1-X-Y)*0.12 X*2.65+Y*7+(1-X-Y)*0.54 X*-1.57+Y*-1.66+(1-X-Y)*-2 X*0.046+Y*0.085+(1-X-Y)*0.015

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 417

kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_P2 kpmat_PP2 kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT kpmat_interpolP regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density

X*-2.3+Y*-1.95+(1-X-Y)*-2 X*0.103+Y*0.19+(1-X-Y)*0.21 X*0.32+Y*0.25+(1-X-Y)*0.32 X*21.5+Y*23.3+(1-X-Y)*20.7 X*-2.9+Y*-0.23+(1-X-Y)*-1.31 X*6.26+Y*6.26+(1-X-Y)*6.26 X*2.28+Y*0.63+(1-X-Y)*2.44 X*-0.000276+Y*-0.00032+(1-X-Y)*-0.00035 X*93+Y*170+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0.0002288+Y*0.00048+(1-X-Y)*9.21e-05 1 X*5.53e-43+Y*5.00e-38+(1-X-Y)*5.53e-43 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0+Y*5.00e-38+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*0 X*0.177+Y*0.5*Eg+(1-X-Y)*0.65 X*5.00e-07+Y*5.00e-07+(1-X-Y)*2.00e-09 X*5.00e-07+Y*5.00e-07+(1-X-Y)*3.00e-06 X*1.32+Y*1.32+(1-X-Y)*1.32 X*1.00e+16+Y*1.00e+16+(1-X-Y)*1.00e+16 X*0.001+Y*0.001+(1-X-Y)*0.001 X*0.0516+Y*0.0516+(1-X-Y)*0.0516 X*0.0516+Y*0.0516+(1-X-Y)*0.0516 X*1.00e-13+Y*1.00e-13+(1-X-Y)*1.00e-13 X*1.00e-13+Y*1.00e-13+(1-X-Y)*1.00e-13 X*1.00e-13+Y*1.00e-13+(1-X-Y)*1.00e-13 X*1.00e-13+Y*1.00e-13+(1-X-Y)*1.00e-13 X*5.00e-14+Y*5.00e-14+(1-X-Y)*5.00e-14 X*5.00e-14+Y*5.00e-14+(1-X-Y)*5.00e-14 X*5.00e-14+Y*5.00e-14+(1-X-Y)*5.00e-14 X*5.00e-14+Y*5.00e-14+(1-X-Y)*5.00e-14 X*0.03+Y*0.025+(1-X-Y)*0.043 X*500000000+Y*500000000+(1-X-Y)*500000000 X*0.026+Y*0.026+(1-X-Y)*0.026 X*0.1+Y*0.1+(1-X-Y)*0.1 X*5.667+Y*5.775+(1-X-Y)*4.81

418 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp

X*1+Y*1+(1-X-Y)*1 X*0.01+Y*0.01+(1-X-Y)*0.01 X*0.352+Y*0.209+(1-X-Y)*0.311 X*2.00e-16+Y*5.00e-17+(1-X-Y)*1.20e-16 X*1.00e-12+Y*1.00e-12+(1-X-Y)*1.00e-12 X*0.27+Y*0.17+(1-X-Y)*0.68 X*-1.2+Y*0+(1-X-Y)*-1.5

InGaAs

The default material parameters for InGaAs are stored in InGaAs.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg EgG_BOWING EgG_LINEAR Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption

0.35 min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) 0.324+0.7*(1.0-X)+0.4*(1.0-X)^2 X*0.354+(1-X)*1.424 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) X*5.224+(1-X)*5.494 5.494 AxB1_xC 0 0 X*0.32+(1-X)*0.394 0 X*0.1+(1-X)*0.05 0 X*11e23+(1-X)*0.6e23 -3 X*0.46+(1-X)*0.38 0 0.002 0 X*1.1e23+(1-X)*1.48e23 -3 0

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 419

eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V

X*7+(1-X)*3 0 2E-18 1.3E-17 1 400000 72000 0.44 400000 90000 0.59 0.5*Eg 0 40 40 0.005 0.005 X*-6.08+(1-X)*-8.33 X*-4+(1-X)*-1.7 X*-1.8+(1-X)*-1.7 X*8.33+(1-X)*11.9 X*4.53+(1-X)*5.38 X*-0.01+(1-X)*-0.017 X*-0.085+(1-X)*-0.085 X*12.25+(1-X)*10.89 X*14.6+(1-X)*13.18 EgG_BOWING X*-5.94e-04+(1-X)*-5.30e-04 X*535+(1-X)*204 X*4.39+(1-X)*4.417 X*-4.00e-04+(1-X)*-4.00e-04 X*250+(1-X)*240 X*0.24+(1-X)*0.16 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.371+(1-X)*0.34

420 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e

X*3.00e-05+(1-X)*0.00e+00 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*20.4+(1-X)*6.85 X*8.3+(1-X)*2.1 X*9.1+(1-X)*2.9 HLAFF_DISCONT X*-14.8+(1-X)*-0.44 X*6.0583+(1-X)*5.6533 X*3.00e-05+(1-X)*3.36e-05 X*0.0221+(1-X)*0.0634 X*0.00e+00+(1-X)*-1.20e-05 X*-5.00e-09+(1-X)*0.00e+00 X*-6e-11+(1-X)*0 X*0.4+(1-X)*0.55 X*0.026+(1-X)*0.08 X*2.65+(1-X)*0.85 X*(-1.57)+(1-X)*(-2.1) X*0.046+(1-X)*0.04 X*(-2.3)+(1-X)*(-2.2) X*0.103+(1-X)*0.165 X*0.32+(1-X)*0.85 X*6.26+(1-X)*6.26 X*2.28+(1-X)*1.911 X*-3.50e-04+(1-X)*-4.60e-04 X*0+(1-X)*204 X*22.88e-5+(1-X)*16.425e-5 X*5.53e-43+(1-X)*1.00e-48 0 X*0.00e+00+(1-X)*2.00e-41 0 X*0.177+(1-X)*0.75 X*5.00e-07+(1-X)*5.00e-07 X*5.00e-07+(1-X)*5.00e-07 X*1.32+(1-X)*1.32 X*1.00e+16+(1-X)*1.00e+16 X*0.001+(1-X)*0.001

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 421

regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener

X*0.0516+(1-X)*0.0516 X*0.0516+(1-X)*0.0516 X*1.00e-13+(1-X)*1.00e-13 X*1.00e-13+(1-X)*1.00e-13 X*1.00e-13+(1-X)*1.00e-13 X*1.00e-13+(1-X)*1.00e-13 X*5.00e-14+(1-X)*5.00e-14 X*5.00e-14+(1-X)*5.00e-14 X*5.00e-14+(1-X)*5.00e-14 X*5.00e-14+(1-X)*5.00e-14 X*0.036+(1-X)*0.036 X*5.00e+08+(1-X)*5.00e+08 X*0.026+(1-X)*0.026 X*0.1+(1-X)*0.1 X*5.667+(1-X)*5.318 X*1+(1-X)*1 X*0.01+(1-X)*0.01 X*0.352+(1-X)*0.327 X*2.00e-16+(1-X)*2.00e-16 X*1.00e-12+(1-X)*1.00e-12 1/(X/0.27+(1-X)/0.44+X*(1-X)*78.8) X*(-1.2)+(1-X)*(-1.25)

regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp

InGaN

The default material parameters for InGaN are stored in InGaN.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y

0.3 min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) X*7.074+(1-X)*7.334 5.494 AxB1_xC 0 0

422 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME

X*0.66+(1-X)*0.66 X*0.81+(1-X)*0.81 X*0.0295+(1-X)*0.0295 X*-1.02+(1-X)*-1.02 X*1e+23+(1-X)*1e+23 X*3.02+(1-X)*3.02 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*3+(1-X)*3 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*1+(1-X)*1 X*221000+(1-X)*221000 X*191000+(1-X)*191000 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*221000+(1-X)*221000 X*191000+(1-X)*191000 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.5*Eg+(1-X)*0.5*Eg X*0+(1-X)*0 X*40+(1-X)*40 X*40+(1-X)*40 X*0.02+(1-X)*0.02 X*0.17+(1-X)*0.17 X*-0.35+(1-X)*3 X*-1.7+(1-X)*-1.7 X*-1.2+(1-X)*-2.2 X*18.7+(1-X)*29.3 X*12.5+(1-X)*15.9 X*0.02+(1-X)*0.02

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 423

kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_P2 kpmat_PP2

X*-0.15+(1-X)*-0.15 X*5.35+(1-X)*5.35 X*8.9+(1-X)*8.9 X*1.94+(1-X)*3.299 X*-0.000245+(1-X)*-0.000593 X*624+(1-X)*600 X*10+(1-X)*10 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*10+(1-X)*10 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.006+(1-X)*0.017 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*3.72+(1-X)*2.67 X*1.26+(1-X)*0.75 X*1.63+(1-X)*1.1 HLAFF_DISCONT X*1.3+(1-X)*1.3 X*4.98+(1-X)*4.5 X*0.0000035+(1-X)*0.0000035 X*0.12+(1-X)*0.15 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.84+(1-X)*0.8 X*0.16+(1-X)*0.18 X*0.1461+(1-X)*0.1461 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.0015+(1-X)*0.0015 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.3+(1-X)*0.29 X*0.48+(1-X)*0.5 X*25+(1-X)*25 X*-0.92+(1-X)*-0.92

424 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT kpmat_interpolP kpmat_wurtzite regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef

X*6.26+(1-X)*6.26 X*2.51+(1-X)*4.52 X*-0.000245+(1-X)*-0.000593 X*624+(1-X)*600 X*0.0000575+(1-X)*0.0000575 0 0 X*1e-46+(1-X)*1e-46 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.5*Eg+(1-X)*0.5*Eg X*0.000000001+(1-X)*0.000000001 X*0.000000001+(1-X)*0.000000001 X*1.32+(1-X)*1.32 X*1e+16+(1-X)*1e+16 X*0.001+(1-X)*0.001 X*0.0516+(1-X)*0.0516 X*0.0516+(1-X)*0.0516 X*1e-13+(1-X)*1e-13 X*1e-13+(1-X)*1e-13 X*1e-13+(1-X)*1e-13 X*1e-13+(1-X)*1e-13 X*5e-14+(1-X)*5e-14 X*5e-14+(1-X)*5e-14 X*5e-14+(1-X)*5e-14 X*5e-14+(1-X)*5e-14 X*0.091+(1-X)*0.091 X*500000000+(1-X)*500000000 X*0.026+(1-X)*0.026 X*0.1+(1-X)*0.1 X*6.15+(1-X)*6.15 X*1+(1-X)*1 X*0.01+(1-X)*0.01 X*0.49+(1-X)*0.49 X*1.1e-14+(1-X)*1.1e-14

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 425

regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp wz_A1 wz_A2 wz_A3 wz_A4 wz_A5 wz_A6 wz_C13 wz_C33 wz_D1 wz_D2 wz_D3 wz_D4 wz_Eg wz_Eg_A wz_Eg_B wz_P1 wz_P2 wz_Psp wz_defc_a wz_defc_c wz_e13 wz_e33 wz_latt_a wz_latt_c wz_mel_a wz_mel_c wz_split_cr wz_split_so

X*1e-12+(1-X)*1e-12 X*1.3+(1-X)*1.3 X*-0.28+(1-X)*-0.28 X*-6.56+(1-X)*-6.56 X*-0.91+(1-X)*-0.91 X*5.65+(1-X)*5.65 X*-2.83+(1-X)*-2.83 X*-3.13+(1-X)*-3.13 X*-4.86+(1-X)*-4.86 X*10.6+(1-X)*10.6 X*39.8+(1-X)*39.8 X*-3+(1-X)*-3 X*3.6+(1-X)*3.6 X*8.82+(1-X)*8.82 X*-4.41+(1-X)*-4.41 X*3.42+(1-X)*3.42 X*-0.000909+(1-X)*-0.000909 X*830+(1-X)*830 X*14+(1-X)*14 X*14+(1-X)*14 X*-0.029+(1-X)*-0.029 X*-4.08+(1-X)*-4.08 X*-4.08+(1-X)*-4.08 X*-0.35+(1-X)*-0.35 X*1.27+(1-X)*1.27 X*3.189+(1-X)*3.189 X*5.185+(1-X)*5.185 X*0.2+(1-X)*0.2 X*0.2+(1-X)*0.2 X*0.019+(1-X)*0.019 X*0.014+(1-X)*0.014

InGaN (Wurtzite)

The default material parameters for InGaN Wurtzite are stored in InGaN_wz.mat.

426 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn

0.3 wz_Eg 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) X*6.243+(1-X)*7.31 5.494 AxB1_xC 0 0 X*0.68+(1-X)*0.66 X*-0.94+(1-X)*0.81 X*0.0774+(1-X)*0.0295 X*-6.39+(1-X)*-1.02 X*1e+23+(1-X)*1e+23 X*8.05+(1-X)*3.02 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*3+(1-X)*3 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*1+(1-X)*1 X*52000+(1-X)*221000 X*136000+(1-X)*191000 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*52000+(1-X)*221000 X*136000+(1-X)*191000 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.5*Eg+(1-X)*0.5*Eg X*0+(1-X)*0 X*40+(1-X)*40

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 427

ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH

X*40+(1-X)*40 X*0.17+(1-X)*0.17 X*0.02+(1-X)*0.02 X*3+(1-X)*3 X*-1.7+(1-X)*-1.7 X*-2.2+(1-X)*-2.2 X*22.3+(1-X)*39 X*11.5+(1-X)*14.5 X*0.02+(1-X)*0.02 X*-0.15+(1-X)*-0.15 X*8.4+(1-X)*5.35 X*15.3+(1-X)*8.9 X*3.299+(1-X)*3.299 X*-0.000593+(1-X)*-0.000593 X*600+(1-X)*600 X*10+(1-X)*10 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*10+(1-X)*10 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.017+(1-X)*0.017 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*2.67+(1-X)*2.67 X*0.75+(1-X)*0.75 X*1.1+(1-X)*1.1 HLAFF_DISCONT X*1.3+(1-X)*1.3 X*4.5+(1-X)*4.5 X*0.0000035+(1-X)*0.0000035 X*0.12+(1-X)*0.15 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.5+(1-X)*0.8

428 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_P2 kpmat_PP2 kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT kpmat_interpolP kpmat_wurtzite regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime

X*0.17+(1-X)*0.18 X*0.3138+(1-X)*0.1461 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.0015+(1-X)*0.0015 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.29+(1-X)*0.29 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*25+(1-X)*25 X*-0.92+(1-X)*-0.92 X*6.26+(1-X)*6.26 X*4.52+(1-X)*4.52 X*-0.000593+(1-X)*-0.000593 X*600+(1-X)*600 X*0.0000575+(1-X)*0.0000575 0 1 X*1e-46+(1-X)*1e-46 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0+(1-X)*0 X*0.5*Eg+(1-X)*0.5*Eg X*0.000000001+(1-X)*0.000000001 X*0.000000001+(1-X)*0.000000001 X*1.32+(1-X)*1.32 X*1e+16+(1-X)*1e+16 X*0.001+(1-X)*0.001 X*0.0516+(1-X)*0.0516 X*0.0516+(1-X)*0.0516 X*1e-13+(1-X)*1e-13 X*1e-13+(1-X)*1e-13 X*1e-13+(1-X)*1e-13 X*1e-13+(1-X)*1e-13 X*5e-14+(1-X)*5e-14 X*5e-14+(1-X)*5e-14 X*5e-14+(1-X)*5e-14 X*5e-14+(1-X)*5e-14

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 429

regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp wz_A1 wz_A2 wz_A3 wz_A4 wz_A5 wz_A6 wz_C13 wz_C33 wz_D1 wz_D2 wz_D3 wz_D4 wz_Eg wz_Eg_A wz_Eg_B wz_P1 wz_P2 wz_Psp wz_defc_a wz_defc_c wz_e13 wz_e33 wz_latt_a wz_latt_c

X*0.073+(1-X)*0.091 X*500000000+(1-X)*500000000 X*0.026+(1-X)*0.026 X*0.1+(1-X)*0.1 X*6.81+(1-X)*6.15 X*1+(1-X)*1 X*0.01+(1-X)*0.01 X*0.32+(1-X)*0.49 X*1.1e-14+(1-X)*1.1e-14 X*1e-12+(1-X)*1e-12 X*0.45+(1-X)*1.3 X*-0.28+(1-X)*-0.28 X*-9.28+(1-X)*-6.56 X*-0.6+(1-X)*-0.91 X*8.68+(1-X)*5.65 X*-4.34+(1-X)*-2.83 X*-4.32+(1-X)*-3.13 X*-6.08+(1-X)*-4.86 X*9.2+(1-X)*10.6 X*22.4+(1-X)*39.8 X*-3+(1-X)*-3 X*3.6+(1-X)*3.6 X*8.82+(1-X)*8.82 X*-4.41+(1-X)*-4.41 X*1.89+(1-X)*3.42-X*(1-X)*3.8 X*-0.000245+(1-X)*-0.000909 X*642+(1-X)*830 X*14.6+(1-X)*14 X*14.6+(1-X)*14 X*-0.032+(1-X)*-0.029 X*-4.08+(1-X)*-4.08 X*-4.08+(1-X)*-4.08 X*-0.57+(1-X)*-0.35 X*0.97+(1-X)*1.27 X*3.548+(1-X)*3.189 X*5.703+(1-X)*5.185

430 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

wz_mel_a wz_mel_c wz_split_cr wz_split_so

X*0.12+(1-X)*0.2 X*0.12+(1-X)*0.2 X*0.041+(1-X)*0.019 X*0.001+(1-X)*0.014

InGaNAs

The default material parameters for InGaNAs are stored in InGaNAs.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_BOW Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme Mc_BOW StrainX0 StrainXY X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption

0.3 min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) -69*(StrainXY-StrainX0) 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) X*Y*7.074+X*(1-Y)*5.224+(1-X)*Y*7.334+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.494 X*Y*5.494+X*(1-Y)*5.494+(1-X)*Y*5.494+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.494 AxB1_xCyD1_y -18.1667/10*(StrainXY-StrainX0) 5.6533/(X*6.0583+(1-X)*5.6533)-1 5.6533/kpmat_LATT-1 0 0 X*Y*0.66+X*(1-Y)*0.32+(1-X)*Y*0.66+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.394 X*Y*0.81+X*(1-Y)*0+(1-X)*Y*0.81+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0 X*Y*0.0295+X*(1-Y)*0.1+(1-X)*Y*0.0295+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.05 X*Y*-1.02+X*(1-Y)*0+(1-X)*Y*-1.02+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0 X*Y*1e+23+X*(1-Y)*1.10e+24+(1-X)*Y*1e+23+(1-X)*(1Y)*6.00e+22 X*Y*3.02+X*(1-Y)*-3+(1-X)*Y*3.02+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-3 X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*0.46+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.38 X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*0+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0 X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*0.002+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.002 X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*0+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0 X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*1.10e+23+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.48e+23 X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*-3+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-3 X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*0+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 431

eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C

X*Y*3+X*(1-Y)*7+(1-X)*Y*3+(1-X)*(1-Y)*3 X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*0+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0 X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*2.00e-18+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*2.00e-18 X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*1.30e-17+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.30e-17 X*Y*1+X*(1-Y)*1+(1-X)*Y*1+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1 X*Y*221000+X*(1-Y)*400000+(1-X)*Y*221000+(1-X)*(1Y)*400000 X*Y*191000+X*(1-Y)*72000+(1-X)*Y*191000+(1-X)*(1Y)*72000 X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*0.44+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.44 X*Y*221000+X*(1-Y)*400000+(1-X)*Y*221000+(1-X)*(1Y)*400000 X*Y*191000+X*(1-Y)*90000+(1-X)*Y*191000+(1-X)*(1Y)*90000 X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*0.59+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.59 0.5*Eg X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*0+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0 X*Y*40+X*(1-Y)*40+(1-X)*Y*40+(1-X)*(1-Y)*40 X*Y*40+X*(1-Y)*40+(1-X)*Y*40+(1-X)*(1-Y)*40 X*Y*0.02+X*(1-Y)*0.01+(1-X)*Y*0.02+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.03 X*Y*0.17+X*(1-Y)*0.001+(1-X)*Y*0.17+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.006 X*Y*-0.35+X*(1-Y)*-6.08+(1-X)*Y*3+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-8.33 X*Y*-1.7+X*(1-Y)*-4+(1-X)*Y*-1.7+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-1.7 X*Y*-1.2+X*(1-Y)*-1.8+(1-X)*Y*-2.2+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-2 X*Y*18.7+X*(1-Y)*8.33+(1-X)*Y*29.3+(1-X)*(1-Y)*11.9 X*Y*12.5+X*(1-Y)*4.53+(1-X)*Y*15.9+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.38 X*Y*0.02+X*(1-Y)*-0.01+(1-X)*Y*0.02+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-0.017 X*Y*-0.15+X*(1-Y)*-0.085+(1-X)*Y*-0.15+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-0.085 X*Y*5.35+X*(1-Y)*12.25+(1-X)*Y*5.35+(1-X)*(1-Y)*10.89 X*Y*8.9+X*(1-Y)*14.6+(1-X)*Y*8.9+(1-X)*(1-Y)*13.18 0.324+0.7*(1.0-X)+0.4*(1.0-X)^2+Eg_BOW X*Y*-0.000245+X*(1-Y)*-0.000594+(1-X)*Y*-0.000593+(1-X)*(1Y)*-0.00053 X*Y*624+X*(1-Y)*535+(1-X)*Y*600+(1-X)*(1-Y)*204 X*Y*10+X*(1-Y)*4.39+(1-X)*Y*10+(1-X)*(1-Y)*4.417 X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*-0.0004+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-0.0004 X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*250+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*240 X*Y*10+X*(1-Y)*0.24+(1-X)*Y*10+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.16

432 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_P2 kpmat_PP2 kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT kpmat_interpolP kpmat_wurtzite regmat_Augn300

X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*0+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0 X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*0+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0 X*Y*0.006+X*(1-Y)*0.371+(1-X)*Y*0.017+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.34 X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*3.00e-05+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0 X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*0+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0 X*Y*3.72+X*(1-Y)*20.4+(1-X)*Y*2.67+(1-X)*(1-Y)*6.85 X*Y*1.26+X*(1-Y)*8.3+(1-X)*Y*0.75+(1-X)*(1-Y)*2.1 X*Y*1.63+X*(1-Y)*9.1+(1-X)*Y*1.1+(1-X)*(1-Y)*2.9 HLAFF_DISCONT X*Y*1.3+X*(1-Y)*-14.8+(1-X)*Y*1.3+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-0.44 X*Y*4.98+X*(1-Y)*6.0583+(1-X)*Y*4.5+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.6533 X*Y*0.0000035+X*(1-Y)*3.00e-05+(1-X)*Y*0.0000035+(1-X)*(1Y)*3.36e-05 X*0.0221+(1-X)*0.0634+Mc_BOW X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*0+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-1.20e-05 X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*-5.00e-09+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0 X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*-6.00e-11+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0 X*Y*0.84+X*(1-Y)*0.4+(1-X)*Y*0.8+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.55 X*Y*0.16+X*(1-Y)*0.026+(1-X)*Y*0.18+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.08 X*Y*0.1461+X*(1-Y)*2.65+(1-X)*Y*0.1461+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.85 X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*-1.57+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-2.1 X*Y*0.0015+X*(1-Y)*0.046+(1-X)*Y*0.0015+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.04 X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*-2.3+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-2.2 X*Y*0.3+X*(1-Y)*0.103+(1-X)*Y*0.29+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.165 X*Y*0.48+X*(1-Y)*0.32+(1-X)*Y*0.5+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.85 X*Y*25+X*(1-Y)*21.5+(1-X)*Y*25+(1-X)*(1-Y)*28.8 X*Y*-0.92+X*(1-Y)*-2.9+(1-X)*Y*-0.92+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-1.94 X*Y*6.26+X*(1-Y)*6.26+(1-X)*Y*6.26+(1-X)*(1-Y)*6.26 X*Y*2.51+X*(1-Y)*2.28+(1-X)*Y*4.52+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.911 X*Y*-0.000245+X*(1-Y)*-0.000276+(1-X)*Y*-0.000593+(1-X)*(1Y)*-0.00046 X*Y*624+X*(1-Y)*93+(1-X)*Y*600+(1-X)*(1-Y)*204 X*Y*0.0000575+X*(1-Y)*0.0002288+(1-X)*Y*0.0000575+(1X)*(1-Y)*0.00016425 1 0 X*Y*1e-46+X*(1-Y)*5.53e-43+(1-X)*Y*1e-46+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.00e-

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 433

48

regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef

X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*0+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0 X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*0+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*2.00e-41 X*Y*0+X*(1-Y)*0+(1-X)*Y*0+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0 0.5*Eg X*Y*0.000000001+X*(1-Y)*5.00e-07+(1-X)*Y*0.000000001+(1X)*(1-Y)*5.00e-07 X*Y*0.000000001+X*(1-Y)*5.00e-07+(1-X)*Y*0.000000001+(1X)*(1-Y)*5.00e-07 X*Y*1.32+X*(1-Y)*1.32+(1-X)*Y*1.32+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.32 X*Y*1e+16+X*(1-Y)*1.00e+16+(1-X)*Y*1e+16+(1-X)*(1Y)*1.00e+16 X*Y*0.001+X*(1-Y)*0.001+(1-X)*Y*0.001+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.001 X*Y*0.0516+X*(1-Y)*0.0516+(1-X)*Y*0.0516+(1-X)*(1Y)*0.0516 X*Y*0.0516+X*(1-Y)*0.0516+(1-X)*Y*0.0516+(1-X)*(1Y)*0.0516 X*Y*1e-13+X*(1-Y)*1.00e-13+(1-X)*Y*1e-13+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.00e13 X*Y*1e-13+X*(1-Y)*1.00e-13+(1-X)*Y*1e-13+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.00e13 X*Y*1e-13+X*(1-Y)*1.00e-13+(1-X)*Y*1e-13+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.00e13 X*Y*1e-13+X*(1-Y)*1.00e-13+(1-X)*Y*1e-13+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.00e13 X*Y*5e-14+X*(1-Y)*5.00e-14+(1-X)*Y*5e-14+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.00e14 X*Y*5e-14+X*(1-Y)*5.00e-14+(1-X)*Y*5e-14+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.00e14 X*Y*5e-14+X*(1-Y)*5.00e-14+(1-X)*Y*5e-14+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.00e14 X*Y*5e-14+X*(1-Y)*5.00e-14+(1-X)*Y*5e-14+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.00e14 X*Y*0.091+X*(1-Y)*0.03+(1-X)*Y*0.091+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.035 X*Y*500000000+X*(1-Y)*500000000+(1-X)*Y*500000000+(1X)*(1-Y)*500000000 X*Y*0.026+X*(1-Y)*0.026+(1-X)*Y*0.026+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.026 X*Y*0.1+X*(1-Y)*0.1+(1-X)*Y*0.1+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.1 X*Y*6.15+X*(1-Y)*5.667+(1-X)*Y*6.15+(1-X)*(1-Y)*5.318 X*Y*1+X*(1-Y)*1+(1-X)*Y*1+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1 X*Y*0.01+X*(1-Y)*0.01+(1-X)*Y*0.01+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.01 X*Y*0.49+X*(1-Y)*0.352+(1-X)*Y*0.49+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.327 X*Y*1.1e-14+X*(1-Y)*2.00e-16+(1-X)*Y*1.1e-14+(1-X)*(1Y)*2.00e-16

434 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp

X*Y*1e-12+X*(1-Y)*1.00e-12+(1-X)*Y*1e-12+(1-X)*(1-Y)*1.00e12 X*Y*1.3+X*(1-Y)*0.27+(1-X)*Y*1.3+(1-X)*(1-Y)*0.44 X*Y*-0.28+X*(1-Y)*-1.2+(1-X)*Y*-0.28+(1-X)*(1-Y)*-1.25

InN

The default material parameters for InN are stored in InN.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0

0.3 min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) 7.074 5.494 AB 0 0 0.66 0.81 0.0295 -1.02 1.00E+23 3.02 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 221000

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 435

hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF

191000 0 221000 191000 0 0.5*Eg 0 40 40 0.02 0.17 -0.35 -1.7 -1.2 18.7 12.5 0.02 -0.15 5.35 8.9 1.94 -0.00025 624 10 0 0 10 0 0 0.006 0 0 3.72 1.26 1.63 HLAFF_DISCONT

436 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_P2 kpmat_PP2 kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT kpmat_interpolP kpmat_wurtzite regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl

1.3 4.98 3.50E-06 0.12 0 0 0 0.84 0.16 0.1461 0 0.0015 0 0.3 0.48 25 -0.92 6.26 2.51 -0.00025 624 5.75E-05 0 0 1.00E-46 0 0 0 0.5*Eg 1.00E-09 1.00E-09 1.32 1.00E+16 0.001 0.0516 0.0516

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 437

regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp wz_A1 wz_A2 wz_A3 wz_A4 wz_A5 wz_A6 wz_C13 wz_C33 wz_D1 wz_D2 wz_D3 wz_D4 wz_Eg wz_Eg_A wz_Eg_B wz_P1

1.00E-13 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 0.091 5E+08 0.026 0.1 6.15 1 0.01 0.49 1.10E-14 1.00E-12 1.3 -0.28 -6.56 -0.91 5.65 -2.83 -3.13 -4.86 10.6 39.8 -3 3.6 8.82 -4.41 3.42 -0.00091 830 14

438 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

wz_P2 wz_Psp wz_defc_a wz_defc_c wz_e13 wz_e33 wz_latt_a wz_latt_c wz_mel_a wz_mel_c wz_split_cr wz_split_so

14 -0.029 -4.08 -4.08 -0.35 1.27 3.189 5.185 0.2 0.2 0.019 0.014

InN (Wurtzite)

The default material parameters for InN Wurtzite are stored in InN_wz.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp

0.3 wz_Eg 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) 6.243 5.494 AB 0 0 0.68 -0.94 0.0774 -6.39 1.00E+23 8.05 0 0 0 0

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 439

arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C

0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 52000 136000 0 52000 136000 0 0.5*Eg 0 40 40 0.17 0.02 3 -1.7 -2.2 22.3 11.5 0.02 -0.15 8.4 15.3 3.299 -0.00059 600 10 0 0 10

440 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_P2 kpmat_PP2 kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT kpmat_interpolP kpmat_wurtzite regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600

0 0 0.017 0 0 2.67 0.75 1.1 HLAFF_DISCONT 1.3 4.5 3.50E-06 0.12 0 0 0 0.5 0.17 0.3138 0 0.0015 0 0.29 0 25 -0.92 6.26 4.52 -0.00059 600 5.75E-05 0 1 1.00E-46 0 0

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 441

regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp wz_A1 wz_A2 wz_A3 wz_A4 wz_A5 wz_A6 wz_C13

0 0.5*Eg 1.00E-09 1.00E-09 1.32 1.00E+16 0.001 0.0516 0.0516 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 0.073 5E+08 0.026 0.1 6.81 1 0.01 0.32 1.10E-14 1.00E-12 0.45 -0.28 -9.28 -0.6 8.68 -4.34 -4.32 -6.08 9.2

442 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

wz_C33 wz_D1 wz_D2 wz_D3 wz_D4 wz_Eg wz_Eg_A wz_Eg_B wz_P1 wz_P2 wz_Psp wz_defc_a wz_defc_c wz_e13 wz_e33 wz_latt_a wz_latt_c wz_mel_a wz_mel_c wz_split_cr wz_split_so

22.4 -3 3.6 8.82 -4.41 1.89 -0.00025 642 14.6 14.6 -0.032 -4.08 -4.08 -0.57 0.97 3.548 5.703 0.12 0.12 0.041 0.001

InP

The default material parameters for InP are stored in InP.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1

0.6 min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) 5.684 5.494 AB 0 0 0.42

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 443

arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS

0 0.04 0 3E+23 -3.25 0.62 0 0.001 0 4.87E+23 -3 0 7 0 2E-18 1.3E-17 1 400000 72000 0.44 400000 90000 0.59 0.5*Eg 0 40 40 0.005 0.005 -6.31 -2 -1.7 10.11 5.61 -0.017 -0.085

444 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A

9.66 12.5 1.344 -0.000446 204 4.64 0 0 0.07 0 0 0.108 0 0 4.95 1.65 2.35 HLAFF_DISCONT 1.48 5.869 0.0000296 0.075 0 -0.00000008 0 0.58 0.12 0.54 -2 0.015 -2 0.21 0.32 6.26 2.44 -0.00035

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 445

kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density

0 0.00009207 5.53E-43 0 0 0 0.65 0.000000002 0.000003 1.32 1E+16 0.001 0.0516 0.0516 1E-13 1E-13 1E-13 1E-13 5E-14 5E-14 5E-14 5E-14 0.036 500000000 0.026 0.1 4.81 1 0.01 0.311 1.2E-16 1E-12 0.68 -1.5

regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp

446 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

InSb

The default material parameters for InSb are stored in InSb.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp

(HLAFF_INTERP-HLAFF_REF)/(Eg-Eg_REF) min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) 4.59 + Eg 5.494 AB 0 0 0.32 0 0.1 0 1.10E+24 -3 0.46 0 0.002 0 1.10E+23 -3 0 3 0 2.00E-18 1.30E-17 1 400000 72000 0.44 400000 90000 0.59

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 447

ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L

0.5*Eg 0 40 40 0.01 0.0007 -7.3 2*kpmat_PP -2 6.847 3.735 -0.017 -0.085 16 17.7 0.1737 -0.00032 170 3.141 -0.00032 170 0.392 0 0 0.81 0 0 34.8 15.5 16.5 HLAFF_DISCONT -0.44 6.4794 3.48E-05 0.0135 -1.20E-05

448 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_P2 kpmat_PP2 kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT kpmat_interpolP regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime

0 0 0.43 0.015 7 -1.66 0.085 -1.95 0.19 0.25 23.3 -0.23 6.26 0.63 -0.00032 170 0.00048 1 5.00E-38 0 5.00E-38 0 0.5*Eg 5.00E-07 5.00E-07 1.32 1.00E+16 0.001 0.0516 0.0516 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 5.00E-14 5.00E-14

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 449

regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp

5.00E-14 5.00E-14 0.025 5E+08 0.026 0.1 5.775 1 0.01 0.209 5.00E-17 1.00E-12 0.17 0

Oxide

The default material parameters for Oxide are stored in Oxide.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2

0.33 min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) 6 5.494 Oxide 0 0 0 0 1E-10 0 1 0 0 0

450 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A

1E-10 0 1 0 0 3 0 2E-18 1.3E-17 1 400000 72000 0.44 400000 90000 0.59 0.5*Eg 1 40 40 0.005 0.005 -8.03 -0.017 -1.703 12.0188 5.6968 -0.00017 -0.14935 1 10.0912 2.9 -0.0006 190.117 4.59817 -0.0006

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 451

kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300

204.21 0.1501 0 0 0.279897 0 0 3.77753 0.90523 1.42747 HLAFF_DISCONT 1.29566 5.66023 0.0000292 0.148449 -0.00000012 0 0 0.8074 0.1592 0.000003 0 0.000001 0 0.29865 0.7114 6.26 2.5 -0.00087 979.673 0 1E-49 0 2E-42 0 0.966

452 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

regmat_SRH_taun

0.000000545 0.000000545 1.32 1E+16 0.00109 0.056244 0.056244 1.09E-13 1.09E-13 1.09E-13 1.09E-13 5.45E-14 5.45E-14 5.45E-14 5.45E-14 0.03924 545000000 0.02834 0.109 5.318 1.09 0.0109 0.01 2.18E-16 1.09E-12 0.01 1

regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp

Polysilicon

The default material parameters for Polysilicon are stored in Polysilicon.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT

0.5 min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF)

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 453

HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef Fcn_elcoef fcn_hlcoef fcn_hlexp haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp

5.13 5.494 AB 0 0 0.72 0.065 0.008 -0.45 1.12E+23 3.2 0.72 0.065 0.0045 -0.45 2.23E+23 3.2 0 3 0 8.50E-18 6.00E-18 -8.80E-22 -8.50E-18 0.8 1 400000 103000 0.74 400000 72000 0.37 0.5*Eg 0 40 40

454 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH

0.045 0.054 1.72 -1.7 -2.1 16.577 6.393 0.02 -0.15 3.5*3.5 11.7 3.4 -0.00039 125 4.2 -0.00039 125 10 0 0 0.044 0 0 4.285 0.339 1.446 HLAFF_DISCONT 1.999 5.431 1.41E-05 1.18 0 0 0 0.49 0.16

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 455

kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_P2 kpmat_PP2 kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT kpmat_interpolP regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600 regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax

0.143 -2 0.046 -2.18 0.23 1.18 0 0 6.26 1.12 -0.00047 636 0.000132 0 1.10E-42 0 3.00E-43 0 0.9 7.00E-09 3.00E-09 1.32 1.00E+16 0.001 0.0516 0.0516 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 0.05093 5E+08

456 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp

0.026 0.1 2.329 1 0.01 0.703 2.00E-16 1.00E-12 1.31 -1.03

Si

The default material parameters for Silicon are stored in Si.mat.

DEv_DEg_REF Eg Eg_REF HLAFF_DISCONT HLAFF_LINEAR HLAFF_REF Interpolation_Scheme X Y arora_eldopexp1 arora_eldopexp2 arora_elmudop arora_elmudopexp arora_elnref arora_elnrefexp arora_hldopexp1 arora_hldopexp2 arora_hlmudop arora_hlmudopexp arora_hlnref arora_hlnrefexp

0.5 min(kpmat_G6C_G8V,kpmat_X6C_G8V) 1.424 HLAFF_REF+DEv_DEg_REF*(Eg-Eg_REF) 5.13 5.494 AB 0 0 0.72 0.065 0.008 -0.45 1.12E+23 3.2 0.72 0.065 0.0045 -0.45 2.23E+23 3.2

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 457

bg_absorption eff_tunnel_length eff_tunnel_priority fca_elcoef fca_hlcoef Fcn_elcoef fcn_hlcoef fcn_hlexp haensch_tunnel_length hfmob_elfield0 hfmob_elvsat hfmob_elvsattemp hfmob_hlfield0 hfmob_hlvsat hfmob_hlvsattemp ifrec_Et-Ev300 ifrec_priority ifrec_vn ifrec_vp ion_acceptoractiv ion_donoractiv kpmat_ACV kpmat_APRIME kpmat_AXDEF kpmat_C11 kpmat_C12 kpmat_CPRIME kpmat_DELTAMINUS kpmat_DIELOPT kpmat_DIELSTAT kpmat_G6C_G8V kpmat_G6C_G8V_A kpmat_G6C_G8V_B kpmat_G7C_G8V kpmat_G7C_G8V_A kpmat_G7C_G8V_B

0 3 0 8.50E-18 6.00E-18 -8.80E-22 -8.50E-18 0.8 1 400000 103000 0.74 400000 72000 0.37 0.5*Eg 0 40 40 0.045 0.054 1.72 -1.7 -2.1 16.577 6.393 0.02 -0.15 3.43*3.43 11.9 3.4 -0.00039 125 4.2 -0.00039 125

458 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

kpmat_G8C_G7C kpmat_G8C_G7C_A kpmat_G8C_G7C_B kpmat_G8V_G7V kpmat_G8V_G7V_A kpmat_G8V_G7V_B kpmat_GAMMA1 kpmat_GAMMA2 kpmat_GAMMA3 kpmat_HLAFF kpmat_LANDE kpmat_LATT kpmat_LATT_DT kpmat_MG6C kpmat_MG6C_L kpmat_MG6C_Q kpmat_MG6C_T kpmat_MHH kpmat_MLH kpmat_MOBN0 kpmat_MOBN0_exp kpmat_MOBP0 kpmat_MOBP0_exp kpmat_MSO kpmat_MX6C kpmat_P2 kpmat_PP2 kpmat_QQ kpmat_X6C_G8V kpmat_X6C_G8V_A kpmat_X6C_G8V_B kpmat_dnr_dT kpmat_interpolP regmat_Augn300 regmat_AugnEact regmat_Augp600

10 0 0 0.044 0 0 4.285 0.339 1.446 HLAFF_DISCONT 1.999 5.431 1.41E-05 1.18 0 0 0 0.49 0.16 0.143 -2 0.046 -2.18 0.23 1.18 0 0 6.26 1.12 -0.00047 636 0.000132 0 1.10E-42 0 3.00E-43

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 459

regmat_AugpEact regmat_Et-Ev300 regmat_SRH_taun regmat_SRH_taup regmat_coul_enh1 regmat_coul_enh2 regmat_delta_e regmat_e3dav_el regmat_e3dav_hl regmat_elelcaptime regmat_elelscttime regmat_elphcaptime regmat_elphscttime regmat_hlhlcaptime regmat_hlhlscttime regmat_hlphcaptime regmat_hlphscttime regmat_hnuloph regmat_hotqmax regmat_krelaxener regmat_lo_frac regmat_material_density regmat_qw_rich regmat_scatener regmat_specific_heat regmat_sponrecoef regmat_tauloph regmat_thermconduct regmat_thermconduct_exp

0 0.9 7.00E-07 3.00E-07 1.32 1.00E+16 0.001 0.0516 0.0516 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 1.00E-13 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 5.00E-14 0.05093 5E+08 0.026 0.1 2.329 1 0.01 0.703 2.00E-16 1.00E-12 1.31 -1.03

References

[1] O. Madelung, "Semiconductors – Basic Data", 2nd Ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996. [2] J. Piprek: Semiconductor Optoelectronic Devices (Academic Press 2003). [3] S.L. Chuang, “Optical Gain of Strained Wurtzite GaN Quantum-Well Lasers,” IEEE JQE, Vol. 32, No. 10, OCT. 1996 p.1791.

460 • Appendix G: Material Library Data

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

[4] I. Vurgaftmana, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys,” JAP, Vol. 89, No. 11, 1 June 2001, pp. 5815-75.

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Appendix G: Material Library Data • 461

Arrange Icons 45 Aspect Ratio = 1:1 44, 147 Aspect Ratio = any 44

Index

B

Barr/SCH: Set Material 82, 139 Beam Propagation Method 154 bias 1 98, 160 bias 2 98, 107, 160 bias 3 107 boldface Courier 4 Bulk Active 46 Bulk Insulator 46 Bulk Region 78, 134 Bulk Semiconductor 46 Bulk Taper 46

#

# Long./Azym. Modes 169 # of X pts 88, 90, 91, 100, 150, 153, 163 # of Y pts 90, 100, 104, 150, 153, 163 # Points 93, 115 # Tran./Radial Modes 169 # Transverse 169

C

Calculate Gain 46, 92, 113, 119, 155 Calculate Mode 46, 91, 153, 154 Cancel 77, 133 Cascade 45 cauchy 127 Charge Carriers 101, 164, 174 clear run file 74, 123, 172, 295 Close 43, 45 Close All 43, 44, 45 composition 82, 139 Copy (Ctrl-C) 43 Copy Selection 45 Cs 111 Current 107 Current[0] 105, 108, 173 Cut (Ctrl-X) 43 Cut Selection 45

1

15 244 150+Phase/360 230

2

2 244 2D Simulation 133

3

300+Phase/360 218

5

5e+17 218

D

Data vs Bias 105, 172, 173 DBR for Index Only 58 DBR Stack 46 Delete (Delete) 43 Display Color 49 Dlg. Help 49 Donors 52, 83, 138 Duplicate 43 Duplicate Bias 98, 107, 160 Duplicate Selection 45

A

About LaserMOD 45 Accept 98, 107, 160 Acceptors 52, 81, 140, 141 Add Rectangle 78, 134 Add to Plot 74 Advanced 98, 107, 160 AlGaAs 81, 82, 83, 138, 139, 140, 141 All 74, 164, 295 Alloy X 82, 139 Alloy X composition 52, 81, 82, 83, 88, 138, 139, 140, 141, 150 Alloy Y composition 52, 81, 138

E

Edit Bias Table 43, 46, 98, 107, 123, 160 Edit Global Settings 46 Edit Material File 43, 46

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Index • 463

Edit Symbol Table 46 Edit Symbols 43, 79, 136, 161 EgG_BOWING 122 EgG_LINEAR 122 Electrode 46 Electrode Number 137, 142 Electrode Region 78, 134 Element # 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143 Element Height 49, 81, 83, 138, 140, 141, 143 Element Width 49, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143 Enable Parasitic Effects 111 Energy Bands 101, 164 Enter 7 Exit 43

Last 44 LatticeTemperature 130 Launch Data Browser 44, 45 Launch Sim Window 44 Light vs Current 123, 173 Look-Up Table Gain Model 26, 113, 119, 123

M

Material System 52, 81, 83, 138, 140, 141, 143 Materials Data 106 Max. Density 69, 93, 113, 115, 295 Max. Spacing-X 50 Max. Spacing-Y 50 Max. Temperature 155 Max. X Spacing 170 Min. Density 92, 93, 113, 115, 155 Min. Spacing - Bottom 87, 149, 150 Min. Spacing - left 149, 171 Min. Spacing - Right 149 Min. Spacing - Top 87, 150 Min. Spacing-Bottom 50 Min. Spacing-Left, Min. Spacing-Right 50 Min. Spacing-Top 50 Mode Calculation 44 ModePower[0,0] 173 ModePower[1,0] 173 Mtrl. Files 49 Mtrl. Help 49

F

Far Field 101, 164, 174 Far Field Resolution 101, 164, 174 fca_elcoef 124 fca_hlcoef 124 File 86, 147 Frequency Response 110 Full 44, 85, 145

G

Gain Calculation 44 Generate Grid 87, 148 Generate Mesh 44, 46 Generate Plot 44, 47, 100, 104, 105, 106, 110, 123, 163, 172, 173, 174 Generate Profile 44, 46, 88, 90, 150 Global Settings 44

N

Net Doping 90, 150 New 43 New Circuit 45 New Structure 77, 133 New Symbol 79, 136 None 127

H

HALT 107 Help 49, 57, 58, 60, 61, 62

O

OK 7, 77, 133 Online Help 45 Open 43 Open Circuit 45 Operation 72 Optical Grating 46 Out 44 Oxide 143 Oxide Region 135

I

Import 43 In 44 Index Profile 90, 150 InGaAs 82, 139

K

kpmat_G6C_G8V 122

P

Parasitics 44, 111 Paste (Ctrl-V) 43 Paste Clipboard Contents 45

L

LaserFrequency 105

464 • Index

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Perform Parameter Scan 47 Phys. Data 49, 51, 54, 127 Plot Data for Bias # 100, 130, 164, 174 Predef Symbol 55 Print 43 Printer Setup 43

Spacing-Left 149 Spacing-Right 149 Spatial Data 130 START 41 Sweep over Temperature 155 Symbols 49

Q

Quantum Well 46 Quantum Well Data 106 Quantum-Well Region 78, 134 Qwell: Phys. Data 120 Qwell: Set Material 82, 139

T

Tile 44 Tile Regions 44, 46, 85, 145 Time 108 Time Dependent 107 tmp 87, 148 Trap dens 52

R

Recalculate KP 69, 123, 161, 295 Recalculate Mode 123, 153, 161, 172, 294 Redraw 44, 85 Redraw Circuit 45 reg_regtype 49 Region(s) 164 regmat_Augn300 125 regmat_Augp600 125 regmat_krelaxener 120 regmat_SRH_taun 125 regmat_SRH_taup 125 Reports 106 Rs 111 RUN 107 Run Log 106 Run Prefix 119 Run Simulation 6

U

Undo (Ctrl-Z) 43 Undo Last Change 45 Uniform 50, 170, 172 Uniform Mesh 73 Use Default 50 Use Defaults 62, 87, 149, 150 Utility 111

V

View 7, 44, 45, 85, 87, 88, 93, 114, 145, 147, 148, 155 View Bias 74 View Contours 165, 169, 171, 174 View Editor 104, 173 View Full 45 View Graphs 151 View Plot 104, 173

S

Save 43, 86, 100, 147, 163 Save As 43, 86, 147 Save Circuit 45 Save Structure 86, 147 Scan Variable 44 SCH Thickness 82, 139 Select All 43 Select Mode 46, 47, 135 Self-Heating 129 Set Custom 105, 130, 173 Set Grid 73, 74, 100, 104, 130, 163, 295 Set Material 49, 51, 81, 83, 138, 140, 141, 143 Show 3D Contour Plot option 88 Show Index Change 93, 115, 155 Show L-I-V 7 Show Material PL 93, 114, 155 Show Peak Gain 93, 115, 155 Show Structure 133 Simulate Laser 44, 46, 99, 108, 123, 161

W

Waveguide Loss 124 Well Thickness 82, 139 Width 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84 Window 173

X

X Axis Parameter 105, 173 X Ref 49, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142 Xcenter 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84

Y

Y Axis Parameter 105, 173 Y Ref 49, 80, 137

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

Index • 465

Z

Zoom Mode 46, 48

466 • Index

LaserMOD 3.0 User Guide

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