LIFEBOAT

By
Lt.

MANUAL

Comdr. A.

E. Redifer, U.S.M.S.

Lifeboat Training Officer, Avalon, Calif., Training Station *Indispensable to ordinary seamen preparing for the Lifeboat Examination.

*A

complete guide for anyone

who may have

to use a lifeboat.

Construction, equipment, operation of lifeboats and other buoyant apparatus are here, along with the latest Government regulations which you need to know.

163 Pages

More than 150

illustrations

Indexed

$2.00

METEOROLOGY WORKBOOK
By

with Problems
Inc.

Peter E. Kraght Senior Meteorologist, American Airlines,
flight crews.

*Embodies author's experience in teaching hundreds of

aircraft

*For self-examination and for classroom use. *For student navigator or meteorologist or weather hobbyist. *A good companion book to Mr. Kraght's Meteorology for Ship and Aircraft Operation, 0r any other standard reference work. 141 Illustrations Cloud form photographs Weather maps
148 Pages

W$T x

tl" Format

$2.25

MERCHANT MARBMI
By "A
E. A.
license

OFFICERS'

HANDBOOK
.
.

Turpin and W. A. MacEwen, Master Mariners valuable guide for both new candidates for officer's
.

and the older, more experienced neering and Shipping Re$etu.

officers."

Marine Engi-

An unequalled guide to ship's officers' duties, navigation, meteorology, shiphandling and cargo, ship construction and stability, rules of the road, first aid and ship sanitation, and enlistments in the Naval Reserve all in one volume.

03 086

3rd Edition

"This book will be a great help to not only beginners but to practical navigating
officers."

Harold Kildall, Instructor in

Charge, Navigation School of the Washington Technical Institute,

"Lays bare the mysteries of navigation with a firm and sure touch should make a secure place for itself." A. F. Loomis in
.

.

.

Yachting.

"Covers Rudder.

the

field

thoroughly."

Tbe
air

Thousands of students of sea and

navigation have agreed with this testimony to the Primer.

They have found that the Primer takes into account all the stumbling blocks, and moves progressively from the simple fundamentals to the complex problems, covering each step clearly.

Astronomy, Time, the Astronomical Triangle, Trigonometry and reliable procedures for Position Finding are explained understandably*

An
is

the author's

added feature of this Third Edition own method for determining

more
tional

exact time of transit of any naviga-

sixteen lines to ten.

reducing Dutton's method from "You have made quite a contribution," Herbert L. Stone, editor of Yachting, wrote the author regarding this new method. It is published here for the

body

first

time*

267 Pages

21 Tables

Fully Indexed

Kansas city
Books

||||

public library

will

be issued only

on presentation of library card. Please report
lost

cards and
of

change

residence promptly.
for

Card holders are responsible
all

books, records, films, pictures

ecked out on their cards.

Primer of Celestial Navigation

Institute Member. S.Primer of Celestial Navigation By John Associate Favill. Army Third Edition Revised and Enlarged New York- 1944 Cornell Maritime Press .D. M. S. U. Power Squadrons Colonel. Naval Navigator. Inactive Reserve. U. S. U.

Reinnold Frederic Genner printed and bound In the XJ. by Cornell IVTa/rltime !Press IDesigpnted t>y Coixxposed. . 1943. 1944. S.. 194O.Copyright.

Lt. U. S. Loomis.Acknowledgments For answering bothersome questions or for helpful suggestions. H. Navy (Ret. Mr.). . Secretary of "Yachting. Professor Harlan T. the author's sincere thanks go to P. Alfred F." and Selwyn A. V. Weems. Master Mariner.. Comdr. Anderson. Stetson of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

.

17. 148 155 157 20. 8. 7. 19. 92 Part II: Procedures 10.Contents Preface to Third Edition xiii Introduction Part 1. Time The Nautical Almanac Altitudes 24 51 4. 14. xv I: Fundamentals 3 Astronomical 2. 3. Tabular Summary . 6. 1 Introduction to Position Finding 99 103 1 Latitude Longitude and Chronometer Error 14 3 . 15. Azimuth and Compass Error Sumner Lines of Position The Saint-Hilaire Method Short-Cut Systems Special Fixes Polar Position Finding Identification 117 123 128 16. 12. 11. 134 141 18. 5. 55 61 The Sextant The Compass The Astronomical Trigonometry Logarithms 69 Triangle 79 82 9.

26. Dead Reckoning.Part HI: Supplementary 21. C. 25. 23. 30. 24. 27. and Current 161 Day's Work 180 182 Essential Equipment Practical Points 183 Navigator's Stars and Planets 196 Reference Rules for Book Problems 205 207 209 Finding G. Abbreviations 29. 22. Forms Problems Selected Bibliography 212 224 259 261 Index . and Date 28. T. The The Sailings.

21. 11. 8. Change of Date 40 40 44 45 45 46 57 58 61 24. Time and Local Civil 19. 5. 26. S. 25. 22.List of Illustrations 1. 15. M. 12. 20. 13. 9. 23. Phases of the Moon 18 Precession of the Equinoxes 20 23 7. Declination Excess of 8 . 16. 10. Time Zone Time of Mean Sun Noons in Zone Time Frame The "Opposite-the-Sun" Meridian Time Frame and O. Refraction Parallax Sextant ix- . 17. The Earth's Orbit The Solar Year Time Diagram Time Diagram Time Diagram Time Diagram Time Diagram Time Diagram Time Diagram Time Diagram Time Diagram Time Diagram Relations Between Zone 27 33 33 33 34 34 35 35 36 36 37 18. One Rotation facing page 13 1 Diagram for General Orientation 3 4. 3. 2. 14. 6.

R. O. Phi Second 31 . 38. 42. 30. 45. O. 33. 36. 89 104 1 1 1 35. 41. 2 1 4.O. Rules for H. Reading the Sextant Compass Card Triangle For Napier's Rules Angles in the Different Quadrants The Four Cases of Latitude from Meridian Altitude Observation Latitude by Phi Prime. 46. Middle Latitude Sailing First Current Problem Second Current Problem 166 176 178 FixbyH. The Saint-Hilaire Method 40. Sextant Angles 62 Scales Arc and Vernier 64 66 71 29. Assumed Position 242 244 .214. The Astronomical 79 87 32. 28. 34. 37. 211 Plane Sailing 136 163 44.D. Longitude by Time Sight 1 ^ 14 Azimuth Zenith Distance and the Radius of the Circle of Equal Altitude ng 125 131 39.27. Position Fix by H. 43.

6. 8. T. 10. 18. 2. 19. 12.List of Tables 1. 1 1 . 21. 17. The The Solar System 4 7 17 Brightest Heavenly Bodies Declinations of Navigational Stars 4. 3. 13. 15. For Magnetic Steer Compass Compass Points and Quarter Points Finding Parts o the Astronomical Triangle Definition of the Trigonometric Functions of Plane Right Triangles Equivalents of the Trigonometric Functions of One Acute Angle of a Plane Right Tritegl' when Hypotenuse = 1 Trigonometric Functions o Any Angle with the Sign for Each Quadrant Equivalent Trigonometric Functions of Angles in the Different Quadrants Examples of Logarithms For Correcting Polar Position Lines Summary of Methods facing page Rules for Time and Angles For Finding G. 7. 214 74 75 76 78 80 83 &P 86 88 96 152 157 206 208 233 . 5. 14. C.O. Time Calculations of t 30 Zone Time Compass Errors Finding Deviation 36 41 9. 20. 16. and Date Working Form for Azimuth by H.

Preface to Third Edition
HARBOR and all
since this PEARL Primer's
first

consequences have come birthday. Thousands o officer
its

candidates have taken

up with grim determination the

study which to

been a delightful hobby. In preparing a new edition, the chief problem was whether to cut to the bone and leave only the bare essenand tials for practical purposes or to retain what seemed,
for years has

me

still

seems to me, essential for a secure understanding of the
to lines of position only
it is

subject.

Pruned down
the following:

charts or plotting sheets,

possible to

and plotting on get along without
meridian and ex-

Meridian

altitudes, reductions to the

meridian sights for latitude, interval to noon, time of transit, time of sun on the prime vertical, time-sights for
longitude, sights for determination of chronometer error, trigonometry, logarithms, much of the sailings, basic

astronomy, and sidereal time.

(I

realize

one need not even

know the meaning of declination in order to use the almanac andH. O. 2 14 effectively.) The original purpose of the Primer however was to help
clarify obscurities. It

seems to

me

this

can best be done by

and by giving some procedures which, though no longer needed, have been
a build-up from simple to complex,

strong links in the chain leading to present practice. So the

main framework of this book remains unchanged.
xiii

xiv

Preface to Third Edition
omissions and

Some

many more

additions will,

I

hope
foi

increase usefulness.

While written primarily
attempt
is

for surface

work, the principles here given are, of course, basic
aerial navigation.

No
is

made

to

supply detail foi

the latter, which
I

so adequately covered in Dutton.

am

still

convinced that years of custom have

made

it

more natural and

easy to look, in imagination, at this world

and the universe from above the north rather than from
below the south pole. Hence
I

have retained the

style of

diagram in general use until the years 1936-39, when the
leading texts shifted their viewpoint to face Antarctica. Probably the important thing is to get the habit of using

some time diagram
In
tions,

this

not a particular type. third edition, about twenty-five minor correc-

changes or insertions have been

made without

change of page number. An important addition on Sidereal Time has been added on page 249 and the author's

new "Uniform Method
1

for

More Exact Time

of Local

Transit of

Any Body'

will

be found on pages 254-258.

I

Having been found physically ineligible for active duty, launch this new Primer with a bold hope that somehow
influence,

its

however small,

will count in the score of ulti-

mate Victory.
J. F.

February, 1944
Chicago, Illinois

Introduction
K1SCUE
or

distress

more

human beings from a ship in the result of a radio message. One usually vessels respond by hastening to the locality of the
of
is

AT SEA

trouble.

Few

of us

on

shore, reading the press accounts

of such a rescue,

fail to feel thrilled

that the genius of

this

Marconi has again added to the large total of lives saved in way. But I wonder how often it is realized that many

centuries of development of the art and science of navigation led up to the ability of the master to state the position

of his ship on this globe within a radius of about one mile. Without this ability, there would be little help in wireless.

Navigation covers a number of items. It is broadly divided into (1) Geo-navigation and (2) Celo-navigation. Geo-navigation includes the methods of locating the ship's position by earth landmarks or characteristics.
It is

The term

subdivided into

(a)

Piloting,

which has to do with

bearings, buoys, lighthouses, soundings, radio beams and chart study and (b) Dead Reckoning which deals with

methods of estimating the distance covered and point reached in a given interval by means of compass observations, log readings, record of engine revolutions and a few
calculations.

Celo-navigation or Celestial Navigation is also called Nautical Astronomy. It is the subject concerned

with position finding away from all landmarks when a ship is at sea. This is done by sextant observations of the

sun or

moon

or certain planets or

stars,

with notation of

XV

xvi

Introduction

exact time of each observation and with the aid of the

Nautical Almanac and certain

tables.

these things as part of professional seaman learns tired of their routine prachis job and probably gets very tice. The occasional cruising yachtsman or even he who seldom leaves land can find the study of navigation a very fascinating one and may even let it become an absorbing hobby. Such at any rate has been my happy experience. Some years ago on Cape Cod a friend who had a sextant helped me take an observation of the sun and worked out

The

the longitude via Bowditch. I tried to understand the various steps but could not. Buying a Bowditch I began
to study these matters

from the ground up.

Many more

books were soon accumulated. A sextant was purchased and sights were taken over Lake Michigan and worked
out, with gradually increasing accuracy. Some of the by-products of this activity

have been: an

appreciation of the ingenious powers of spherical trigonometry; an interest in astronomy with realization for the
first
is

time that there actually

is

some

reason, for one

who
some

not an astronomer, to

know

certain of the stars;

understanding of the various kinds of time-keeping; a growing taste for sea stories and sea-lore in general; enjoyment of that fine magazine, U. S. Naval Institute Proceedings, and the popular yachting monthlies; the fun of having a paper on a small overlooked point accepted and published; correspondence with several men in different continents as a result of this; the diversion of work-

ing out text-book problems; glimpses of the history of navigation; and, probably most important of all, the

Introduction

xvii

mental refreshment of studying and doing something utterly different from one's professional work.

The

following compilation

is

limited to off-shore posi-

tion finding and so omits all consideration of the subject
of Piloting. It
is

intended in no way to supplant for the

beginner such splendid texts as Bowditch or Button but rather to smooth the road to those books, to which fre-

quent reference will be found. I have used new ways in presenting some of the old subjects. But my main purpose is to prevent certain confusions which come to the amaattempting this study. The best-known books are written by men of much learning who often
teur
first

when

seem

to have forgotten certain stumbling blocks
I

which

they themselves passed long ago.

have done some of
to

my

stumbling quite recently and am now trying
such can be prevented.
a

show how

The

student

method

as

quickly as possible

who wishes to learn and who does not have
and knowing
this

internal distress at following rules blindly

nothing of their origins will have no need of

manual.

But those who enjoy understanding why things are done and what they mean, and who like to have all important
I steps included will, hope, find in these pages a certain

satisfaction.

.

I: Fuinclamentals .

.

planets moved around the earth. Astronomical makes use of THE PRACTICAL NAVIGATOR tain of the so-called heavenly bodies to locate his position. c. which was Aristarchus of Samos (310-230 B. However.1. stationary and that the earth revolved Hipparchus (130 B. Jupiter. Saturn). D. c. It is vital for a clear understanding of the uses of these bodies to consider their positions in space and to orient ourselves. These are the sun. first of the Greeks" to divide the circle into to He was the 360 degrees and attempted determine the positions of places on the earth by measuring their latitude and longitude. and fifty-five stars. Eudoxus of Cnidos (about 360 B.) considered that the sun and stars were around the sun. c.) B. moon and stationary. The tury earth was known to be a sphere in the fourth cenc. to be described later. Mars. all taught that the sun. Ptolemy of Alexandria (127-151 A. four planets (Venus.) expounded the . the moon. he invented plane and spherical trigonometry and observed the phenomenon known as precession.) preferred and developed the geocentric system of Eudoxus. A long story in the history of science lies behind our present knowledge.

.

discovered the moons by of Jupiter. and stationary. of Tycho's data. that the sun was the center of our system. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) was the pioneer of modern Johann Kepler much physics. then eighteen centuries old. (See Table 1.) . with the earth and planets revolving around it. (1571-1630)vafter years of calculations. He made the first telescope. in the sun at one of the foci of each ellipses not circles with ellipse. Isaac and (1642-1727) worked out the laws of motion His Principia published in 1687 "marks gravity.Whetham) .Astronomical geocentric system so well that it acquired his was held by scholars for fourteen centuries. Tycho Brahe tions (1546-1601) observed the planetary mo- with improved instruments and recorded a great number over many years. Newton perhaps the greatest event in the history of science" (Dampier. and proved the conclusions of Copernicus actual observations. This book was published only in time for Copernicus to see a copy on his deathbed. to the on 'its circumference to two is always constant and equal major axis of the ellipse. They go counterclockwise The from above the north pole. called the foci. 5 name and Copernicus (1473-1543) wrote a great book developing the ideas of Aristarchus. found the three laws of using planetary motion that bear his name. solar system consists of a group of bodies all revolvif seen ing around the sun. An ellipse is a closed curve such that the sum of the two distances from any point points within.

4i/ light years away or 26. Each magnitude is 2i/ times brighter than the next fainter one. It miles).500. The earth moves faster along its orbit when nearer the sun. Deneb. The nearest fixed star is Proxima Centauri. Their own actual motions appear negligible.000.000.000 miles! Brightness of bodies is recorded by numbering the From minus quantities through zero into plus quantities represents diminishing brightness. The Nautical Almanac gives the necessary data for the exact location of 55 of the brightest stars and less full data for an additional list of 110 other stars for occasional use. apparent magnitude.000.900. so far in fact that only very slight shifts can be found in the positions of the nearer ones when we observe them from opposite ends of the earth's orbit. It is the point on a planet's orbit nearest the reached about January 3 for the earth (91.000 miles. The in its earth rotates orbit is on its axis daily as well as revolving around the sun in a year. The brightest heavenly bodies are shown in Table 2.000 miles).000 The so-called "fixed stars" lie far away from our solar system. is is the point on a planet's orbit farthest from reached about July 3 for the earth (94. The earth's axis of rotation inclined to the plane of the earth's orbit at about 66 1/ degrees and the north pole points approximately toward the north star or Polaris.500.6 Perihelion is Astronomical sun. Aphelion the sun.000.000. Plus sixth magnitude is just visible to the naked eye. lies 650 light years away or 3. The plane of the .000. a bright star often used in navigation.

meridian. to on the earth is the arc of the meridian intercepted between the equator and the being reckoned north or south from the equator latitude of a place 90.Astronomical earth's equator is 7 therefore inclined to the plane of the degrees. orbit by about 23i/ TABLE 2 THE BRIGHTEST HEAVENLY BODIES A meridian is an imaginary line on one half of the earth. . being reckoned east or west from Greenwich to 180. England. formed by the intersection with the earth's surface of a plane which passes through both poles and is therefore perpendicular to the equator. The longitude of a place on the earth is the arc of the equator intercepted between the place's meridian and the Greenwich. The place's place.

I C3 ^ 55 51 o= a.s 2T * * -J i= H S I '* *-J s i I Cj O =. r~ .

and occur June 21 and December 22. The sun's declination is then zero and it beyond till the earth turns back in its "rises" in exact east Solstices. Remember it has nothing to do with where you are on the earth. the (extended) plane of the equator approaches nearer and nearer the sun finally cutting its center at an instant known as the Spring or Vernal equinox on March 21.) two instants in the earth's journey orbit when the sun attains its highest declina- There are tion north or south. Celestial Sphere. respectively.Astronomical 9 circle A parallel of latitude is an imaginary formed by the intersection with the earth's surface of a plane passed parallel to the plane of the equator. moon. The plane passes through the sun and swing around the sun when the process is repeated through the Fall or Autumnal equinox on September 23 and so on to winter. (See FIG. 1. Declination alone is not enough to locate a body in the sky. The days and nights are equal at the equinoxes except at the poles. We require some means of regis- . It is described as north or south in reference to the plane of the equator. around its and "sets" in exact west. The declinations of the stars change very little in the course of a year. It is the angle that a line from the center of the earth to a given heavenly body makes with the plane of the earth's equator. and Winter are designated Summer solstice solstice according to the season in the north- They ern hemisphere. Equinoxes. and planets. Declination is one of the most important things to understand in navigation. As the earth travels around the sun from winter to summer. There are great changes however in the declinations of the sun.

10 tering its Astronomical east or west position as well as its north or south. This the Vernal equinox or ''First Point of Aries. Right Ascension is the celestial equator. or The any meridian or point on the earth as observed from the earth's center. eastward from a measure of angular distance around T It is expressed in . The declination corresponds to the parallel of latitude and the right ascension to the meridian of longitude. It is taken as the zero of measurement around the celestial equator or equinoctial which is the projection of the earth's equator. Likewise the posithough tion of the sun's center at the time of the Vernal equinox 21 as seen is on March point also called from the earth can be projected." Its symbol isT. The extension of the plane of the earth's orbit to the celestial sphere produces a circle on the latter known as the ecliptic. A. hours (and minutes and seconds) up to 24. The mark two points where the equinoctial and ecliptic intersect the two equinoxes. will see later that the R. a great hollow "celestial" outside our universe with the earth at its heavenly bodies can be projected onto the inner surface of this sphere as can also the plane of the earth's equator. The angle of about 23 of 1/ these intersections measures the obliquity of the ecliptic. of the projected local meridian We equals the local sidereal time and 24 hours of sidereal time measure practically one exact rotation of the earth. . body's declination a definite location By giving a and right ascension. we pin it down to on the celestial sphere just as a place on earth is fixed by giving its latitude and longitude. For this purpose we imagine lie sphere to center.

looking out a window on the observed a tree 200 yards away and a bit of woods 2. we could say R.000 yards away and immediately shut our eyes left side. path among the stars" is a most confusing expression. A. It is just as though we were in a train going forward and. The nearby (passage of 24 h) tree (sun) then seems to have moved to the left in relation . is the distance (angle or hour) at which it is body's trailing the noctial. It would be plain if we could see stars in the daytime and would compare the sun's position at a certain time on two successive days. and quickly looked again. For instance. Much motions and our real motion cannot of the bewilderment of the beginner comes from encountion to solar system and stars and their real with inadequate extering emphasis on apparent motion "the sun's planation of the real situation. Then we would observe the shift to the eastward which is meant.Astronomical Translating time to arc we have: 1 1 24 h 1 h = = = = 360 15 1 4m= 1 m= s 15' 1' 4 1 s 15" a Speaking in terms of apparent motion. T in the latter's journey around the equiof correctly orienting ourselves in rela- The importance and apparent be overstated.

It is incorrect to explain this by saying the sun has shifted somewhat to the The truth is that the progress of the earth in its orbit a speed of 30 kilometers per second has altered the at direction of the earth from the sun. when the sun is again due south. a diagram designed to make more clear some the matters so far discussed. In north latitudes we see the north star as though it were a pin or the inside of a sphere which turns around it counterclockwise. This makes the sun east. may profit by inspection Figure 3. the "reof the celestial sphere. (See FIG. The celestial to the distant trees (stars). Remember sphere therefore only seems to rotate to the west. is also misleading. at the instant the sun is due south in the northern hemisphere. At this point the student of of of . Another extremely important fact to realize is this: the earth because of its progress around its orbit must make a little more than one exact rotation between two successive noons. seen from the earth appear to have shifted eastward. From Monday.) Owing to the eccentricity of the earth's orbit and obliquity of the ecliptic these sun days are not exactly equal. The following explanation the diagram should be carefully studied. This will explain why a true sun day is a longer bit of time than a star day which requires practically only one exact rotation. till Tuesday. Bodies are swinging over it to the left and hub on returning under it to the right. our earth is rotating to the east. 2.12 volving dome" Astronomical Another expression. there has been something over one complete rotation of the earth.

Explanation o Diagram Outer circumference represents the celestial sphere in the seen from north. at around Orbit. plane of its equator ascension p at top is "First Point of Aries" from which right is counted in a circle divided into 24 hours. Line on Earth = Noon in each instance. 2.Astronomical 13 MARCH DECEMBER FIG. say Greenwich. Excess of One Rotation. numbered counter- . Earth's gain of V* of a rotation when 14 Meridian of some place.

is now almost through the celestial sphere is where point the sun seems to be when seen from the earth on the 21st ol this Note that T on March. Right ascension sphere is on the celestial similar to longitude on the earth. once in 26. Those with a minus sign added are o southern declination and lie below (behind) the diagram while all others are of northern declination above (in front of) the diagram.100 yearr. At that time Dotted lines (also known is nox) the sun's declination Spring or Vernal equi changing from south to north as the show this date and also the dates of the Fall equi- nox. the Summer solstice and the Winter solstice. earth's orbit. These are the stars for which complete data are given in the Nautical Almanac and which are most easily used for position finding. the equi- noxes (points) gradually shift to the westward. . or the ecliptic on the Because of the slow swing of the north end of the earth's axis in a circle around the north pole of'the ecliptic. They are named from various constellations of stars which lie in a belt not over 8 above and below the plane of the celestial sphere. A. Hence the Spring or Vernal equinox (T)> which when named about 2. Astronomical These are shown in the 2nd band. The 12 "Signs of the Zodiac" are included in the 3rd band for popular interest only. ago was actually in the sign of Aries. The 4th band of months is for locating the earth in its orbit. with their periods of rotation. Fifty-five navigational stars including Polaris whose right ascensions and declinations change very little are shown in the outer band in approximately correct positions.14 clockwise. clockwise if seen from above. Pisces. all counterclockwise.000 years. The "spokes" are to show two-hourly intervals of R. Decimation on the celestial sphere corresponds to latitude on the earth but cannot be shown here in the one plane. The five circles outside the sun as labeled are for the orbits of the earth and the four planets used in navigation.

.

t .iS'o* T station.

across diagram edge up so edge passes through All above ruler edge represents stars and planets available around evening twilight of day in question at equator. for moon's R.) 1. stars of is of course not to scale and only an approximation. Turn diagram till sun and earth are in a line "across the page" with sun on the right. A. rotate ruler edge counter- clockwise with earth as center. A. All to left of ruler edge represents sky of midnight at equator. December 1. the planet dots do not represent exact positions of planets in their orbits but rather the planets' positions on the celestial sphere as seen from earth and expressed in R. A.Astronomical 15 How Look to Use Diagram date. will diminish in tions. 18* 29**. A. If position of observer were at one of the poles. As position of observer increases in latitude from equator to. Lay a ruler sun and earth. 1937: Jan. A. R. for R. Holding diagram stationary. Octo- . Make a dot on earth's orbit corresponding to the in N. R. say. A. all stars and planets with the corresponding declination would be visible during the six months of darkness while those of opposite decimation would be invisible. 19^ 56m. 19* 52m. ber 1. R. All below ruler edge represents sky of twilight next morning at equator. A. Look in N. A. A. 19*> 1. for the same date and time and make a dot near earth corresponding to this. The earth's journey around its orbit accordingly results in apparent retrograde movement of planets at Note: This diagram Remember times. of each of the planets for the same date and make a dot on each orbital circle at the given R. through 90. the visible stars of southern declination number. May 18m. the north pole. R. A. (Jupiter. beginning with the highest declina- while the visible crease in number. Similarly rotate ruler edge counterclockwise with earth as center through another 90. also northern declination will inbeginning with the highest declinations.

In order to show how far above and below the previous diagram the various stars lie. It is of the Mercator type (which will be explained later) and so is somewhat confusing to the beginner. near which the Zodiac signs are grouped.) in one plane. The moon's motion and "phases" deserve some attention here. and Dec. The months are here marked as though of uniform length. etc. It shows the order the stars would be met with from the north pole to the south pole of the celestial sphere (See Table 3. A celestial globe is tions. and the plane of the earth's equator. always in its trip of revolution around the earth. a great help in learning star locaThe only difficulty is that it shows the celestial sphere from without and one must always imagine a given group as seen from the center of the globe in order to duplicate the actual group in the sky. Likewise the planes of the planets* orbits are leveled into the diagram. It revolves around the earth counterclock- . counterclockwise from above. hence keeps the same face toward us. A. Periods of rotation are approximate. A. It makes a complete revolution judged by its relation to stars in 27 1/3 days but to completely circle the earth (which is traveling in its orbit) requires 29 1/ days. it It on axis only once.) chart in the back of the Nautical A Almanac combines data from the preceding diagram and list (R.16 The as Astronomical orbits are in reality ellipses with the sun at one focus and not circles here given. It is cold and only shines by light from the sun. along which the R. actually lie 2$V2 degrees apart but are here supposed to be compressed into the plane of the diagram. a list of declinations is pro- vided. constellations. hours are measured. The plane of the earth's orbit.840 miles away. rotates The moon its is about 238.

at a given time. After reaching TABLE 3 DECLINATIONS OF NAVIGATIONAL STARS . the moon seems to be going each night from east to west. its Each position is successive night. As this motion is so much slower than the earth's daily rotation. or from west to east. however.Astronomical 17 wise seen from above the north pole. about 12i^ farther east.

18 Astronomical it "full" it "rises" about 50 minutes later each evening. Diagram is . the moon will appear to observers in the northern hemisphere lower in the southern sky in summer and As higher <t i> HALF Lf\5T QUARTER o o "FULL* 1 s1 "HALF* QUARTER FIG. Outer row shows how each position appears in our North Latitudes. 4. The small projection from the Moon is a fixed point and shows that the same face remains toward the Earth. Pre- vious to full subsequent to full may be seen as early as mid-afternoon and it may be seen up to several hours after till sunrise or even noon. Phases of the Moon. the plane of the moon's orbit is near the plane of the earth's. from above North Pole of Earth.

Each year the equinoxes (Spring and Fall) come about 20 minutes sooner. when meeting the sun's center at equinox. to S. is 19 now re- Miscellaneous Facts Precession of the Equinoxes. This will be understood if Figure 1 viewed. This may be represented (see FIG. perpendicular to the axis. declination. once in 26.000 years. or in a direction op50" posite to the earth's orbital motion. They do so about of arc on the celestial sphere per year. coun- terclockwise as we look up at it. must likewise shift and. will be intersecting the track of the earth's orbit on each side at a point slightly more westward. or from N. 5) by a metal circular ring (plane of earth's orbit) with a disc (plane of earth's equator) slightly . or as the point on the celestial sphere where the sun appears to be at that time.) The projecall This axis are very slowly tion of the earth's north pole describes a circle with a radius of about 2 3 1/ around the north pole of the ecliptic. Figure 4 will explain the moon's phases. These points are happens because the extended ends of the earth's making circular motions around the poles of the ecliptic. The plane of the earth's equator. as it is changing from S.Astronomical in winter. An equinox can either be thought of as a certain instant in the journey around its orbit>when the plane of the equator cuts the center of the sun. earth's shifting to the west. (Disregard the ellipses which the axis makes in one year because at the distance of the celestial sphere these ellipses would be extremely small. to N. clockwise as seen from out- side celestial sphere looking down.

5.FIG. -20- . Precession of the Equinoxes.

Astronomical 21 smaller inside the ring and loosely attached at two opposite to the ring (obliquity points (equinoxes) and inclined 23i/ of ecliptic).500 11. c. A rod projects up from the disc's center (parallel to earth's axis). Er Rai Alderamin SCygni Vega etc.000 2. The Vernal equinox (T) called "First Point of Aries" was in that constellation when named about 2. if the . therefore only playing a temporary role. there is a succession of north stars through the centuries.000s. Hercules Thuban Polaris 100 A. Our present is one.000 Another result of precession is that there is a slow increase in the right ascensions of all stars. The rod is placed in center instead of at edge by earth's orbit because it shows the effect more clearly and because the misplacement is negligible when considering the extreme distance of the celestial north pole.200 3.100 years ago but has now shifted westward almost through the next constellation "Pisces. Polaris. follows: The series is as Vega fi 12.500 14.200 7." As stars called a result of this performance. Shifting the attachments clockwise when looking down at disc will show rod's tip describing a circle clockwise around a point above center of ring (north pole of ecliptic). D. Naturally. 7. 4.

22 Astronomical starting point for measurement (T) is moving west and the measurements are made to the east. Dayton C. The explanation is probably that extra time is required to warm up the earth in summer and to cool it off as winter approaches. it is 186 days from is Spring to Fall equinox. 6. and only 179 days from Fall to Spring equinox. 66i/ S. the eccentricity so slight that no great difference is noted. 6. Nevertheless. might lead one to expect the southern hemisphere to show more extremes of climate. and aphelion. hotter in summer and of the orbit is colder in winter. Miller reported (Science. A. the position nearest sun. A. 661^ N. Dec. so the orbit not far from circular. Earth's perihelion. the position farthest from sun. occurring in northern summerand southern winter. The eccentricity of an ellipse is expressed by the following ratio: Distance from center to one focus Distance from center to one end of major axis' For the earth's orbit. these measurements will grow larger. north pole of the ecliptic is at R. However. (See FIG. June 16. Prof. and the south pole at R. 1933) . this is only about y$Q. 18.) All the planet's orbits lie within 8 of the ecliptic and the four navigational planets lie within 3. The It may be wondered why the hottest part of northern summer is not halfway between Spring and Fall equinox at June 21 and the coldest part of winter at December 22. occurring in northern winter and southern summer. Dec. The sun therefore is in that focus which is nearer to us in December and farther from us in June.

If a line is of any two planets are proportional to the cubes of their mean distances from the sun. 3 FIG. FALL LQUINOX &LPT ta VflNTE-R SOLSTICE/- DLC. The Earth's Orbit. 2. 6. The squares of the times of revolution about the sun 2. this line passes over equal areas in equal times. The orbit of every planet is an ellipse. 3.Z PE. A. that the entire solar system was moving as a body through space at a speed of 208 kilometers per second toward a point in R. is From Above. This is close to the south pole . 4 h 56 m Dec.Astronomical 23 after very exhaustive observations on the speed of light. 70 30' S. than here. having the sun at one of its foci.) (True eccentricity even less Kepler's Laws are as follows: 1. and about 20 south of the second brightest Canopus. of the ecliptic star. . supposed to be drawn from the sun to any planet.RWEUON* JAN.

caused of course by the earth's rotation with the sun stationary. equal do not make equal divisions of the it. Apparent Time. when projected onto -24- . This is partly because new ways of thinking about time are required and partly because THE TIME the explanations are often inadequate. We also saw that. we noted the obliquity of to the ecliptic. the earth must make somewhat more than a complete rotation on its axis in order bring the sun from a meridian one day back to the same meridian the next day. (b) As the plane of the earth's orbit in which the sun appears to move. while the earth rotates on its axis at a uniform speed. Its speed is faster when closer to the sun in the elliptical orbit. So days measured by sun noons are not uniform because: (a) The varying speed of the earth in its orbit varies the necessary daily excess over one revolution. does not coincide with the plane of the earth's equator along divisions of the former latter which movement is measured. because of progress along its orbit. We think of time as somehow measured by the apparent movement of the sun each 24 hour day around the earth. Finally. We have seen in Chapter 1 that.2 a Time is one of the tough spots in SUBJECT OF the study o navigation. it does not travel in its orbit around the sun at a uniform speed. will try now to and put in all the steps so that there may proceed carefully We be no misunderstanding. and.

meridian 180 . The N. A. The interval is the average of the true sun days. The civil time day begins at midnight. T. This is this. and L. to or. Ship navigation. T. Greenwich (England) apparent time and local apparent time are designated respectively G. it is designated as upper. The mean sun is thought of as in the plane of the earth's equator all the time. when over the meridian 180 away. A. Transit of a body occurs the instant its point in the celestial sphere is on the meridian of the observer or on the away. as it is called in navigation. T. Local civil time is designated L. Its day begins at midnight. In to 24. give data for The Equation of Time is the amount (up to 16 minutes)* varying from minute to minute of the day and through the year. T. A. An utilized which crosses a given imaginary or "mean" sun is therefore meridian at uniform intervals throughout the year.Time No clock can be 25 keep step with this true solar apparent time. made Mean Time. Days are divided into 24 hours of 60 minutes each and each minute into the time our regular clocks keep. as lower. which must be added to or subtracted from apparent time to give civil time and vice versa. C. The total of days in the year is the same as for apparent time. gives it for every 2 hours with plus or minus sign indicating procedure for converting civil to apparent time.). M. the hours are numbered from chronometers are set to keep Greenwich time and almanacs 60 seconds. T. or G. It is called Greenwich civil (or Greenwich mean) time (G. C. When the transit is over the meridian which contains the zenith.

296. 22. and shortens the year by about 20 minutes. "Time Measurement/') further difficulty comes from the constant slow westward shift or precession of the equinox. and earlier.296.)* The * year. the position of the equator and ecliptic are assigned. Vol. the relative spacing on the sky of all the lucid stars. we are dependent on the astronomers to calculate its position and publish in almanacs the right ascensions of bodies measured eastward from it.600* X = 26. or what comes to the same thing. (For this we do not use the table given in Chapter 1 under Right Ascension which matches 24 hours with 360 because here we are figuring on a whole year for 360..000" 1. As this point is not marked by any heavenly body.26 Time is measured by the apparent motion of the Spring equinox or "First Point of daily Aries" (T) around the earth.000 seconds of arc And 365 days 525.280. This 7 coordinates of each star are given relative to the equinox and equator. This is opposite to the A movement of the earth in its orbit and amounts to 50" of arc on the celestial sphere per year. being merely the intersection of two abstract lines upon the sky. Relative to this mass of material. but by a very long chain of observations. 227. 14th ed. "The equinox itself cannot be observed. and a great many more.600 minutes of time. then. has been determined with continually increasing accuracy. from one equinox and back to the same Now 360 1.000 Xm 525. going back continuously to Hipparchus 150 B.296. together with the 'proper motion belonging to each. c.000 X = 20m -K :: : . So to show the time which the year loses by this 50" shift: 50" : = = 1." (Encyclopedia Britannica. the Sidereal or Star Time. p..

The Solar Year. It is the one used in general and in the N. 7. These two kinds of years are known (equinox to same) and Sidereal respectively as Solar or Tropical (star to same). The . or 366.2422 civil days.2422 fractional day of the solar year (just under 14) . The Solar Year equals an incomplete revolution of the Earth because of the westward shift of the Vernal Equinox (<][>).Time is 27 relative to a "fixed" star 20 minutes shorter than the year from a certain position and back to the same. The sidereal year has: 365. The solar year is the more satisfactory for calendar pur- poses since it keeps the seasons in a constant relation to dates.25636 civil days. The solar year has: 365. or 366. A.25636 sidereal days. OF T FIG.2422 side- real days.

* These days are plete practically uniform. matter of the two kinds of year is brought up to help prevent confusion which may arise from the fact that Bowditch (1938. 248) only to the solar or tropical year. 1942. almost exactly the time of one comrotation of the earth on its axis. This keeps the calendar in almost perfect every year. complete rotation day. whether using civil or sidereal time. so 15" : : . 146) refers only to the sidereal year. is a excepting the last order.009 seconds "^p. 7.137 . whose number is divisible by 4.) The sidereal day is with the transit of the "First Point of Aries'* (T) over that The date is usually not used but sidereal time is as of a certain is spoken of A sidereal day 23 h date and hour of G. for example) which is' a leap year only when the number of the century is divisible by 4. (civil) shorter than a civil day. C. sidereal. p. and a complete *To find actual difference between the sidereal day rotation day: Precession of <> in 1 year 50" of arc = Precession of <p in 1 sidereal day = 50" = . To add a day to the calendar every 4 years gradually amounts to too much.9 . p.137" X= between 15X = Xs : Is . year of each century (1900. (See FIG.28 is Time what leads to our leap year system. that in navigation. T. The then. and Button (7th ed. it is always part of a solar year not of a Remember. time = the 1 transits of is shorter than amount by which 1 sidereal day. The sidereal day at any meridian begins meridian. So leap year. 56 m 4 s 1 of civil time or 3 m 55 8 .137" of arc Now 15" arc = 1 : second time for earth's movement. .

6 (sidereal) longer than a sidereal day. minutes. A.7 sec. But civil and sidereal time in the "b" sense are expressions of duration in different units and cannot be combined to find sum or difference without converting one into terms of the other. hours. there are two senses in which both civil and sidereal quantities (a) may be interpreted. transit. Remember Civil transit. between the shorter m 55 s -9 in civil or is 3 by however expressed. Now civil and sidereal time in the "a" sense are in similar units and can be combined without conversion. . The so that for any time interval below the year. (N. supplies tables to use in converting either way.6 in siderealthe sidereal quantity being larger . sidereal units days. But the actual lapse of time of this difference is the same.Time 29 A civil day is 24h 3 m 56 S .transit.6 of sidereal time or 3 m 56 S . is found in navigation by sextant obsercalculation therefrom of its and hour .) Of course an "a" Apparent Time vation of the sun sense of one kind cannot be combined with a "b" sense of the other. as follows: Angular distance of mean sun from lower and (b) A lapse of time since mean sun made lower (a) Sidereal and (b) A lapse of time since Angular distance of T from upper T made upper transit. measurement in sidereal units will always show a larger quantity than measurement in civil units. seconds are all shorter than similar civil units. It will be seen that the difference sidereal day and the longer civil day 3 m 56 S .

II CO 2 CM CM CM CT> a O "8 -S . co eter cj rate ts S C CU >* 3 a & o pi ctf . n 5 p>^ ctJ a e co -s QJ or un Civ o &-o I -S ma tJ I ^ 3 It ^Q S g nd CM .S ^ O 1 <. 3? CM >-. C rf CO o C 6 o ^ cd i g -S^S ? S: CM XO ^ '& tj g -S-S cu SG 30- ! 'S ^ s Q Q .. xo Z~** *& Vi ^ci co cd cu If "o .a CQ ^ Q tf -12 CO z 03 2 a 1 s cr< f? T! r-J ~ ^ g CO -3 CO S"S -CJ cu ^ S S g 2 S & 3 p cu rt s r ean .JQ t *Hj .a.

The shortest distance. It may also be obtained by conversion of civil and sometimes is taken from a sidereal chronometer.Time 31 angle (to be explained later) or by conversion of civil time by the equation of time. corrected by the known rate of Sidereal change of the chronometer or by radio time signals. planet or rough estimate of local sidereal time (L. When this S. A. S. T. A. on the surface. An We must now consider the definitions of some terms that are in very frequent use. The earth's equator. 25. Time is found by sextant observation of moon. Practically it is taken from the ship's chronometer. and calculation therefrom of the body's hour which is then combined with its R. poles. obtained from angle the N. is Oh . star.) may be made as follows: Imagine a line from the pole star drawn through fi Cassiopeiae (Caph) and a Andromedae (Alpheratz) to the celestial equator. great circle of any sphere A is one formed by the inter- section sphere's surface of a plane which passes the sphere's center. and any through its opposite one) which passes through both are examples. Civil Time is not directly observable but is obtained by conversion of either apparent or sidereal. (See A line equator approximately at is on the meridian through zenith the L. between any two points on a sphere is always part of a on the meridian (with . estimate of its Chap.) It will cut the the Vernal equinox. T. swing around the pole star counterclockwise may easily be made by dividing a circle around the pole star into quarters (6 hours each) and these quarters into thirds (2 hours each).

celestial Time The equinoctial sphere produced by is the great circle on the intersection of the plane of the is earth's equator. Diagrams are most useful in visualizing problems in time or in position finding. as seen from the earth's center. section circle of a sphere is one described by the interon the sphere's surface of a plane which passes through the sphere but not through its center. H. Greenwich hour angle is designated G. All the parallels of latitude above and below the equator are small circles. to any westward measurement and to use t for an eastward or westward angle below 180. or. It is much movements of heavenly bodies on the edge of a easier to record apparent circle clock- . measured by the arc of the celestial equator between the hour circle and the celestial meridian. The hour celestial angle of a body is the angle at the pole of the sphere between the hour circle of the body and It is also the celestial meridian of the observer. and local hour angle L.32 great circle. An hour circle is a great circle on the celestial sphere passing through the poles and some point in question such as the projection of Greenwich or the projection of a heavenly body. It is either reckoned positively to the west all around to 360 or 24 hours. A. H. which is then known as a meridian angle. if over 180 west. A. Table 4 may now be studied to review the three kinds of time. The ecliptic another. A. Any circle on a sphere which includes less than half A small the sphere is a small circle. is subtracted from 360 and designated east. It is becoming customary to limit the use of L* H.

G. (We use a similar dot and circle to represent the earth and the plane of a given meridian of the C. 9. It is FIG. and the central dot are really in counterclockwise motion while any line for a heavenly body is in apparent clockwise motion. as will be explained later. S. A dot in the center represents earth.Other lines represent hour circles of heavenly bodies as indicated with symbols. stands for 360 or 24 hours. Here it shows observer at about longitude 60 W. A line is drawn to the bottom part to indicate a projection of part of the meridian of the observer and always labeled M. We may here recall once more that M. of course. One of them is filled in after an observation has been made and the local hour angle has been calculated. Figure Another wich. A circle represents the celestial sphere in the plane of its equator and seen from above its north pole.) The circle. . when working latitude problems.Time Figure 8. line is drawn as a projection of the meridian of Greenplaced approximately according to the supposed longitude and labeled G. 10 Figure 10.

S.. planet or star. T.) R. Examples of the chief uses of such diagrams will be seen in Figures 8 to 17. Long. and R. C. Figure II. Curved lines with arrows show amounts approximately as follows: G. 60* (4 h. T.. and also a small amount from a table representing excess of sidereal over civil during that civil interval. It simple convention has therefore been may be done free-hand and only approxi- mately but will show relationships clearly if we remember that the clockwise movement is only apparent. gives G. (2 P. Figure 12 shows G. Adding to this the actual G.Time wise. The Greenwich sidereal time would have to be first calculated.) . A. The N. W.. A. T. of any date. C. with stationary earth in center. Dotted line represents opposite meridian needed for start of G. of a star. gives it for Ok G. T. The "First Point of Aries" (<f) or starting point of sidereal time may be similarly drawn in problems involving moon. C. T. M. T. C. than to record the actual rotation of the earth at the center of the circle coun- terclockwise.A. S. G. G. T. A worked out. C. T. S.

Q + 12. 3* + corr. A.T. S.T. G.FIG. G.T. L. The one on the right being over 24 h. M.T. Long. This latter expression always here will to R. T. Sidereal Time of 0& G. requires traction of 24. 20^ (day before) FIG.T. 18ii = 90 W. A. is Sun + 12* ( 24 if over 24) at 0* G.S.S. of the Mean Figure 13. C.C. for 3 h 14 shows two diagrams and the data they represent. T.C.T. 14 (day before) + corr. G.T. L.S. The student . The two cases of G. T. is the same as R.T. 13 C. L. given abbreviated a subshow this identity.C. G.C.S. for 3 h (day before) L.

12 L. Table 5 shows how the N. 16.S.S. A.C. or f) the starting point of the actual navigational calculations for position. (See is FIG. the calculation of must used from first be done. is to illustrate the time difference between sidereal and civil days. in arc has TABLE 5 CALCULATIONS OF OLD WAY FOR SUN t OLD WAY FOR OTHERS NEW WAY FOR ALL . H.G method giving G. H.1 Tuesday L.) t Whatever system t is on.T. lib 56m 4 FK. civil noon .T. Tuesday L.C. 15 L. A. not to scale. shortened it.T. Sidereal noon .T.T.S.T. A. The local hour angle (L.6 Oh 3*a 56s L.Time Monday noon with L. 12 Figure 15.C..

FIG. to is probably more inducements t. . The one on the left is obvious. for errors than the actual calcula- tion which follows The student cautioned to give this preliminary portion of all problems his most careful attention.Time The offers 37 t arithmetic from W* through G. Local apparent time is ordinarily found as follows: If body is east of observer's meridian. C. subtract local hour angle Civil time * Watch time. The one on the right requires a subtraction of 24 which leaves the arc MX. Apparent time may be described as the hour angle of the true sun westward from the observer's meridian +12 (24 if over 24). This statement may sound a bit obscure but its truth can be realized by an examination of the two cases shown in Figure 17. This is of course equal to the arc FO which is the required time. 17 is found by a similar rule for the mean sun. T.

S.C. of course. add 12 Today practical navigation can ignore sidereal time. gives G. combined with L. This was only begun in the 1934 issue and is not preferred by all as yet.H. G. G.T.A.C. Sidereal is the same as G.A.S.T.H. " " " L.S.S. of the body. The N. .38 (in time) Time from to local 12. A. T. hour angle (in time). The sum 360 of G.T. Hour Angle and is is which means the body's angle westward from T. L.H. " " " L.T..A.T. gives G.T. A.CT. or 360) = G. A.T.H-A. (in time) G. in arc sufficient ordinary purposes and even for star identification. " " time gives L.T. " " " " " " " " longitude in degrees gives L. the new American Air Almanac makes use of two expressions of sidereal origin: G. gives G. H. " longitude in degrees " 4< time " " " " " " " " G.HA. if H.A.T.S.C.S.A.A. combined with R.A. S. L. the following relationships: (-24 h.T. gives data in terms of G.. " " " with R.H. But to try to grasp the scheme of things in Nautical Astronomy without understanding something of sidereal time. H.T.H. G.A. is unwise.T. T. or Remember G. (in time) combined combined with R. A. A.S. If body is west of observer's meridian.A. H.T.HA. (in time) combined with R. A. gives L. gives L.S. L. For example. This the same as 24 h. H. G. T + a correction + S. or 360 . L.T.A.A. for all A. G.T. A. A. * over 24 h. A.S. which. *. and H.R. " " " " " L. (in time) G.

the sign of the zone in question must be reversed and the result applied to the G. East zones are called minus zones since in each of them the zone number must be subtracted from the standard time to obtain the G. C. Conversely. a standard time zone extends 7. T. west zones are called plus. The Greenwich called Zero Zone. T. When it is desired to obtain zone time from G. the clock is adjusted to the standard time of the successive zones as they are entered.) These zone boundaries are modified in the vicinity of land for special conditions and circumstances. For convenience and everyday affairs. This system has been extended over the oceans and is used by the navies of the United States. C. C. (See Table 6. respectively. Certain relations between Z. The twelfth zone is divided medially by the 180th meridian and the terms "minus** and "plus" are used in the halves of this zone which lie in east longitude and west longitude. Instead of adjusting the ship's time to apparent time at noon each day. the change invariably being exactly one hour. T.5 each side of these meridians in which the time of the meridian is used.. C. study of Figures 1 8 and 1 9 should clear up this A problem. T. Zone time has simplified the work of the navigator in many ways. of mefrom Greenwich.Time Standard or Zone Time ridians at 15 of railways intervals 39 is based on the L. may confuse one at first. France and Italy. . zone is Great Britain. and L. T. C. His watch is usually kept on it. Each other zone is numbered from 1 to 12 according to the hourly difference from Greenwich. T.

All other meridians in Zone + 6 have zone time 12. 19. + 5 is one hour more. Mean sun Zone Zone Zone -f is over 90th meridian is W.C. It The figure represents 17 different instants.) FIG. 6 time 12 noon. shows at what zone time the . + 7 is one hour less.T. of meridians to west decreases 4 minutes for each.40 Time FIG.) L. of meridians to east increases 4 minutes for each. 18. Longitude. is L. of 90th meridian 12 noon. Relations between zone time and local civil time.C.T. Zone time of mean sun noons in zone. (Slow of Z. The figure represents one instant only.T.T. (Fast of Z.C.T. L. mean sun will be over each meridian.

T. if h. Most of the textbook It is possible problems in navigation watch time and proceed start the data with the observer's as follows: W +C W (Watch) (Chronometer minus Watch.-71/5 41 E. C. through daily radio signals to keep a secondwatch correct for G.Time TABLE 6 ZONE TIME Zero Zone: Long. many ships setting still have no radio and use only the standard chronometer which gains or loses at a certain rate. add 12 C. to necessary) C F C C (Chronometer Face) (Chronometer Correction) (Greenwich Civil Time) GC T . However. 7^ W.

5. C. date may be that of the ship. in applying chronometer correction.42 Time newer form of recording the data for G. The stop-watch can then be taken to the chronometer and stopped when the latter reads some even minute. Subtracting the stop-watch total gives the chronometer reading at time of sight. earlier. O. T. Greenwich. hour one at Also the G. is A as follows: Sights assistant it. add 12 hours for a P. C. (Chronometer at (Ran stop-watch) stop) (Chronometer at observation) (Chronometer correction) (Greenwich Civil Time) G. C. to whether later. and date determination: . W. C. or one Button method and easy mental gives the following quick of G. had is best be taken with a stop-watch unless an available to note time when observer calls for Taking a sight with a stop-watch in the left hand is simple and the stem may be punched at the instant desired. T. Greenwich Date is Because chronometers do not have 24-hour dials. This can be abbreviated as follows: C. T. R. there a always a problem. C. M. C.

the excess more than ship's. West is symbol T. date is one less to than ship's. is between lower between lower is Change Greenwich Civil of Date is Noon is a unique instant. obtaining approximate G. date is the same as local unless sun lies in the sector between lower branches. date is one Otherwise the G. but it is felt that . lower branch. will at once appear less or more than 12. and only then. lower branch. If the latter. applying the zone description the total is over is the G. Draw dotted lines for for their opposite (or lower branch) meridians. G. date is one more than local if sun branches and west of G. meridian according to longitude.Time 43 1-. or Z. G. date is one less than local if sun branches and east of G. Then draw projected local meridian to bottom and G. and the G. C. T. Apply the zone description to the ship's approximate zone time. If after 24 hours. T. One can diagram equinoctial and clockwise. T. the problem by making a circle for a dot in the center for north pole. Draw sun on circumference according to L. G. T. the G. 4. If it is necessary to add 24 hours to ship's time in order subtract a minus zone description. add 12 to chronometer. 2. C. C. that the same date prevails all over the earth. date is same as ship's. G. might discuss this matter of date by referring to the We sun's apparent motion around the earth. and connect it to center. C. 3. It then.

Time Frame. Earth seen from above North Pole (See FIG. at Long 179 E. For and convenience. = sun by an equal amount. we can disregard the progress of earth [18 in a its orbit little and the fact that more than one rotabetween sun tion occurs noons. ffi .) Similarly: L. . . will be 4 July 12 h 20 and L. C. Say these amounts are each 5 or i/% of an hour. G. 178 1 O h 12*. at 180 will be 5 July O h 20 m that is. 20 minutes past midnight with a new date. known as the International Date line) will have come around closer to the mean doef 20^. T. c. Sun. T.44 Time real a sounder conception will be gained by sticking to the situation referring to the earth's rotation opposite a stationary sun. C. f)k ft**i ^77 176 175 " " Oh O h 4m Om . 20. G. C. T. the 180 meridian (also FIG. 20. T. will be 5 July O b 16 m " ** . that at Greenwich Civil Noon of July 4 this date prevails throughout the earth. The instant the Green- wich meridian has passed eastward under the mean sun. Take it on faith. for the moment.

M. Above = position relative to Sun while G. Time Frame and O. C. S. M. "The Opposite-the-Sun" Meridian. T. 21. 22. each its earth rotates east.FIG. FIG. 15 h 45- . retains . Time Frame and O. S.

o I Ss G x V G &> 5 ^ O .3 ' qj <^ ^^ -H r\r -_ *-'' l O g fr : s ^ - .

M. but like a half hoop suspended at some distance above the earth's surface by attachment of its ends to the "poles. M. This. In each crossing eastward must subtract instance. Naturally. not an earth mark. S. The half from Greenwich to the 180th is likewise July 180th com5. (See FIGS. S. or W.) must be at Figure 23 will A glance across the 180th changed.) All the earth's surface from this O. S. M. As the 180th proceeds eastward with the earth's rotation. meridian is 47 now the opposite the sun as was 180th at Greenwich noon. but one kept opposite the sun. M. July 5. again has one date. M. while one one from the date. By the time the 180th comes under the sun at noon. of course. permanently "opposite-the-sun Meridian" (O.) not rotating with earth. more and more area of earth's surface is brought between it and O. eastward to the 180th meridian has the new date. while the opposite half is still July 4. S.Time The 175th E. the entire earth will make this clear. Figure 23 Crossing the 180th Meridian ward show that a ship sailing westmust add one to the date. 21-22. S. A ship on earth is carried east under . any earth meridian or the start of a opposite the sun is experiencing midnight new day." The earth rushes eastward under this O. As the half rotation reaching midnight again pletes the remaining its of earth east and Greenwich reaches noon of July 5. Greenwich has Let us think now of a reached midnight and changes date to July 5. the name of the longitude (E. The student may wonder about is a ship passing the O.

T.. and passes midnight in consequence. For practical convenience.. T. About 30 miles was as close as they could come by old methods of computation. navigators were never certain of their longitude. and noting the time. C. the moon had this R. Having thus obtained a fairly correct G. observations could later be made of the sun to get hour angle and hence Local Apparent Time. C. etc. chief of which was through the measurement of "lunar distances/' This meant getting the angle between the edge of the moon and some other body by sextant. it was necessary to observe within 30" of the correct distance to be correct within 1 minute. Chronometers Before the invention of a timekeeper which would re- main close to correct in varying temperatures. Consulting the almanac showed at just what G. C. S. A glance at a globe will show the several angles and curves that have been agreed upon. with the ship's clock at observation showed the error of the latter. from which. G. separating continents. by elaborate corrections and computations. with the equation of time gave . the moon's right ascension could be found. by the earth itself at the speed of its rotation. C. keeping certain groups of islands under one time. S. the International Date Line is not just the same as the 180th meridian. M. T. A. As this changes about 30" of arc in every minute of time. west- wardly as that would require a speed greater than the speed of earth's rotation. Time M. T.48 O. No ship could travel fast enough (except near the poles) to pass under O. Comparing this G.

compared with G. Harrison invented a compensating grid-iron pendulum which would maintain its length at all temperatures. T. Fifteen years later. without stopping the movement. The rate of change is noted and correct time is calculated by applying this rate. Two years later. C. A. T. in 1776. makes second hand setting which a device possible. this was taken to offered a prize of 20. 49 Then L. Chronometers are made with 12-hour dials which sometimes necessitates adding 12 hours to the face to get G. Another . T. he died at the age of 83. the British Government method which would determine longitude within 30 miles. gave Longitude. A. The British Government awarded the prize to Harrison who. T. A. did not receive it until nine years had passed. In 1764. It is cus. One model designed by Commander Weems and in wrist-watch size.Time G. by rotates the dial under the second hand. however. Recently there have appeared what are called "secondsetting" watches. Harrison had produced a better instrument. tomary for a ship to carry three so that a serious error in one will be manifest by its disagreement with the other two. and applied unsuccessfully for the prize. which is wound regularly but not set after it is once started correctly. By 1761. The usual ship's chronometer of today is a finely made instrument kept in a box and swinging on gimbals to keep it level.000 pounds for a Jamaica and back on a voyage of over five months and showed an error of only l m 54. John Harrison (1693-1776) was an English watchmaker. When he was twenty years old.05 s It depended on the unequal expansion of two metals with change of temperature.

this watch is probably an adequate substitute for a chronometer. On a small boat where radio time signals can be had daily. has a lever which can stop the movement until the operator pushes the lever back. . which has the advantage of a 24-hour dial.50 Time model.

Mars. for which data are given are the sun. A. navigational computation has been shortened and simplified by the recent inclusion of Greenwich Hour Angle for all bodies used. The Nautical Almanac AMERICAN NAUTICAL ALMANAC is THE may cents in issued annually by the United States Naval Observatory and be obtained for the current or coming year for 65 money Office. and 54 convenient and latitude prominent stars. A. it is The N. A. The As has been previously stated. is one of the four absolute celestial navigation. essentials of equipment for doing The other three are the sextant. G. 2 h 1 Moon Planets Stars h day day 1 1 month 51- . Saturn. Special tables are provided for computing from Polaris and several 'other useful reference tables are given. This and the declination are the principal items for which we use the N.. and one of the many types of tables necessary for computation. A. as called.3. 2 1 1 1 h h day H. and reading the explanations printed in its last pages to become thoroughly familiar with it. Data are given at the following intervals: Dec. order. D. Sun . from the United States Government Printing Washington. The bodies. student should spend sufficient time in looking through the N. Venus. C. the chronometer. Jupiter. moon.

values are given without the G. A. there will be found tables for Following the data for each of the bodies except the computing any values of declination and G. C. moonrise. give right ascension for all the bodies. civil time of O h equation of time is given in the sun tables for conversion of civil to apparent time. Tables are included for calculating times of sunrise. A. over O h in order to give Greenwich Sidereal Time. A. Star declinations hardly vary from one month to the next. gives sidereal time at Greenwich for every day in the and another table (No. which must be added to the above with the excess of G. While the use of sidereal time will not be advocated in this book. VI in 1943) gives the time year. H. except those for the sun. and twilight. sunset. moonset. The first table in the N. The sun's declination is easily interpolated by inspection and its G. is corrected by a table given on every third page.52 The Nautical Almanac sun. T.) since the R. many professional navigators use it and so the tables. These save a great deal of arithmetical interpolation. which lie between the values given in the main tables. H. A is two-page table of mean places of 110 additional stars provided. A. It will be useful occasionally when a single star is observed and proves to be neither Polaris nor a In such case it planet nor one of the usual these 110 54. A. 40) suggests (VoL XIII. H. Commander Angas in An Introduction to Navigation Series. p. may be and the older method of sidereal time will among have to be used to obtain t (the L. A. of Motor Boating's Ideal entering abbreviations for the month in the upper part . shall find little The We use for it. data. H.

"At nine p. the observer's meridian will about coincide with an imaginary chart vertical line on the the drawn through the month in question.. local time in the middle of each month. 2. Continue with Jan. m. all this makes each division complete in itself. Altitude correction tables (to be discussed later) are included and. Additional altitude for semidiameter (Table B). etc. Greenwich Hour Angle.The Nautical A Imanac of the star chart given in the N. put Dec. Altitude (Table A. as follows: right corner put Nov. The arrangement SUN Pages 1." writer has found table it center of the space occupied by The a correction a great convenience to make up booklet from several old almanacs. Index markers make it easy to turn at once to body but the correction tables needed for any observed. sun portion). he has cut out the necessary tables (which do not change from year to year). in every other square to the left until Oct. since these appear in still another part of the almanac. A. Bored with having to hunt through the almanac for the proper correction tables following the given body's data. Certain tables appear more than once. pasted them on loose-leaf sheets of reg- ular typewriter size paper using one side only and bound them in a 10 cent binder. is further saving of time as follows: is made possible. Then passing to the left 53 At upper and skip- ping one square.. . Height of Eye (Table C). occupies the second square from upper left corner.

29. Arc to Time (Table VIII)." until 1941. Declination. The Nautical Almanac MOON Height of Eye (Table C). 30. 8. 18. Button says it "can be used for surface navigation in open waters without fear of introducing any serious error. Declination. Altitude (Table A. star portion). star portion). 26-28. Proportional Parts (Table VII). Near land it should only be used with caution because errors resulting from its use are not the only errors to be expected in the observed position.54 3. Greenwich Hour Angle. Star transit corrections. It is arranged so as to usually give the desired data from a single opening. OTHER TABLES 22-23. 1933 and then discontinued a simplified almanac issued in sections covering 4 months each. Greenwich Hour Angle. All values are to the nearest minute of arc. Greenwich Hour Angle. Altitude (Table D). Altitude (Table A. 1013. Sidereal into Mean Solar (Table V). 4-5. Mean Solar into Sidereal (Table VI). is The American Air Almanac. 6-7. STAR Height of Eye (Table C). PLANET 9. 24-25. Height of Eye (Table C). 1921. published once In . Interpolation is unnecessary. 141 7.

is as it would be measured by an observer at the center o the earth. place on the earth's surface.4. above the plane passed through the center of the earth perpendicular to the direction of the zenith. Altitudes of heavenly bodies are expressed in the obangular distance from the celestial horizon with to be at the earth's center. but for nearer bodies sun and moon there must be a correction to our actual observation. Sextant Altitude. At the extreme distance of the celestial sphere it makes no difference whether the observer is on the surface of the earth or is theoretically at the center the great circles in these cases will practically coincide. For the far server of the earth imagined distant stars. there will be no difference if the altitude is measured from the earth's surface. True Altitude of a heavenly body. therefore. as measured at sea. must be converted to the true altitude by application of corrections for certain items as follows: For sun and moon: Index correction Dip Semidiameter 55- Refraction Parallax . at any the altitude of its center. Altitudes CELESTIAL HORIZON 90 of an observer is the JL great circle of the celestial sphere that is everywhere from his zenith.

by passing from a rarer medium to one of increasing density. At horizon greatest. subtracted (see Bowinfluence of unusual conditions ditch. the ray will be bent toward a perpendicular to the line separating the two media. is of the eye of the observer above the level of the sea.56 For planets and Altitudes stars: Index correction Refraction Dip Index Correction will be explained under the chapter on the sextant and is merely to correct a mechanical error of that instrument that present. The . Table C (Height of of course. A. The earth's atmosphere increases in density down to the earth's surface. The difference of this from the original direction of the ray is the refraction. The correction is. Hence the path of an obliquely incoming ray of light. If the latter be more dense. Refraction means the bending which rays of light un- dergo when passing obliquely from one medium into another of different density. the depression of the visible sea horizon below the celestial horizon due to the elevation may be Dip of the horizon. 1534. for the of temperature and barometric pressure). Refraction therefore increases the apparent altitude of a heavenly body. The last direction of the ray is that of a tangent to the curved path at the eye of the observer. It does not change is its direction laterally. Eye). it is At the zenith. Sextant altitudes taken from the bridge of a steamer or even the deck of a small yacht are enough larger than true altitudes to require correction by N. pp. becomes a curve concave toward the earth. refraction zero.

Refraction.Altitudes 57 correction must always be subtracted. include A correction for refraction. and Table D for moon. planet or star. tween two Parallax of a heavenly body in general is the angle bestraight lines drawn to the body from different points.) Table for sun. Geocentric parallax the only kind with which we are concerned is the angle subtended at a body by that radius of the earth which passes through the observer's . 24. 24. (See FIG. POSITION POSITION HORIZON OF OEfcERVUl FIG.

<j Parallax. A Therefore Altitude from Earth's Center = Observed Altitude 4.) O = Observer. C = Observed Altitude.and C + D -h B = 180. = Earth's Center. 25.Parallax. JD = Parallax (N.FIG. A. A = Altitude from Earth's Center = A' ^' + jB = 180. 58- . = Moon (Lower Limb) Observed. Therefore ^ + J5=:C + JDH-J^and /4'=C -f by Geometry. A=C +D.

Table for moon include corrections for parallax. of a for sun and Table always additive. This is shown in Figure 25. This effect is The is increase in semidiameter which make the moon seem large by comparison. In cases of sun. from earth vary at different times.Altitudes position. tances moon and planets. Semidiameter of a heavenly body is half the angle subtended by the diameter of the visible disc at the eye of the observer. The N. Putting it way around. gives horizontal parallax for the moon on each page with the the other Parallax is A D D other moon data and we must note it for use with Table to correct sextant altitude. Parallax of planets may be neglected in practical navigation. with parallel horizon. It diminishes to zero at the zenith. Horizontal parallax parallax for a particular body is 59 is the maximum present value of this the and is when body the on the observer's horizon.) due to increase in altitude called augmentation. from the earth's center. A. The moon is nearer an observer when at zenith than when at horizon by the length of the earth's radius the and moon the ratio of this length to the total distance of is large enough to cause measurable enlargement. Semidiameter is to be added* to observed altitude in case the altitude of the lower limb of a body has been measured and to be subtracted in the case . Parallax in altitude is parallax when the body is at any point above the observer's horizon. whose disthe semidiam- eters will change. (This shows that our ordinary impression that the looks larger so forth. buildings and when low is an illusion. moon probably due to the nearness of earth landmarks. parallax is the difference in altitude body supposedly measured at the same instant from a point on the earth's surface and.

Tables and B include corrections for semidiameter for the sun and Table for the moon. A D For greater accuracy one should mentally make the subtraction for dip and the correction for index error first. and use the result in entering the table containing corrections and other for refraction. finally using the algebraic sum of the dip corrections to correct the sextant altitude. .60 Altitudes of the upper limb. Semidiameter of planets may be neglected and of stars is not measurable in navigation.

Sextant. the triangular frame with apex above and scaled arc below. The handle. eye-shade glasses. whose the angular altitude of the body measured by means o a sextant Mt> X MRRO& -ADJUSTING SCAEW8 SHADE GLASSES TLSCOf> BRACKET HORIZON GLASS ADJUSTING SCttWS TELESCOPE RING ~~ TELESCOPE PING ADJUSTING SCREW HANDLE 4NDZXAKMIN POSITION MICROMETER VEQNIER FIG. the measure being afforded by the inclination of a movable mirror to a fixed one. Measuring the angle is done by bringing into coincidence at the eye rays of light received directly from the horizon and by reflection from the celestial body. This altitude is or an instrument of the sextant family.5. 26. The Sextant required in any problem of is THE FIRST ELEMENT celestial navigation observed. 61- . and horizon mirror. the telescope.

27.o INDLX MIRROR' HORIZON MIRROR \ Fxc. 62- . Sextant Angles.

tipping the index mirror until the two images are brought together. when a ray of light undergoes two reflections in the same plane. it is necessary that the angle shall be horizon which lies measured to that point of the vertically beneath the body. It is then clamped by a screw on the right and the tangent screw on the left is moved along used for finer adjustment. The body will appear to dean arc of a circle.) The vernier is an attachment for facilitating the exact reading of the arc scale of the sextant by which certain measured.The Sextant right half alone is is 63 silvered. the arc. To deter- mine this point the observer should swing the instrument slightly to the left and right of the vertical about the line of sight as an axis. From may be proved geometrically that. the angle between its first and its last direction is equal to twice the inclination of the reflecting surfaces. left. 27. are all rigid parts of a unit. (See FIG. convex down. The lowest point of this arc marks the true vertical. scale. the angle of reflection this it is equal to the angle of incidence. The index mirror from the body of the movable arm which terminates below in the part vernier scale with its screws and magnifying This is at top to catch the rays glass. fractional parts of the smallest division of the scale are sextant vernier is a shorter scale usually conone more division than an equal length of the arc taining A Both arc scale and vernier readings it is increase to the To read any sextant necessary to observe the arc . When a ray of light is reflected from a plane surface. The scale is then read to give the angle of altitude. taking care to keep the body in the scribe middle of the field of view. In measuring the altitude of a celestial body.

. 29): . 28.64 The Sextant ARC I TO 150 iliil Illil The numbers are for each 10. VLRNILR TO 10 FIG. Figure 28 shows the arc scale and vernier on a typical sextant. When of Vernier is at proportion of 50 to 119. the proportion would be 120 to 119. Arc and Vernier Scales. 50' of arc. 10 of vernier is at 19 The scale division next to the right from the vernier zero and add thereto the angle corresponding to that division of the vernier to the left which is most nearly in exact coinci- dence with a division of the arc scale. The next highest marks are for 1 The next highest marks are for V2 = The lowest marks are for 1/6 = 10'. 30'. arc. Rule: The smallest measure to which a vernier reads equals: length of 1 division of scale as 10' number of divisions of vernier after observation = 60" 10 " or 10' l20 = 5 " etc * Hence. This is a vernier has double spaces for clearer reading. (See FIG. read thus. Otherwise.

The Sextant 65 Scale: right of vernier zero to degrees and 10' units. Vernier number gives extra 1' units. pp. Observe a star. small. Vernier marks give extra 10" units. if to right of scale zero. See Button. 24 for Index Correction C. Certain minute errors due to construction and not rectable cor- by accompanying the instrument when purchased. with index and horizon mirrors parallel. all readings will be too great this divergence. instruments of the sextant family should be designated as follows: Octant: Sextant: 45 60 72 90 arc measures angles to 90 o arc measures angles to 120 arc measures angles to 144 arc measures angles to 180 Quintant: Quadrant: .) is expressed as + or the amount of arc to be applied to the observed amount. the zero of the vernier does not coincide with the zero of scale. Find line on vernier to left of its zero closest to a scale line. by the amount of readings will details.) be similarly too (I. for detailed information as to: adjustment are usually noted in certificates Index mirror Telescope Horizon mirror Properly speaking*. 219-20. Index Error directly reflected zero is through telescope and move index until image coincides with direct. Certain adjustments must occasionally be made. when. If now the vernier to left of the scale zero. (See Chap. or the sea horizon in dayexists light.

(See FIG. 29. with would seem to qualify as Quintant! AND 10' 5PAC. 10' 3' Passing to left shows first coincidence at 75 Reading Arc Reading Vernier Reading Total = = 69 =69 13' 20" 20" an endless tangent screw which carries a micrometer drum from which the minutes and the tenths of a minute o arc are read.E6 FIG.) An artificial horizon may be provided by a glass-roofed dish of mercury or even a saucer of ink placed in an uncovered box with sides low enough to let the body's rays in but high ink. Reading the Sextant. The tangent screw is thrown out of gear by pressing a lever so the index arm may be freely moved. 26. 50' of arc (Arrow). S.66 The for angles to 150 The Sextant an arc of 75 a Super- author's instrument. Half of . The Navy now uses a sextant fitted with the tangent screw into gear again for finer adjustment. Releasing the lever stops the arm at individual degrees and throws U. therefore. enough to keep moving air from rippling the the celestial is The angle between in the artificial horizon body and its reflection measured by sextant.

developed a in 1594 which had two arcs and required sightquadrant later form was used with ing in two different directions. as in in hazy weather. Capt. the observer's back to the sun. on the an airplane high above the earth and clouds. It consisted of a graduated circle suspended in the vertical plane from a ring at the top. or Historical The evolution of the modern sextant probably began with the astrolabe. something like a T square. It is much more expensive and less accurate than the standard type of sextant but can be used when the natural horizon is invisible. desert. was also in use at about this time and necessitated sighting sun and horizon separately. by looking along this at a body and noting the scale on the circle. an English navigator. 24 for details.) A bubble sextant is an instrument containing a mechanism which supplies an artificial horizon. John A Many subsequent instruments depended on a plumb line. At its center a sighting bar was attached somewhat as a compass needle and. altitude could be measured. Elaborate forms of the astrolabe were in use in the sixteenth century. It too was used both facing and with back to the sun. (See Chap. In 1729 Pierre Bouguer invented an instrument which needed only a sight of the horizon while a beam from the sun was kept visible in line on a wooden peg. . or in polar regions. used by early Greek and Arab astronomers. Davis.The Sextant this 67 angle equals the altitude of the body. The cross-staff.

U. Verniers then came into use although described by Pierre Vernier long before. Clark. Nov. U. probably suppressed Newton's notes and certainly ignored Godfrey's claim and obtained the credit for the invention. by Commander H.) . telescope. but no models seem to have been made. Campbell in 1757 enlarged the arc to make it a true sextant. S. 1940. Up to 1775 the instruments were of all-wood construction. Aug. S. Various improvements followed and the all- metal sextant appeared in the early nineteenth century. 1936. Commander Hull of the U. brass fittings same period. S. S. N. S. I. U. Constitution in 1812 used a sextant which had shade glasses. also by McGuire. an English astronomer. the Sextant by Commodore S. Relatively minor improvements followed but the sextant of today is not radically different from its ancestor of 100 years ago. P.68 - The Sextant reflecting mirror instrument The double was suggested in 1674 both by Robert Hooke. E. P. and Sir Isaac Newton. I. I. Capt. a similar instrument constructed of brass with a silver arc was in use by Nathaniel Bowditch. in 1631. independently. P. vernier. Hadley. D. a professor of geometry in London. In 1730 Thomas Godfrey of Philadelphia and John Hadley. Navigational Antecedents McGuire. independently constructed double reflecting instruments much like our sextants of today. ivory arc. (See The Evolution of at this and ebony frame while. May 1933 and The American Inventor of the Reflecting Quadrant. who was Vice-President of the Royal Society of London. N. N.

written by Alexander Neckam in the 12th century. He speaks there of a needle carried on board ship which. Its use in a form to indicate directions at sea was a subsequent development. being placed on a pivot. subsequent improvement was filling the compass bowl with an alcohol mixture and sealing it glass cover. 176. and allowed to take its own position of repose. 6. The Compass OF THE LODESTONE and its influ- by it is of great antiquity. Arabs. Kelvin used several magnetic needles in parallel attached under a circular card on which were printed the "points/* the whole supported on a pivot for easy rotation. and mounted in a pedestal called a ship is 69- . a corrugated chamber being provided for expansion of the liquid with increased temperatures.." The Magnetic Compass of today as used on ships is the Thomson (Lord Kelvin) instrument introduced in 1876 with a few improvements. Greeks. . compass in the middle ages occurs in a treatise entitled De utensilibus. Instead of the flat glass top. Finns and Italians have all been credited as originators of the compass.6. Comto keep them level when the passes are swung on gimbals rolls or pitches. shows mariners their course when the polar star is hidden. KNOWLEDGE ence on a piece of iron touched . Encyclopedia Britannica (14th "the earliest defied. Vol. p. "Compass") says nite mention as yet known of the use of the mariner's . a modern development A under the the "spherical" (really hemispherical) glass cover. Etruscans. The Chinese.

8 A The other method navigation. This is known as the lubber's line and the compass must be installed with this line exactly parallel to the ship's keel. of marking is in 360 around the This system has many advantages aside from the fact that steamers can be steered to 1 while the smallest unit of the point system is about 3. starting from north as follows: North North by East North Northeast Northeast by North Northeast Northeast by East East Northeast East by East etc. line The Compass Through the bowl there is painted a thin black from front to back. on the card. of the ship's Compass cards are marked in two principal ways: The old point system consists of 32 points around the circle.70 binnacle. visible over the compass card. The earth may be thought of as a great . notes the course. West is 270 and North is 360 or 0. East is 90. The forward tip of the line. each being equal to about 2. This system is all one needs at sea for celestial circle clockwise. is the mark by which the helmsman head. North Each point degrees. now to be discussed. system of added. is 11 14 degrees from the next. South is 180. results from two main causes. Compass error arid Deviation. is quarter points The older (Merchant Marine) custom and the newer (Navy) custom of naming these quarter points are both somewhat difficult to memorize and of no real use to the student. Variation Variation.

091 of marking. The north magnetic pole is at the geographical poles. in the 06 1 FIG. Long.. about Lat.The Compass 71 do not exactly correspond to magnet whose poles. and the south magnetic E. however. 155 the "north" end of the compass needle is and likes repel..) As the north magnetic really "north-seeking" and about 1200 miles below the is above Hudson pole at Lat. 97 W. 70 N. Compass Card showing three methods . Long. geographical pole it will be evident 10 that. (As unlike poles attract S. 73 Bay north pole. or south. 30.

Today we obtain the variation from our charts for any locality. its metal and mag- netism will be brought into different positions relative to the north point of the compass (which retains its general position) one side and will exert varying pulls on it. the compass will point west of true north and. The compass is influenced by this alteration of magnetic force. The intricacies of the here. Iceland.72 The Compass Atlantic Ocean. are all terms used in the discussion and explanation of deviation. Deviation varies with latitude. Halley constructed charts showing lines of equal variation over the earth. the this is a large source of error due to mineral deposits in the ocean or lake bed. Hard and soft iron. subject need not be gone into horizontal and vertical iron. Madagascar. The amount of this variation. chiefly when on north and south courses. It will suffice to understand that. Labrador. chart. is Local magnetic disturbance due to magnetic material outside the ship in the neighborhood. by of the figuring from the date can be obtained. In certain parts of the world (Australia. the present amount Deviation influences is on a further compass error due to magnetic the individual ship. sometimes to and sometimes to the other. in the Pacific. There is also a slow change which is noted on the chart as so much per year and. As long ago as divergence from true is called 1700. subpermanent and transient magnetism. east of true north. It occurs when the ship heels or rolls to one side or the other. Heeling error is similar. Iron which has been horizontal approaches the vertical and vice versa. as a ship swings around. Minor causes Baltic. permanent. Lake Superior) .

we have added. tion wise. the error is the If deviation is 5 algebraic sum or 2 E. Conversion of true. This means the card has been forced 5 clockwise.. The heading will now be 25 or the as magnetic course. If deviation is 6 W. is easy with the 360 and magnetic. of course. Between magnetic and compass. Between into another. 8 W. is 6 E. etc. and variation 2 and if W. magnetic. of much of the error which Correction develops with the ship on different headings or due to heeling is done by placing magnets and iron in certain positions near the compass. Bear in mind that a course. it is called westerly. point of the compass in a clockwise direction. we must know the variation. W. it is a good scheme to think of the card When having just been rotated in a certain way to a certain extent and to imagine yourself pushing it back to its original position. however described in these three ways. . and variation 7 E. The In each case heading will now be 31 or the true course. is the same direction on the earth. When a force pulls true the N. Nothing is done about local magnetic disturbance. metal. it is called easterly counterclockwise. one card system. Then suppose you also know the This means the card has been forced 6 varia- clock- Mentally push it back 6 counterclockwise.. Mentally push it back 5 counterclockwise. thinking for the first time of these disturbance! of the compass card.The Compass are present at 73 docks due to other vessels. or compass courses. the error is. This is called compass adjusting and should only be done by a thoroughly trained worker. we must know the deviation. Say you are heading on a compass course of 20 and know that the deviation is 5 E.

By ranges. Similarly we subtract westerly errors. for methods 2. By comparison with a gyro compass. 3. By bearings of a distant object. The first will be discussed later on in this book under Azimuth. Any one of these can be quickly thought out if we start from the one rule and make the necessary reversals. bearings (azimuth) of the sun. TABLE 7 COMPASS ERRORS Methods 1. and 4: Method 5 which is probably the simplest and most convenient for small craft not at sea. The student is referred to Button. 5. This means that from compass to magnetic we add easterly deviation and from magnetic to true we add easterly variation. Examples are shown in Table 7.74 The Compass Only one rule need be memorized and it is this: From compass toward true add easterly errors. From true toward compass we do just the opposite: subtract easterly and add westerly. 2. 4. of determining Deviation. Polaris This stars is the usual also be and other may 3. at sea. By reciprocal bearings. may be briefly outlined as follows: . Chapter II. By method when used.

easily visible and shown on the chart. c. order to make a given magnetic course. then circle. as and add a column in Table 8. Make a table showing the above showing deviation on each heading.The Compass a. Details will not be given here but the student is referred to Bowditch or Dutton for a full . We want a table arranged the other way around beginning with equal divisions of magnetic and showing the proper compass course more anxious for each. 15 Send your boat across this and every 15 around the line heading first 0. The Napier Diagram is is the means by which the above accomplished. noting the bearing of the range at each separate heading. 75 Find some pair of objects in line. by means of the "compass b. and determine the magnetic bearing of the line joining them. from the water where you are located. to for each compass heading is It does not tell us. what we are what compass course to steer in know. one nearer and one farther. TABLE 8 FINDING DEVIATION This table of deviations not sufficient for our needs. rose" on the chart.

a table is made of maggiving the desired compass course for each 15 netic. scale indicating equiv- Second. a double vertical scale may be drawn lines like two parallel thermometer scales and then drawn across from the magnetic to the compass alent values. diagramed. Deviation values for each compass course are plotted and a curve drawn. there are two methods by which the table For values between these 15 may be First. with one scale outside the other. the inner representing magnetic and the outer representing compass. a double compass diagram may be had. Having constructed the curve as above. Lines again connecting equivalents make the process of conversion and interpolation especially easy. The diagram is basically a series of equilateral triangles each side of a base line. TABLE 9 FOR MAGNETIC-STEER COMPASS magnetic intervals it is easy to interpolate. for more easily visualizing interpolation. from which it is easy to obtain the proper compass course for any 15 desired magnetic. However. .76 The Compass explanation. as in Table 9.

A full is description an electrically driven at 6. The disadvantages are: a. Its much greater.) b. It is expensive ($2. b.000 up). obtains its 77 from the given in is directive force force of the earth's rotation. It requires a constant source of electrical power. It field. (No devi- seeks the true instead of the magnetic meridian. d.000 r. it easy to take the bearing . m. It requires intelligent and expert care.The Compass The Gyro Compass Bowditch. The attachments and mechanical details result in a compass which has the following essential feature The advantages over the magnetic compass: a. It is graduated vanes permit the observer to take bearings of terresing can be turned to the object is in line objects by turning the circle until with the vanes while a reflecting prism throws the compass card into view at the same time. An adjustable dark glass trial any desired reflector brings celestial bodies into view and a concave mirror and reflecting prism make of the sun. d. It may be located in a safe and central portion of the electrically ship and repeater compasses directed from it may be located anywhere. directive force is (No variation. c. whose axis seeks to remain wheel spinning in the plane of its meridian. Sightfrom position. p.) c. It is a complex and delicate mechanism. It is unaffected by the ship's magnetic ation. Circle is An Azimuth a ring formed to fit flat over a compass bowl and which to 360 clockwise.

0' S. ruses are placed so that views can be had in all directions which is seldom possible with the ship's The card compass. is set to correspond TABLE 10 COMPASS POINTS AND QUARTER POINTS SHOWING EQUIVALENT VALUE IN DEGREES North to East East to South East South to West South West to North West Points D.78 The Pelorus is The Compass a "dumb compass" or card without mag- netic needles which can be turned to any desired position. M. North NME NbyE NbyEJ N by E :NNE E^S EMS 2 5 8 00* 48' 45" 37' 30" 26' IS* 15' 3' EbyS ESE^E ESEME ESE^E ESE SE by E%E SE by E^E SE by E34E Sby Sby S by W}^ WMA Sby WM^ W WbyN 11 14 16 19 00* 45" 52' 30" 41' 15* NNE ssw SSWJ^W NNEJ JNHEbyN NEJiNT SSWKW WNW NWby W 25 22 30' 00" 18' 45* 28 7' 30* 30 56' 15" 33 45' 00* 36 33' 45" 39 22' 30* 42 11' 15* 45 00' 00* 47 48' 45* 50 37' 30* 53 26' 15* 15' 3' 52' 41' NEKNT SEbyE SEME SE NW NWbyN NNW^ NNWU -NEbyE NEbyEfc SEbyS SSEJ^E 5 SSE^E SSE 5% 5% 5% 6 56 59 61 64 67 70 73 75 00* 45* 30* 15* ENE SbyE S by El S by E NNW Nby W N by W Nby W 30' 00* 18' 45* 7' 30* 56' 15* EbyN SbyE N^byW 78 45' 00* 81 33' 45* 84 22' 30* 87 11' 15* 90 00' 00* . with the heading of the ship by compass and then bearings are taken with it which are the same as compass bearings. lubber's line as in the compass marks the direction of the ship's head. and set. Sighting vanes are Pelo- A provided.

7* The Astronomical USES an Triangle pole imaginary triangle on the whose three corners are the elevated celestial sphere NAVIGATION the zenith/and the projection (N. latitude.). Sometimes we can easily determine the three sides and only need to compute one of the Again we can easily determine two of the sides and one angle and only need to compute the remainside. 3L The Astronomical Triangle. etc. Celestial Pole Zenith DM MP AM MZ * Polar Distance Altitude . These computations are done by spherical trigoof the angles. observed heavenly body. Sun Local Meridian M ' Body Observed Celestial Zenith Distance LM CM GHA to t Greenwich Meridian Equator Z* Hour Angle Azimuth Greenwich Hour Angle Longitude Local QjL Latitude ZP Co-Latitude Hour Angle FIG. ing outlined in the next chapter. 79- .of Q body. in N. nometry which will be briefly (V4 of Celestial Sphere seen from West) Declination (V4 o Celestial Sphere seen from North) Earth ? Z N.

on the celestial sphere is the same in latitude). similar unit or relationship. is 90 so that if we know a portion of a quadrant we can find the seeking on earth. we will consider what the principal and leave solutions until Part II. . side or angle. the second shows what is TABLE 11 FINDING PARTS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL TRIANGLE * If L and d have opposite names (one N and one S) then p= 90+ d. degrees as that which we may be triFigure 31 shows on the left with the parts named. on the celestial sphere corresponds to the on the earth. The circular figure on the right shows the celestial sphere as seen from above with projections of the body and two earth meridians. for instance. no matter of what size. of course. a typical astronomical remaining portion by subtracting the first from 90. Remember that the angular angle distance of a quarter circle.80 tions are The Astronomical Triangle rela- For the present. Remember that the celestial triangle is merely a magnification of a terrestrial triangle. Table 11 needs little explanation. The first column shows what one starts with. Co-latitude (and hence. Each part.

It consists of a rotating disc on a larger background. and the Nautical Almanac. Given t and d. As the -fundamental relationships of celestial navigation are here set forth. It is a circle representing observer's meridian with the upper half ruled with horizontal lines for altitude circles every 5. Over this and fastened to it at the center is a transparent circular disc ruled similarly but in red and in both halves. Then various combinations of problems involving h. These are crossed by elliptical arcs from the zenith for azimuth circles every 5. Power Squadron). this table should be studied with great care and thoroughly understood. .H. the third shows how it is used.A.A. Elliptical arcs from the poles represent hour circles at 334 (15 minutes of time) intervals (in the type produced by the N. and the fourth gives the parts of the astronomical triangle thus found. Y. one gets G. t. straight line across it is for the equinoctial.The Astronomical Triangle 81 thereby obtained. one gets d and t. In using the co-ordinator the upper part is set according to observer's latitude. and Z may be solved. Its border represents observer's meridian. Celestial Co-ordinator is an ingenious device to give rapid approxito problems of the astronomical triangle. From t and known longitude. The greatest usefulness appears in star work. d.H. The type using the orthographic projection has its under portion printed in black. The remaining angle at the observed body is never needed in ordinary navigation. one gets the approximate h and Z which shows where to look for the star. the star can be identified. Lines parallel to the equinoctial are declination circles every 5. With d and G. Given h and Z of an unknown The mate solutions A observed star. Thus 3 sides and 2 angles of the astronomical triangle are sometimes obtainable without the use of formulas. Crossing this at right angles is the polar axis.

A the need for computing altitude for comparison with a sextant observation. Plane Trigonometry This branch of trigonometry investigates the relations that exist -between the parts of triangles which lie in a plane. the following pages are provided. may have been derived. Trigonometry ASTRONOMY makes constant use of is NAUTICAL The commonest example of this trigonometry.8. This and various other needs will be exII. They contain enough to indicate the general features of the subject and to suggest how various formulas. Inc. 1934). which will appear later. only angles are not only angles but also grees. 4th edition (McGraw Hill Book Co. Therefore. knowledge of this branch of matheplained in Part matics is not essential to the navigator but some familiarity with fundamental concepts is highly desirable. both for the benefit of the novice and as a mind refresher for those who at some distant past date have its studied trigonometry. In spherical trigonometry sides are so measured. New York and London. 82- . An excellent Palmer and Leigh: Plane and Spherical Trigonom- etry... The reader is referred for further details to one is any modern text on the subject. Remember measured in that de- in plane trigonometry.

TABLE 12 OF THE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS DEFINITION OF PLANE RIGHT TRIANGLES (A and B= Acute Angles) Q b Sin (sine) A A side opposite : =A= c : cosB (s!n A = always < 1) < hypotenuse side adjacent Cos (cosine) = c sin B (cos A= A A A always 1) hypotenuse Tan (tangent) A side opposite side adjacent = _0 b & ( tan under 45= always < 1 45=always>l Cot(cotangentU - side adjacent gide - oosite 7 " tan ^ j cot | Cot under over 45= always > 45-always < 1 ? 1 J hypotenuse side opposite _ __ a RAVERSINES 1-cos ^l is called versed sin is called A (vers A) % (1-cos 4) By Sin haversine A (hav : formula (#22 in Palmer / & Leigh) H^ = 1-cos A y J^ . becomes: SinaJ^^L (1-cos A).1 -T which. Haversine of an angle = the angle. square of the sine of Y% . being squared.

8 + + 55 w a + + g is x + 8 \\ n ^ n \ ^ xj *a 1 1 4- a o ^ >* H >n 8 ta ft 2 -I >-s xj 8 II ^_> 8 84 .

first. as upon them is founded the whole subject of trigonometry. In a spherical triangle there are six sides parts. The three arcs are the sides of the triangle. three and three angles. Connected with any angle there are six ratios that are of fundamental importance. They are called the trigonovalue of the When The sum of the angles of a plane triangle = 180. The supplement of an angle =180 minus the angle. besides the radius of the sphere . 13. and the angles formed by the arcs at the points where they meet are the angles of the triangle. spherical triangle is the figure on the surface of a sphere bounded by three arcs of great circles. The sum of the angles of a spherical triangle is greater than 180 and less A than 540. 14. angles of any size. 12.Trigonometry 85 one quantity so depends on another that for every first there are one or more values of the second. show the nomenclature used of the fundamental relationships of the functions of. The angle between two intersecting arcs is measured the angle between the tangents drawn to by the arcs at the point of intersection. The complement of an angle = 90 minus the angle. acute angles and. The sum of the sides of a spherical triangle is less than 360. 15 will Tables and some Spherical Trigonometry that exist This branch of trigonometry investigates the relations between the parts of a spherical triangle. second. To each and every angle there corresponds but one value of each trigonometric function. the second is said to be a function of the first. metric functions of the angle.

IN bin = QUADRANT I x r II in IV Cos rt~\ Ian Cot = = *v - y - X Sec-J y Csc = - X NOTE: The angles here and in Figure 33 have been drawn increasing clockwise (in contrast to Pigure 137 in Bowditch) so as to conform to the 360 compass and its quadrants. 86* .TABLE 14 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS OF ANY ANGLE WITH THE SIGN FOR EACH QUADRANT (The sign of the hypotenuse or distance is always +) ANGLE .

consider the two sides and b) adjacent to the right angle. 32. of the remaining side (co-c). 2. A right spherical triangle is one which has an angle equal to 90. The sine of a middle part equals the product of the cosines of the opposite parts* The ten formulas for solution of a right spherical triangle can be derived from these two rules. In such a triangle. then the two parts next to it are called adjacent parts and the other parts. L The . In general. For Napier's Rules. Arrange these in a circle as in Figure 32. In a right spherical triangle. Any one of these five parts may be selected and called a middle part. Napier's rules are: two parts. opposite sine of a middle part equals the product of the tangents of the adjacent parts. the other parts can be found. omitting the right angle.Trigonometry which 87 is supposed known. Napier's Rules of Circular Parts. two given parts in addition to the right angle are sufficient to solve the triangle. the complements of (a the two other angles (co-^4 and co-) and the complement FIG. if three of these parts are given.

known to be in a higher quadrant. 33) Table 15 leads certain "Sailings" III 1. as: Given Angle in Quadrant n ra IV 2. Bowditch. take out the angle in and treat as follows: . to the following rules which are useful in problems which will be found in Part The value of any function of any angle in the three higher quadrants is always equal to the value of the same function of some angle in the first quadrant. Corresponding Angle in Quadrant I 180 given angle given angle -180 360 given angle To find for a log in Quadrant I an angle. Table 33.38 Trigonometry TABLE 15 EQUIVALENT TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS OF ANGLES IN THE DIFFERENT QUADRANTS (A = Acute) (See Fig.

15) Angles in the Different Quadrants. Each A angle near circumference equals A since its horizontal side is parallel. a straight line (here a radius) connecting twoto the it parallel lines angle makes an angle on one side with the first line which makes on the other side with the second line. by construction. is equal .Trigonometry 8 89 (360 OR o ) (TO) -X (To be used with Table FIG. The A X angles at center are constructed equal. by geometry. 33. to the axis and.

Cosine side theorem. 2. increased by the product of the sines of these sides times the cosine of their included angle.sides.angle in T Oblique Spherical Triangles are solved by formulas derived from the following theorems: 1. 3. Sine theorem.90 For Quadrant II Trigonometry Use III IV 180-angleinl 180+angte in I 360. In any spherical triangle. In any spherical triangle. the sines of the angles are proportional to the sines of the opposite . the cosine of any side is equal to the product of the cosines of the other two sides. diminished by the product of the cosines of the two other angles. Cosine angle theorem. Examples: (1) sin A _sin B _sin C ~sin b ""sin c sin a (2) cos a cos = cos sin b cos c -f sin b sin c cos A C (3) A B sin C cos a cos B cos The following are useful haversine formulas for any spherical triangle: For an angle when the hav sides are given: hav A = a = hav r (b ^ c] =-^ ' sin b sin c . The cosine of any angle of a spherical triangle is equal to the product of the sines of the two other angles multiplied by the cosine of their included side.

Trigonometry For a side given : 91 when other sides and included angle are 6 hav a where hav = hav (b -^ c) 4.hav hav A sin b sin c .

This system is called the common or by using Briggs system and is the one usually used in computing and is given in the 1938 Bowditch. 2. To multiply multiplication one cosine by another and this perhaps by a haversine TRIGONOMETRIC would be a tedious process with old style arithmetic. As 100 = 10 2 so logic 100 is 2." This system theoretical work. raising to a power. logarithm of N to the base 6. The word "natural" is used to distinguish from the log- 92- . The logarithm of a number to a given base is the exponent by which the base must be affected to produce that number. He used the and base 2.7182818 called "e. Table 32 for logs of numbers and Table 33 for logs of trigonometric functions of angles. and extracting a root of arithmetical numbers are usually much ItN= 6 X .9* Logarithms FORMULAS usually call for of various long numbers. the processes of multiplication. Briggs of is used in advanced London (1556-1631) modified the above the base 10. division. = Logarithms were invented by Lord Napier of Scotland (1550-1617) and described by him in 1614. Prof. then x = the simplified. the base 10 This is or the logarithm of 100 to abbreviated to log 100 = 2. By the use of logarithms.

Table 16 is to show examples of logs with various characteristics (numbers to left of decimal point) for one mantissa (number to right of decimal point). is. pp. 93 actual values of. Table 33 is tangents and cotangents for all angles to 90. Extracting a root is done by dividing the log of the given number by the index of the root and then finding the number of which this quotient is the log. (Although omitted to save space. as well as the logs of the other four trigonometric functions.Logarithms arithm. of angles to 180. Table 31 gives natural. that sines. Division is accomplished by subtracting the log of the divisor from the log of the dividend and then finding the is number of which this result is is the log. I believe the rules on the next two pages will be found somewhat simpler.) Multiplication of two numbers is accomplished by adding their logs and then finding the number of which this sum the log. The student should consult Bowditch. Raising to a power done by multiplying the log of the then finding given number by the index of the power and the number of which this product is the log. . While rules are given for obtaining logs of numbers and numbers for logs. cosines. Table 34 gives both natural haversines 360. where one will find the log sines and log cosines. -10 belongs after every log in Tables log haversines of angles to and 33 and 34. for details. 324-26.

right ^ Manti&sa: * Disregard decimal point of in Table 32 Bowditch. Then add to it the following: figure in column d x remaining figure or figures. first pointing off as many places as there are remaining figures and disregarding fraction or.5. For number of 5 or more figures: Find mantissa for first 4. if it exceeds .94 Logarithms To Characteristic: zeros to left of Find Log of a Number For number > 1 = 1 < the number of figures including number's decimal point. raising total to next number. . column and it in column headed For number of 4 figures: Find first 3 in left column and mantissa opposite them in column headed by 4th figure. zero to right left For number of 3 mantissa opposite figures: Find number in 0. For number < 1 = 9 .the number of zeros directly to right of number's decimal point and -10 to of mantissa. For number of 1 figure: 3 figures. number when looking to right it up F Add 2 zeros Add 1 and and treat as treat as For number of 2 figures: 3 figures.

(Always < 1. If number is < 1 (log ending in or less) : right of more figures 10 with characteristic 9 Subtract characteristic from 9 and add that many zeros before figures already found and put point to left. Note difference between next lower and next higher mantissa (col. figure in right column.). get number for next lower mantissa and then use equation. If over 5 figures in number (as when characteristic is 5 and number 4 figure therefore has 6 figures to left of decimal point).) Disregard decimal point but retain any zeros that may come between it and other figures and add 1 or more zeros on right if characteristic calls for If : more figures in number. 1 number is > 1 Place point to than number of characteristic.Logarithms 95 To May out If first 3 Find Number for a Log and take top. Note 1st diff. find exact mantissa in Table 32 Bowditch figures from left column and 4th from mantissa lies between 2 given in table: Take 4 Note figure number of next lower mantissa. . P. Note P. Note figure on same line in left column. difference between next lower and given mantissa (Istdiff. Istdiff. This is 5th figure of number. d = 5th and succeeding figures. table under figure found for d. d).

96 .

I? art II: I?:roceelTJLxres .

.

however. Inasmuch as the whole art and science of The we shall soon practice of navigation as they same can be said of longitude. to 1^ length. as such. It of the is first things to understand S. This. 1 nautical mile north . them seems well One mile." on which the from ship is situated. from which the latitude and longitude can then be read off giving the exact position. cause. is the nautical A. is disregarded in navigation and a change of 1 minute of latitude always is taken to mean a change of . to briefly explain them to the beginner. or 1 minute of arc. Discussion and argument still go on between navy and merchant marine on the merits of the newer methods. This is be- modern position finding has evolved through first obtaining latitude and longitude and because many officers of the mer- chant marine use still depend on these older methods and must it in their examinations for promotion. what flattened at the poles which slightly alters the length of 1 minute high on a meridian. and crosses this with another line from another observation thus obtaining a "fix" on the chart. the newer navigation qbtains one observation a "line of position. Introduction to FOR LATITUDE. The earth is some- defined in the U. as important in the see.10.080. as being 6. are Position Finding not so SOLUTIONS once were.27 feet in of a degree.QQ. equal part of a great circle of a sphere whose surface is equal in area to the area of the surface of the earth.

(Gerardus Mercator. however. (This accomplished as described but is done mathematiSee Button. may. The great advantage of a chart on this basis is that course which cuts successive any meridians at the same angle becomes a straight line. Since the meridians converge toward the poles. Cutting this cylinder vertically at some point and laying it out flat will show the meridians of longitude not converging but as parallel vertical lines. The parallels of latitude will be horizontal parallel lines but farther apart the farther away they are from the equator. onto a flat surface. I. be transferred by placing a cylinder of transparent paper around the globe. such as a globe map of the world. 1512-1594. If it were cutting meridians at some angle other than 90 and drawn on a globe. tangent at the equator. The portion of the globe between Lat. 60 N. As the distance between meridians becomes more and more in excess of the true proportional distance.100 Position Finding or south. Flemish cartographer. and projecting onto it the features of the globe as seen from its center. west will increase with the latitude. mile on the equator will cause a change of east or it longitude of 1 minute while at latitude 60 change of 2 minutes. the amateur navigator must understand the principles of the Mercator chart.) Of course. there is great dis- tortion of areas in high latitudes. literally cally. presents many difficulties. the increasing distance between parallels makes up for it and is not proportion in a given region is maintained. Chap.) The transfer of a spherical surface. 60 S. it would have to be a curve of a spiral . will cause a Before doing any actual work. the difference of longitude produced by a change of position of 1 mile to the 1 For instance. and Lat.

Such a curve as is 101 called a Rhumb Line. sold singly for a 5 area. one uses the latitude scale marked at the side of the chart at the level of the region measured. of course. and they are large enough to permit the recording of sufficient data ft. Bowditch (H. Meanwhile. since a minute of latitude equals a nautical mile. Among the many newer systems which have been devised for position finding. The parallels of latitude are. Scales of miles on ordinary maps are not possible here but. A smaller and more convenient size (26 x 19 inches) is issued in 16 sheets covering latitudes 0-49 and sells for 10 cents a sheet. One series issued by the Hy- drographic Office is of 12 sheets covering latitudes from to 60 and can be used for north or south of the equator.Position Finding form. O. The price is 20 cents a sheet. Position plotting sheets are blank charts made on the Mercator system and important for the navigator in the graphic solution of problems. H. Ageton is the one preferred by the present writer. O. equations will generally be presented in two forms. O. 211. especially designed for solution by The several procedures will first be briefly outlined with the idea that the student should get a rapid survey of the . Their use saves the mutilation of charts. Both are solvable by the Bowditch tables but the second in each case is H. for a Tables of logarithms of trigonometric functions are necwill essary for the solution of various equations which appear in the descriptions of the several procedures.) (about 4x3 good record. 211 by Comdr. The user numbers the latter according to his location. but the meridians of longitude are not. numbered. Reasons for this will be given in the chapter on Short-Cut Systems. 9) contains all the essential tables.

102 Position Finding into the details of indigeneral principles before getting" vidual problems. It is the method of finding a ship's posiby keeping track of courses steered and distances run from the last well-known position. G. In Part III will be found examples worked out for each of the more important procedures. This is explained in Chapter 21. R.) reckoning and is abbreviated to D. The expression "dead reckoning'' which will frequently be used comes from deduced (ded. A. tion Throughout the following preference will discussions of procedures. . H. is be given to the new methods in which taken from N. A.

There make an upper with sextant the altitude of a body about to transit. these principles apply. Figure 34 shows the four cases which cover calculations all latitude from observations of a body on the meridian. 4. until the altitude 103- . it also the altitude of the eleequals celestial vated pole. crossing the meridian from to and continue measure it at short intervals noting the time of each observation. equa- X tor. 1 . L & d opposite names: L 8c d same name ScL> d: L & d same name $cd> L: L & d same name. By geometry. Regardless of what body is used. It may also be described as the angular distance on the sphere along the hour circle of the place between the equinoctial and the projection of the place. 23. lower transit: L=z d L=z+d L=d z L = 180 - (d + z) The next problem L Measure east to west. that is.11. Latitude LATITUDE of a place is the arc of the meridian of the place subtended between the equator and the It is labeled north or south in relation to the place. It is important to study these and understand the equawhich may be summarized as follows: tions. is to determine just when the body is are three ways: on the meridian. or its zenith.

d) = h + p Each Big Circle E P = Projection = Earth = Elevated Pole = Zenith Z QQ' = Equinoctial NS = Horizon = $pj Latitude The Four of Celestial Sphere M h z on Plane of the Meridian Projection of Body d " = Altitude = Zenith Distance = Declination = Polar Distance - - - - FIG. 34. Cases of Latitude from Meridian Altitude Observation.L=d (90 h) =d z L= 180 [d + (90 7z)] = h + (90 . 104- .

may 3. using G. following The G. 202 (Noon-Interval Tables). of apparent noon may be found by the modification of Todd's method. knowing the cor- rect longitude if ship is stationary or moving true north or south. The error of combining a mean time interval with a civil time interval is immaterial (about 1 second per hour). The true sun is here assumed to be "moving" at the same speed as the mean (civil time) sun. H. O. . Calculate in advance the time of transit. method of as noon is known Latitude by Noon Sun C. A. 2. when it is directly south or north as With a good compass. This It necessitates the most dependable method. steady ship and not the case too high is altitude. but is often used for the sun. T. T.Latitude begins to decrease. without looking up Eq. This is not especially accurate. No mention is made of watch time or its difference from chronometer as this becomes very confusing to the beginner and can easily be dispensed with on smaller boats either by taking observations with chronometer nearby or by setting a stop-watch exactly with chronometer. If ship is making any progress east or west. Observe the true bearing of the body and measure its altitude be. the rate of longitude change must be known in addition to the longitude and time at the start of the calculation. this gives fair results. Tables based on his equations have been published as H. The usual making this calculation for apparent Todd's and was devised by him when a midshipman at Annapolis (see Bowditch or Button). 105 Then take the greatest altitude as the meridian altitude.

(col. o beginning of interval (#6) and change of longitude E. obtaining!. of Local Apparent Noon. T. 1 h. longitude Dist. (col. C. at an instant in A. T. 10. A. Combine G. 202 (Noon-Interval Tables): Enter with L. obtaining miles made E. of sun in arc from N.).of beginning of interval. 4. Table 3: Enter with course in degrees (top Bowditch. add t in time (#4) to G. obtaining G. T.T. known longitude. C. T. 6. or W. obtaining change of (col. .). labelled Dist. labelled Dep. subtract t in time (#4) from 7. T. 0. H. C. not changing longitude. If ship is changing longitude.. 3. G. C. 12. Bowditch. Table 3: Enter with latitude of ship (figure for course in degrees. Add this interval to G. of L.). A. Noon M. A. known. 2. obtaining G. This is interval to apparent noon 5. when longitude is G. A. or bottom of page) and speed in knots (col. in minutes of arc per hour (#8). or 8. (#1). H.). T. with longitude obtaining t in arc. A. (#1). Convert at If ship is this arc into time. G. N. A. T.106 Interval to Latitude Noon and G. or W* in minutes of arc per hour labelled Lat. always E. or W. H. of Local Apparent 1. in 1 h. for this instant. C. obtaining interval to apparent noon with ship maintaining course and speed. top or bottom of page) and miles made W E. labelled 9. in .

7. or G. (This position. to middle Since sun moves of DLo #4 by 15' per minute of time. T. divide to get time in minutes that sun would 15' W.. Find DLo in minutes for length of this line.) 3. Put in my own words it is as follows: Weems' Method for Interval to Noon andZ. for interval to noon. M . this time is saved. or G. this time so add it to of #2 8. or W. noon sight at L.C. 1. At some time Convert this is in 2.. require to cover this DLo. If course is easterly. so subtract it ship's from time of #2 for interval ridian). If not due E. for get Z.A.T.N. this interval Apply time to Z.Latitude 107 Another and simpler method but which requires charting is that of Commander Weems. time sun needs to reach meridian of #1 On chart from position of #1 run line for course as far as speed for time of #2 would take ship.ofL.orG. A. C T. to noon (sun on is lost. arc to time and fraction of hour to decimal. 6. C. metime If course is westerly.T. 5. of #1 to T. T. drop perpendiculars from each end latitude and measure on that. morning determine sun's t east. 4.

C. T. obtain 2 at 2 This a . Make usual altitude corrections. Obare therefore often taken any time within 28 servations cloud A small minutes of noon. 4. 2. obtain a.108 Latitude The Meridian Whatever method Sight of finding the proper time for the meridian observation is used. C.R. Entering Table 29 with D. for G. the following steps must then be carried out: 1. Subtract from 90 to get z. because such can be ''reduced" to the meridian by Tables 29 and 30 in Bowditch. A. This procedure is based on the following equation: Meridian altitude = corrected altitude at observation + of altitude in 1 minute of time from meridian X (change square of time interval from meridian passage) or H = h + a t 2 . Entering Table 30 with this a and the time of observation from meridian passage (given for i/ minute). of observation. before or after. 6. of body. Find decimation Combine d and z according to which of the four cases was present and obtain latitude. latitude and declination. T. Reduction to the Meridian may spoil the actual meridian sight. 5. in N. 3. is to be added to a corrected altitude observed near upper transit (or subtracted from a corrected altitude t 2 . Take sextant altitude Note G.

Problems. at what G. A. C. Planet and Moon Transits may i$ some body. H. T. Hence find from N. only the one co-ordinate. T. A. This is latitude that of the vessel at the instant of observation. = the longitude if west. to measure two or more stars whose about 90. the exact position of the ship can be found. from which. The time for also observation at twilight is quite limited and. Chapter 30. This not generally recommended. noon will depend on the run between noon and Latitude by Latitude Star.Latitude observed near lower transit) to obtain the corrected tude at meridian passage. When body is crossing local meridian. The latitude at sight. 109 alti- Having thus found as the meridian altitude. while waiting for a given transit. the body will have G. its G. of transit is this: Longitude must be known. T. as will be exby plained later. H. or to 360 of transit. equal to the the longitude. or 360 minus the longitude if east. C. is obtainable. the horizon or body may fade. the usual practice is bearings differ Latitude by Polaris The altitude of the elevated pole of the celestial sphere . other than procedure be found by measuring the altitude of the sun. it is treated explained under Meridian Sight to obtain latitude. So. longitude. Details of a new uniform procedure will be found in Part III. Transit. C. This will be G. Hence. A. latitude. The general principle of finding G. at meridian transit.

A. Make usual altitude corrections. to be applied to true N. C. by means of certain tables in the N. table for G. obtaining G. A Table III (p. and longitude. and obtain4. A. of stars" (pp. So convenient to measure the altitude of the north star or Polaris which is close to the celestial pole and. obtaining L. of Polaris (W) (p. Add results of #4 and #5. it is equals the latitude. 280) at O h G. Phi Second This old method for determining latitude fron! (1) a single altitude of a body not on the meridian. A. 7.): 1. T.110 Latitude in the northern hemisphere. A. A. H. A. C. and obtaining correction for L. H. "reduce" this altitude to that of the actual celestial pole. N. C. of observation. subtracting 360 if over A. at G. A. H. to this G. . (2) G. of date. 6. T. T. 3. Note G. Table "Correction to be added to tabulated G. H. 8. C. Polaris has an apparent counterclockwise in a circle with radius of about 1 motion around the actual pole. The steps in the process to thus find latitude are as follows (references are to 1943 N. altitude. C. 214-16) using G. Take sextant altitude of Polaris. 2. T. N. A. 9. 5. H. ing correction. A. Add this to or subtract it from true altitude obtain- ing approximate latitude. Apply longitude of Polaris (W).. H. Latitude by Phi Prime. 284) entering with L. H. 360. T. A.

is now seldom here as an example of one of the phases given of navigation which preceded the Saint-Hilaire method.Latitude of the observation. Perpendicular from Body Meridian = I $>=mZ . of declination at least 3. and not over 45 from the meridian in azimuth. but is III and (3) known longitude.Zenith distance of = Declination of = = Latitude to be found QZ to m mQ m Latitude by Phi Prime. This last means that a line from body to zenith should not body is make an angle of over 45 with meridian. 35. (See FIG. Projection of the Celestial Sphere h = Altitude Mm Pole M = Body d P = Elevated = Declination FIG. The method is best restricted to conditions where the within 3 hours of meridian passage.) WQE = Equator 2 = Zenith on the Plane of the Horizon. 35. Phi Second. used. .

Mark and </>' North South if body bears north and body bears south and by adding. N. 1935). if east or north west. if Mark east or south <j>' and west. these Bowditch equations can be converted for satisfactory for / as follows: use with H. The for <".) As the author has pointed out (U. 0. if f and <" different names or sub- same. combining are in order to make the process conform marking and to other procedures in general use. L P. Sept. Combine tracting. except in the case of bodies nearer lower transit when 180 <' <" must be substituted for (The rules for Bowditch's reversed.112 Latitude (1933) One of the two sets of equations given in Bowditch for the solution is as follows: sin sin cos = cos <" = sin $ = sin / d sin d sec t I / h sec Give <j>" same name as d. S. 211 substituting R esc R = esc Y d>" t sec d esc = cscd csch . result will be latitude.

Note G. H. . Solve by 211 method for latitude. N. A. T. A. A. 1 . Take t. Make usual altitude corrections. 4. for declination and G. C. 3. 2. and longitude for 6. 5. Combine G. H.Latitude 113 Summary sextant altitude of body. and longitude.

= Equator Z= Zenith P d = Elevated Pole M = Body = Declination FIG. measured from LONGITUDE o the prime meridian toward the east or west through 180. W Qf. intercepted between the prime England) and the meridian of the place.Longitude and Chronometer Error 12 . = Polar distance = Altitude QZ . N Projection of the Celestial Sphere on the Plane of the Horizon. 36. THE a place is the arc of the equator meridian (Greenwich. .Latitude = Local hour angle p h t to be found Longitude by Time 114Sight.

Problems. A. H. H. C. H. to give longitude. Solve by 211 method for t. It calls for (1) a single altitude of a body preferably near the prime vertical (bearing east or latiwest). N. O. for longitude. (See FIG. and Make usual altitude corrections. 36. T. of meridian passage. Jr. NOTE: A method for finding the time at which the sun will be on the prime be found in Part III. I. it is combined with the G. N.) The long-used equation for this problem s sin (s is: hav t = secL esc p cos where s = Vz (h + L + p) h) Having thus found t. 6. 211: sec s esc (s h) Summary 1. from N. .Longitude The "Time 1763 and is 115 Sight" method still much for longitude dates back to in use in the merchant service though not in the navy. S. Take sextant altitude of body. 5. Note G. A. latitude. 30. Hulbert Hinkel. A. 4. of the observation and (3) known the body should be between 3 and 5 hours tude. (2) G. A. T. Practically. P. C. A. 3. April 1935) presented the following substitute equation for use with H. (U. 2. vertical will Chap.for declination and G. Combine t with G.

C. A. T. of transit. H. 3. T. T. C. A. C. G. sextant altitude of body near prime vertical Note chronometer (approx. to find the G. (See Part HI. moon. H. longitude is chronometer error at sea. If body was sun. C. however. C.) and longitude. A. in repeating #5 and repeat reDifference of this second NOTE: The method for #7 of finding from N. Difference of this G. Chap. Use it maining steps through revised G. what the G. 6. C. is for a certain G. or planet. usual altitude corrections. Make N. T. of this G. the process is as follows: as L Take as possible. A.) . H. go back to #4 and use the revised G. for declination. Transit. T. T. 8. from chronometer will show practically all error. #7. A. or there may be no radio. is the same as the method of finding G. 2. Solve by 211 t method for L Combine with longitude for G. N. 7. if correct fail. 5. C. T. part or 9. the radio receiver may In such case. 4. found in #7 to pick out more exact declination. known. from chronometer equals all of error. 30.116 Chronometer Error Chronometer Error Radio time signals now furnish the best means of deter- mining In some circumstances. A. Problems.

Formula (with and without sextant Diagram (with and without sextant Celestial Co-ordinator. 71 ("Red" Azimuth 23 and to Lat. and (2) for position. Tables for declinations for the sun) - H. 0. A. O. L Gyro compass 2. (after obtaining latitude by Polaris). observation). first is The show The second is much used. It is also measured from the north point clockwise through 360 and is then identical with true bearing and labeled Zn (See FIG. 5. 120 ("Blue" Azimuth Tables 117- . It is usually measured from the north in north latitudes. 3. possible because of the fact that gyros true directions with no deviation or variation. east or west through 180. and similarly from the south in south latitudes and designated Z. 6.13* Azimuth and Compass Error A ZIMUTH of a celestial body . observation)./\between is the angle at the zenith the meridian of observer and the vertical great circle passing through zenith and the body. Azimuth is found by the following means: (with azimuth circle). usually for and H. 4. 37. N. 70.) Azimuth of a body is needed for two main purposes: . as will be explained in the to determine the error of a magnetic compass. (1) drawing a line of next chapter. Table.

118 Azimuth 70 and to Lat. but also save some time. Equator M = Body Azimuth. and t (the first two in even degrees and the last in I0-minute time intervals) Z. They cover lati- . for stars) are the declinations 24 standard books. volumes "Cugle's except for having 2-minute time intervals. Entering with L. A rather long and tedious calculation is necessary gives in most instances because the quantities usually lie between N Projection of the Celestial Sphere on the Plane of the Horizon. d. They are arranged on the same basis as the H. 37. WQE Z'= Zenith p = Elevated Pole FIG. O. Two-Minute Azimuths" recently published in two volumes are more expensive. 70. Z = Azimuth direct from Ele- vated Pole Zn = Azimuth by 360 system these entering values and interpolation is necessary.

214 (see Chap. is a small volume. d in whole and usually half degrees and t in whole degrees which corresponds to 4-minute time intervals. H. I. provides probably the most satisfactory means of similarly finding azimuth.211: 2 sec h sec L lat. also on the same basis. 66. interpolation. in N. P. Collins' equation (U. N. (A problem showing method of interpolation will be found in Chapter 30. p.Azimuth 119 tudes to 65 and declinations to 23. O. and 5 to 8 P. but they all fall into the following three classes: Time Azimuth tions and method but may be (Z obtained from t. I. for latitudes 70 . M. O. In either case it is measured from N. Altitude Azimuth (Z obtained from h. It is limited to the hours 4 to 7 A. H. L is in whole degrees. at 10-min- ute intervals. S. The volumes already published carry latitudes to 79 and decimations to 74 30'. 200 includes a short table which is entered with h cy d and It covers declinations to t and requires some 30'. P. H. 89 The new series of volumes. and L). O. M. July 1934) is recommended: L) hav Z = sec h sec L sin (s where s = Yz (h + L + p) h) sin (s Hinkel (U. N. S. Arctic Azimuth Tables. 16). and from . The equaare lengthy and will not be given here found in Bowditch. June 1936) gives the following for use with H.88 and declinations to 23. O. p3 and L).) There are many formulas for azimuth.

etc. as follows: sin h = esc L sin d. or W. Azimuth lat.211: esc Z= esc t sec d sec h is often accurate enough for pracand saves much of the time ordinarily spent purposes in calculating formulas or interpolating tables. is E.) Time and Altitude Azimuth (Z obtained from is: d). However. the solution will almost always be evident. and Z = sin t sec h cos d There is a defect in this method in that nothing indicates whether the azimuth is measured from north or south. (See t9 Table 14. Weems' "Line of Position Book. 7) set for L. Weir is mentioned by Button. The is but less this does p may have a negative value quantity s not matter since the secant of a negative angle positive. and L to obtain Z. h. Another diagram by Capt. When in doubt. A Celestial Co-ordinator (see Chap." Entering with t. in S. with and d same name. The Bowditch equation than 90 sin h. or W. If ob- served altitude was less.120 S. The azimuth of Polaris may be found from the Nautical Almanac as follows: An azimuth diagram tical Find approximate latitude by procedure given in Chapter 1 1 under Latitude by Polaris. d. sun was on side toward elevated Using H. and L when sun pole. Weir's uses t. find altitude sun almost E. t and d will give approximate values for Z and 7z. as the approximate azimuth is always known. 1. A copy of Rust's azimuth diagram comes with one of the short-cut systems. and d one arrives at Z. . 0.

Sextant altitude. 66. O. C. 4. Azimuth 1. Table IV. H A. N. Altitude Azimuth Time and 1. 3. and Lo. Altitude Azimuth 1. 5. 285 in 1943 N. and L. H. and d. Formula. Summary 2. Sextant altitude. 121 L. 120. 23. N. H. 2. of Polaris 200). 2md Lo. Latitude by Polaris. .A. and Lo. G. and d(p = 90 d). C. Formula. for t. G. O. T. N. T.ford( = 90d). 3. A. A. 4. H. for G. of observation. (or t). Make usual altitude corrections. A. G. 214 or Cugle's) or formula or diagram (Weir). A. 2. Time Azimuth 1. and Lo.Azimuth 2. A. A. Make usual altitude corrections* N. for G. G. 5. or Table (H.) with and approximate latitude and take out azimuth. of observation. 6. Table (H. A. C. H. A. G. c 4. and L. Enter Table IV (p. for t (unless given). or diagram (Rust). 71. T.

. obtained from the chart. is compared with the true azimuth of the body.122 Compass Error Compass Error azimuth. which is determined by one of the methods described. The difference is the error: variation plus deviation. usually the sun and preferably at low altitude. is the deviation on the particular heading. taken with an azimuth The compass circle. o a body. The difference between this total error and the variation.

an altitude of the sun was obtained and chronometer time CAPT. SUMNER. she was necessarily somewhere on that line." The conclusion although the absolute position of the ship was uncertain. at the ship at the same instant. and that. R. . S. on December 18. an American shipmaster. noted. 1837. at a certain angle. as one of the three greatest contributions to the science of navigation. As the D. "It then at once appeared that the observed altitude must have happened at all the three points . When the three positions were plotted on the chart. M. near the end of his ship's voyage from Charleston. two additional latitudes 10' and 20' farther north were assumed and the three possible longitudes were worked out. was Sumner published his discovery in 1843 and it is considered. Circles of If Equal Altitude at the top of a vertical flagpole from a certain distance away from. but 123- this angle will around the not .14. with the previous invention of the chronometer and the subsequent development of the Saint-Hilaire method. to Greenock.. its base. Capt. We may walk all pole keeping at the same distance. latitude was unreliable. About 10 A. C. Sumner Lines of THOMAS Position H. we will be gazing we look up upward change. was in need of data as to his position. Scotland. they were found to be in a straight line. .

(See FIG. Latitude from d. C. Longitude-from G. and have an the body would be in the zenith and have an altitude of 90. in the zenith at a point anywhere and if circles in the same around this point as a center. 3. this circle of 90 radius. etc. hemisphere are imagined then the altitude of such body from every point of any one circle at the given time will be the same. where the body In an astronomical the point 1. if a certain heavenly body is on the earth at a given time. in the zenith. H. A. the largest possible circle. the body's altitude would be therefore. circle. dividing the earth into hemiwould have a radius of 90. is There equal altitude the observation tion of another nothing to show at what point on the circle of was made. Expressing it in minutes of the zenith distance equals the number of nautical miles the observer is away from the center of the arc. But an observa- body preferably in a direction at right angles . given parallel of It is somewhat less obvious but none the less true that. The and radius is. the following is learned is on the earth in whose zenith the body is: 2. the body would be in the horizon center with radius 0. Distance from observer from h. From the 10 On a circle with radius of 80. Measuring the radius of such a circle in degrees on the earth's surface.124 It is Sumner Lines of Position obvious that a heavenly body directly over the nonh the same altitude from every point on a pole would show north latitude. altitude of 0. 38.) about sight. From any point on spheres. and G. T. the complement of the altitude so equals the zenith distance.

FIG. or angular distance on earth from observer to body's geographical position = zenith distance of body at place of observer (for nearer bodies. by geometry: Angle OO'B' = angle ZOB. . Zenith distance and the Radius of the Circle of Equal Altitude.Sumner Lines of Position if 125 Circle * = Extremely distant fixed star = Earth in plane of vertical circle of body observed Z = Zenith of observer OB = Line from observer toward body h = Altitude z = Zenith distance = Place on earth where body is in zenith (geographical position) ' ZO O'B' is is parallel to OB considering distance of body Therefore. parallax correction makes them prolonged to center of earth at O' equal anyway). 38.

It always right angles to the direction of the body from the observer. when the body was nearer east or The three methods of determining a line of position are as follows: latitude Chord method: for one sight assume two values of and determine longitudes or assume two values of longitude and determine latitudes. while a sight lies at knowledge of all the probable single worked with a assumed lati- tude or longitude gives only one probable position. The Line It is of Position equal altitude. position.1 26 Sumner Lines in order to get a of Position later) to the first (or the same body several hours can be made new circle. sights were worked for latitude when the body was nearer north or south and for longitude west. as a tangent to a circle through a point is perpen- dicular to the radius at that point. there is no question as to which is the correct one. one of is them being the ship's position. and as these two intersections may be thousands of miles apart. Such a line to cover the considered as a straight line for the probable limits of the position is known as a Sumner line or line of position. . It gives a positions. In the two earlier line of position methods. Two points are thus fixed on the chart and the line joining them is the line of 1. and A such an arc may be length needed of the observer. never necessary to determine the whole of a circle of very small portion of it is sufficient. But as the ship's position always approximately known within about 30 miles. first circle at This will intersect the two places.

3. Phi Second formula for latitude. The difference between the actual and the calculated altitude shows how far to move along the azimuth line from the assumed position before drawing a perpendicular.) direction of the body. (This method will be discussed in more detail in the next chapter. and a line drawn from the one point at this angle in the using the time-sight formula for longitude. one should use the time and altitude formula for azimuth. position or one nearby and calculate what the altitude and azimuth of a body would be. Then perpendicular to this line through the point is drawn the line of position. The azimuth of the body must now be found either by formula. table. it is convenient to also use the altitude azimuth formula. Saint-Hilaire method: assume both latitude and longitude using either the D. at the time an actual altitude was taken on the ship. R. or diagram.Sumner Lines of Position 127 2. Tangent method: for one sight assume one latitude or one longitude and determine the other co-ordinate. When using the Phi Prime. When and . This is the line of position. One point on the line is thus obtained. there.

Little information is available about him. had announced a method of comparing calculated with actual altitude for locating the line of position. 1832 and entered the French Navy in -1847. position. fol- He December 30. He split the astronomical died in Paris. R. He used an assumed position and computed tables for solving the triangle. Everything so far in this Primer has been leading up to the Saint-Hilaire method.15. pp. XLVI. These were published as "Tables for Facilitating Sumner's Method at Sea" in 1876. and when Saint-Hilaire first devel- oped his method. 1871. . It would be interesting to know if Saint-Hilaire knew of Kelvin's announcement. It is a most important development in the science of position finding and is the basis of practically all modern navigational 128* systems. Lord Kelvin before the Royal Society. Saint-Hilaire Method FRENCHMAN Adolphe Laurent Anatole Marcq de Blond de Saint-Hilaire was born at Crcy-sur-Serre (Aisne) July 29. triangle by dropping a perpendicular from the body onto the meridian and solved the resulting right spherical triangles by logarithms. He was made a Commander of the Legion of Honor in THE 1881 and reached the rank of Contre-Amiral in 1884. August 1875. 341-376. His method of the calculated altitude was published as "Calcul du point observe. using the D. Methode des hauteurs estim^es/' in "Revue Maritime et Coloniale" Vol. lowing distinguished service in the Tunis expedition. 1889. February 6.

and the distance of The the D. R. it means your actual position was nearer the body's geographical position than was the D. d. the observation had been made at exactly the D. 3. and d. Combine G. (You were more "under" the body. Note D. then you were really farther from the body's geographical position than was the D. R. (We could compare the observed zenith distance with a calculated zenith distance but the altitude way is more convenient." . position. therefore. R. These are the values the body would have had 7. H. longitude. A. (You were less "under" the body.) The a is. R. 5. A. R. labeled "toward" or "away. R. position. R. for G. difference between your observed altitude corrected as in #2 and the calculated altitude of #6. represents the difference in miles between your actual distance from the place where the body is in the zenith. Take an altitude and note G. A. called its geographical position. and D. R. With t. t (for D. C. T. position). longitude for 4. in minutes of arc. calculate altitude 6. If the observed altitude is greater than the calculated.Saint-Hilaire Method 129 Details of Procedure 1. position from the body's geographical position. H.) But if your observed altitude is less than the calculated.) This difference is called the altitude difference or intercept and is given the abbreviation a. Make usual altitude corrections. latitude and D. and L using one of several formulas to be given and perhaps tables or a diagram. (h c ) and azimuth if (Z). 2. position. N.

One called for in of the best formulas for calculating the altitude #6 is known as the cosine-haversine and is described by Button as "the most widely used formula of trigonometry applied to nautical astronomy.) This is the line of position. Knowing independent of all short-cut systems and could function even when only tables of a foreign publication were available. position on the chart draw a line azimuth angle in the direction of the body's geographical position.z (L and d: add opposite names. 10. d. either toward or away from the body's geographical position. Lay off on this line from the D. subtract likes) Convenient formula: to use with this is the time and altitude azimuth sin Z= sin t cos d sec h c Other formulas or tables or a diagram may also be used. (See FIG. Saint-Hilaire Method Through at 'the calculated the D. as the case may be. The cosine-haversine formula and a formula for azimuth should be memorized once and for all by every student these one could be navigator. . Through the end of this intercept draw a line per- pendicular to the azimuth line. 39. position a distance in miles equal to the intercept. and L.90 . R." Here it is: hav z = hav (L ~ d) + hav where hav & = have t cos L cos d from which h c . 9. R.130 8. It is universally applicable to all combinations of the values of t.

The Saint-Hilaire Method.R. posmon PARALLEL FIG.Saint-Hilaire Method 131 GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION OF BODY UNKNOWN (h. POSITION OF LQUM. 39. KLTITUDL / ^ N^ D. .

Hence a line which is over five hours old in a moving ship is not trusted. wind. These latter factors are estimates from compass and log readings or engine revolutions and open to error through current. When chart work is impossible. etc. speed and course of ship to get fix at time of last sight. The ideal fix is probably from three We show the real position. (See Chap. A fix obtained after moving forward a previous line is The in known as a running fix. the first must be moved forward parallel to itself according to the course and distance made good. position at the time of the last of the series in the usual working each sight. Then plot the line for the last sight way but advance the lines of the previous sights according to time difference. The second about 120 intervals around the observer. a method for computing the position of the intersection of position lines (Bowditch. Another line must be obtained which will intersect the first giving what is called a fix. pp. 190-3) may be followed.132 Saint-Hilaire Method The Fix have seen that one line of position does not fix the exact location of the ship. R. and so line preferably should be at about 90 to the first although a smaller angle down to 45 may be effective. best method for a series to use the of two or more star sights is D. This requires knowledge of the position of one point on each line and so the lines had best be obtained by the tangent method. When the same or another stars at lines body is used later in the day to get the second line. 14. giving 3 which should intersect at a point or at least with formation of a small triangle.) .

position intersects perpendicular to the line of position is the latter.Saint-Hilaire Method 1 33 for The various practicable combinations of observations a fix are as follows: Daylight Separated Sun and Sun Simultaneous or close Sun and Moon Sun and Venus Venus and Moon Twilight Simultaneous or close Star and Star and Planet Star Star and Moon Planet and Planet Planet and Moon The Computed This is Point dropped ship the point where a line from the D. of the possible positions of the to use as the therefore. is the best mean point in the absence of an intersecting ship's probable position line and without contrary evidence from weather or current. It. It the on the line. . R.

Dutton (7th ed. S. Position fractions of degrees of latitude advantages of using an assumed position are that or hour angle may be avoided and arithmetic simplified. position.Cut Systems by the was published by the U. RESUME OF NAVIGATION METHODS ular form by Soule in tab- and S.) and H. 214 (all of which use the Saint-Hilaire method) and Aquino's method for finding latitude and longitude directly. HydroInstitute.. I know of more methods which have appeared: Aquino's 'Tangent Secant Tables. "No matter what position is assumed within the 40' limit. Office as "Supplement to the Pilot Chart of the graphic North Atlantic Ocean" in 1934. p. 204) states that any correct to within about 40' may be position used. R." "Hughes* Tables for Sea and Air Navigation/' Ageton's "Manual of Celestial Navigation" (for D. R.16. Naval son of the salient features of twenty-nine different methods for determining the elements of the astronomical triangle in order to plot the line of position. P. O. The remaining nine are longitude methods for chord or tangent lines. It gives a ready compariCollins. the line of position will plot in the same place on the . or A. Since this publication. five ' Assumed The vs. Short. copyrighted A U. making twenty for the Saint-Hilaire method. R. D. There are seventeen systems working from an assumed position and three from the D.

" title is "Dead H. (See is and there are only two The only disadvantage that when the hour angle lies . FIG. The disadvantages are that a little more arithmetic and time are required. errors are more smaller altitude intercepts result which makes for accuracy. This means drawing each azimuth line through a different point. and (theoretically) the azimuth should be more accurate. A. the altitude difference. 211" by Comdr. A. only the one is position apparent. 0. 34. position are: run forward on the chart from the last fix. it is the shortest D. 214. N. Another bad feature is that long altitude intercepts may result. R. Its full Reckoning Altitude and Azimuth Table. star or planet. The it is advantages of working from the D.211 Advantages of H. method. position system. except for H. a. 211 are as follows: It gives sufficient accuracy without interpolation. moon.Short-Cut Systems chart. Of the various methods and tables available. he recommends the use of "HL O. O. the table is use. S." The chief disadvantage is that chart work is complicated by using a different assumed position for each of several sights taken in a short interval. azimuth is indexed and very simple and easy for rapid determined without question as to origin. the writer has chosen the D. 135 changing with each change of assumed position. In view of the foregoing and after using both.) special rules. U. much plotted for any group of sights. O. R. it consists of only one table of 36 pages running in two columns of almost all whole numbers. R. it follows a uniform procedure for sun. Ageton.

40.L when 1 Take Z from top of table . (Projection of celestial sphere on plane of horizon. course. if ^ takes same name FIG.) . 211.136 Rule 1: Short-Cut Systems K is always < 90 Take 1 I from top of table! ^ when ft is > 90 iC J Take j from bottom of table Rule 2: _ Z is always > 900 f A 1S same name as & > latltude cxce P t J Take Z from hot.. perpendicular to meridian. or S.O. torn of table J Of . _ . ^= as declination (N. . R is dropped from body M.) Rules for H.

1375-1385. 344. for convenient forms to use with H. the solution requires such close Ageton recommends discarding those The all log secants each table consists of double columns of log cosecants and X 105 which eliminates decimal points in but a few pages. 29." U. H. A. Chap. O. L: subtract likes. NOTE: See Part III. of course. pp. No. See Ageton. A. Naval Institute Proceedings. Vol. sextant errors) is within i/% mile. O. S. accuracy (excluding. which are given for each half-minute of arc. 57. add opposites. 211. Without interpolating between the values. Oct. 214 This recent development in navigational tables is entitled "Tables of Computed Altitude and Azimuth/' The complete set will consist of nine volumes. 1931. The formulas used. are as follows: esc esc esc esc R = esc t sec d K= hc esc d sec R sec = sec R esc (K - ' L) Z= R hc sec Give K ' ' K same name as d.: "The Secant-Cosecant Method for Determining the Altitude and Azimuth of a Heavenly Body. Eight have already .Short-Cut Systems within about 3 of 90 137 interpolation that sights. derived from Napier's second rule.

The intercepts are usually much longer from assumed positions and the azimuths not quite so accurate. R. O. In Chapter 30 will be found a fix from two stars worked as- out by H. The procedure in either case is the shortest of its kind possible at present. position and the sumed position methods. R. for each sight. Make usual altitude corrections for h . few of the volumes will probably be sufficient in most A cases. 214: Method Using D. or an assumed position may be used. and the plotting of each azimuth line from a different point. . It will be seen that the method which uses the D. Take an altitude by sextant and note G. R. C T. the method using a different assumed position for each sight requires the calculation of the assumed longitude. The azimuth from the table may be interpolated for the D. sometimes by a subtraction. position if extreme accuracy is desired. since each volume covers 600 miles in latitude. R. O. Position 1. 214 with both the D. R. 2.138 Short-Cut Systems been published covering latitudes to 79 (10 to a volume). H. The following summaries will show each step. position for each sight exceeds in length the method using a different assumed position for each by two short altitude corrections (L and t) and a combination of the three corrections. Either the D. Tables for star identification are included at the end of the data for each degree of latitude. The fact that the whole set is of nine volumes need not discourage the average cruising yachtsman. However.

These change of 1' of arc of declination and of local hour angle. give a + sign.) 8. A.Short-Cut Systems 3. Enter tables with nearest whole degree of latitude and local hour angle and nearest whole or half degree of declination. Z.#. and t from G. 7. position. Calculate by inspection the differences between figures used to enter tables and actual values of d. . Plot from D. Find d and G. Use another table in back of book entering with L difference (found in #7) and azimuth (found in #6) and take out altitude correction for L. 1 1 . Give each result a + or a sign according as the tables show the altitude to be increasing or decreasing in passing from the chosen tabulated value toward the value to be used. 5. R. Combine Combine these three altitude corrections algebra- the resulting total with altitude from table (found in #6) to get h 12. 13. & D. 139 4. R. in N. H. A d and A two represent the change in altitude due to a t. R. R. otherwise mark it +. lati- tude exceeds chosen tabulated value. Use table on back cover pages to multiply d and t differences (found in #7) by A d and A t respectively. R. R. A. H. With Z > 90: if D. Longitude. Note D. . With Z L if correction < D. 9. last latitude exceeds chosen tabulated value. Combine h c and h for intercept. t (D. this L correction 10. LQ. 6. Latitude and D. ically. Copy the 4 values found which will be h. These are altitude corrections for d and t. give a 90: sign.) and (>. otherwise mark it . A. R.

R.140 Short-Cut Systems H. 0.inN. This last Copy the values found for h. R. Calculate by inspection the difference between declination used to enter tables and the actual declination. Longitude. Latitude and D. Use A - in increasing decreasing passing from the chosen tabulated value toward the is value to be used This 11. A. T. Combine this correction . table in back cover pages to multiply d difference d. R.A. 214: Method Using Assumed Position 1. FinddandG. Z and A rep- resents the change in altitude due to a change of 1' of arc of declination. Enter tables with assumed latitude and local hour angle and nearest whole or half degree of declination. 2. H. 8. with altitude from table (found in #8) to get h c 12. d. Take an altitude by sextant and note G. 3. C. Combine h c and h for intercept 13. 4.H. R. Assume the whole degree Latitude nearest D. which when combined with G. Give result a + or (found in #9) by sign according as the tables show the altitude to be or 10. 7. Assume Longitude nearest D.A. Plot from the assumed position. the altitude correction for d. 5. 6. will give a whole degree for t. . 9. . Make usual altitude corrections for h Note D.

note G. that point to the geographical position of the body. C. an arc can be swept in the general direction of the ship. 38. and make usual corrections. Special Fixes FROM THE USUAL TYPE of fix described A>ART in Chapter 15. the point as a center and with dividers set by the latitude scale for the number of miles equal to minutes With of zenith distance. of from N. The G. (See FIG. Following a similar observation from the 141- . The declination represents the latitude of its geographical position.. H. T. a matter of less than 60'. obtained sheet. represents body the west longitude of its geographical position.17. some of which will now be described. therefore. A. The is. C. This point can.) Ordinary lines of position under these circumstances are not accurate because a straight line here will only coincide with a very small part of the equal altitude. on earth which has the body in its zenith. It is better to draw the actual circle or an arc of it. be plotted on the chart or plotting at this G.. This can be circle of done as follows: Take a the sextant altitude 3 or 4 minutes before transit. Zenith Fix with Sumner Arcs its When the altitude of a body is over 89 that the zenith distance of a sents zenith distance of course. there are several methods for certain circumstances. It will be recalled body in minutes of arc reprethe distance in nautical miles from observer's position namely. A. T.

is the ship practically stationary and the sun's altitude . 6th ed. p. S.' 142 Special Fixes same position about 3 or 4 minutes after transit. this method should apply to any body passing near zenith but it is unlikely that a star would be rapidly changing from If body is to transit be- found and satisfactorily observed in this With method available there would be no need for it. from two stars at noon of occasional use in daylight with the sun or Venus at transit. but is not essential. tween zenith and elevated pole. the usual Practically. a third arc from an observation at transit may be used. Jan. 22nd ed. N. Or the second arc can be pushed back similarly to give a fix at first observation. Theoretically. the first arc can be advanced by shifting its center according to course and distance covered to give a fix at second observation. another arc from a new center can be similarly swept which will intersect the first and give a fix. 500. In case the ship has meanwhile moved. U.) The Noon Fix with Equal This latitude If is Altitudes described by Lecky (22nd ed. If body is to system) will diminish to transit with zenith between it and elevated pole. These bodies will only pass near zenith if the ship is in low latitudes and when declination and latitude are about equal. pp. Noon is obtained by a meridian altitude in the usual way. The azimuth east of the in this situation is meridian to west of it... 212. azimuth will increase to 180 and then diminish. p. 482-4). Button. 1936. it is of a fix way at twilight. azimuth (on the 180 and then increase. I.. P. For accuracy. Bugger. (See Lecky.

l 6'.. Clamp the sextant. the subsequent application of these corrections would show a true altitude in excess of 90 when observation is made from the usual height of a ship's bridge. 21 C. obtained from N. T. E.Special Fixes not 143 less than 75 the longitude may be found as follows. C. T. should show no change are actually on equator.) If the sextant were set for 90. T. H. C. (Parallax and refraction do not operate when body is in zenith. C. T. Corr. T. obtained this G. T. 90 B. C. M. H. the azimuth remaining 90 all day from either pole. C. for sun " D. Set the sextant except for the instant when it is X (see Note) and observe sun eastward in A. A. if you from N. Corr. or S. Observe sun with this clamped sextant after noon until sun is seen on horizon as before and again note G. for 39 feet (H. C.) Mar. (A quick at look with sextant to N.) alt. of apparent noon at ship. will equal longitude.1 10'. = 0. D. For example: Table A. for this G. M. A.. At the equator it will pass through zenith at noon. and W. The half-sum of these two times will be G. A. Use another sextant. M.) G. lat. G. in A. (S. for NOTE: X represents the corrections for height of eye and semidiameter which must be allowed for in order to observe the sun at a true altitude of 90. A. The On the two due east Fix on Equator at Equinox equinox dates of each year the sun rises pracand sets practically due west throughout the tically earth except in extreme polar regions. for sun " (S. Corr. till 90 its lower limb just meets horizon and note G. Total . From 10 to 15 minutes before local apparent noon observe sun's altitude and note G.) = =+ =+ + 16' O'. E. at noon. will equal long. in P.

to be worked by H. The Fix on Equator Not at Equinox S. Dec. H. P. N. June 1936) gives the following equation for local hour angle. for time of observation = longitude. not at equinox. I. N. equations used obtaining a the Air" (U. A. latitude = 0. At any other time of day on equator at equinox. A. The student is referred to the original article for details. The azimuth must be taken with a gyro compass in perfect order or with a magnetic compass whose error is definitely known.144 Special Fixes Reversing the sign and applying to 90 90 89 00' 507 = sextant setting. and corrected. for the sun's declination. I. 1936) presents a method of fix from simultaneous sextant and compass observations of a single body. sec t = esc h sec d Combining t with G. O. gives longitude. . if a sextant altitude is taken. but with a definite value Hinkel (U. then t = 90 h and t combined with G. Aquino's Fix from Altitude and Azimuth article Capt. when on equator. H. 211. latitude = 0. P. Radler de Aquino of the Brazilian Navy in his "A Fix from Altitude and Azimuth at Sea and in S.

right ascension. de Aquino.. 352-5. Nautical Almanac. One right edges) and local sidereal time (top and botof the stairs is usually Polaris. The practical difficulty in this other- "A Navega^ao Hodierna com wise ideal method is. in obtaining a sufficiently accurate azimuth. published by the Weems system of ment new developin position finding and under favorable conditions offer the means for obtaining a fix in the amazingly short time of two minutes. The Fix with Weems' Star Altitude Curves Star Altitude Curves. Maryland. log sec and log esc for every T of arc may be used. of course.Special Fixes 145 and their derivation but it is sufficient to state here that latitude and longitude are obtained directly from the reasonably short calculation. pp. of three stars plotted on a Mercator chart at 10' intervals against latitude (left and tom). Copacabana. 7th ed. azimuth and the plotting of position lines. A form Any tables containing log tan. The tables occupy only 18 pages. Annapolis. The The student is referred to the publisher for details or can find a good description in Button. or lines of position. 133 Rua Raul Pompeia. Rio de Janeiro. . hour angle. each page is a "grid" formed by the respective equal altitude curves. represent a following items are dispensed with: assumed position. Aquino has prepared an especially convenient table of these functions which his is contained in Logaritrnos de 1633!" This can be purchased from R. Very briefly. Navigation. given in Chapter 29 and a for the procedure is sample problem in Chapter 30. Brazil.

Mark 6. same point vertically to the scale to find . to obtain approximate L. T. Each page covers about 10 of latitude and the to 70 30' and local sidecollection covers latitudes from real time from O h to 24 h correction is . and Observe altitude of Polaris. as follows: 1. is indicated under the name of each star A second-setting watch on G. 3. 4. 2. 7. T.146 Special Fixes At the top are shown the names of the stars used on that page and the half or whole hour of local sidereal time which is covered. or else G. The procedure in simplest form. only the correction for dip of the horizon is used. S.) 5. T. S. Find the proper altitude line and fraction on the Curves for the longitude star and do the same for Polaris. Observe altitude of one of the "longitude stars" note G. T. T. (Time of this is not necessary. a circle of equal altitude of a star remains nearly the same from year to year. (in time) to G. for northern hemisphere. Turn to the corresponding page for this time and for the approximate latitude. With a standard sextant. Project this L. No needed when the altitudes are observed with a bubble sextant. Project this intersection horizontally to the scale to find latitude. the intersection of these two lines. For any place and sidereal time. S. An annual correction at the top. C. S. T. converted to G. S. as altitude of Polaris changes so slowly. is Apply approximate longitude S. T. is is used.

147 S. of ob- servation to find longitude in time. Convert above to arc to find longitude. T. . the usual methods of marine celestial navigation.8. stars is at present most suitable given on planets. Special Fixes Take the difference between this and G. 9. This remarkable procedure for high-flying fast airplanes. make limitation to the three each page without curves for sun. moon or it a supplement to. rather than a substitute The for.

Circles drawn with observer as center will be leading west clockwise or east counterclockwise. second. lines of position in arctic regions. or celestial equator. above which all bodies are in northern declination. the farther away from the we pole we go. the story of position finding for the whole earth instead of the usual limit of 65 latitude N.18. The A north declination as given in N.. until they gradually become those with which are already familiar in latitudes below 66. will then be the true altitude. A. or S. say. After can more easily understand the conditions in the neighborhood of the pole which are similar but which become less so. Sextant altitudes. -148* . At the North Pole At the north pole. Polar Position Finding AMATEUR NAVIGATOR will rarely be concerned THE with ever. horizon of an observer at the north pole marks the equinoctial. every direction radiating out from an observer is south. Let us consider for a moment certain special conditions which exist at. the exact geographical understanding these. there is two reasons have led me to include we will practically nothing printed about polar position finding in any of the texts or manuals in common use. How- something of be completing these matters in this Primer: first. we north pole. then.

It remains visible at The sun and rises gradually to solstice. March 21. this during the arctic night from Fall to Spring equinox. is The moon's month and the horizon. . Polar Position Finding would differ by the amount of at 149 the usual cor- Spring equinox. Jupiter at no time. and Saturn from March 6 to the end of the year but never as much as 5. It declination north about one half of each body will be above sometimes attains an altitude of over 21. Venus was in northern declination from March 1 6 to August 9. more sun. Mars from February 1 to Octo- The ber 29. Conditions favoring visibility of a planet in northern declination during the six months of arctic daylight angular distance from the would be: more altitude. which is too low an altitude for navigational use. this upper half of the "inner surface of the celestial sphere" presents an unvarying picture except for the moon and planets. All stars of northern declination are theoretically visible at such times. appears above the horizon and skims around it in about 24 hours. As their declinations change so little from year to year. 23. Naturally their different orbits and varying declinations will change the program from year to year. Sept. of course. rections.of course. and less bright sunlight. The presence of the sun does not make it invisible and so when the two are in evidence they can often be used for lines of position which intersect and give a fix. for instance. It summer the six months of arctic night. In 1938. four navigational planets appear at times during arctic night. and remains invisible for appear 21. an altitude of about 23 27' then gradually sinks to disJune at Fall equinox.

(The latitude of the north magnetic pole is about 70 N. and find its To find direction of Greenwich: on the pelorus will point toward Greenwich. The north point of the magnetic compass will point south toward the magnetic north pole or approximately along the meridian of longitude 97 W. started with N.) A gyro compass. as the earth turns under it counterclockwise.. Being on top of the spinning world. point toward Greenwich. a bubble sextant is necessary. read in degrees on pelorus. for instance. in N. theoretically should hold its direction steady in relation to the universe and so appear to make one clockwise revolution in one sidereal day.) Owing to ice floes making the horizon rough. for a given instant. the rule that "day and night are equal at equinox" is not quite true at or near the pole. is Polar Position Finding no azimuth at the pole. communication. "Actually. This supplies its own horizon. G. since true north 1'. A." (Sperry Gyroscope Co. however. Inc. A. H. A.6 is in the zenith. about the vertical axis due to pendulousness of the compass.150 There Polaris zenith. this result would not be mechanically possible due to friction of the supports. . when visible will be found within 1 of the choose a heavenly body. This would produce a slight tilt of the gyro which in turn would result in a continuous precession axis. as 74 for New York City. set a pelorus with this G. The direction of any other place will be its longitude west. One has to get away far enough to be able to have some of the earth come between oneself and the sun to make any night possible at all. on the body at the time chosen. H.

Starting north of the magnetic north pole. but this The never becomes as strong as it is in our latitudes. the north point of the compass will ~ 180. (See Chap. Still continuing east variation pointing true north and gin to show true line of position although the latter is always part of a "small circle/' (A straight line on a Mercator chart similarly is a rhumb line and not truly a part of a small circle. this variation will be west and will steadily decrease till a point is reached about halfway around the parallel variation the compass will bewhich will steadily increase till our starting point has been reached when variation again = 180. when compass will be = 0. astronomical triangles in polar problems are peculiar in that the side between elevated pole and zenith is The . 21. Getting away from the magnetic pole the compass gains in directional force. Suppose the compass is carried around the geographical north pole on the parallel of latitude 80 N.) A method for allowing for curvature in will long position lines be explained.) A straight line drawn on this represents a portion of a great circle. This is usually sufficiently close for a east. A dipping needle supported on a horizontal axis proves this. Continuing east on the point south and variation 80th parallel. The nature of the Mercator chart makes it useless for high latitudes and so a polar great circle chart is used. At the north magnetic pole it becomes useless inasmuch as the directional force is to pull the north end downward.Polar Position Finding 151 In Polar Regions behavior of the magnetic compass in polar regions deserves some mention.

c-o g O K i 1 .

pole. in extreme cases. A. H. A. Briefly it is position finding within 5 as follows: Note D. pole. A. Call this differing h c) . Lay off a from pole on the line drawn through and draw through its outer extremity a preliminary tion line perpendicular to sun G. in which case h c = d and G. 1933). and d from N. R. I. much 66 "Arctic Azimuth Tables" may be used in certain limof Position ited conditions. using H. this does not prevent. H. in an article "Polar Celestial Navigation" (U. Find difference in minutes of arc between d (represent- and h If latter is greater.) Weems' "Line Book" Polar edition 1928. note time corrections = h . is a system using an assumed position for which the tables have been extended to include all latitudes. is what corresponds to Z. H. posi- between sun's . A. then position line is toward sun from the pole and vice versa. position on polar up. ence a.Polar Position Finding relatively 153 shorter. O. and extend this line through pole. Plot line from pole toward sun's geographical position at the proper G. N. H. Greenwich meridian Assume observer is at pole. P. line. O. H. suggested a method preferred for or 10 of the pole. Measure distance on this position line pole. Find G. A. for this time. 211 for solutions or except the cosine-haversine formula for calculated altitude. S. However. (See Chap. 13. counterclockwise Take sextant altitude of sun. chart. measured clockwise for N. Weems. Nov. and make usual for S.

. line and observer's approximate position on the Use Table 17. Intersection of sun's and moon's corrected lines = fix. Plot new sun bearing line from observer's approximate position on first position line using corrected Z. from Weems' article. This perpendicular will be the corrected line of from starting point line the correction for bearing Lay off position. measuring from a zero line parallel to Greenwich meridian. These are needed because the position line really curves if the above distance is considerable.154 position line. The correction for Z will be added or subtracted according to obvious circumstances. entering with the above distance and the observed altitude to get corrections for h and Z. Any other pair of available bodies at suitable angles may be used. Polar Position Finding G. toward sun on this new sun h obtained above. A. H. Repeat this whole process for moon when it bears about 90 from sun. and draw its extremity a perpendicular to the new sun bearthrough ing line.

T. The approximate bear- ing of the star should be noted as well as the sextant altitude and G. at O h same to be You must now date in order later to find the star in the N. G. identification 1. Subtract this angle from G. to Added . with a clear sky easy to identify most of the bright stars because various groups are easily recognized and relationships to such groups are obvious. 127 first used. T. Identification tity. A. A. H. C. So find the table in N." in this table and take out the corresponding angle. 3. before the horizon has blurred. 2. A. however. H. at observation (add155- TabuUse the G. T. One may have may be necessary and even a vital matter in a case where an observation is long overdue and perhaps only one star is seen for a moment between clouds. A. entitled "Correction lated Greenwich Hour Angle of Stars. H. Combine L. C.19* Identification AT NIGHT. of observation. A. At evening twilight. with longitude to get G. from time to arc. O. With latitude. according to latitude) as arguments. A. in time). or S. o star at 4. H. there will often be only a very few stars visible and these widely separated with no groups to give clues of iden- only a few minutes to take altitudes of such stars before the horizon becomes useless. take out declination and hour angle (local. If the latitude is fairly well known. Convert L. is made as follows: is H. altitude and azimuth (from N. C. H. reduce this to the G. A. it is after the horizon has faded. 5.

A. the local hour angle will be obtained in arc direct. (in time). H. it will probably prove to be one of the 110 additional stars whose mean places are given in two pages of N. if . 127.. the latter is combined with the hour angle taken out of H. T. search the list of 110 additional stars and make the identification.. and the d obtained from H. O. 127 as above to get d and L. A. H. star tables of the month of the observation and under the proper date find star which has approximately this G. A. In the rare instance where the body is neither one of the 54 usual stars nor one of the 4 navigational planets. Finding G. S. A.156 ing 360 to G. Identification H. Use H. A. In case no star is found whose G. O. A. values are provided for these and so the older method of sidereal time must be employed. by the usual calculation and then applying D. and declination approximate those you have determined. A. H. longitude (in time) to get L. at O 6. O. T. A. A. (NOTE: This and the fix by Weems* star altitude curves are the only procedures given in this Primer where the use of sidereal time is essential. . a search should be made through the data of the four navigational planets and one will probably be found which will meet requirements and so settle the identification. 214 identification tables are used instead of H. 127 to get the star's R. S. See the N. A. Only R.) If the H.. and the declination already found in H. Using this R. This will be the star observed. O. for practical suggestions on identification. A. 127. and d without G. O. 127. A. h necessary) and get G. R. H. H. O. Look in N.

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Obtain. Even after months of study the student will find it hard to definitely remember the exact steps of a process unless he is using it constantly. 157- . The arrangement in four columns is selfexplanatory and horizontally traces a calculation from start to finish under the headings of Given. and Result. Several others might have been included but it is felt that this list is sufficient for our purposes.20. Procedure. See Table 18 inserted. will serve as a refresher and will surely save time that would be otherwise wasted in repeatedly looking back through the text. This table. it is hoped. Tabular Summary TABLE EIGHTEEN has been prepared to give at a the outlines of fourteen types of calculation glance which have been under consideration.

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Part III: Supplernentary .

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or current. This usually to a day's run more or less and not to a whole voyage. etc.. etc. Distance: the length of the rhumb line in nautical miles between starting point and destination. D. dead reckoning. 161- . the longitude is altered by the run made.. Current ELESTIAL NAVIGATION. sailings is The term used for various means of solving rela- problems involving calculation of a ship's position in tion to a place left or to a place one is approaching. R. R. data is translated into a new latitude and longi- We also saw in Chapter 10 that a rhumb line was a curved line at on the the same earth's surface which intersected all meridians angle. equals is run made. Difference of latitude: the latitude it refers number altered by the nautical miles. position is ascertained. the in minutes Difference of longitude: the number of degrees. R. does not include the subject of sailings. position to start from and so it is proper to include something on the means by which such a D. position was obtained by keeping track of courses steered and distances run from the last well known position. We will see presently how such tude.. R. The following items come into consideration: Course: the constant angle a rhumb line makes with meridians. Sailings. However.21. We saw in Chapter 10 that the D. the methods we have recommended for position finding at sea all require a D. strictly speaking. Expressed of degrees.

Sailings Plane (earth's surface assumed to be Departure. 41. Lat. Types: Single. flat) considers: Course. For a small area of the earth's surface. the departure will be the same.) The formula Dep. The I. by some landmarks and using this position as The the starting point for dead reckoning. This sum proves to be practically equal to the Dep. = Button) so is to hold for any for a computed C may be shown (see rhumb line and any distance. Dist. no matter how long. between the places measured on a parallel in the mid- dle latitude of the two places. before losing sight of land. Dep. Diff. (Do not confuse these uses of the word departure with its use in the expression "take a departure" which consists in fixing the position of the ship. whether measured on the parallel of the point left or on that of the point reached. Distance.. As rhumb line. of any number of small triangles each constructed like those in Figure 42. where its spherical form may be neglected. sin not the easting or westing measured on the parallel of the point left or on that of the point arrived at.) matter of departure requires still further comment. It is westing nautical miles of an arc of a parallel. on . Construction plotting sheet or chart. Traverse. It is the distance steamed east or west made up of the sum of the Deps.162 Departure: the The Sailings miles of easting or also the length in number of nautical made good by the run. Traverse Tables. Solved by: Logs. (See FIG.

Plane Sailing.=Dep sm C esc C ^ Cos Dist TanC= Pep DL \ FIG. . 41.Plane Sailings 163 K DLP DL C= Course Dist 1"= Starting point Distance T'= Destination h Intersection of line from Dep = Departure DL= Difference of latitude T dropped T perpendicular to meridian of By definition: Therefore: Dep Dist * Dist=-^.

to find difference of latitude and departure. the formulas are not suitable for long distances. Single calculation A is all that is The Traverse problem arises when usually called for. and one sufficiently accurate for yachtsmen. a ship has made an irregular track sailing on several different courses. It consists in finding the difference of latitude and departure for each course and distance by the traverse tables and reducing . It will be seen that there are two or more formulas for the solution of each side of the triangle to provide for the various combinations of data given and to be found. A shorter way The is to use the traverse tables. Plane Sailings Spherical (earth's true shape used) considers: Course. Diff. Plane Sailings Plane sailings can be solved by plane trigonometry and logarithms as indicated in Figure 41. Solved by: Methods similar to those for Plane. Long. for each unit of distance Bowditch Table from 1-600 under each degree of Course.164 II. given difference of latitude and departure. Middle Latitude.. and Dep. Departure. Composite. Great Circle. Mercator. using Bowditch Table 32 for logs o numbers and Table 33 for logs of functions of angles. The two commonest problems are: first. Lat. In the latter problem. Types: Parallel. simplest way. ond. Distance. to find course and distance. Lat. Diff. 3 gives Diff. given course and sec- distance. consists in laying down the various given terms by scale upon a position plotting sheet and then measuring the required terms.

and of the east and west totals for Dep. = Dep. Chap. may be more convenient to use Bowditch Table found in minutes of arc or should Long. sec L Or. Long. * as follows: Lat. Spherical Sailings is Parallel sailing problems come up when a ship's course due east or west. This is done by tabulating the amount of miles made good to north or south and to east or west on each course. Diff. Long. 1): the distance covered Diff. There is no change in latitude and all is departure. Lat. . R. This resulting course and distance can then be drawn on the plotting sheet from the starting point and will show the D. and finding in the traverse table the course and distance corresponding to this Diff. Dep.. adding up each of the four direction columns. It = Diff. The problem is to find the Diff. position at the end of the irregular track. cos L 3. and Dep.Parallel Sailing all 165 to a single equivalent course and distance. Long. Diff. Lat. Long. This may be done by logs using the formula (see Dutton. corresponding to the Dep. if it is desired to find the amount of departure necessary to reach a certain longitude: Dep. taking the algebraic sum of the north and south totals for Diff. will be should be con- verted thereto as the case may be. Lat. The labels of the table now be imagined changed Course Dist.

Lat. (See FIG. tudes equals the length in miles of that parallel of latitude which lies midway between the parallels of the places and between the meridians of the places.) Given latitude and longitude of starting point. Bowditch Table 3 is used entering with course and distance to find Diff. and Dep. as in Plane Sailing. Middle Latitude Sailing. Con- . This is sufficiently accurate for a day's run under latitude 50. 42. to find latitude and longitude arrived at. Middle latitude sailing is founded on the assumption that the departure between two places with different lati- Departure between T& T' = JK (Proof depends on calculus and the difference in latitude should not be great and latitudes must not exceed 50. 42.) (See Bowditch for explanation Pick out the two known values and read off the one desired.) PIG. course. and distance made.166 Middle Latitude Sailing of how this is possible.

find Diff. The two lats. Lat. (Lat. (Lat. Subtract lesser latitude from greater to get DifL Lat. Diff.). Lat. Long and Entering Table (Dist.) we etc. this Diff.Mercator Sailing verting minutes to degrees. as follows: Entering with Mid. Average the two latitudes to find Mid. Lat.) and Dep. Lat. this method is not applicable. to find course and distance made good. (Lat. Given latitude and longitude of both starting point and point reached.) 3 with Mid. etc. Combine the two longitudes to find convert to minutes. (Dist. (Course) and Diff. the more unnaturally of latitude between any two meridians. is applied to latitude left to give latitude arrived at. and convert to minutes. Long.. are now averaged to find Mid. When the places are on opposite sides of the equator. a Mercator chart has parallel meridians. Proportions are between parallels of latikept right because the meridians more and more extended. Lat. (Course) and Dep. we find course and distance. The problem Table 3 is thus becomes one in parallel sailing and used with the same changes of labels as described for parallel sailing. 3 Entering Table with Diff. 167 Lat. Long.). Expressing it in tude become another way: . Convert minutes to degrees. greater than can be accurately As previously described. The result is that the farther one goes from the extended' are the parallels equator. Applying to longitude left gives longitude arrived at. Mercator sailing is used when the distance involved is handled with middle latitude. we find Dep.

column. degrees become shorter toward pole. This is accomplished as follows: Use Table 3 entering with course and distance and find figure in Lat.) 2. Bowditch Table 5 gives meridional parts or increased latitudes for every minute of latitude between and 80. When the places are on opposite sides of the equator. (adding if course was southerly) and obtain latitude left and place reached are on the same side of the equator. Lat. 3. expressed in minutes as measured on equator. (Or use logs and equation Diff. constitutes the number of Meridional Parts corresponding to that latitude. subtracting arrived at. look up in Table 5 the meridional parts for each latitude and subtract the smaller quantity from the greater. 4. Lat. Dist. know latitude and longitude arrived at. Reduce above to degrees and minutes. When . which is difference of latitude expressed in nautical miles or minutes of arc. Given course and distance from a known position we wish to 1. cos C. degrees become longer.168 Globe map: Mercator Sailing Long. similarly look up the two quantities but add them. left Apply above to latitude if northerly. Mercator chart: Long. The length of the meridian as thus increased on a Mercator chart between equator and any given latitude. Lat. degrees stay same toward pole. In each case the result is the meridional both the place difference of latitude or ra. degrees stay same.

sec. Use Table 5 and find m as described in 4 above. if utes. m logs 5. = m C is 6. Long. Apply above to longitude left (adding change name. 3.) In case we require course and distance by rhumb line between two given positions which are far apart: 1.5. 4. subtract from 360 and not near E. subtracting if toward) and obtain away longitude arrived at. 7. column) and take out Difference of Longitude (Dep. 2. and equation: = Diff. 169 substitu- tions of title: m. Diff. Long. Find course by using logs and equation: tan C= Diff. Find distance by using Dist. (If over 180.) Reduce above to degrees and minutes. Lone. By subtraction find difference of longitude. C. Great Circle Sailing The shortest distance over the earth's surface is two places that measured along the great circle between which them. if course was from Greenwich. Lat. (Or use logs and equation: Diff. the passes through economy of . column) expressed in mintan C. Table 3 is Great Circle Sailing now used with the following two Lat. Generally speaking. or W. By subtraction find difference of latitude. Dep. Enter table with course and m (Lat.

Every great circle. As this is impracticable. or 170 W. or has the highest latitude. As the plane of every great circle passes through earth's center. They are constructed for a given area of the globe by passing a plane tangent to the center of the area and then projecting by rays from the globe's center all features of the area onto the plane. The Vertex of a great circle track in one such hemisphere is that point which is farthest from the equator. the northern hemisphere will everywhere be north of the rhumb A a line between these places. say. and as one plane always intersects another in a straight line. To keep a ship on a great circle course. the course is changed at regular intervals such as every 150 or 300 miles. great circle track between two places in. if extended around the earth. Every northern and half in the southern will lie half in the hemisphere. On Great Circle or Gnomonic Charts appear are charts on which great circle courses will as straight lines. a Mercator chart. excluding the equator and meridians. then. lines. a great circle track between two places in the northern hemisphere appears as a curve above the straight rhumb line joining the places. would require constant change of heading. the projected great circles will be straight lines. which approaches but never reaches the pole. concave toward the pole. therefore.Great Circle Sailing the great circle over the rhumb line is greatest for long distances at high latitudes when the course lies more E. . than N. or S. This is because a rhumb line is spiral. Thus the ship really follows a series of rhumb great circle track. cuts successive meridians at a different angle.

chart and latitude and longitude at a particular point The track is always a straight line. their latitude and longitude are determined and such points are then plotted on a Mercator chart. The meridians are straight lines radiating from the pole and the parallels are circles with the pole as center. A fair curve is then drawn through these points and gives the great circle on the Mercator. VI. concave toward the poles. In the absence of a great circle chart. A good exin H. They are spoken of as meridians appear as Projection. The chart becomes distorted in the longitudes more removed from the center and so is not satisfactory for navigation. O. the track. and distance may be determined by computation. 211. courses. An explanation is printed on such charts of how to determine the length of the track and the course at any point of the track. No compass rose can be applied to the whole of such a on the Gnomonic The must be determined by reference to nearby meridians and parallels. lines converging toward the poles. O. A very planation and method will be found easy is and rapid method of finding initial course and distance provided for in H.) The Hydrographic Office Publications 1280-1284 are great circle charts of the principal oceans. . After selecting a number of points of the track on the great circle chart. (See Button. This rather long process will not be gone into here. increasingly separated from the pole outward. However. it provides the most convenient means for determining great circle track and distance between points. 214.Great Circle Sailing 171 Polar Chart is a great circle chart for use in high latitudes where a Mercator is too distorted and spread out. and the parallels straight appear as non-parallel curves. Chap.

Other methods of composite sailing are the following: 1. 4. It is methods. (See Bowditch. and another great circle to destination.172 Composite Sailing Composite Sailing a combination of great circle and parallel sailused when the great circle course between two points passes through higher latitudes than it is thought wise to enter. a Mercator to another predetermined place. by gnomonic charts. This may be from considerations of ice or cold or wind. Transfer these points to the Mercator. retaining the two remaining portions of the great circle and that part of the limiting parallel included between their northern (or southern) ends. 5. another great circle from there to destination. 3. on a great circle chart. great circle to the limiting parallel at a given longitude. 2. following this parallel until the great circle is again met. or by graphic This is ing. One . One great circle to a predetermined place. Determine the latitude and longitude of a number track Draw the of points of the track. 2. Discard the portion of the curve which lies north (or south) of the limiting parallel. There are three main ways of determining the track. by computation.) An approximation to the shortest track between the points without exceeding the given latitudes is had by following a great circle between the points until the limiting parallel is reached. and finally following the great circle to destination. The track may be laid on a Mercator chart as follows: 1. Draw a smooth curve between them from point of departure to destination.

Mercators and great measured directly. 173 One great circle from departure tangent to the limiting parallel. R. N. the difference between the northing and southing. with the middle latitude find the difference of longitude corresponding to the departure." navi- Button says. course along parallel between the two points of tangency." gators do their dead reckoning . apply of last position. See Chap. This is the shortest possible composite course. and the easting and westing. S. 'D. and from which may be found the middle latitude. W. and write in the column of the greater. add up all the differences of latitude and departure. another great circle from destination tangent to the limiting parallel. 29 for appropriate form of table to be kept and the following summary from Bowditch: the position of the vessel at any "When moment is re- quired.. Apply the difference of latitude to the latitude of the last determined position. There are four charts in the series covering all areas from equator to pole. 95: "In modern practice nearly work graphically.Dead Reckoning 3. p. this to the longitude and the result will be the longitude by all R. Dead Reckoning The working of dead reckoning involves a combination of the methods of traverse and middle latitude sailing. which will give the latitude by D. The charts are designed to circles are eliminate the sailings calculations. Plotting Charts A new series of charts or plotting sheets is featured by the Weems System of Navigation.

6. position an Estimated Real Ocean Currents The The Set of a current is the direction toward which it is flowing. The two usual problems which arise may be solved by traverse tables or trigonometry but simple graphic solutions on the chart with a protractor are satisfactory. R. 8. 7. as shown (after Button) on pages 176-179. . Error of patent log or revolution curve. Drift of a current is its velocity in knots (nautical miles per hour). The Estimated Either a Position. Observation errors. 3. following. Button summarizes as follows: 1. Position 15) or a is Computed Point (Chap. known compass error. Foul bottom of ship. 5. Poor steering. 2. State of wind and sea. R. which has been revised for Current called D.174 Current Current a broad term covering anything and everything that causes a discrepancy between the D. Unusual condition of trim. Inaccurately 4. Tidal currents found along the coast. 9. Real ocean currents or streams. position for a given instant and a fix from celestial observation for Current is the same instant.

. however. Distance in miles Time consumed . weather. . . Distance in miles bpeed over bottom in miles per hour Speed over bottom . Time -. directly against or directly with the ship's course. In case the current is etc. ship's speed through the water. required = . do so.Current Current does not affect the 175 Wind. the algebraic sum of speed and current gives speed over ocean r~. floor. waves. m miles r hour = per .

43. First Current Problem.FIG. 176- .

To find: Course and speed over ocean floor. for drift. Draw A G.) Ship was at A. Set and drift. for speed. Using scale of chart make A C Draw D E through C parallel to AT S. Steamed on course 211 Through To at 12 knots. N N A G = course made = 10 miles good over And A G by same scale over ocean floor. for course. A B 211. Lay off C G = 3 miles by same scale. find course and speed over ocean floor: Solution: Draw N S meridian through A .Current First 177 Problem Given: Course and speed through water. Lay off clockwise angle 12. Lay off clockwise angle D C F = 75 for set. Example: (See FIG. miles. Then clockwise angle ocean floor =199. current of set 75 and drift 3 knots. 43. = speed of 10 knots .

Fio. 178 - . 44. Second Current Problem.

44.Current 179 Second Problem Given: Set and drift. = speed 12 knots. FIG. Course to be made good =195. With D as a center and a radius of 12 miles by same scale. for course to be made Lay Using scale off clockwise angle = 75. it.2 miles = 10.2 knots attainable on course to be made good. To find: steer. NA B = good. for drift. sweep an arc cutting A B at E. = 3 miles. Speed of ship Course you desire to make good. Course you must Speed you is will make on Example: (See Ship Current has Ship's at A. for set. of chart make A D C NA Erect a meridian DN f . . Then clockwise angle N' D E = = 206.) set 75 and drift 3 knots. course to steer Draw D E. To find course to steer and speed attainable on Solution: it: Draw Lay off clockwise angle N S meridian through A. 195. speed And A E by same scale = 10.

as near prime vertical as possible with altitude exceeding 10. and fix gives "current" since last fix. is is The Day's Work good departure should still in view. patent log. fix or other of the above observations. Fixes from at least two stars should be made at morning and evening twilight.. Sun Observations should be . If an enis The gine revolution counter used it is read and time noted. etc. M. whenever the course at made in forenoon and afternoon when on the prime vertical providing the altitude is then over 10. otherwise.. BEGINNING the voyage over. Log or engine revolution counter is read at each obser- vation. a be taken while landmarks are comes the start partures from fixes by kept up till completed. Compass Error is is determined if observations of the sun and. can be used. in case of failure to obtain A. having been put read and recorded on taking departure. The (see following summarizes the required daily work at sea Button): is Dead Reckoning carried forward from one well- determined position to the time of next observation or fix. Additional work. This beof the dead reckoning which with new decelestial navigation is A VOYAGE. consists in daylight sights 180- changed. planet and moon. R. Other combinations as star and planet.22. morning and afternoon possible. Comparison of D. Sun should also be observed at local apparent noon or for ex-meridian.

M.. noon. Any necessary change in course. Reports of work are made to the captain at 8 A. Position by observation. for a latitude may be done at dawn. if possible. Course and distance made good since last report. and 8 P. Course and distance Ship's to destination. These include: Position by D. by Deviation of compass. R.The Day's Work of sun Polaris 181 fix. Set and drift of current. and chronometer correction noted. or a running fix from two sun sights may be all that can be obtained. Chronometers are wound at a certain time each day and note made of any changes between them. run (at noon since last noon). and moon. Radio time signals are received daily. M. . or sun and Venus.

23- Essential Equipment
(For Celestial Navigation and
Absolute

Dead Reckoning)

minimum

Sextant

Chronometer

Watch
Magnetic Compass

Azimuth

Circle or Pelorus

Patent Log Nautical Almanac

Dead Reckoning Altitude and Azimuth Table
Bowditch (H. O.
Plotting sheets
9)

(H. 0. 21

1)

and charts
eraser, pencil

Dividers, parallel rulers, triangle, magnifying glass

Notebook, pencils,
Also important

sharpener

Radio

Gyro Compass Engine revolution counter
Telescope or binoculars
Stop-watch
Second-setting 24 h. face watch

Course protractor
Tables of Computed Altitude and Azimuth (H. O. 214) Noon-Interval Tables (H. O. 202)
above) Collected Correction Tables (see Chap. 3)
182*

Star Identifier (H. O. 2102-B) Celestial Globe (preferred to

24. Practical Points
General

ON
to

BEGINNING a voyage, the navigator must provide himself with the latest ocean charts of the regions
sailed,

be

and note the date

of the last corrections. All

weekly "Notices to Mariners" should be obtained which have appeared subsequent to this date and any applicable data therein should be entered on the charts. The material
necessary for coastwise navigation and piloting such as tide and current tables, coast pilots, light lists and large scale charts of coasts, harbors, etc., are not of celestial navipart gation and are mentioned here only in passing. The essential

equipment for taking and working sights should be checked over carefully and put in order. The navigator's watch (pocket or wrist) should be kept on zone time for ease of translation to G. C. T.

The best standard of accuracy attainable in position finding may be expressed as a circle with a radius of one mile
around the
work.
It
fix

may

point on the chart. This is practically perfect occasionally be bettered, but is often not at-

tained. Refraction, faulty observation, rolling ship, errors in time, etc., all make the actual practice at times more of an approximation than an exact procedure. Experience

brings knowledge as to

how

accurate a given

fix will

prob-

ably prove to be.

height of eye for the place on the ship which will usually be used by the navigator in taking sights should be
accurately determined after the ship
is

The

loaded.

1

84

Practical Points

Sextant (General)

The minimum
and 15
is still

altitude for reliable observations

is

10

better.

a rolling vessel, stand changes in height of eye.

On

on the center

line to avoid

a distant haze makes the horizon poor, it may be found better by lowering the height of eye. In clear weather, increasing the height of eye makes for
greater accuracy. Index error of the sextant should be checked each time it is used.

When

"Bringing a body down to the horizon" is especially convenient for a star or planet sight but may also be well used for sun or moon. Set sextant at zero. Look through it directly at body.
nal.

A second image of body will appear to drop from the origiLower
the

Loosen index arm and slowly push it forward.

aim
this

of sextant,

abandoning original image

and following

second one which

of the horizon glass.

and lowering aim

to

is in the mirror side Continue pushing index arm forward keep the mirror image of body in view

until horizon appears in clear half of glass. Clamp sextant at an approximate contact and adjust to exact contact

by

vernier screw.

After one preliminary observation, a sextant may be set ahead of a body's altitude on even 5' or 10' intervals of arc

and several times of contact noted. Then use the average these altitudes and times.

of

heartily endorses the following, written by J. T. Rowland in Yachting, March 1941: "I would rather use one good shot, in which I feel confidence, than introduce

The

author

Practical Points
the error which

185

may be

tem, therefore,

is to

syspresent in a doubtful one. take a series of sights until I get one in

My

which I have faith and then use that. True this calls for some discernment on the part of the navigator but it is surprising how quickly one can develop an aptitude for 'calling
one's shots/

be exact with time than with the altitude. Ten seconds of time error can throw a position off miles whereas 10" of arc error will alter the result only 2i/
It is

more important

to

about 1/5 mile.
reading sextant, have the eye directly over the marks to avoid error of parallax between vernier and limb.

When

Focus the telescope on some distant object before screwing
it

in to sextant frame.
is less if

Eye-strain

Between sights at eye used on sextant when going

both eyes are open when taking sights. twilight it may be helpful to close the
into the light to consult

chart or read sextant. Returning to take another observation the sextant eye will then be in better shape for work.
Start with tangent screw about halfway from its two extreme positions so as to allow plenty of room for finer

adjustment.

Sextant (Care of)

On small boats it is well
with an eye
splice to
fit

have a short lanyard attached, over the wrist, in order to avoid
to

dropping the sextant overboard. The sextant is a delicate instrument and must not be
dropped, bumped or jarred. It should be kept from sudden It changes of temperature or moisture as far as is possible*

1

86
its

Practical Points
case with index case should

should be in
in the boat.

working and the

arm clamped when not be attached to some safe place

After use in wet weather the mirrors should be dried with chamois, linen or lens paper, not with silk. When dirty, the arc and vernier may be cleaned with

ammonia

When

or sperm oil. the graduations of the sextant arc

become dim,

a

paste of gritless lamp black and light oil may be smeared over arc and wiped off. This will clean the marks and also

make them more

easily read.

Sextant (Index Error) Graduations of arc and vernier are continued somewhat to right of zero of arc and of zero (index) of vernier.

When a star's reflected image is brought into coincidence with the star seen directly, or when in daylight the reflected sea horizon is matched with the direct view of it, the sextant should read zero. If, however, zero of vernier lies to left of
zero of arc (called "on"), the error is + and its correction will have to be subtracted. Or if zero of vernier lies to right of zero of arc (called "off"), the error is and its correction
will have to be added.

In the
to left

latter case, the

reading of
is

how much

it is

"off"

is

done in a
till

special

way. Read

a vernier line

the vernier as usual, looking found coinciding with an arc

line, and count the minutes and seconds to this vernier line. Then subtract this amount from the maximum reading of the vernier. The result will be the amount of error. Another method of measuring index error is by measur-

Practical Points

1

87

ing the apparent diameter of the sun. This is done by first bringing the upper limb of reflected image tangent to lower limb of direct image and reading the sextant; then bringing lower limb of reflected image tangent to upper limb of direct image and again the sextant. Mark reading reading

when on the arc as and when off as +. The algebraic sum of the two readings will be Index Correction. If a series of such observations is made, add up the readings of each pair without signs and divide by 2 to get sun's diameter. Look in N. A. for sun's semidiameter for the date
and multiply by
2 for true diameter. Pick from the series that pair which most closely approximates this true value. Use this pair for Index Correction.

Artificial

Horizon
box 18" x 18" x 8"
sun and
its

One may use

a pie plate of ink set in a
line with

without a cover. Sit back of and above plate in
in ink.

image
image.
left.

With

sextant, bring real sun
to find at

image down

to ink

Former will be in right-half of horizon

mirror, latter in

swinging will locate it. In forenoon bring real sun image, lower limb, tangent to upper limb of ink image. Former will rise till transit,
first,

Though hard

lateral

separating the images unless pulled down by tangent screw. In afternoon, bring real sun image, lower limb, tangent to upper limb of ink image. Former will fall, causing overlap, unless raised

I.

by tangent screw. the (double) sextant altitude of observation; apply C. to this; divide by 2.

Read

Hold sextant vertically. The usual correction tables include correction for sun's semidiameter only when lower limb is used. Move index arm from horizon seen through clear half of horizon clamp screw (or release lever). If glass before too much light use the medium little observing sun. aimed toward the horizon be- zero position slowly forward till sun's image appears in mirror of horizon glass and continue till lower edge of image is about tangent to neath the sun. Sun Swing in the strongest shade If this cuts off etc." which signals your assistant to take the time. shade glass. If unusual . Test for index error after shade glasses are in place since they may be responsible for the error. the lower limb appears to be about one semidiameter above horizon. Set the Determine vertical position of sextant by swinging it in an arc around line of sight axis and watching sun image swing in a curve convex to horizon. At this point adjust the tangent screw to bring sun's lower edge just tangent to horizon. At this instant call out "Mark. punch the starter of a stop-watch and proceed as described in Chapter IL is when sextant is Owing to refraction when the sun's center is actually in horizon. Result is true altitude. protection it sun is looked at directly with too will make observation impossible for several minutes. When image is lowest vertical. parallax and semidiameter but not for height of eye.188 Practical Points Correct for refraction. If alone. glass.

Practical Points

1

89

circumstances should permit only an observation of upper limb, as when sun is partly obscured by clouds or even in

an

eclipse,
I.

proceed

as follows:

Apply

C. to sextant altitude.
closest date

Then
in

subtract 2

X

sun's

semidiameter for

found

N. A. (This gives

sextant altitude of lower limb.) Finally, apply usual corrections from Tables A, B, and C for refraction, parallax, semidiameter and dip, to obtain corrected altitude.

Moon

A

bright

moon may

illuminate an otherwise

dim

hori-

zon so that an altitude of the
obtained.

moon or a star nearby may be

At times with the moon about half-full, care must be taken to choose the limb whose upper or lower edge extends through what would be the vertical diameter of the

moon

if full.

Planets
Since navigational planets are brighter than stars they
usually appear first at evening twilight and disappear last in the morning. Hence they can be observed when horizon
is

clearest

When
sun,
it

and should be used when available. Venus is over 2 hours of R. A. distant from the
seen in daylight. Calculate
its

may be

approximate

altitude altitude

and azimuth in advance. Set the sextant for this and look through it with the medium telescope

attachment in the direction of the calculated azimuth. Lenses and mirrors must be clean. A distinct white disc will

190

Practical Points

be found and exact altitude can then be obtained. Later, knowing where to look, Venus can be seen with the naked
eye.

Stars

A way for timing star sights is as follows:
1.

2.
3.

Start stop-watch at first observation. Read stop-watch at 2nd. observation

4.
5.

and record. Read stop-watch at 3rd. observation and record. Stop stop-watch on an even minute of chronometer.
Subtract total stop-watch reading from chronometer as in #4 for time of first observation.

6.

Add

stop-watch reading of second observation.

#2
#3

to

above for time of
first

7.

Add

stop-watch reading of

to time of

ob-

servation for time of third observation.

Some

use the following

Invert sextant set at zero,

method for observing a star: aim at star, push index arm for-

ward till horizon is brought up approximately to star, clamp sextant, invert again and make final fine adjustment. This prevents starting to observe one star and ultimately making
contact with another.

When
exist.

observing a

bearing to aid in

well to get its approximate identification if doubt should subsequent
star, it is

writer obtained a perfectly satisfactory altitude of Capella an hour before midnight 29 October, 1936, when a full moon and clear air made the horizon as distinct as

The

could be desired.

Practical Points

191

is a better time for star sights, other than evening. This is because the navithings being equal, gator may, by getting up a little earlier, pick out what stars

Morning

twilight

he intends

with no doubt of their identity, and then keep them in sight until the horizon has become sufficiently sharp for measuring their altitudes. Twilight is shortest in the tropics and increases with latito use

from the

total display

tude.

When
this is

working two or three

the data in parallel columns and

star sights it is best to put work across the page. By

meant

figuring one item for each before going

on

to

the next item, such as altitude, declination, hour angle, logs,
etc.

This is easier and errors show up more readily. Avoid the use of the confusing inverting telescope. In poor light it is better to work without any telescope.

Latitude
In using sextant for meridia:n altitudes remember: Image
goes

up as body goes up. Turning vernier screw down on

left side increases alti-

tude reading, and pulls body's image down. Hence, while watching for body to transit: So long as to you have to keep turning vernier screw down on left and first dip of keep body on horizon, the body is rising, below horizon without having turned vernier screw body
is

start of body's fall after transit.

As declination and latitude get farther apart, conditions become more favorable for finding latitude and less so for
longitude.

In working the sun for reduction to meridian,

t

should

1

92

Practical Points

not exceed in minutes the

number
is

of degrees in sun's

not nearly so reliable as the meridian sight. Any error in D. R. longitude makes t in error and as the formula uses t 2 the error becomes much greater. When observed altitude is over 60 the procedure
is

meridian zenith distance. Reduction to the meridian

also less reliable.

A rough observation of Polaris may be made as stars begin
to fade at

when horizon

morning twilight and this can be made accurate has become clearer. Polaris has been observed for latitude during an electrical

storm at night.

Azimuth
When Mizar of the
are either above or

Big Dipper or Ruchbah of Cassiopeia below Polaris, the latter bears true N.

and can be used
it

for compass error.

"When it is desired to swing ship using sun azimuths, is convenient to use a graph laid out on coordinated (crossThe
interval 5 P.
off

section) paper.
stance,

M.

to 5:40 P. M., for in-

may be laid

on

a horizontal line, a square for

each minute, numbering every 5-minute square. The vertical scale, centered on the left-hand end of the horizontal scale, is graduated to the degrees of azimuth, with two
squares for each degree. The azimuths taken from the tables for 5 P. M, and 5:40 P. M. (using, as an example, lat. 49 N.,

and declination 17 SO N.) are then plotted and a line drawn connecting them. The azimuth for "any intermediate time is now readily available. Suppose the azimuth for
5:
1 1

7

P.

M.

is

desired:

Run up the vertical line of 5: 1 1

until

Practical Points
it intersects

1

93

left to

the azimuth line, then run horizontally to the the intersection with the vertical scale, where the azimuth is indicated as N. 87 15' W."

(Chapman,

p. 225.)

See Button, p. 347, for method of obtaining a curve of magnetic azimuths by H. O. 214.

Line of Position
It will

which
this is

is

sometimes be possible to get a line of position parallel to the course from a body abeam. When plotted it will at once show which way the is

being

set

from the course and how

ship

far.

line of position can sometimes be obtained which is perpendicular to the course from a body dead ahead or astern. This gives a good check on the run.

A

body is observed on the prime vertical (due E. or the line obtained runs N. and S. and is unaffected W.) by any error in the D. R. latitude.

If a

The meridian
which
If
is

altitude gives a line running E. independent of any longitude error.

and

W.

only a single Summer line is obtainable, it may be of great value combined with a terrestrial bearing to give a
or the position on a line near shore may be told from soundings; or if the line is parallel to shore it will tell
fix;

distances

from land;

or, finally, if it is

perpendicular to
for.

shore the captain will

know what to
Plotting

look

lines of position for a fix before labeling letters will not obscure intersection.

Draw

them

so

Above a

line of position

put the time

it

was obtained,

194

Practical Points
as:

using four figures for hours and minutes only,

0009,

fix, put above it both the time it was originally obtained and the time of the new line it is to cross. Below, print the name of

0017, 0231, 1604. This is usually Zone Time. Below the line, print name of body observed. When a line has been advanced in a running

body observed.
Lines over 5 hours old are not dependable. Lines under 30 minutes old can be used without calling the resulting fix a running one. (See Chap. 15.)

Carry forward position from a fix by simple dead reckoning. Disagreement between this and the next fix is attributed to "current" and the fix starts a new D. R. The D. R.
is drawn according to true course and with C followed by course in degrees and labeled above below with S followed by speed in knots. Given a D. R. position and a line of position not running

track or course line

and known current: A perpendicular from D. R. to L. of P. determines Computed Point on the L. of P. After plotting the current line from D. R., a perpendicular to L. of P. determines Estimated Position on L. of P. The principles of chart construction, Mercator or polar, should be studied in Chapters I and VI of Button. The Weems Universal Plotting Charts in notebook form
through
it

are convenient.

A compass rose, three unnumbered latitude

lines making equal spaces, and a scale for longitude are on each left-hand page. The latitude lines are numbered by the navigator according to the area under consideration and two or more longitude lines are drawn in and num-

bered, the spaces varying with latitude. Opposite each chart

Practical Points
is

1

95

is is

a blank page for observational data. Thus all the record kept easily available and the marking up of regular charts avoided.

If plotting sheets are not available, the following suggestion is made by Chapman in Piloting, Seamanship and

Small Boat Handling (1940,

p. 220),

"A

simple

method

of laying off intercepts in a work book is to employ the rulings of the page as meridians of 1' of longitude each,

crossing them with the parallel of D. R. latitude. From any intersection of a meridian with this parallel draw a line at an angle equal to the degree of latitude. This line becomes a distance scale on which each space between rulings is 1 mile or F of latitude available for use in laying off the intercepts and in measuring the latitude difference between

the fix and D. R. latitude. In effect

we have

a miniature

Mercator chart."

25* Navigator's Stars

and Planets
ARE MANY good books by which the student
can become familiar with THERE
lations or groups of stars
stars

and with the

constel-

centuries.

A

whose names date back many somewhat different presentation has been

worked out here for the student navigator. The fifty-four stars of the regular list in the N. A, are taken up in the
order given there, that is in order of increasing right 5 m 25 s .7 to 23 h l m 54 s .2 (1943). An ascension from

W

arbitrary starting time
at any later

is

chosen but the

list

may be used

month providing one
star
is

For each subsequent
It

identification is made. found more eastward and de-

more close predecessors. must be remembered that directions are those on the concavity of the celestial sphere. Curved lines must be imagined in following them. For instance, all directions
scribed in relation to one or
are south.

of arcs of great circles radiating out from the North star small circle around the pole star followed

A

clockwise as

we observe

it is

always leading east, counterfarther eastward

clockwise west.

on the same or at the same time later in the evening year. The whole to be revolving counterclockwise around sphere appears the North star as a center (due north and as high in degrees
star to
is

As each

be described

celestial sphere, it is

more elevated

either later in the

196-

Navigator's Stars and Planets
as

197

and

your latitude in northern hemisphere) rising in the east setting in the west (or coming back under the North in north latitudes) and showing more of itself in the star east each night as the earth journeys around the sun. The easiest way to become familiar with these stars is
to study

and use
it

and

time,

a small celestial globe. Set for latitude, date shows better than any chart or table what stars

are spread out for the observer. In the following list, stars marked with * are of too low

declination to be visible from mid-north latitudes as Chicago or New York. Figures following star names are appar-

ent magnitudes.

Stars
1.

a

Andromedae

Looking N. E. about

N. you right, about equal distances apart, with a slight concavity in the row on upper side. The 4th or southmost star is the

(Alpheratz) 2.2 9 P. M. in mid-August in Lat. 42 see four bright stars in a row slightly sloping up to

one named above. The angular
stars is

distance between these
is
is

of the celestial sphere and this distance hereafter designated as 1 unit. Alpheratz

about 15

the the

N. E. corner of the "Square of Pegasus," a very easily recognized group with sides each about 15 long and at this time with its S. E. corner pointing down toward the horizon.
Cassiopeiae (Caph) 2.4 from #1 to the pole star is #2. It is the 1/2 way of 5 stars forming the letter "W" whose upper westernmost surface is toward the pole.
2.
ft

About

198
3.

,

Navigator's Stars and Planets

About
4.

Ceti (Deneb Kaitos) 2.2 3 units S. by E. of # 1 .

8

Cassiopeiae (Ruchbah) 2.8

4th. star to the E. in the

"W" mentioned in

#2.

*5. a Eridani (Achernar) 0.6 About units S. by E. of #3.

2^

6.

a Arietis
li/

(Hamal)
S.

2.2

units

of 2nd. star

from N. in row of 4 mentioned

in#l.
*7.

Eridani (Acamar) 3.4 units N.E. of #5.

8.

The
9. a

aPersei(Marfak)1.9 first or northmost of row of 4 mentioned in

#L

Tauri (Aldebaran)

1.1

is

small

About 2 units S. E. of 2nd. in row of 4 mentioned in #1 dim cluster: the Pleiades. Proceed 1 unit more to

#9.
10.

Red
ft

tinged.

2 units

Orionis (Rigel) 0.3 S. S. E. of #9.
(

The

S.
is

W.

corner of a rough
S.

rectangle-Orionwhose length
11. a

N. and

Aurigae (Capella)

0.2

li^ units E.
12. y
1

by

S.

of #8.

unit

Orionis (Bellatrix) L7 S. E. of #9. The N.

W.

corner of Orion.

13. c Orionis

(Alnilam)

1.8

The middle
slanting S. E.

of 3 stars in center of

Orion which are

and N.

W.

a 199 The N. 18. E. /3 Wazn) 2. 24. e Argus 1. Stars 18-23-24 make a rightN. of 2 units E. by E. by W. Westernmost of 3 lateral triangle. 17. X Argus (Al Suhail al 2 units E. #18.6 unit S. *22.9 3 units S. E. of #15.6 units S. N. Orionis (Betelgeux) 0. of #15. 1 Canis Majoris (Adhara) 1. E. of #23. Our brightest star.7 li^ units S. of #16. of #14.1 *15. of #10. a Argus (Canopus) -0. E.2 Argus (Miaplacidus) 1. aLeonis(Regulus)l.5 to E. a Cants Majoris (Sirius) 1. 16. corner of Orion. Stars 15-21-22 form an equilateral ls/4 units S. 23. triangle *20. /? Geminorum units (Pollux) 1.Navigator's Stars and Planets 14.3 units N. 19. angled triangle whose hypotenuse faces I]/2 .5 units E. Westernmost of 3 close e stars. W. triangle. of #18. a Canis Minoris (Procyon) 0. aHydrae(Alphard)22 S. making equi- *21. of #13.2 N. 1. N. Stars 14-18-19 make a right-angled li/ whose hypotenuse faces N. S. E. E.8 of #21.

S. Ursae Majoris (Alioth) 1." *28. Southmost star in "Southern 114 Cross. extremity of "big handle.4 2nd. of #27. constitute dipper" away from the "pointers" which point to the pole star. \/$ ft Crucis 1. E. Centauri 2.2 S. ft Leonis (Denebola) 2." 30." Stars 26-32-34 make an equilateral triangle with sides 2i/ units 3 2 units long. of #32 or 2 units N. Handle curves down. 26. y Top star in "Southern Cross/' *29. N. of #28. Seven stars in 3^ units N. It and star i/ unit S. E.2 214 units *33.6 z unit N. a' *27. Cruets (Acrux) 1. a Virginis (Spica) 1. The upper whole dipper. of #26. in handle of "big dipper" counting tip of handle e as 1st. S. in handle of "big dipper" next to tip. of #22.5 S. byN. by E. of #24. by E. y Cruets 1. of #27. East star in "Southern Cross. a Ursae Navigator's Stars and Planets Majoris (Dubhe) 2. 34.200 25. 31.7 3rd. 32.2 units E. of tip of handle of "big dipper. E. of #24.3 units S. a Bootis (Arcturus) 0. unit E. E. .6 unit E. Ursae Majoris (Mizar) 2.

E. c Sagittarii unit E. E. of #34. a Ophiuchi (Rasalague) S. E.of#39. of #39." The of "little from handle. 44. 8 Scorpii (Dschubba) 2. of #35. 41. E.1 2 units E. of #27. \ Scorpii (Shaula) 1. of #32. the tip of handle being pole unit away. of tip of handle of "big dipper. E. by N. *45. S. (Kaus Australis) E.Navigator's Stars and Planets *35. S. of #39. 201 p Ursae Minoris (Kochab) 2. a Scorpii (Antares) 1. a Trianguli Austmlis 1. . by E.4 units E.9 1 unit S. Center 2 . and S. S. of tip of handle of "big dipper. Reddish.3 units N. by E. E. N.5 2i/ units E.7 unitS. 36. Coronae Borealis (Alphecca) s li/ units E.6 unit N. 2. of #37. a 38. one of 3 similar in row 1/2 unit long going N.3 1 unit E. y Draconis (Etamin) 2. 39.2 z \y upper stars in away whole dipper. 2. 1 -7 Ophiuchi m (Sabik) 2. of #32. 2. *40. Seven extremity dipper" star 1 37. *42.2 3 units E. 43. Handle curves up. a Centauri (Rigel Kentaurus) 0.

aGruis(AlNa'ir)2. a Aquilae (Altair) 0. tPegasi (Enif)2. by E.6 "Square. of S.1 2 units E. light. N.1 S. of #48.3 W. (Fomalhaut) 1. Stars 46-48-50 make S. of #39. star of Planets with a steady In contrast to stars which usually twinkle.2 s li/ units N: E. Sagittarii (Nunki) 2. planets shine Instead of being a mere point of light. 54. aPavonis S.202 46. of #44. unit o- named in #1 this 47. by 51." W. of #46. 53. from #46. a 1 Navigator's Stars and Planets is Lyrae (Vega) 0.9 2 2i/ units S.1 2 units 50. by S. 2. The planets are always within a belt 8 each . E. a right- angled triangle with hypotenuse facing E. of #49. of #45. a navigational planet shows a distinct disc when viewed with binoculars. In conditions the bright star almost in zenith. E. *49. a Pegasi S. Gygni(Deneb) 1. a E. *52. (Markab) 2. a Piscis Australis 3 units S. This disc can sometimes be seen with the unaided eye. 48. star of "Square" (see #1).5 2 units E. by S. E.3 H/ units E.

the earth diameter is over 12 times that of moons. Its It is 12 times as bright as Sirius.Navigator's Stars and Planets 203 side of the ecliptic (projection of plane of the earth's orbit or apparent path of the sun). orbit lies nearer the sun than our earth's and so it is never seen more than about 47 of angular distance from the sun. Saturn is Only two to yellowish white and of magnitude stars are brighter than this planet: Sirius (#16) +L . the brightest star. Its orbit lies next outside the earth's and its year is 687 of our days. Venus. Much speculation has been given to the question of whether Mars is inhabited by intelligent beings." It gets around the sun in 225 of our days. differs by over 2 hours if from that of the sun. It apvary its magnitude or brightness from pears as either a "morning" or "evening star. When its R. like the moon. which can be easily detected with binoculars and which 4 to 3. It must be distinguished from Aldebaran (#9) and Antares (#39) which are both reddish stars of magnitude 1 and near the ecliptic. Its orbit lies next outside those of the asteroids and its year is almost 12 of our years. Jupiter is a brilliant white planet of 2 magnitude. Certain individual characteristics of the four navigational planets are as follows: Venus is the brightest heavenly body after the sun and moon. Usually 4 of these can be seen with binoculars. For the same reason it shows phases. Roemer in 1675 made a remarkably close estimate of the speed of light from observations of the Its and it has 1 1 eclipses of these moons. A. Venus may be seen in daylight above horizon. Mars shines with a reddish light and varies in magnitude from 3 to +2. Mars and Jupiter are brighter than any star.

Consequently. Saturn's orbit lies next outside Jupiter's and its year is 29J/2 of our years. we do not notice much shift of its position among the stars between one year and the next. But when seen in a good telescope. . It is so much less dense than the earth that it would float on water. it is a unique heavenly body because of its ticles These are layers of billions of whirling parextending out from its equator.204 Navigator's Stars and Planets and Canopus (#15). There are also 10 moons. It is more easily mistaken for a star than are the other three we have described." they are a thin line but as the position changes they are seen to be broad bands. When seen on edge "rings.

When doing actual work at sea the labeling of is angles east or west usually self-evident or easily determined from a rough diagram of the sort described in Chapter 2. given for occasional reference only. and to visualize the given situation accurately. The interested student. perhaps on the other side of the world. Reference Rules for Book Problems FOLLOWING PAGE is Table 19. The table provides a means of checking work done on such problems. Learning its contents without understanding each step would be the very sort of thing in the study of navigation which this Primer attempts to ON THE prevent. 205- . will want to work out problems for practice which he finds in textbooks. Then it is a more difficult matter to imagine oneself transported to the bridge of a ship.26. however.

TABLE 19 RULES FOR TIME AND ANGLES 206 .

chronometer face. this matter will always be a potential source of confusion and error. 12:30 P. M. T. It gives at a glance the G. and 9 zone for figure 8 in A. and find "C + 12 Day before. + follow horizontal to center. When A. This is." Apply this to and subtract one from date: G. with no change of date. Look in vertical column of Follow horizontally till central chronometer column is reached and figure 11 found. is 23& 1. Subtract 30 minutes. Say This means half an hour after 12 column down to the figure 1 (lower 7. with no chronometer error. T. be used in DESIGNED presses that table will Table 20 is to checking his calculations of time. of course. M.) Suppose it is morning and navigator's watch on zone time reads 8 o'clock. T. 00m 00s on 3 July. T. C. Until watches and chronometers are generally equipped with 24-hour dials. finding C = 8. and Date FOR THE BEGINNER. C. Wanted G. Then . 135 E. in zone half). C. It expart of Table 19 in another the first way and like be found more useful in doing book prob- lems than necessary in actual work. Finding G. T. The overprinting in zone group is C -f 12. 7:30 412 = 19:30 = G.27. NT. 11 + is 12 23. (Table 6 on page 41 shows this to be zone minus 9. (upper Follow vertical an additional step is necessary. C then becomes 7:30. C. date. and date from a 12-hour face chronometer at any hour of a 12-hour face watch on zone time in any time zone. the time is between 12 and zone time half). Meanwhile the table may be used as follows: Suppose on July 4 you are in Long. Look at overprinting in the triangle where you started chronometer. C. section.

34567 II 34567 891011 7\8(y 10 11 I. 6 T-N 8 9 10 II *6 C _ * 4 5 ZONLS V A T C H -* LO N G. 1 in zone group includes the minutes of preceding and succeeding hour. er ONL SAILING LAST -* Each figure in central vertical column gives corrected chronometer reading for zone time in same horizontal row. ZONES * It'll +10 *9 L N G. C. C. 2 to 11 inclusive in zone groups include the minutes of the succeeding hours. 6789 10 II 4567 5 6 3456769 3456789 10 II \t/[ M 7 8 6789 7 6 9 9 10 10 11 i 10 11 3 4 5 *lNCRUSt DATE. and Date. face chronometer at any hour of a 12-hr. face watch on zone time in any time zone. T. -a -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -fc 2. T. You must follow vertical column down or up to other half to get succeeding hour of 1. 208- . *6 7 8 a 3 4 a 6 7 e> 9 10 n la BY ONt SWUNG WtST DLCRE. 12 in zone groups is only an instant not a second over.TABLE 20 FOR FINDING G. -G -1 V 6 *7 *6 -5*4 * +1 A T C H 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 IMS. AND DATE From YA a 12-hr.ASL DATE. Overprinting in the eight triangles tells what to do with the corrected chronometer time in order to get G.

Dev. C. D. Diff. G. Declination. Equation of Time. Co-latitude. ' C. C-W co-L Corr. E. Estimated position. Difference of. Correction. Chronometer at stop time. Abbreviations a. Deviation. Computed point.). Dep. R. esc. Altitude difference or intercept Course. East. D. Eq. Cotangent. cos cot. T. Daily difference. A. Greenwich Apparent Time Greenwich Civil Time. A. . E. Greenwich meridian. Greenwich Hour Angle. T. C. C. Chronometer face. Chronometer correction. Dead Reckoning. T. Departure. C.28. Cosecant. P. C. H. F. 209- (or G. or D.A. G. T. C. Chronometer minus watch. S. G. Cosine. Dist. Chronometer at observation. P. or Dec. C. C. O. D. d. Distance. G.

Latitude. Observer's meridian. Logarithm. or Long. T.210 G. Longitude. H. Hour angle. A. m. Local civil time. C. Local sidereal time. Meridional difference of latitude. nat. hav. Mag. E. C.). Hourly difference. L. Minutely difference. S. h. A. Obs. T. only W. Horizontal parallax. North. P. T. L. Middle latitude. Lo. N. N. L. The "opposite-the-sun" meridian. Meridian altitude. Sextant altitude. or Lat. C. Height of eye. A. H. L. p. Calculated altitude. S. H. D. A. Nautical Almanac. Natural. H. HD . L. hc h hs H. log. Local apparent noon. Local hour angle (Properly. ." A. A. Greenwich Sidereal Time. M. S. L. Observed altitude corrected. Altitude. L. Observed.). Haversine. N. I. Index correction. Polar distance. . Mid. T. O. A b breviations T. Magnetic. Local apparent time (or L. M. M.

Right ascension. < 180) tan. S. Saturn. Variation. # 9 Venus. A. sin. First Point of Aries or Spring $ U T ^ > Equinox. Semidiameter.Abbreviations P. South. c. scale. R. . W. Secant. A. S. 211 Parallax. Zn Azimuth on 360 Sun. s. O Right ascension of mean sun. D. Zenith distance. Mars. Less than. Var. R. Difference from. or W. R. R. sec. Jupiter. Tangent. Planet. Per Standard Compass. p. Azimuth. O ( Moon. z. W. Refraction. Star. West or Watch. Z. (E. t. M. Ran stop-watch. Meridian angle. Sine. Greater than.

211 has been prepared which I hope leaves THE The for each procedure. D. D. and the last section is worked entirely by the 211 Table. hourly difference. etc. semidiameter. no matter what heavenly body is used. he will have become so familiar with the various things to remember that he may then advantageously arrange matters in a more abbreviated way. height of eye.29 BEGINNER will Forms do better work if he follows a A form for line of pocertain form sition by H.. in case another sight is taken later for a fix and the first line has to be moved up. P. 212- . P. Course and log reading should be noted in a moving ship to allow for run between. E. The small squares for D. minutely difference and horizontal parallax. A space is provided for everything which may be needed. are for values which are found or calculated during the first covers the sextant consultation of the N. D. and timepiece work and genmiddle part is done by means of the Nautical eral data. Roughly first it is divided into three parts. O. H. nothing to chance. M. S D.. index correction. The abbreviations in the altitude correction H section are: R. The stop-watch method is suggested as described at the end of Chapter 2. refraction. for the body being used and mean daily difference. the Almanac. I C. parallax. The proper entries should be made here before turning to the various correction tables in other parts of the almanac so that no looking back will be necessary. A. After the student has used a form of this sort for some time. and H.

(Lat. it means: find the first in the column headed by the word in parentheses. 211. which may be found occasionally convenient. plied in a fprm here offered. as Dep. two for Middle Latitude and two for Mercator sailing. should help the beginner. followed by a different word in parentheses. O. Forms for Day's Run and Day's Current show how each alone is available. may be worked by logs or by Table 3. though at present rather formulas for Aquino's Fix may be easily apimpractical. A form for line of position by the cosine-haversine method with time and altitude azimuth should be useful when Bowditch The remarkable.Forms 213 There are three other forms. A form for Dead Reckoning. designed for H.). either is When a word .

LINE OF POSITION H.) . F. O. 211 (Form by J.

Forms Latitude H. 211 (Favill) * 215 A B d h A A >A R B B B Lat. Give 0' is <t>" same name as declination body bears N & E or N & 0' is S if body bears S & E or S & Combine by adding if different. subtracting if N W W if alike L= <P' (180* <P") for lower transit . O.

216 Forms Longitude H.A. l. O.H. l. 211 (Hinkel) 90 = d 89 60' .CSC l.0 l..u.v. & X 2 & combined with gives = Longitude When d & L 90 90 have same name: p = + d opposite names: When d & L have # = d .csc J 2 1 A = t t fc -r 2 = A gives y% = & found in /2 * = = G.

Forms Altitude 217 Azimuth H.sec 2 i/ 2 Z = &*2 = gives l. 0.0 l. 211 (Hinkel) 90 = 89" 60' .sec 14 1/2 Z = Z = & found in B & X 2 = When When d & I 90 have same name: p p = = - d d & L 90 have opposite names: +d .

F. .218 Forms Line of Position H. Lat. O. and Altitude Azimuth) Time and Z from? pole Aquino's Fix From Simultaneous (Form modified by J. 9 (Bowditch: Cosine-Haversine Altitude.) Altitude and Gyro Azimuth Long.

Forms Middle Latitude Sailing FOR COURSE AND DISTANCE Latitude Latitude 219 Longitude o o / / Loi .

220- .

' " " " ' " DL ' m log -log Ltan. log log FOR POSITION REACHED Ltan.sec. M. .P. m log log Lo. l.P.Forms Mercator Sailing TOR COXIRSE AND DISTANCE Latitude 221 Longitude ' From To /' ' M.

tan.sec. or D. Sailing DLo log l.) Lm (CnJ. Lat.R. (Lat. log l.R.1 1 3: |Table Dep. Lm (Dep.) log log . Sailing DLo (Dist. Lat. DL Course In Dist. noon today DL N DLo By Logs and Mid. Quad log By Traverse Table and Mid.) . or obs.cos. noon yesterday D.222 Forms Day's Run Latitude Longitude * * By By obs. l.

run in miles: 223 DL Latitude * and Dep. & ) Longitude N * noon yesterday by D. noon today Run by Position by D. "(miles) Z>Z. .Forms Day's Current (Given D.R.0 z/minutesN \ of Lo ) Lat. noon today Position by obs. Lat.R. DL DLo from N below / Current DL By Logs and Mid. (DiM.R.). noon today Position obs. Cur. Sailing = DL.p. D.. .) Dep.) - above i 1 _ .h.. (Dep. fCourse.=Set _= Drift (m. . R enter . Sailing By 1 raverse Table and Mid.

. Problems CONTRAST to most texts. 1933 edition. I have taken data for the meridian latitude sights from Bowditch. The rest are my own.30. The known fact that most of my sights were taken from positions may the advantage of showing the degree of accuracy of the lessen interest but has results. this Primer has not in- eluded problems with explanations of the various procedures of celestial navigation. and for the time conversions from the 1939 Nautical Almanac. a few illustrative examples will now be given of the more important procedures. The reason for this is its IN was hoped the student would more quickly acquire sound principles and a clear understanding of the subject as a whole if he were spared the detail of computations that it while first course. Plenty of reading the book through as a sort of survey problems can be found in Bowditch or Dutton or other texts and short-cut systems. Best of all are the problems one goes out and sets for himself. However.

30 .Problems Latitude by Meridian Altitude Case 1: 225 L & d opposite names. Q' hs Corr. 0. May ing north. 13' 10" 12' + 30 89 02" ho 25' 12" 59' 60" 34' 48" Now subtracting from 90 gives or z 59 18 Now from G. the observed meridian 13' 10". height of the eye. . I. Long. sun bear- + 1' 30".C. and N. 15 feet. d 48' 30" 46' 18" .A. . . L = z - d At sea.T.d gives L 40 .. 1925. we get N. 15. andz S. in altitude of the sun's lower limb was 30 C.

.. height of the eye.A. 1925.0 hs Corr. C. and N. I.226 Problems Latitude by Meridian Altitude Case 2: L & d same name and L>d. and z + d gives L 09' 27" N.T. 40 . 20 feet.C. . in Long. the observed meridian altitude of the sun's lower limb was 40 04'. 60 W.. . 04' 00" 13' + 40 89 21" 21" 60" ho 17' Now subtracting from 90 gives or 59' z 49" 42' 39" Now from G. At June bearing south.L=z+d 21. . we get d 23 73 26' 48" N. sun sea. + 3' 0". .

T. 20 feet.z gives and N. .C.Problems Latitude by Meridian Altitude Case 3: L & d same name and d > L. . we get L 35' N.2' Long. the observed sun's lower limb was 81 15' 30". 30". in meridian altitude of the sun bearing north. 140 E. C. . and d 18" . 227 z April 14. 1925. . d ~ 9 48" N. 15' 30" 9' + 81 00" ho z 24' 30" 59' 60" 35' 30" 10' Now subtracting from 90 gives or 89 8 Now from G. I. L d At sea.. . hs Corr.. 81 . height of the eye.A.

T... 75 25" N. 90" .A we get 49' 35" 59' 60" 10' and subtracting from 180 or gives L . .... . 23 104 179 10' 56" N. ... and in a high northern latitude.... . and d Now from G.. 8 16' 5' 10" Corr. -23 66 56" p ho ..228 Problems Latitude by Meridian Altitude Case 4: L & d same name... 75 25" N... .... in Long..... hs .. d ...... . 1925. 8 r 38' 39" .. L = 180 .. . + 8 II" 21' 21" 59' 60" Now subtracting from 90 gives or 89 z .. lower transit.. 65 W. .C.. +z= and N.... 20 feet........ 49' 04" 21' 21" 10' + 8 L .. sun below the L C. of the eye. the observed meridian altitude of the sun's lower limb was 8 16' 10"..(d + z) = h + p June 13..... 0' 00". height pole... 89 59' 60" 10' d ..

C. 22 August. A. T. C. 12 feet. 1935. E. thus shortening this calculation by 1 step. as follows: sextant altitude H. .- L * 42 12' N Beginning with the 1936 N.. the G. about ENE. Phi Second (H. G.211) 229 At anchor.. observed Deneb.. bearing I. 42 star Long. of August 21. in Lat. P 58 56'. 0. 39 m 20 s . 87 48' W. of stars is given for each day of the month.Problems Latitude by Phi Prime. H. A. 0' 0". in evening 12' N.

E.H. C. Ixsng. 87 feet. 0' 0". 1935. 6 W. G. I. observed sun's lower limb bearing about E. 5 y*t~ t = G.211) On Lake Michigan shore.A. T. E. 0.. 24 June. 87 48' W. 42 Long. C. H.. in morning of June 24. gives 48'. & 2 = & found in A gives &X2 = & combined with -s- 4 87 4 E. in about Lat. 49'. . 11* 46 m s 12' N. as follows: sextant altitude 14 10'. 0'. CSC % t ' 28748 14374 45 91 54'. 1. ..230 Problems Longitude by Time-Sight (H.

E. (Merely a coincidence that this = Longitude) . d = 23 21'. 1 33 33 31'. Long. + - 14'. 12 feet. as follows: sextant altitude 33 31' 10".. 4 2) 142 32'. 1936. + p 66 38'. ing about E. 13* 32 6 At anchor. H.. 2 ho 42'.P.S. 0. 87 . 3 B 7993 13030 L 42 12' B Lv. 42 observed sun's lower limb. 4 + hs 11'. I. m s 0' 0". 7 21023 s 71 16'. C. 9 49488 21023 28465 14232 2 & & found in B & X 2 = -s- L 1. C. in morning of June 48' N. 142 4 37'. 4 + B Liu Lv.0 66 38'. 5 3'. 16 June. 4 H. 6 N R. 3 h 33 42'.211) 16.. sec' yZ= 2 Z = sec y% AZ= = 1 Z gives 43 54' N. G. 87 48' E. T. 3 B 49346 -66 s-p 38'. from 9000'. bear12' W.Problems Altitude 231 Azimuth (H.E. in Lat.

d 23 26'. 0. Find differences between above and Base which give increase of each variable. O. L 42 (the next lower whole degrees) on page for L and d of same name and Enter get Base Z 134 . . 214 Make 5 columns headed by: Decimals. ( Mark results + ) or ( ) according as azimuth is increas- ing or decreasing with the higher entry figures.8 N. Enter these as degrees and decimals in left column. Data taken from Sun problem. V. Mark results ( or ( ) + ) as before. Take Apply algebraic total for correction. (on 180 system). L 42 12' N.7 E. 214 with base d " " L but 1 " 1 " " " ^ changes for 1 tkL d greater " t d jo L and write resulting azimuths under Base in proper columns. d 23. entering with t 19. 214.. which follows: * 19 47. Multiply each by the decimal fraction of a degree by which corresponding quantity of given data exceeds quantity used to get Base. 0. fe Use H.3. Convert each to minutes of arc. this at top of the four remaining columns. Use H. t} d> L> and Base. to base Z in 5th column system for Z Convert to Z on 360 = Zn.232 Problems Azimuth by H. Vol..

Problems TABLE 21 233 WORKING FORM FOR AZIMUTH BY E.O. 214 .

C.. . T. limb. I. E. 42 June 21. in about 87 47' W.234 Problems Line of Position from Sun (H. 21 June. 16 h 52' 10". bearing about SSE. O. 211) Lat. 0' 12' N. C. as follows: sextant altitude 64 /A H. G. 1936.. observed sun's lower Long. 12 feet. in forenoon of 33 m 34 s (See diagram on opposite page) . . At anchor.

30280 . t 19 47'.86739 7 .Problems 235 Line o Position from Sun (H. 9. hav.52975 L d 42 12' N + 1. 211 requires (This method requires 9 consultations of but 7. 2 Zl. whereas H. cos. cos. 1. 10.) . O. cos. 2 n.02654 .96258 1. sin. 5 mile toward Z = 47 28 (from S. 8.86970 9. hav. . 23 26'. 7 -4.z n. 9. hav. 9) Previous problem worked by Cosine-Haveisine method. hav.47052 Lsin.37506 ho a 4'. + n. 9.O. 7 1. hav.04662 from he 24 56' 15" 89 59' 60" 65 65 3'.96258 1. sec. 8 N H1. toward E. 8.02008 8 18 z 45'. with "time and altitude" azimuth formula.) the tables. 9.

in Lat. as follows: sextant altitude 7 58' 40". 8 -<-A 80105 550 ho a 9 5'.2N 34.5 1738 A 55694 B 55289 1772. 1936. 87 At anchor. T. C. take Z from top.) . bearing about I. observed moon's lower limb. and the exception to Rule 2: since is same K 90. t 92 16 17' A B d 6'. the second will also be called See Fig. first exception applies. 5A->B 55289 A 1772 K L he 97 49' 42 12' 37' N N 405 B 24816 9 5'. 12 feet. 0. 1 s ! H. 1 Zn 76 K (This calculation illustrates the exception to Rule 1: since t > from bottom. 29 October. ENE.211) Moon in evening of October 29. Long. 0' 0". 23 h 4 m (See diagram on opposite pdge. 9 A mile toward 1222 28' . 40. Whenever the for. take name as and > L. page 136.. G. E.236 Problems Line of Position from (H. 12' N..) C. 42 48' W.

1937. 0' 0". H. Long. C. R. observed planet Jupiter. 35 feet. 43 51' W. T. G. as follows: sextant altitude 7 13'.) Line of Position from Planet (H. 16 July. 0. bearing about SE.S. E. On . Western States.211) board S.. making passage Chicago Mackinac. I. in evening of July 15.. 2* 7m 9s to .Problems 237 (This diagram is to be used with the Problem on Page 236. in D. posi30' N. C. 86 tion Lat.

O 1. 5 A 91570 ho a 7 O'. 5 t 55 21 A B 8275 d 57' 3268 A 42736 A -> B 19238 11543 A 11543 K L 35 36' S 43 30' N 4- A 23498 K>L79 he 6 6' B 72332 58'.5 miles toward .238 Problems 44'.

page 136. G. 40. E. . 4 29. 47'. 53 58'. C. See Fig. 42 12' N.Problems 239 Line of Position from Star (H.) since K is same . C.. take Z from top. 4 A B 4556M K L 60 21' 42 12' 18 9' 9218 15771 A A -> <- 14355 24989 B 8259 B 8259 A 24989 N N A 6096 B -<- 2216 10475 ->- he ho 51 51 47'. 211) At anchor. observed star Capella. 87 W. 0' 0". H. Long.. I.5 miles A B 20856 4133 65 24' A toward Zn Rule 2: (This calculation illustrates the exception to name as and > L. as fol51' 40". T. bearing about ENE. 5 . 12 lows: sextant altitude 51 h 53 m 31 s feet. in Lat. O. 30 October. about an hour before midnight o October 48' with full moon. 1936.

C= 4- 20 33' 5 . 2* 7 m 9 s .H. 22 Long. Long. H. in evening of June 20.(For Problem on Page 239) (For Aquino's Fix) Aquino's Fix At anchor.28833 b = 62 46' 48'. 12 feet. T. 1936. C. 87 48' W. in Lat. C. 5 N.A. W. 240- . -<- 1. 0' 0". 21 June. and the above is merely to illustrate the method which follows. this azimuth was actually determined by calculation.. 4 Lat. 42 12'. 42 12' N. observed star Vega as follows: sextant 16' 30". . tan 9 90397 .. (As I had no gyro. G. I. 65 37' 7 E. simultaneous gyro azimuth 70 altitude 41 50'. 1.) 38 43' t 1. E. sec esc 10777 1. 87 10'. 7 W. sec 38436 G. 4054 b. tan 0. 1.

04' 50".. using an imaginary D. by E. 1941. by N.R. O h 3 m 22 s . position Lat. position . case: I. on Lake 12' N. sextant altitude 11 30' 00". Deneb 1 1 Kaitos: bearing about S. T. 42 to illustrate the method.. O h l m 30 s . Nov. G. 0' 0". E. Long. G. O. H 10 (-) 4' 3' . H.4 ..8 . 2.. sextant altitude In each C. Michigan shore. C..E.9 R H. T.Problems Fix from 241 Stars * Two (H. 12 feet. Nov. 42 15' N. R. C. 214) In evening of Nov. 87 practice sight from known position. E.5 ho 56' * A 48' W. observed stars as follows: Capella: bearing about N. 3.. ALTITUDE CORRECTIONS Deneb Kaitos hs 11 04' . in D. E. 3. 87 42' W.

242 Problems 5 FIG. 45. 0.) . 214. D. R. (See opposite page. Fix bv H. Position.

Vol. position: 42 87 48' W. V. 9 21'.) 15' N & 87 W gives fix at 42 12' N . position and 3 altitude corrections for each body. Lo. IE 5510'. 9 & 43) = = 12M(+) 2'. 9 (-) 29'. 5 324 07'. 2 (-) (-) 5'. 5 1 A d 78. 5 d = 45 56'.) 45'.) (p. at 0* = 31 41'. 3 S G. from 359 G.9 t 55 (z 127. 4 + + for 30 s + for 3 m + for 22 s W 45'. corr.0 miles ~ (away) 42' 1.A. from 8742'. G. Capella Deneb Kaitos (from N.H. ho a 10 58'. 5 h from table 1 1 27' .A.3&78) t 9'. at O h = 323 for 1* W W E.4(+) L(15'&Z127) = d(18'.R.0 (10'&59) = = 14'. add G.4 hcforD.A.OE (from H.R. 9 60'. 2 N d = 18 18'. at obs. t 32 32' W.9(-) ll'. .8 miles (Plotted from D. 5 = (away) 5. 4 Alt.2(+) 20'.H. 3 10 56'. 63) Enter with Take out (h < Enter with Take out L d t 42 46 124 N N] ) j 11 06'.O.A. 4 15' 7'. 214.4 | d 18 S > j A d 78.Problems 243 Solution using the D.D.R. 9 hcforDJR.A.H.OW . A L42N) 43 (hll27'. ho 11 11 26'. 35 52' .8&78) t (25'. at obs.OW 123 34'. A t 59 (Z35.1 (-) h from table 11 06 .R. 1 LoJXR. for: d(3'. 1 5'. com for: L(15'&Z36) = Alt. t 8742'. 73) (p.H.

244 Problems DLNLb KAIT08 FIG. 214. (See opposite page.) . Fix by H. Assumed Position. 46. 0.

V. d (3'.3 miles = (away) 16. at obs.5 Enter with Takeout (hll 27'.A. add from 359 G. 5 +for 3m s for 30 s + for 22 5'. at obs. 9 10 56'.A.) d - 18 18'. Vol.7 miles ' Plotted from A. \ 42 N&8807'.) (p. W W Ao give E E. at O h = + + for l m W G.3 S G. 6 d (18'. 1 W 15' 7'. 1 G. - 14'. 214. 2 N 323 45'.4 ' (from N.P.4 Ad78 (Z35. W .A.O. W. ho 11 21'.P. 73) (p.P. 35 52' .5 324 07'.9WJ 42 12 . for 2'. at O h 31 41'.S 11 03'. 5 = (toward) 18.H.9 L42N) d 18 S J Ad78 [Z 127.J 124 55 (from H. t 32 32' 87 32' . 4 t 55 Alt. a\Lo assumed t . for: Alt.P.H. 63) Enter with L d t 42 46N 124 N) J Takeout fhll06'.A. 9 60'.4 11 13'. corr. N & 87 48' W / Plotted from A. 2 (-) 1127'. J)eneb Kaitos d - 45 56'. corr.H. 2 he for A.Problems Solution using an assumed position and Capella 245 1 altitude correction for each body.A. W E \whole no. \42 N& 87 32'. 4 45'. 8 h from & 78) = 9 (-) table ll^'. from Lo assumed t 88 07' 9 . 3 & 78) h from table he ho a Fix at for A.H.

The d 19 30' . This is close enough and identifies this star as Arcturus.2 18' 1937. R H. A.8 = increase of G. A. we obtain: converted to arc = 53 . t = 19 L 42.2 W. G. G. 0' 0". at observation b Increase since O 34 23 11 48' 3' . in Lat. at "Correction to be added to tabulated m h G. 1937. 39 T 3' . l 32 and obtain h 23 3' . 6 May.. Z = 3 h 32 m .8 G. P 32 m 4 .3 and t 100 and h 40. atOh 44' . H.2 hs 9' ho 1. . E. A. in evening o May 5. 39 4' . and G. C. Look in N. H.246 Problems Identification (H.53 34 Long. to find one N. (approximate) at observation 4. O. 6. T.H. A.3. 42 12' N. 87 48' = 48' = G. O.2 4 7 T . H. 127 with d 2. since O 5. H. I..4 s . of stars" with G. T. H. A. "Stars" for 11 44' May with approximately d 19 . A. 12 feet. an unknown star as follows: Long. A. with G. at O h W. sextant altitude 39 azimuth about 99. Enter N. 127) At anchor.6 Entering H.A. H. H. 3. 87 48' W. C. 10 13' . date 6. E.3 nearest combination found is N. A. C. observed 9' 10".

will be approximate time (as good as D. A. C. V. C. E. h Estimated G. 1942. R. The at this advantage of taking the observation for longitude time is that any ordinary error in the latitude used will not affect the accuracy of the result. of sun when on P. body never crosses P. A. T.V. by the following: esc d -= csc/z cscL sec sec h -=csct d Combine t with D. as you may Take d for this G.. W. T. This G. of sun P. 41 46' N. in which ship will be at this G. 211) When follows: declination is less than latitude and the same name. V. Estimate L and Lo (f) Find L. 31 July.7 N. H. 86 51' W. A. Lo) when sun will be on P. R. > L body never crosses P. Lo to get G. in after* noon. position Lat. Required time on Declination for this: 18 15' . T. R. below horizon. . T. O. or W. will be Vertical. and longitude sight can best be made.* the time sun will be due E. or Estimate G. C. T. C.V.Problems 247 Time of Sun on Prime Vertical (H. T. of sun on P. A. of this G. L are opposite names and d & d d < L body crosses P. H. C. at D. C.V. Long. for above: 22 on 31 July. from N. V. may be found on Prime as when sun desire. * If d If > L and same name.. H. Use method for transit to find G. V.

C.A. L 41 46'.T.A.H.T.H. For +6 zone and wartime this became 5 h 26 m 56 s P. A 50404 A 17646 B B 2243 (from) A 32758 t 5430 3187 + Lo 6819'.C. . 22 h OW to increase find G. A To G.T.V. d 18 Problems 211: 7 N ON 15'. 155 G. 22 h 26 m 56 s Time of sun on P. O.OW 8651'.OW 10'.A.248 By H. for this when G. = 155 10' 148 26' Add 26m G. by 14' G.H. by 6 6 44' 30' 14' Add 56s to increase G.A.M.C.H.

p. . h Starting with G.T. Longitude: add. is later either table because For E. Table VI and the table at bottom of pages 2 and 3 Conversion of Civil to Sidereal (add) Correction to G. Long..: . Long. L.T. of O h L.T 4h 25m 498 8 ' In case the above is not obvious to the student. 15' when h longitude 85 time? W. Longitude: subtract. v T Q T table because L. Reject 24^ L.C.._ n.b.Civil to Sidereal Time 249 Civil to Sidereal Time Conversion local civil time is s 9 h 3 m 30 in On July 13.S.T. a detailed accurate diagrams explanation of each step with roughly be found below. .T. 2. 289) 28 11 m 29s 3 .. July 13 20 m 50*. 1 For W. is earlier = a passage of time into past. of O G. in Time from L.S.S. b. Dotted curves represent sidereal will time.. July 13 "Reduction" (here an m (Table VI. (5 41 m ). E.T 9* 3* l "Reduction" (here an increase) for 9h 3 m 30s (Table VI. p.T. have two purposes: 1. NOTE: In the N. 1939.C.T. To find L. .T.S.S.5 30* AddL. of (4 L.C.T. A. of Oh G. subtract factor for Long.C.S.S. what is the local sidereal G.T. a.T.C. 19m + 19* 54s 5 56s . 3) 19* .T. add factor for Long. 25 m 49s 8 . W.S. for L. 289) increase) for 5* 41 (NJL p. in Tune from either = a passage of time into future.

S. we our dotted curve at local meridian M. T. at T. C. C. G G. is same as G.5. C. between . (Table VI. S. T. S. at O h and M.) This extra amount is because T M as angle between G and and are "gets around" faster than O for a given duration there always more than units of start of civil sidereal time time. This totals 19 h 20 m 50 s . T. . plus "Reduction" of 56 s for the longitude. T. Time T. T.250 Civil to Sidereal G. moved through tude since first T. Hence L.) So T will have also moved 5 h 41 m plus a certain amount. (Angle between dotted meridians is same meridians. we want the But then O will have 5 h 41 m of longi- diagram. 5. C. of 0* G. 19 m 54 s . S. At O h L. L. S. thus discarding dotted curve in that part of first diagram which lies or 5 h 41 m O h L. For L. T.

C.8 at . p. L.. T. 287) - ^ 5*.T.5 + ^o n 56s. S.C.T.S. 289) . 9 h 3 m 30 Sidereal to Civil Time Conversion is July 13..A. s L. (Table VI. dates.& Sidereal time interval since 0* L.3 293.3. 19m 54S. p.C.3 (Table V. when O has moved 9 h 3 m 30 s since second diagram.T. given (+ 24 for subtracting above) 19* p.T. we L. T.C. July 13 (N. of 0* G. C.T Reduction (actual) for 9^ 4m 59S. of O h L. 3) "Reduction" (here an increase) for 5* 41m (Table VI.T.S. 1939. 30s .S.3 3m L.8 in longitude 85 49 civil time? On local sidereal time (5* 41-). 4h 25 m what is the local G. T. Adding this to L.Sidereal to Civil Time 251 But we must figure for the L. S. when s 15' W. T. Then T will have also moved 9h 3m 30 s plus a certain amount. L. = discard 24 h leaving 4h 25 m 49 s . July 13 L. gives 28* 25 m 49 s . T. C.8.O * 20m ** m 4m lm 50s 5 w . As the last amount is over 24h and we do not count sidereal .) So we extend the dotted curve 9 h 3 m 30 s + l m 29 s . .C. of 0.T.

of Q G. But then first O will have moved through tude since 5 h 41 m of longi- diagram. m 54 s .5.) This extra amount is because T and are "gets around" faster than for a given duration there O always more S. L. S. T. C. than of civil T. at Oh G. is same as G. plus "Reduction" of 56 s for the longitude. h S. T. we start our dotted curve at local meridian sidereal time M. C. (Table VI. and M. thus discarding dotted curve in lies . C. T.5. T.252 Sidereal to Civil is Time In case the above not obvious to the student. 19 19 h At Oh L. T. For L. T. Dotted curves represent sidereal time. at O b L. This totals 19*20* 50 s . or 5* 41 m Hence L. S. units of time.) So T will have also moved 5 h 41 m a cer- M plus tain amount. C. we want the T. T. (Angle between dotted meridians is same as angle between G and meridians.. G. a de- tailed explanation of each step with roughly accurate diagrams will be found below. that part of diagram between G. first which . S.

5 order to subtract 19 h 20 m 50 s from 4 25 m 49 s h . It 9 h 4* 59 s than the a slightly larger quancivil time for the same duration.Sidereal to Civil Time 253 We 49 s know unknown . and the L. S. of 0* T.8. S.) This subtraction between L. S. Subtracting this gives the interval now in civil time. is T. known This tity is L.Itis9 b 3 m 30 8 . C. as shown in second diagram. T. is at the L. S.8 we add 24* to the latter. 4* 25 m 49 s . T.3 found for it in Table V. . To convert it to civil it must be reduced by an amount l m 29 s . T. T. C. . to know interval in sidereal time be- tween L. at the unS. and L.8. T. This shows L. 3 m 30 s T. T. S. 4h 25 m the We this want L. C. C. of O h L. 9 h at L. (Other combina- tions may not require this. In . the L. T. gives the de- sired interval in sidereal time T.3. C.

for L.A. to 360 ). moon. equal to this angular distance. D.T. M. use G. for West Longitude: If G. of local .A.A. of sun or moon on date as found above at whatever hour the G. or E. II. in calculation as of one date When L. to 360." table must now be used in each case (sun.T. Rule I.C..C. west to its position at transit. using correct H. to 180) at 0* G. for moon or V.H.T.) at O h G. of date on which local transit and compare with Lo. W.H. of local transit.C. adding an east to a west angle if necessary.H.A.T. Find G. (W. G. E. = Lo. use G.C. (always expressed as W. W. or zone description with reversed sign.A. for local transit is East Longitude: If G. to 180. of date ds found above and express as W.A. of date on which wanted is < Lo.H. for planet.H.. or E.A.H. is closest under Lo.A.H. in calculation as of date on which transit^ Apply longitude in time. Rule less. (W. (transit). (E.T.T. use local transit is wanted. The appropriate "Correction to G.H. in calculation as of one date desired more.H. These are starting positions. Calculate the angular distance to be timed from body's starting position. Find G.A.) at O h G. to G.H.254 Transit A is Uniform Method of More Exact Time Local Transit of Any Body for Find G. planet or star) to add up the total G.T.C.T.A.C.T. G. of planet or star at O h G.H.C.A. of date on which local transit is wanted is < Lo. This gives _ When neither rule applies.A.H. or Z. G. p.C.

(W. = 74 03'. Lo. At G.H. p. Tr. 2 (-) 13 " 10'. 6/4 Lo.5 = L.C.5 W.Transit Required: L.C. June 3.A. Tr. . W. 90 E. = 0. 9. (W. Time L. 0*. 214: O h 53m 27'.) = = When L.T. 12/8 (+) 18 h 45 m 27 s 5 B 6 h 00* 00 . (G.A.347 51 . E.H. (E. (-) O h 53m 41 s 5* 54m 00 s 18 h 59m 41 8 = G. 88 W. from 359 60'.A.5 fl " 9 to go {-)6'. 270 00'.90) = 0.9 GCT Lo. G.H. go N. W. Time of L. E. Tr.C/L 6/4 O h G.A.A. .0 .H. IE. Required: L.: Rule II) = G.A. W. L. = (360 . 216: (-) 282 27 . Betelgeux. p. = W.C.9 W. 12/9 Q h 45 m 27 8 . 5 to 17'.T. G.<Lo.C.A.H. Time of L. (E.C. G. 12/8 .3 of L. 11 09'.H.) 1208M 18 h 45 m represents (+) 12 08'.A. 3 = <Lo.2 6'.) 12/9 Oh 348 51'. G.H. 255 30' 1939. G. .A. go N.A.H.T.: Rule At G.T.HA = represents 88 3(X (-) 75 02 13 . 1939. When L.T. 6/3 = L Time of L. 3 to 41 8 " go -10'. Tr. = G. Denebola.) 6/3 0* G. . Dec.H.T. . I) (G. = Lo.C. to 282 08M 01' . Tr. Tr. Lo. G. from 350 60'.A. = Lo.

24 (G.C.H. use same date) When L. At G. .317 Lo. 11/15 G. Nov.2 W.T.C.A. 2: No rule. of L. p.A. 12/20 Lo. Time of L. 31'. Transit 15.256 Required: L. 1939. 4 to G.A. use same date) - G. 1939. 11/15 Lo. G. Tr 2*49m 11M L.T. W. Tr.0.) 12/20 0* G. Required: L. 45 E. 216: 19* 38 m g represents - (-) 295 18'! 4 go 8'. W.) G.) 11/15 & G.C. .317 31' . Dec. = When L. .H. Tr. (E. Lo.5 fl - G.H. = G.H. Time Time of L. .A. (W.C. W 2 W. 24 14'. - (360 - 45) (_) 315 00' 19 33'*.T. Time of L.C. 19* 38m 33 . . 11/15 (-) 4 h 2&* 07 s 5 l h 36^ 56 s 4 . 14' W . (G. Lo.T. p.T.C. G. L. (W. Tr. Canopus.0 .H. Tr.H.H.H. L.H.T. 0*. 12/20 22 h 38 m 33 s 5 L. = At G.A.A. 2: No rule.A. . 214: represents (-) 66 66 42' 8 to 20 40'! 9 G.A. = 19 32'.A. Aldebaran.C.A.A. h (-f) 3 Tr 00* 00 8 . N. from 359 60'. 42 28' 8 . 12/20 0*.Lo.C/T. E.' t0 N. = 0. 20.T. = 4 h 26* (+) 42 28' 8 E.

W. 1/28 Lo. 8 At G. 1/28 (H. use same date) 15 26'. 2 to go (-) 12 25*.H.A. = 0. W. 9: No When L. G. A. L. 8 6'. " 161 51 m 12 53'. Lo.A. = 222 41'. 1939. (-) 19 h 03 m 11 B . Moon. 4 to go (-)6'.) 6/1 0* G. 2 (+) 137 18' . 1939. . Tr.2 18 h Ol m 25 . 3 rule. Lo.A.H.2 W.2 (H. W 176 19' 4 W E. Saturn. = 222 41'.C.0 I h 01 m 45".A.A.T. 133: = (-) 14 40' .H.4 2' . 5 46'.4 G.A. 6/1 from 359 60'. W. 159 : ^IF^ represents 20 h (-) 300 44' 4 .C. Time Time of L.0369) 137 18'. = 0. 6/1 Qh 06m 07a 9 Required: L. W. to go 46M 03 m represents (-)43'. . p. Tr.Va. (W. 257 19'. 7 to go G. Tr. 19 h = Lo.T.H. use same date) (G. p. Tr. h (G. = G.T.H.C. of L. G.8 fl = - G. = = G.H.A.p.HiA.T.C. L. . = N.T. (-) 20 h 51 m 25 s 5 ll h 45 m 17 s 6 . Tr.D.T. At G.A.H.A. 176 W. June 1. 8: No When L. 3) N.M. (W.C. Jan. 6/1 Lo.H. = O h G. (E.T.Transit Required: L. 15 26'. = 14 29'.C.C. 28. 3 = 99 07'. Time of L. 4 rule.C.T. Lo.A.) 15'. to go G. 1/28 L.) 1/28 O G.

the longitude exceeds the sun's G.258 Transit Remarks Comparison of this method with that given in Button 282-3) for Denebola shows the present procedure requires ten lines to Button's sixteen. 1938) does not explain how to pick the entering date.. Bowditch (Revised Ed.H..C. Moon problems. Lack of space prevents adding rare sun problems where. or E. Neither Button nor Bowditch presents a uniform method for more exact time of local transit of any body.T.A. come out with a time of transit for the following day. . usually requires but one line (never more than three) whereas Button's requires seven. on days when the moon is known to miss any transit. 1942. My method for finding the date with which to enter the N.) at O h G. Ed. near the 180th meridian. A. pp. (W. (7th.

For declinations to 23 and latitudes 70-88. 71. (OZ to 15Z. Nautical Astronomy. Each section covers four months. with star identi- fication tables. Azimuth Tables. For latitudes and altitudes to 88 azimuths to 180. Radio Navigational Aids. Ltd. 1940. Published monthly. Other Publications: Wrinkles in Practical Navigation. George 259- . 1940. M. Washington. Dodson and D. Washington. Naval Institute Proceedings. Azimuths of the Sun ("Red"). D.: 9. Issued annually.: Nautical Almanac. Dead Reckoning Altitude and Azimuth Table. S. Arctic LL. The American The American 66.D. 7th Edition. S. An Introduction to the Study of Navigation. Originally by Nathaniel Bowditch. Star Identifier. Mathematics for Navigators and Manual for Self-Study of Button's Navigation and Nautical Astronomy.) Position Plotting Sheets. T. In 16 sheets covering latitudes 0-49. American Practical Navigator. Government Printing Office. Published by the U. Published by the U. Air Almanac. Hyatt. 1937. Annapolis. Ageton. Noon-Interval Tables. Vols. Bibliography 5.Selected Published by the U. 3000. Revised Edition of 1938. Benjamin 1942. Azimuths of latitudes to 24-70 and and 70. 5. 214. 205. B. Naval Institute. Capt. C. D. For declinations 120. 127. Lecky. Tables of Computed Altitude and Azimuth. covers 10 latitude and declinations to 74 30'. 22nd Edition. S. Star Identification Tables. Maryland: Button. S. Celestial Bodies ("Blue"). Philip & Son. Hydrographic Office. I-VIIL Each vol- ume 2102-B. London. 211. C. For declinations to 23 and latitudes to 70. Navigation and Nautical Astronomy. 202. U.

Y. In 2 volumes. 1942Piloting. E. New York. Cornell Maritime Press. Hart. Button & Co. New York. SecretaryRobert A. 2nd Edition. Motor Boating. Busch. How to Navigate Today. Cugle. 1943. New York. For decimations to 23 and latitudes to 65. 1943. Navigation for Mariners and Aviators. David Polowe. Charles F. 1936. M. Power Squadrons. Charles H. . Official Publication of the U. Cornell Maritime Press. R..260 Cugle's Selected Bibliography Two-Minute Azimuths. The Ensign. New York. New York. Seamanship and Small Boat Handling. S.. Chapman. 155 Worth St.. Inc. P. N.

106 Celestial globe. 120-121 plotting of. 32. formulas 119 means for finding. 217 Altitude difference. 117421. 157-158 Angles rules for. 10 Aphelion. 192-193 altitude. 55 angular. 55 true. 206 Canopus. 205-206 Angle hour. 231 form for. 193-194 of a celestial body. 209-211 Altitude. 59 Azimuth. 33 Arc scale. 16 Celestial horizon. 80 gnomonic. 170 ocean. 55 Azimuth circle. 77 Body transit of. 10. 117-121 of Polaris. 81 Celestial equator. 63 time. 181 historical. 23 Celestial co-ordinator. 51 Celestial sphere. R. 36 Calculations 63 Angle of reflection. 32 Artificial horizon. 13. noon. 56 corrections for. 49 compass.240 form Aries first for. 32 Astrolabe. 119.34 ecliptic. 32 Assumed D. 14 point vs. 171 in polar regions. 61 apparent. 25 Altitude azimuth. 153 Augmentation.) for. 122 261- . 151. 218 equipment. 129 Book problems reference rules for. position. 187-188 equinoctial. 119. 79-81 finding parts of. 190 59 parallax in. 183 polar. 144-145. 48-49. 56-60 Azimuth (Cont. 55 Celestial navigation Apparent AQUINO'S fix.Index Abbreviations. 121 Chronometer. declination. 63-64 of. 121. 6 6 Apparent magnitude. sextant. 80 Astronomical triangle. 9. tabular summary. 67 Celestial triangle. 170 great circle. 134-135 hour Charts circle.

70-74 error. 122. 72 sun. 42 perihelion of. 69-78 conversion. 72 Declination. 223 heeling error. 14 star. 74-76 point. 174 Earth aphelion of. 29 complete rotation. 52 Current. 161 problems. 174 set of. 130 Course. 32 error. 24 .262 Chronometer Circle great. 180 for. 78 marking methods of card. 73-74 correction. 22 speed of. 55 Distance. 180 reckoning. 69 form for. 24 sidereal. 28 fractional. 70 Dead Compass Compass card. 151 table of points. 22-23 determination of. 43-46 movement of. 174 drift of. 14 southern. 12 dumb. 11-12 orbit of. 42 international line. 180 dead reckoning. 180 variation. 174 Departure. 161. 73 measurement by sun noons. 133 northern. 8-9 methods Computed of determining. 77 78 Day's current error. 175-178 real ocean. 222 Day's work. 180-181 72 compass error. 22 Date calculation of. 32 small. 181 reports. 53-54 Cosine-haversine formula. 27 of equal altitude. 123-125 Compass. 70-76 form Day's run for. 162 taking a. 76 polar regions. Correction tables. 102. 117. form 220 deviation. 12 28 deviation. 72 historical. magnetic. 181 sun observations. 32 Circles Day civil. star. 69 of steering. 180 fixes. 70 180 radio time signals. 114. 161. 116 Index Greenwich. 74. 162 Dip. 173. 19. gyro. 44 hour. 207-208 change of. local magnetic disturbance. 161 52 sun.

14 dip of. Identification. 170 projection. 129 180 star altitude curves. 207-208 Globe map. 5 eccentricity of. 161 mercator sailing. 141 International date line. 44 difference from 180th meridian.Index Ecliptic. 145-147 within equal altitudes. 225-228 by noon sun. 110112. 229 line of position. 142-143 Hour circles. 143-144 on equator not at equinox. 215 . 55 Intercept. 23 Latitude. 156 Index correction. 182 Fix. 106 Fixed stars. 48 Interval to noon. 218 by Polaris. day's run. 66. 144-145 noon. 136 H. 216 calculations of. 19-22. 10 Gnomonic Gnomonic of. 33 AQUINO'S. 212 altitude azimuth. 223 7. charts. 217 day's current. 246 sidereal time method. 10 Ellipse definition of. 36 calculations for position. 221 middle latitude sailings. 132 special. 26 vernal. phi second. 191 difference of. 103. 0. 32 local. 5 Great Great circle sailing.137-140 Heavenly bodies. O. 155-156. 55 westward shift. 10 263 circle. 169-170 civil Greenwich time calculations of. 105 by phi prime. 215 by meridian altitude. 33 on equator at equinox. 6 KEPLER'S Laws. 9. 220 latitude. 144 running. 22 foci of. 21 187-188 celestial. 141-147 star. 14. 20 precession of. 142 zenith with Sumner arcs. 9 fall. 14 precession diagram. 219 form for. 26 apparent motion autumnal. 180 Hour angle. 31 obliquity of. 214. 26 H. 168 Equinoctial. 103-113 Forms. 171 Equinox. 109-110 longitude. 7 Horizon artificial. 222 dead reckoning. 9. 56 Equipment navigational. 36 Greenwich. 211.2/4.

6 conditions at. 45 reduction to. 196-204 difference of. 47 diagram and discussion of. 92-93 form of procedure. 106 Lubber's line. O. 45 reduction to meridian. 105 Meridian angle. 239-240 from sun. 7. 78 Greenwich civil. 53-54 tables in. 126 forms for H. 18 from moon. 52 uses. 38 time sight. 183-195 Longitude. 218 plane of orbit. 108 parallel. 87 Nautical Almanacf 6. 127 tangent method. 234-235 SAINT-HILAIRE method. 230 problems. 161 Navigational stars declinations of. 9 time frame. 99. 96 mantissa.) opposite-the-sun. 94 natural. WEEMS' method. 224-248 stars chronometer error. 127 Logarithms. Line of 107 16-19 of. 167 7 Observations sun. 48 interval. 189 16-19 chord method. 109 meridian altitude. 94 Napier diagram. 108 measuring transits. 211. 126-127 calculating. 151. 99-100 Navigation abbreviations. 209-211 examples of. 106 Index Meridian (Con. 13-16 . 114. 168. 32 Meridian sight. 237-238 from star. 236 from planet. 75-76 NAPIER'S rules. 115 Noon apparent. 151 sailing. crossing the 180th. 92-96 characteristic. 106 North Pole Magnitude apparent. position. 214. 168 Moon motion phases of. 180 Orientation Meridian. 212 practical points. 51 Nautical mile. 17 form for. 116 and planets. 104-105 meridian sight. 193 observation of. 43 Lunar distances. 183 Mercator chart. 51-54 correction table. 108 Meridional parts. 108 TODD'S method. 114-115 by time sight.) interval to noon. 100. 148-150 Notices to mariners. 171-172 Mercator in polar regions. 216 time relationships.264 Latitude (Cont.

183 WEEMS' system. 234-235 line of. 202-204 ond. 224-248 altitude azimuth. 151 compass behavior in. point. 153 form for. 219 parallel. 64 current. 162-166 composite. 196 locating. 236 from planet. Points table of. 234-239 longitude. 55. 148-150 polar. 129-130 Scales arc. 151-154 north pole. 161 Polar chart. 148-154 correction position lines. 221 middle latitude. 240 azimuth. 171 polar great circle chart. 133 133 procedure. 189 orbits of. 63-64 AQUINO'S fix. 128-131 polar Position plotting sheets. 59 Pelorus. 56-58 Right ascension. 67 Reflection Position estimated. 6 Planets. 175-178 Semidiameter. 172 great circle. 57 horizontal. 166-167 form for. 167-169 Polar regions astronomical triangle. 214. 174 from moon. 169-170 mercator. 55. 230 sidereal to civil time. 193-195 time conversion. 132. 59 265 Problems (Con t. 63 Refraction. 165 plane. 232-233 civil to sidereal time. 237-238 from star. 57-59 geocentric. 246 in altitude. 239-240 from sun. 229 line of position. 55. 152 151 Sailings. 101. 78 latitude. phi sec- Perihelion. 247-248 transit. traverse problem. 148 standard of accuracy. 234-239 angle of.Index Parallax. 225-228 latitude by phi prime. 249-253 time of sun. 59-60 . 164 SAINT-HILAIRE method. 13-14 Rhumb line. 99 in polar regions. 78 Polaris. Polar position finding. 22 Plotting. 14 254-258 Quadrant. 218. 251-253 observation of. 162-163 164-166 spherical. 101 Problems. 231 computed fix. 241-245 identification.) fix from two stars. 249-251 vernier. 151 Position finding. 161. 10-11.

61-68. 190 sun observation. 246 between zone and civil. light. 67 care of. 190 designation. table. 63-66 star observation. 29. 23 Greenwich civil. 184-187 Index Stars (Cont. 134-135 Time apparent. 62 Sextant vernier. 185-186 north. 26 declination. 189 type. 188-189 Sun day true. 63 latitude. 4 historical. 25 minus zone. 190 right ascensions of. 65 index error. 155. 9 30 summer. 186-187 index mirror. 38 . 41 plus zone. 123-127 declination. 61-64 timing sights Stop-watch of. 52 249-251 25 32 equation of. 80 planet observation. position.266 Sextant. 21 description of.) adjustments. 249-253 civil to Sphere small circle. 196 local apparent. 14 40 relationships. 65 historical. R. 36 civil. 134-140 assumed position. 21 observation of. civil to sidereal. 24-25. 31 conversion. 6 identification. 181 relations declination of navigational. 37-38 speed of Solstice. 65 artificial horizon. 38 coordinates. 39 radio signals. 66 bubble. 24 Tabular summary. 37 civil units.. 65. 63 Short-cut systems. 42 lines of position. 25 longitude relationships. apparent. 12 Stars. 29 D. 135 great circle of. 17 fixed. 30-31. 25 kinds of. 52 mean. 191-192 Sumner Sun taking sights with. 67 index correction. 189 reading of. 25 Greenwich mean. 188 Sextant angles. locating. 3. 52 observations of. 157-158 Terrestrial triangle. 37 calculations of t. 14 winter. 14 Star day. 5 finding apparent. 197-202 navigational. 39 observer's watch. Solar system. 66 Sun noons. 12 moon Navy observation. 37 local civil.

39-41 northern declination. 170 Visible stars 25 standard. 80 leap. problems. Zone time. 82. 26 conversion to Vernal equinox. 28 sidereal. 52 267 88 Trigonometric functions. Zenith distance. 107 173 plotting charts. 85 terrestrial. 27 solar. 181 Triangle astronomical. 254-258 Traverse. 49 Time Time Time difference. 15 noons. 64 scale. 164 153 polar position finding. 85 spherical. 90 right spherical. 79-81 celestial. 39 NAPIER'S rules. 194 Work Year reports. spherical. 251-253 64 units. 87 plane. 39 zone. 83-84. civil. 40 of mean sun Watches second-setting. 86- and or 38 practical navigation. 35.) rules for. 125 Zero zone. 29 solar. 87 27 80 82-91 Trigonometry. 206 sidereal. 44 zones. Universal Plotting Charts. 39-40 . 105 Transit. star. 30-31. 9 Vernier. 39 zero zone. 63 rule for reading. 25 WEEMS method. 15 southern declination. oblique spherical. Vertex. 36 frame. 39-40 TODD'S method.Index Time (Cont. 85 Zodiac 14 signs of.

Notes .

Notes .

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students. scouts. #2O8. Tuf-Tag Covers 8" x 15" (in use) $1. Time. H. Distance Off by Two simplified.50 . Nichols A tance real timesaver.NAVIGATION FOR MARINERS and AVIATORS Capt. plus Captain Polowe* s compact tables to use in place of Bowditch. S. Dreisonstok. and all pages from Nautical Almanac needed to work the problems. Bow and Beam Bearing Bearings \yitb a minimum difference of 2O between bearings. David Polowe Written by a navigator and instructor in navigation and nautical astronomy. easy-to-handle instrument. 528 Pages Illustrated Indexed $5. hobbyists. Ideal for navigators. Rabl scieninto this compact. this book By contains complete navigation tables. O. 243 Pages . In one pocket-sized book.OO DISTANCE OFF TABLES By Daniel E. service- The author of the popular Ship craft 'Pairing and Development puts his and drafting skill r men. Speed and Discalculations now made quickly and easily. $3-OO RABL STAR FINDER By tific S.