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Introduction to (3D) Seismic Interpretation
C. Höcker, SIEP, EPT-S
3D seismic an overview
• an acoustic image of the subsurface • a volume made up by a series of ‘seismic lines’ • reflection time contains information on depth of subsurface interface • reflected energy contains information on properties
C. Höcker, SIEP, EPT-S
Aspects of Seismic Interpretation
Bridge between Geophysics and Geology (can we see a seismic section as a geological profile?) Tries to overcome the ‘non-uniqueness problem’ Balance between ‘Science’ and ‘Art’ Young discipline with rapidly changing technology
C. Höcker, SIEP, EPT-S
EPT-S Mintrop: patent on the refraction method (salt dome discovery. SIEP.History of Seismic Exploration EPT-LD 1900 theory of reflected and refracted waves 1914-1918 (WW1) locating heavy guns by recording arrival times 1919 1920’s 1953 1956 1975 1980’s C. Texas) reflection method (Oklahoma) magnetic tape: analog recording patent on CDP method first 3D surveys development of seismic workstation software 4 . Höcker.
2. 1930. Höcker. C.000 pounds of dynamite shot by Humble Oil & Refining Company (now Exxon). SIEP.The Old Way EPT-LD A refraction shot in West Texas. EPT-S (Geosource / Petty-Ray Geophysical) 5 .
Salt dome exploration (Texas. EPT-S (Geosource / Petty-Ray Geophysical) 6 . SIEP. 1930) EPT-LD C. Höcker.
EPT-S 7 .The seismic reflection technique EPT-LD Petroleum Handbook 1948 (Shell) C. SIEP. Höcker.
SIEP.Advantages of 3D over 2D Seismic EPT-LD Spatial continuity (less correlation problems) Correct positioning due to 3D migration (no ‘side-swipes’) C. Brown 8 . EPT-S From A. Höcker.
Höcker. SIEP. EPT-S 9 . 3D Migration EPT-LD Dipping events are not focussed with 2D migration but are with Events with out-of-plane dip 3D are not focused with 2D migration but are with 3D C.2D vs.
Brown 10 .Maps from 2D and 3D Seismic Interpretation EPT-LD closure shape updip of 15-B-4X C. Höcker. EPT-S 2D • 3D likely increases the number of faults in a subsurface description 3D • but it also likely will increase the geological feasibility of a fault pattern From A. SIEP.
EPT-S 11 .Reacquisition and/or Reprocessing: Getting the target imaged for the first time EPT-LD C. SIEP. Höcker.
EPT-S 12 .Reacquisition and/or Reprocessing: Improving Resolution 1994 EPT-LD 1983 C. SIEP. Höcker.
EPT-S (Gerd Kleemeijer NAM TGS-S) 13 .Improvements in Migration and Noise-Suppression EPT-LD 1993 1998 1999/2000 1999/2000 Time Migration Cluster PreSDM Enhanced PreSDM Post Migration Structurally Oriented Filtering C. Höcker. SIEP.
next to time grids application to 3D seismic opens up new manipulations like: creation of random lines interpretation of timeslices reservoir characterisation from continuous attributes Terminology: TIS = Trace Interpretation System C. EPT-S 14 . Höcker.Influence of Workstation Technology on Interpretation EPT-LD Started new era by: high accuracy of time picking autotracking of seismic horizons immediate extraction of amplitudes in grids. SIEP.
C. Hydrocarbons (gas) show as green. Höcker.3D data cube in visualisation environment EPT-LD Detailed faults can be seen on the 3D cube. SIEP. EPT-S 15 .
Höcker. NAM TGS-S) 16 .The Interpreter at work EPT-LD C. EPT-S (Jaap van der Toorn. SIEP.
EPT-S Schlumberger Inside Reality VR system (Schlumberger web site)17 .Virtual Reality EPT-LD C. SIEP. Höcker.
petrophysics & reservoir engineering often ‘homeless’ between geology and geophysics skill pools strong presence in E&A and early development – straddling prominent boundaries in Global Processes Boundary towards quantitative interpretation (QI) not well defined Traditionally more involved in early modelling steps in the asset life cycle C. geophysics. Höcker. EPT-S 18 .Seismic Interpretation – Positioning the Skill EPT-LD An inter-disciplinary skill between geology. SIEP.
tectonic history Reservoir Engineer: volumetrics. SIEP. EPT-S 19 . development options. well plans C.Skill Position of Seismic Interpretation EPT-LD Geophysicist: seismic (Re-) Processing Bio-Stratigrapher: Markers and bio-facies from cores & cuttings depth conversion velocity model Petrophysicist: physical properties from logs sequence-stratigraphic interpretation stratigraphic / facies architecture model Seismic Interpretation Geologist: marker depths from logs facies from logs and cores. simulations. field development plan. depositional history quantitative interpretation property model structural interpretation structural model Structural Geologist: faults & fracture prediction. Höcker.
Höcker. Model Reservoir Architecture Modelling Layer/Object Model Seismic Processing = impact of seismic data Velocity Model Structural Framework Modelling Framework of Structural & Large-Scale Stratigraphic Surfaces Reservoir Architecture Modelling Detailed Layer/Object Model of Reservoir Static Property Modelling Property Model Static Property Modelling 3D Model of Properties Dynamic Reservoir Modelling Fluid Movement Model Dynamic Reservoir Modelling 4D Model of Fluid Movements Field Development Planning Development Plan Field Development Planning HC Development Scenarios Facilities Planning HC Evacuation Scenarios 20 Facilities Planning Facility Design C. EPT-S . SIEP.&Stratigr.Subsurface Modelling Stages as applied in the Oil&Gas Industry Velocity Modelling/ Seismic Processing Velocity Model EPT-LD Structural Framework Modelling Struct.
Velocity Modelling and Seismic Processing EPT-LD Pre-Stack Processing Well Data Preproc/Interpr Stacking & Migration • Exploration / Appraisal / Production • 2D and 3D Seismic Velocities from Seismic Data Velocities from Well Data Velocity Model Building Processing Geophysicist Seismic Interpreter Petrophysicist C. SIEP. EPT-S 21 . Höcker.
Structural Framework Modelling EPT-LD Filtering & Interpret. Well Data Preproc/Interpr Structural&Stratigraphic Segmentation Tops & Faults from Well Data Structural&Stratigraphic Model Building Depth Conversion Closure-Catchment Analysis Compartmentalisation Analysis Volumetric Analysis Palinsp. Höcker. SIEP. EPT-S 22 . Proc. Reconstruction Basin Modelling Velocity Model • Exploration / Appraisal / Production • 2D and 3D Seismic Seismic Interpreter Quantitative Interpreter (GP) Petrophysicist Geologist C.
Höcker.Stratigraphic / Reservoir Architecture Modelling EPT-LD Interpretive Processing Well Data Preproc/Interpr Deposition Modelling • Appraisal / Production • 3D Seismic Segmentation into Layers/Objects Genetic/Property Units from Well Data Layer/Object Model Building Volumetric Analysis Seismic Interpreter Petrophysicist Geologist C. SIEP. EPT-S 23 .
Static Property Modelling EPT-LD Seismic Preprocessing Well Data Preproc/Interpr Reservoir Simulation Seismic Modelling/ Seismic Inversion Rock/Fluid Properties & Fractures from Well Data Property Model Building Compartmentalisation Analysis • Appraisal / Production • 2D and 3D Seismic Quantitative Interpreter (GP) Petrophysicist Geologist Reservoir Engineer C. EPT-S Volumetric Analysis 24 . Höcker. SIEP.
SIEP.Dynamic Reservoir Modelling EPT-LD Seismic Preprocessing 4D Seismic Analysis / Seismic Modelling Fluid Properties / Pressure / Production from Well Data Property Model Update Compartmentalisation Analysis Volumetric Analysis Well Data Preproc/Interpr Reservoir Simulation / History Matching • Production • 2D and 3D Seismic Quantitative Interpreter (GP) Geologist Reservoir Engineer Production Technologist C. Höcker. EPT-S 25 .
00 $0. EPT-S ($/BOE) $5.00 27 .00 $2.00 $3.00 $7.00 C. improvements mainly attributed to 3D seismic 1200 1000 $6. SIEP. Höcker.00 $4.Amoco’s exploration balance.00 $1.00 (MMBOE) 800 600 400 resources found 200 0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 from Brown 1999 EPT-LD cost of finding $8.
SIEP. Höcker. EPT-S 31 .Seismic Interpretation in Integrated Reservoir Modelling EPT-LD Who are the customers of seismic interpretation results? What do they want? When do they want it? Software portfolio – recent movements Where does the seismic interpretation task end? C.
SIEP. Höcker.Integrated Field Study Methodology (1) EPT-LD Reservoir Structure Integrated Field Model Reservoir Architecture Global Process #5: IRM (3DATWTM) Production History Reservoir Properties Optimised Field Development C. EPT-S 32 .
Integrated Field Study Methodology (2) EPT-LD Raw Data Multiple Realisations Constructed Using Different Assumptions Rock Model Property Model Upscaled Simulation Model Rule Sets C. SIEP. Höcker. EPT-S 33 .
EPT-S 34 .Integrated Field Study Methodology (3) EPT-LD Simple Complex STUDY COMMENCES STUDY CONCLUDES C. SIEP. Höcker.
EPT-S 35 .&Inj.well3 Lg.Injection H. SIEP. Void Low Case Median Case High Case Scenario Data Analysis DATA Model Complexity C.Integrated Field Study Methodology (4) EPT-LD STUDY COMMENCES Detailed Full Field Model Simple Full Field Model STUDY CONCLUDES UR (MMm3) Simple/ Conceptual Models Regional Seismic Logs Core SCAL PVT Well Data Production Data Field Development Plan Economics Forecasting 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 No Prod. Höcker.Comp+Opt Optim.Constr Sm.Comp+Opt W orkovers W .
SIEP. Höcker. EPT-S 36 .Iterative Cycles in Subsurface Interpretation EPT-LD Execution in iterative cycles: parallel rather than sequential work in integrated teams cycles of improving the model and assessing its behaviour in dynamic and economic modelling additional cycles increase detail and confidence of single instances or generate new instances / scenarios intermediate products should be complete at current level of maturity and detail interruption or abandonment of work due to changed priorities does not cause waste Structure and organise your work such that intermediate products can be passed on to your customers or the activity be stopped at any time without the product being incomplete. C.