Mr. Daniel B. Baker H. E. U Kyaw Thu H. E.

Robert Chua
Humanit arian Coordinat or a. i. Deput y Foreign Minist er Ambassador of Singapore
Unit ed Nat ions in Myanmar Government of t he Union of Myanmar t o Myanmar and
UN Represent at ive in t he TCG Chairman of t he TCG Senior ASEAN Member of t he TCG
FOREWORD
On 2 and 3 May 2008, Cyclone Nargis st ruck t he coast of Myanmar and moved inland across
t he Ayeyarwady Delt a and sout hern Yangon Division, causing many deat hs, dest roying livelihoods, and
disrupt ing economic act ivit ies and social condit ions. This report describes t he human loss and assessment
of damage t o physical asset s, t he subsequent losses sust ained across all economic act ivit ies, and t he
impact of t he disast er on bot h t he nat ional economy and household- level act ivit ies and well- being.
On 25 May 2008, at t he ASEAN- UN I nt ernat ional Pledging Conference organized in t he aft ermat h
of t he cyclone in Yangon, agreement was reached t o form a Tripart it e Core Group ( TCG) t o coordinat e
relief effort s, bringing t oget her t he Government of t he Union of Myanmar, t he Unit ed Nat ions, and t he
Associat ion of Sout heast Asian Nat ions ( ASEAN) . On 31 May, t he TCG agreed t o conduct a Post Nargis
Joint Assessment ( PONJA) t o det ermine t he full scale of t he impact of t he cyclone and requirement s for
bot h immediat e humanit arian assist ance needs and medium t o longer t erm recovery.
This assessment , conduct ed in t he Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions from 10 t o 19 June 2008,
is signifcant in the cooperation of humanitarian and development actors to bring together relief, early
recovery and longer-term recovery in one assessment, and the role of ASEAN in the humanitarian feld.
A comprehensive met hodology was used t o est imat e humanit arian needs, damage t o asset s,
changes in economic fows, and impacts on social and economic conditions. The estimates were based
on information collected by the joint assessment teams during feld surveys in the aftermath of the
disast er. The assessment consist ed of t wo component s – t he Village Tract Assessment ( VTA) focusing on
humanit arian needs, and t he Damage and Loss Assessment ( DALA) focusing on damage and losses.
The analysis of the data has identifed the needs and quantifed fnancial requirements that will
facilit at e formulat ing comprehensive relief and early recovery act ions, as well as medium- and long- t erm
recovery plans, including disast er risk management . A cont inuat ion of t he part nership bet ween t he
Government of t he Union of Myanmar, ASEAN and t he int ernat ional communit y t hat has marked t his j oint
assessment will be essent ial t o address t hese needs in t he near, medium and longer t erm.
This report has been j oint ly prepared by t he Government of t he Union of Myanmar, t he Unit ed
Nat ions and ASEAN, wit h t he support of t he humanit arian and development communit y. The Tripart it e
Core Group appreciat es t he collaborat ive spirit and t he cont ribut ions from all part ners t o t his import ant
process.
On behalf of t he Tripart it e Core Group,
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
i
AcknOWlEDgEmEnt
The Tripart it e Core Group wishes t o express it s sincere appreciat ion t o t he many women
and men who made t his assessment possible. About 250 st aff from t he Government of Myanmar,
ASEAN ( support ed by t he Asian Development Bank and t he World Bank) , UN agencies and non-
government al organizat ions conduct ed t he Village Tract Assessment and t he Damage and Loss
Assessment wit h remarkable speed and compet ence. I t is t he dedicat ion t o t heir work, oft en under
t rying circumst ances, which made t his j oint endeavour a success.
Staff from 18 government ministries were involved in the assessment through feld visits,
t he provision of dat a and it s int erpret at ion. We are grat eful t o t hem for t heir vit al support .
Some 70 persons condensed this wealth of data into the present report, making its fndings
accessible t o a broader audience, and in t he processing t elling t he st ories of t hose who survived
Cyclone Nargis.
I t is t o t he survivors of t his st orm, t o t heir resilience and courage, t hat t his report is
dedicat ed.
ii
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cOntEnts
Foreword i
Acknowledgment ii
Cont ent s iii- iv
List of Annexes v
List of Tables vi
List of Maps vi
List of Figures vi
List of Boxes vi
List of Abbreviat ions and Acronyms vii

Sect ion I : The Disast er 1
1. 1. Cyclone Nargis 1
1. 2. The Human Toll 1
1. 3. Social and Economic Background of t he Affect ed Areas 2
1. 3. 1. Livelihoods 2
1. 3. 2. The Social St ruct ure of Delt a Villages 2
1. 4. Myanmar ’s Vulnerabilit y t o Nat ural Hazards and Climat e Change 3
1.4.1. Historical Hazard Risk Profle 3
1. 4. 2. Hazard Exposure in t he Delt a Region 3
1. 4. 3. Proj ect ed I mpact of Climat e Change 4
1. 5. Managing Disast er Risk: Key Priorit ies 4

Sect ion I I : Sect or I mpact 5
2. 1. Assessment Met hodology and Dat a 5
2.2. Fulflling Basic Needs and Restoring Basic Services 6
2.2.1. Food And Nutrition 6
2. 2. 2. Healt h 7
2. 2. 3. Educat ion 9
2. 3. Rest oring Economic Act ivit y / Livelihoods 10
2. 3. 1. Agricult ure, Livest ock and Fisheries 10
2. 3. 2. I ndust ry and Commerce 13
2. 4. I nfrast ruct ure 13
2. 4. 1. Housing 13
2. 4. 2. Wat er Supply and Sanit at ion 15
2. 4. 3. Religious I nfrast ruct ure 17
2. 4. 4. Transport and Communicat ions 17
2. 4. 5. Elect ricit y 18
2.4.6. Public Infrastructure 18
2. 5. Cross- cut t ing I ssues 19
2. 5. 1. Coast al Zone Management and Environment 19
2.6. Summary of Damage and Losses 19

Sect ion I I I : The Economic and Social I mpact 21
3. 1. Macro- Economic I mpact 21
3. 1. 1. The Economy Pre- Nargis 21
3. 1. 2. I mpact of Cyclone Nargis 21
3. 2. I mpact on Livelihoods and I ncomes 22
3. 3. Social I mpact 24
3. 3. 1. Vulnerable Groups 25
3.3.2. Gender 26
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Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
Sect ion I V: The Way Forward – Humanit arian and Recovery St rat egy 27
4. 1. Guiding Principles 27
4. 2. Overall Humanit arian and Recovery Approach 28
4. 2. 1. Social Services 29
4. 2. 2. Shelt er and Housing 30
4. 2. 3. Food and Agricult ure 31
4. 2. 4. Communit y Recovery and Livelihoods 32
4. 2. 5. Coast al Zone Management 32
4.2.6. Infrastructure 33
4. 3. Needs and Cost s 33
4. 3. 1. Relat ionship t o t he Revised Appeal 33
4. 3. 2. Early and Longer Term Recovery Cost s 33
4. 3. 3. The relat ionship bet ween 34
Damage and Losses and Recovery Needs
4. 3. 4. Coordinat ion, Monit oring, and Aid Tracking 35

Sect ion V: The Response t o Cyclone Nargis 37
5. 1. The I mmediat e Response 37
5. 1. 1. Nat ional Response 37
5.1.2. Regional and International Response 46
5.1.2.1. The Regional Response 46
5. 1. 2. 2. The I nt ernat ional Response 49

Sect ion VI : Disast er Risk Management 53
6.1. Institutional Arrangements 53
6.2. Regional Partnerships for Disaster Risk Management 53
6.3. Immediate and Short-Term Needs 53
6.4. Medium-Term Needs 54
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list OF AnnExEs
Annex 1: The Village Tract Assessment Met hodology 55
Annex 2: The Damage and Loss Assessment Met hodology 59
Annex 3: Nutrition and Food Security 61
Annex 4: Health 66
Annex 5: Educat ion 74
Annex 6: Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries 82
Annex 7: I ndust ry and Commerce 91
Annex 8: Housing 97
Annex 9: Wat er Supply and Sanit at ion 104
Annex 10: Transport and Communicat ions 109
Annex 11: Elect ricit y 115
Annex 12: Coast al Environment and Nat ural Resources Management 124
Annex 13: Macroeconomic I mpact 130
Annex 14: Employment and Livelihoods 137
Annex 15: Social Impact of Cyclone Nargis 146
Annex 16: Vulnerable Groups 155
Annex 17: Gender 160
Annex 18: Early Recovery 165
Annex 19: Dat a Annex t o t he Nat ional Response 172
Annex 20: Tripart it e Core Group 178
Annex 21: Disast er Risk Management 181
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Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
list OF tAblEs
Table 1: Self- Ranking of Populat ion in Different Wealt h Groups in t he Ayeyarwady Delt a 2
Table 2: Est imat es of Damage and Losses in t he Healt h Sect or 10
Table 3: Est imat es of Damage and Losses in t he Educat ion Sect or 11
Table 4: Est imat es of Damage and Losses in t he Agricult ure Sect or 12
Table 5: Est imat es of Damage and Losses: I ndust ry and Commerce 15
Table 6: Estimates of Damage and Losses in the Housing Sector 16
Table 7: Sources of Wat er before and aft er t he Cyclone in 18
Yangon and Ayeyarwady Divisions
Table 8: Est imat es of Damage and Losses in t he Wat er Supply Sect or 19
Table 9: Est imat es of Damage and Losses: in t heTransport and Communicat ions 19
Table 10: Overall Summary of Damage and Losses 22
Table 11: I mpact on GDP 24
Table 12: I ndicat ive Financial Est imat es of Relief and Recovery Needs 38
Table 13: ASEAN Member St at es' Assist ance t o Cyclone Nargis 53
Table 14: Relief Priorit ies and Act ivit ies by t he 11 Clust ers 55
list OF mAps
Map 1: Sampling Grid used for the VTA Survey 6
Map 2: Food St ocks Dest royed by t he Cyclone in t he Delt a 8
Map 3: Damaged Healt h Facilit ies in t he Delt a 9
Map 4: Damaged School Buildings in t he Delt a 11
Map 5: Seed St ocks Availabilit y as Report ed in t he VTA Survey 13
Map 6: Agriculture as Main Source of Income before Cyclone Nargis 14
Map 7: Agricult ure as Main Source of I ncome aft er Cyclone Nargis 14
Map 8: Proport ion of Houses Tot ally Damaged in t he Delt a 17
Map 9: Pond Salinat ed Following t he Cyclone 18

list OF FiguREs
Figure 1: Shelter Damage due to the Cyclone in the Most Affected Townships 16
Figure 2: Changes in Sources of I ncome before and aft er t he Cyclone in t he Delt a 25
Figure 3: Main Sources of Credit Financing as Reported by Households in the Delta 26
Figure 4: I ndicat ive Age- Sex Pyramid of t he Deat hs in 10 Select ed 29
Severely Affect ed Villages
Figures 5-6: Areas for Support, as Described by Communities in the Delta 32
Figure 7: ASEAN- led Coordinat ion Mechanism 52

list OF bOxEs
Box 1: Some Terminology 7
Box 2: Exchange Rat e 23
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list OF AbbREviAtiOns AnD AcROnyms
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADPC Asian Disast er Preparedness Cent er
AHTF ASEAN Humanit arian Task Force for t he Vict ims of Cyclone Nargis
ASEAN Associat ion of Sout heast Asian Nat ions
DALA Damage and Loss Assessment
DRM Disast er Risk Management
DRR Disast er Risk Reduct ion
EC European Commission
ECLAC Unit ed Nat ions Economic Commission for Lat in America and t he Caribbean
FEC Foreign Exchange Certifcate
FY Fiscal Year
GDP Gross Domest ic Product
I MF I nt ernat ional Monet ary Fund
I NGO I nt ernat ional Non- Government Organizat ion
I SDR I nt ernat ional St rat egy for Disast er Reduct ion
MI MU Myanmar I nformat ion Management Unit
NDPCC Nat ural Disast er Preparedness Cent ral Commit t ee
NGO Non- Government Organizat ion
OCHA United Nations Offce for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
PONJA Post - Nargis Joint Assessment
TCG Tripart it e Core Group
UN Unit ed Nat ions
UNDAC Unit ed Nat ions Disast er Assessment and Coordinat ion
VTA Village Tract Assessment
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Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
sEctiOn i: thE DisAstER
living With nAtuRAl DisAstERs
Myanmar is the largest country in mainland South-East Asia with a total land area of 676,578
sq km, and a populat ion of 51. 5 million. I t s long coast line of about 2, 000 km covers almost t he ent ire
east coast of the Bay of Bengal. Being a heavy rainfall country, foods occur regularly during the mid-
monsoon period ( June t o August ) in areas t raversed by rivers or large st reams. The count ry is also
prone t o cyclones, landslides, eart hquakes, and drought .
1.1. cyclOnE nARgis
The cat egory 3 Cyclone Nargis st ruck Myanmar on 2 and 3 May 2008, making landfall in
t he Ayeyarwady Division, approximat ely 250 km sout hwest of Yangon, and affect ing more t han 50
t ownships, mainly in Yangon and Ayeyarwady Divisions, including Yangon, t he count ry’s largest cit y.
1
Wit h wind speeds of up t o 200 km/ h accompanied by heavy rain, t he damage was most severe in
the Delta region, where the effects of the extreme winds were compounded by a 12 foot (3.6 meter)
st orm surge.
Nargis was t he worst nat ural disast er in t he hist ory of Myanmar, and t he most devast at ing
cyclone t o st rike Asia since 1991.
1.2. thE humAn tOll
As of June 24, the offcial death toll stood at 84,537 with 53,836 people still missing, and
19, 359 inj ured. Assessment dat a shows t hat some 2. 4 million people were severely affect ed by t he
cyclone, out of an est imat ed 7. 35 million people living in t he affect ed t ownships. Assessment s also
indicat e t hat more women t han men died, dist ort ing social st ruct ures. Child deat hs are also believed
t o have been subst ant ial, alt hough fat alit ies disaggregat ed by age are not available. Est imat es
suggest t hat t he number of people displaced by t he cyclone may have been as high as 800, 000, wit h
some 260,000 people living in camps or settlements throughout the Delta in the initial days after the
cyclone. There has been widespread devastation, with the near-total destruction of felds and shelter
in areas t hat were direct ly hit by t he cyclone, in addit ion t o downed power and communicat ion lines
and ot her loss of infrast ruct ure affect ing a much bigger area.
37 townships were signifcantly affected by the cyclone in Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions.
The cyclone- affect ed area of t he Ayeyarwady Delt a covers some 23, 500 square kilomet ers, almost
t wice t he size of Lebanon.
The disast er caused widespread dest ruct ion t o homes and crit ical infrast ruct ure, including
roads, j et t ies, wat er and sanit at ion syst ems, fuel supplies and elect ricit y. A large number of wat er
supplies were cont aminat ed and food st ocks damaged or dest royed. The winds t ore down t rees and
power lines, while t he accompanying st orm surge submerged count less villages.
Damage was most severe in t he Delt a region, also known as t he count ry’s rice bowl, where
t he effect s of ext reme winds were compounded by a sizable st orm surge, devast at ing most of t he
fert ile areas. Nargis st ruck j ust as t he Delt a’s paddy farmers were at t he very last st age of harvest ing
t he so- called “ dry season” crop, which account s for about 25 percent of t he annual product ion in
t he affect ed area , and dest royed several rice warehouses and t heir st ocks. The cit y of Yangon also
sustained a direct hit, which downed power and communications lines and inficted major damage
t o buildings and communicat ions. Many roads int o and out of t he cit y, as well as vit al roads int o t he
Delta region, were blocked by fooding or debris.
1 Myanmar is administ rat ively divided int o seven St at es and seven Divisions. Yangon Division includes bot h t he cit y of Yangon
as well as rural areas. Ayeyarwady Division is mainly rural, covering t he area of t he Ayeyarwady Delt a.
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Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
1.3. sOciAl AnD EcOnOmic bAckgROunD OF thE AFFEctED AREAs
livElihOODs
The people of the Delta area are primarily farmers, fshermen and laborers, with a smaller
proportion engaged in service industries and as traders. Approximately 50-60 percent of families in
t he Delt a are engaged in agricult ure.
2
Over time, there has been an intensifcation of agriculture in
t he Delt a region, facilit at ed by ample wat er, relat ively fert ile soils, and rich aquat ic life. I ncreases
in product ion led t o t he spread of small businesses and t raders. Some villagers are also craft smen,
including boat builders and carpent ers.
The Delt a is by no means one of t he poorer part s of t he count ry ( 29 percent of t he populat ion
was poor in 2004- 05, compared wit h 32 percent nat ionally) . However, development is relat ively
limit ed, and life can be harsh, in part icular when crops fail. 44 percent of agricult ural households
experienced foods in the last fve years, and 43 percent experienced drought, fgures above the
nat ional average.
3
As agricult ure is t he driving force in t he Delt a economy, t hese uncert aint ies impact
on the incomes of households in other sectors. The table refects how villagers rank themselves in
t erms of relat ive wealt h.
Tabl e 1: Sel f - Rank i ng of Popul at i on i n Di f f er ent Weal t h Gr oups i n t he Ay ey ar w ady Del t a
Township Rich Moderat e All poor Poor Very poor
Bogale 6 13 81 21 61
Kyaiklat 9 18 73 16 57
Labut t a 5 12 83 22 61
Mawlamyinegyun 5 9 86 23 63
Ngapudaw 3 7 90 22 67
Source: UNDP 2007.
Est imat es from several t ownships showed more t han half t he populat ion as being landless.
4

Landlessness is part icularly high in Labut t a and t here is t herefore a high proport ion of people
engaged in fshing. Overall in the Delta, 32 percent of the landless work in agriculture as renters/
sharecroppers, agricult ural workers, or seasonal agricult ural workers
5
, a fgure above the 26 percent
national average. The other two-thirds worked in other sectors including fsheries, salt production,
t rade, and t ransport at ion.
6
The landless are more likely t o be poor in t he Delt a region t han elsewhere: 44 percent of
t he landless live below t he government povert y line, compared wit h 33 percent nat ionally. Of t he
“ poor ” in t he Delt a, 31 percent were landless, while t he “ very poor ” were almost always landless –
85 percent .
7
thE sOciAl stRuctuRE OF DEltA villAgEs
Despit e, or perhaps because of, t he many challenges of Delt a life, communit ies are relat ively
socially cohesive and have st rong capacit ies for collect ive problem solving and decision- making. While
t he usual int er- group cleavages exist ( including bet ween t hose of different et hnicit y and religion,
bet ween genders, bet ween t he young and old, and bet ween different income and livelihoods t ype
groups) , village act ivit ies t end t o cut across such boundaries.
There are a number of reasons for t he st rengt h of social capit al. First , development
resources from higher levels are scarce. This accent uat es t he import ance of working t oget her at t he
2 UNDP, Minist ry of Nat ional Planning and Economic Development , and UNOPS ( 2007) . I nt egrat ed Household Living Condit ions
Survey in Myanmar, Poverty Profle. Unpublished. These, and the other fgures in this section refer to Ayeyarwady Division,
and hence do not include t hose in t he more urbanized Yangon Division.
3 UNDP et al., op cit .
4 Mya Than ( 2001) . Changing Faces of t he Ayeyarwady ( I rrawaddy) Delt a ( 1850- 2000) . Singapore: I nst it ut e of Sout heast
Asian St udies, Singapore.
5 Kurosaki, Takashi ( 2004) . “ Crop Choice, Farm I ncome, and Polit ical Cont rol in Myanmar ”. Hi- St at Discussion Paper Series
No. 04- 80. I nst it ut e of Economic Research, Hit ot subashi Universit y.
6 UNDP et al., op. cit.
7 UNDP et al., op. cit .
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Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
communit y level and carefully priorit izing resources for public goods. Second, in t he absence of a
st at e or employer safet y net , communit y members support each ot her in t imes of need, somet hing
part icularly evident in t heir response t o Nargis. Tradit ions of reciprocit y, evident across Myanmar as
in many ot her Sout heast Asian cult ures, encourage acquiescence from t hose providing help.
Unsurprising for such a diverse count ry, t he Delt a region is home t o people of a number of
different et hnicit ies.
8
There are t hree primary et hnic groups: t he Bamar make up t he maj orit y of
t he populat ion wit h smaller numbers of et hnic Karen and Rakhaing.
9
The lat t er live on t he largely
unaffect ed west coast whereas t he Bamar and Karen are dist ribut ed t hroughout t he Delt a. Villages
can be classifed into those segregated by ethnicity, and those with an ethnic mix depending on
set t lement hist ory. I n addit ion t o t he Karen, t here are small numbers of Mon who are Buddhist , and
I ndian Muslims.
1.4. myAnmAR’s vulnERAbility tO nAtuRAl hAzARDs AnD climAtE chAngE
1.4.1. histORicAl hAzARD Risk pROFilE
The nat ural hazard risk varies from moderat e t o high across t he count ry, charact erized
essent ially by small and medium scale but frequent hazard event s. Hist orical dat a indicat es t hat
between 1996-2005, urban fres constituted about 70 percent of disaster events, followed by foods
( 11 percent ) , st orms ( 10 percent ) and ot hers ( 9 percent ) including eart hquakes, t sunamis and
landslides. Between 1910 and 2000, there were at least 14 major windstorms, 6 earthquakes,
and 12 major foods. More recent disasters have included the 2004 tsunami, the 2005 landslides
in the mountainous region, and Cyclone Mala in 2006. However, Cyclone Nargis is by far the
most devast at ing nat ural disast er in t he count ry’s hist ory, and has brought t o t he fore t he ext reme
vulnerabilit y, in part icular of t he count ry’s coast al regions, t o such low- frequency but high- impact
nat ural hazards.
1.4.2. hAzARD ExpOsuRE in thE DEltA REgiOn
Alt hough t he devast at ion caused by Cyclone Nargis in t he Ayeyarwady Delt a region has
caught int ernat ional at t ent ion, t he region has had a hist ory of severe t ropical st orms, recurring
foods during the monsoon season, and fres in the dry season. The region is also exposed to
low- frequency, high- impact event s such as occasional cyclones and t sunamis. A broad overview of
hist orical hazard event s in t he Delt a region is provided below.
Cy cl ones: Over the last 60 years, 11 severe tropical cyclones hit Myanmar, only two of which made
landfall in t he Delt a region. Cyclone Nargis, rat ed as t he 8t h deadliest cyclone of all t ime, was t he
frst tropical cyclone to strike the country since Cyclone Mala made landfall in 2006.
Fl oods: The cyclone-affected region of Myanmar is highly exposed to fooding. Most of the region
receives more t han 400 cm rainfall annually. Concent rat ed spells of rain during t he monsoon
season cause foods in the Chindwin, Ayeyarwady, Thanlwin and Sittaung river basins. In the Delta
region, when high rainfall is accompanied by high tide in the seas, extended periods of fooding are
experienced in many set t lement s.
Fi r es: Although not an entirely “natural” hazard, fre incidents very frequently occur in the region,
at t ribut able mainly t o prevalent housing pat t erns ( dry t hat ch roofed houses) and local pract ices of
indoor cooking on wood fred stoves.
Tsunami s: There is a recorded hist ory of 11 t sunami event s affect ing t he nort heast ern shores of
t he I ndian Ocean ( Bay of Bengal and t he Andaman Sea) over t he last 250 years. The 2004 I ndian
Ocean tsunami left more than 60 people dead and more than 2,500 homeless in Myanmar’s coastal
areas.
8 There are 170 et hno- linguist ic groups in Myanmar.
9 The 1984 population census (latest) records 69 percent of the total Myanmar population as Bamar, and 6.8 percent as
Karen. No sub- regional breakdown is given. As t he low- land or Delt a Karen are t he second largest Karen populat ion out side
of t he Karen st at e, t hey are likely t o comprise a larger proport ion of t he Delt a populat ion.
3
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
1.4.3. pROjEctED impActs OF climAtE chAngE
At present , t he lit erat ure on t he impact of climat e change on Myanmar is limit ed. However,
t here appear t o be some emerging climat e change t rends t hat have been researched by Myanmar ’s
Depart ment of Met eorology and Hydrology ( DMH) . These were present ed in t he form of init ial,
unpublished research fndings by DMH at the recent ADPC-DMH Monsoon Forum, and include
observat ions of a gradual warming, over t he last 40 years, in t he Bay of Bengal region close t o t he
Ayeyarwady Delt a, as well as a gradual sout hward movement of t he monsoon t rough t hat forms
around t he onset of t he monsoon in t he Bay of Bengal, from 20 degree N t o 10 degree N near t he
Ayeyarwady Delt a coast .
Wit hin t he cont ext of a broader analysis of climat e relat ed hazards out lined above, t here is
a need to undertake a scientifc diagnostic of Cyclone Nargis, which differed from historical cyclone
t racks in t he Bay of Bengal. The t ropical depression t hat formed in t he Bay of Bengal in t he last week
of April 2008 appeared t o be headed t owards t he Rakhine coast , before being met wit h west erly
disturbances two days before making landfall and moving eastwards, fnally making landfall in the
Delt a region.
I n addit ion, it is import ant t o highlight t hat delt a regions all over t he world face special
vulnerabilit ies t o t he impact s of climat e change. This is an opport une t ime for dialogue bet ween
Myanmar and ot her count ries t hat are cont ending wit h possible impact s of climat e change in t heir
delt a regions. Such a dialogue can help exchange met hodologies for assessing vulnerabilit ies and
explore adapt at ion and risk management solut ions t hat may be applicable in t he Myanmar cont ext
1.5. mAnAging DisAstER Risk: kEy pRiORitiEs
Cyclone Nargis highlight ed Myanmar ’s vulnerabilit y t o high- impact , low- frequency nat ural
hazards, and also t he need for t he count ry t o undert ake a range of act ions for reducing, mit igat ing
and managing disast er risks in t he fut ure t o avoid similar cat ast rophes. These act ions would have
t o be carried out in t he short , medium and longer t erms, depending on t he needs and priorit ies
identifed through a participatory and consultative process that involves a range of national, local,
regional and int ernat ional ent it ies.
Priorit ies for improved disast er risk management and reduct ion over t he short , medium and
long terms, can be distributed across the following fve pillars: (a) risk identifcation and assessment;
(b) strengthening and enhancing emergency preparedness; (c) institutional capacity building; (d)
risk mitigation investments, and; (e) risk fnancing and transfer mechanisms. The core underlying
principle, however, remains t hat bot h loss of life and t he economic impact of disast ers can be
reduced t hrough advance planning and invest ment .
4
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
sEctiOn 2. sEctOR impAct
The Post Nargis Joint Assessment ( PONJA) was designed as a comprehensive, rapid, j oint
effort t hat will provide t he basis for humanit arian and recovery programs. The assessment is
comprehensive in t he sense t hat , in a rat her except ional way, it covers humanit arian as well as
recovery needs. I t was led j oint ly by ASEAN, t he Unit ed Nat ions, and t he Myanmar Government ,
wit h t echnical support from a range of humanit arian and development part ners, including t he Asian
Development Bank, World Bank, and many non- government al organizat ions. The t eam complet ed
t he assessment in less t han 5 weeks.
2.1. AssEssmEnt mEthODOlOgy AnD DAtA
The PONJA aims t o assess: ( i) t he current vulnerabilit ies and needs of t he populat ion living
in the most affected areas; (ii) the damage done to assets (for example, destroyed or damaged
houses, sunken fshing boats) in all areas affected by the cyclone; and (iii) the losses of income
caused by t he cyclone t hat t he Myanmar economy and households will experience unt il asset s and
livelihoods are rest ored t o pre- cyclone levels.
The PONJA t eam relied on t wo approaches t o gat her t he dat a for it s analysis:
Pr i mar y dat a • were collect ed t hrough t he Village Tract Assessment ( VTA) , a survey
of households, key informant s ( for example, t eachers, village leaders) , and focus
groups in t he worst affect ed t ownships. 250 enumerat ors visit ed 291 villages across
30 t ownships over t en days in early June 2008. The survey included quest ions on
healt h, food and nut rit ion, educat ion, women and children, wat er and sanit at ion,
agricult ure, livelihood, t emporary set t lement s, and emergency shelt er. A more
det ailed descript ion of t he VTA approach can be found in Annex 1. The map below
shows the artifcial grid that was used for sampling. It marks the location of each
communit y t hat was assessed.
Map 1: Sampl i ng gr i d used f or t he VTA sur v ey

Source: VTA survey.
5
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
Secondar y dat a • were provided by a range of Minist ries, UN agencies, past household
surveys, sat ellit e imaging, and ot her sources and form t he basis for t he Damage and
Loss Assessment ( DaLA – see Annex 2 for more det ails on t he DaLA approach) . These
data were validated through a series of tests: feld visits covering the whole Delta,
t riangulat ion wit h t he primary dat a collect ed t hrough t he VTA and by comparison
wit h ot her count ries’ benchmarks, and consult at ions wit h communit ies and local
st akeholders. Because t he t eam did not have access t o cent ralized damage dat a
t hroughout t his exercise, it relied on dat a provided by several sect oral Minist ries.
This work was also handicapped by t he lack of reliable t ime series for most sect ors
in Myanmar.
bOx 1: sOmE tERminOlOgy
Throughout t his report , t he following t erminology will be used t o assess t he impact on each
sect or:
Damage • is defned as the estimated replacement value of totally or partially destroyed
physical assets;
Losses • are the estimated changes in the fow of the economy that arise from the
temporary absence of the damaged assets; they include losses in production and
higher cost s in goods and services.
Rel i ef r esponse is t he provision of assist ance during or immediat ely aft er a disast er t o meet
t he life preservat ion and basic subsist ence needs of t hose people affect ed.
Ear l y r ecover y refers t o a mult idimensional process of recovery t hat begins in parallel t o
relief effort s. I t aims t o generat e self- sust aining, locally owned, resilient processes for post -
crisis recovery. I t encompasses init ial act ivit ies provided as part of a humanit arian programme
t o rest ore basic services, livelihoods, shelt er, environment , and social dimensions, including
reint egrat ion of displaced populat ions.
Medi um- t er m r ecover y complet es and complement s early recovery act ivit ies t o provide a
full pict ure of recovery needs. Recovery is st rongly focused on communit y- driven priorit ies
and processes, and assist ance which goes direct ly t o disast er- affect ed households. While
disast er recovery does not cover long- t erm development act ivit ies such as t he upgrading
or expansion of infrast ruct ure, recovery act ivit ies include full rest orat ion of access t o basic
services such as educat ion and healt h, sust ainable revit alizat ion of economic livelihoods for
t he poor, durable and resilient repair/ rebuilding of dest royed or damaged physical st ruct ures
such as schools, houses and religious buildings, and t he rest orat ion of social and cult ural
life.
St rat egies present ed in t his report aim t o address t he immediat e humanit arian needs of
t he populat ion affect ed by t he cyclone, while support ing t heir recovery effort s t o rebuild
t heir lives and livelihoods. This recovery effort is sequenced: t he provision of humanit arian
relief t hat is aimed at life- saving support and meet ing basic needs is accompanied by early
recovery effort s t hat aim t o augment t he relief effort s, provide some basic livelihood means
t o t he people, support t heir spont aneous recovery and lay t he foundat ion for longer t erm
recovery. Given t he magnit ude of damage caused by t he cyclone, many of t hese effort s t o
help t he people of t he Ayeyarwady Delt a rebuild t heir asset s and livelihoods will likely last
t wo t o t hree years.
2.2. FulFilling bAsic nEEDs AnD REstORing bAsic sERvicEs
2.2.1. FOOD AnD nutRitiOn
The cyclone not only dest royed physical asset s in villages and inundat ed paddy land wit h sea
wat er, but also washed away household asset s, including food st ocks from t he most recent harvest
6
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
( April/ May) , livest ock, seeds and t ools. This left many people in a sit uat ion of food insecurit y.
More t han half of t he households living in t he most affect ed t ownships report ed having
lost all food st ocks during t he cyclone ( see map 2) . On t he day of t he survey ( i. e., early June) ,
55 percent of households declared having one day of food st ocks or less. While more t han half of
households report ed t hat t hey were able t o source food from local market s, t his does not preclude
t heir dependence on humanit arian assist ance.
As of 30 June, 676,000 people had been reached with food commodities, yet it remains
urgent t o meet t he basic food needs of some 924, 000 vulnerable persons on a syst emat ic basis in
Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions, unt il t he Oct ober/ November harvest lowers t he requirement for
food assist ance.
Following t he cyclone, t he populat ion also shift ed it s diet t o a less varied one: consumpt ion of
fsh and eggs – the main sources of protein and fat – dropped by 25 percentage points; consumption
of veget ables and fruit s – one of t he main sources of vit amins and minerals – decreased by 9
percent age point s. At t he same t ime, disrupt ion of infant feeding pract ices poses a maj or t hreat t o
t he survival, nut rit ion and development of children under 5 years of age. As a result , t he affect ed
populations face an increasing risk of acute malnutrition and micronutrient defciencies, particularly
among infant s, young children and pregnant / lact at ing women.
Map 2: Food st ock s dest r oy ed by t he cy cl one i n t he Del t a

Source: VTA survey.
2.2.2. hEAlth
According t o t he VTA, Cyclone Nargis damaged close t o 75 percent of healt h facilit ies in t he
affect ed t ownships. Most damage occurred in t he lower Delt a ( see map 3) . Almost all t he dest royed
facilit ies were primary healt h facilit ies, including st at ion hospit als, rural healt h cent ers and sub-
cent ers. While t he value of t he damage t o t hese facilit ies may not be as large as t hat for hospit als,
it has a t remendous impact on t he access of t he rural populat ion t o healt h services.
There are signifcant health impacts following the cyclone at the village level including: (i)
a range of healt h risks t hat will require t he healt h syst em t o be vigilant wit h respect s t o pot ent ial
7
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
disease outbreaks; and (ii) health needs which require treatment and care through the health service
delivery syst em.
More than 65 percent of households surveyed reported health problems among household
members during t he 15 days preceding t he survey, i. e. early June. Among t he most commonly
report ed diseases were cold, fever and diarrhoea wit h 39, 37 and 34 percent , respect ively. I nj uries
ranked surprisingly low at 8 percent . 23 percent households report ed ment al problems among
household members due to the cyclone, with a large variation across townships from 6 to 51
percent .
The danger of a rise in gast ro- int est inal diseases is clear. The proport ion of households using
pit latrines has decreased from 77 to 60 percent due to the cyclone, whereas it has doubled from
23 to 40 percent for unsanitary defecation practices such as open defecation, foating latrines and
trenches. The increase in foating latrines from 3 to 7 percent in combination with the still common
use of riverwat er as a source of drinking wat er as well as t he low usage of soaps poses a part icular
healt h concern in t he mont hs ahead.
Map 3: Damaged heal t h f aci l i t i es i n t he Del t a

Source: VTA survey.
The t ot al damage and losses t o t he healt h sect or due t o cyclone Nargis are est imat ed at
about K19 billion.
1
Some t wo- t hirds of damages and losses are incurred by t he public sect or, and
one- t hird by t he privat e sect or.
I n t he healt h facilit ies, healt h st aff report a considerable decline in healt h service provision,
in particular for immunization and communicable diseases with decreases from 83 to 66 and from
43 t o 34 percent , respect ively. Of part icular concern is also t he drop in healt h care services for birt h
delivery from 81 t o 71 percent . Access t o medicines has also worsened due t o t he cyclone wit h a 10
percent decline in healt h st aff saying t heir healt h facilit y had essent ial medicines, and a 21 percent
increase in t hose saying t hat t he facilit y did not have t hem.
1 An exchange rat e of Kyat 1, 100 per USD 1 is used t hroughout t his report . For more det ail on Myanmar ’s exchange rat e, see
boxed t ext in sect ion 3. 1., Macro- Economic I mpact .
8
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
Tabl e 2: Damage and Losses Est i mat es i n t he Heal t h Sect or i n Yangon and Ay ey ar w ady Di vi si ons
( Kyat s million)
Publ i c Pr i vat e Tot al
Damage 11, 545 1,236 12, 781
Losses 1, 141 4, 971 6,113
Damage and Losses 12,686 6,208 18,894
Source: PONJA Team est imat es
2.2.3. EDucAtiOn
According to the 2005 Human Development Report, Myanmar scored 0.76, just below the
world average ( 0. 77) , on it s Educat ion I ndex. The Educat ion For All ( EFA) Mid Decade Assessment
2007 reported 2005/06 net enrollment levels at 82 percent for primary education and 34 percent
for secondary education. These fgures are roughly congruent with the Integrated Household Living
Condit ions ( I HLC) survey 2004 t hat places primary net enrolment rat e at 85 percent .
These aggregate fgures mask signifcant variations across income levels. According to
t he 2000 Mult iple- I ndicat or Clust er Survey ( MI CS) , almost 20 percent of children from t he poorest
quint ile never enroll in school, compared t o less t han 5 percent of t heir wealt hier count erpart s
who do not enroll. By the age of 11, approximately 60 percent of students in the richest quintile
t ransferred t o middle school, while only 10 percent of st udent s in t he poorest quint ile cont inued t o
middle school.
Cyclone Nargis had a signifcant impact on the education sector. An estimated 50 to 60
percent of public schools, including monast ic ones, were dest royed or damaged. This informat ion is
drawn from Government administ rat ive dat a, UN agencies, and t he VTA survey. Administ rat ive dat a
show a range of 43-48 percent schools totally or severely damaged; the VTA shows 63 percent but
focused on t he 30 most severely affect ed t ownships ( see map 4) .
Map 4: Damaged school bui l di ngs i n t he Del t a

Source: VTA survey.
The total damage and losses in education are estimated at about K 116 billion, including K
25 billion from t he damage t o educat ional mat erials.
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Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
Tabl e 3: Damage and Loss Est i mat es i n t he Educat i on Sect or i n Yangon and Ay ey ar w ady
Di v i si ons ( Kyat s million)
Damage 115, 300
Losses 1, 023
Tot al 116,323
Source: PONJA Team est imat es
I n addit ion t o t he many casualt ies and t rauma suffered by children, t he use of schools as
emergency shelt er sit es ( if not damaged) furt her st rained limit ed educat ional resources. Rest ored
school facilit ies are helping children t o ret urn t o class, and cont ribut ing t o overcome t rauma by
providing child- friendly spaces t o meet peers. Government , privat e sect or organizat ions, NGOs and
int ernat ional donors have provided funding est imat ed at close t o K 5 billion for t he repair of primary
and secondary schools wit h damaged roofs.
2
The Minist ry of Educat ion has delivered t ext books and
some educat ional mat erials t o schools in affect ed areas, while NGOs and int ernat ional part ners
support ed government effort s t o reopen educat ional est ablishment s or set up t emporary learning
spaces wit h a minimum set of educat ional input s.
2.3. REstORing EcOnOmic Activity / livElihOODs
2.3.1. AgRicultuRE, livEstOck, AnD FishERiEs
The agriculture sector – encompassing crops, plantations, livestock and fsheries – generated
close t o 45 percent of t he nat ional GDP in 2007, and about a t hird of t he regional GDP of Ayeyarwady
and Yangon Divisions. The sect or is t he mainst ay of t he rural economy in t he Ayeyarwady River delt a
area. About 30 percent and 20 percent of t he rural populat ion in Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions
respectively are landless; they rely on fshing, home gardens and agricultural casual labor for their
livelihoods.
Paddy is the major crop. Other important crops include pulses, sesame, jute, and groundnut;
and plant at ion crops such as mango, coconut , banana, and bet el nut and leaf. Livest ock is import ant
bot h as a source of food and as draught animals for agricult ure. Cat t le, pigs, goat s, chickens
and ducks provide an import ant source of farm income and subsist ence product ion. Fisheries and
aquacult ure are also essent ial, as bot h a subsist ence food source for rural communit ies and for
commercial product ion.
The devast at ion caused by Nargis has impact ed heavily on t he availabilit y of food st ocks,
as well as seeds and t ools for t he June-July ( main) plant ing season. Overall, only 25 percent of
villages along t he affect ed areas report ed having enough seeds. As observed on map 5, villages in
t he t ownships of Labut t a, Bogale, Pyapon, Dedaye, Kyaiklat ( marked in red) are among t he worst
affect ed and do not have enough seeds for t he upcoming season. Food securit y and risk of acut e
malnourishment is, t herefore, of high concern. The t ot al damage and losses est imat ed for t he
agricult ure sect or range from K570, 000 million t o almost K700, 000 million.
Tabl e 4: Est i mat es of Damage and Losses i n t he Agr i cul t ur e Sect or ( Ky at s mi l l i on)

Damage Losses Tot al Publ i c Pr i v at e
Field Crops 65,336 159, 929 t o 283, 000 225,265 to 348,336 225,265 to 348,336
Farm Equipment 24,046 24,046 24,046
Plant at ions 22, 043 65,209 87, 252 87, 252
Livest ock 45, 190 30, 775 75,965 75,965
Capt ure Fisheries 25,609 99, 932 125, 541 125, 541
Fish Farms 4, 120 29, 394 33, 514 33, 514
Tot al 186,344 385, 239 t o 508, 310 571,583 to 694,654 0 571,583 to 694,654
Di sast er Ef f ect s Ow ner shi p by Sect or
Source: PONJA t eam est imat es.
2 According t o Government est imat es, at least 50 percent of schools wit h roofs and minor damages have already been
repaired.
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Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
Cr ops and Pl ant at i ons: Damage was also reported to about 16,200 ha of the standing summer
paddy crop, equivalent t o 80, 000 MT of product ion, and t o paddy and milled rice in farmers’ st orage,
est imat ed at 251, 000 MT. Damage t o farm equipment amount ed t o close t o K 25 billion. About
34, 000 hect ares of plant at ion crops wort h K 22 billion were damaged.
The cyclone’s t iming, j ust prior t o t he st art of monsoon paddy plant ing season, will likely result in
signifcant future production losses due to erosion and damage to paddy land, low viability of rice
seed, loss of draught animals and farm equipment , farmers’ inabilit y t o afford fert ilizer purchases,
and t he reduced availabilit y of labor due t o home rebuilding requirement s, out - migrat ion of casual
labor, and the large number of dead. Losses in crops could range from K 160 billion to about K
283 billion. Given t he t ime required t o re- est ablish t ree crops t o product ion ( t ypically 3- 5 years) ,
the losses in terms of foregone production are signifcant, amounting this year to an estimated K65
billion. Losses due t o foregone paddy product ion are est imat ed at bet ween 40- 70 percent of pre-
Nargis levels, or bet ween 0. 8- 1. 5 million met ric t ons.
Map 5: Seed st ock s av ai l abi l i t y as r epor t ed i n t he VTA sur v ey
Source: VTA survey.
According t o dat a collect ed by t he VTA, before Nargis, 27 percent of all households in t he affect ed
areas report ed agricult ure as t heir main sources of income. Only 18 percent report ed agricult ure as
their main source of income throughout the region after Nargis, but as observed in the maps 6 and
7 below, t he t ownships of Twant ay, Labut t a and Maubin were t he most severely affect ed.
11
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
Maps 6- 7: Agr i cul t ur e as mai n sour ce of i ncome bef or e and af t er Cy cl one Nar gi s

Source: VTA survey
Li vest ock : Approximat ely 50 percent of t he buffaloes and 25 percent of t he cat t le died in t he worst -
affect ed t ownships. The high mort alit y of small livest ock, including pigs, sheep, goat s, chickens and
ducks is affect ing many small and marginal farmers and landless agricult ural workers. Tot al damage
and losses t o livest ock amount t o about K 75 billion.
Fi sher i es: The impact on capture fsheries, both marine and inland, and aquaculture included
damage to fsheries infrastructure such as ponds, hatcheries and jetties and damage to equipment
12
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
such as boat s and net s. Post - harvest capabilit ies were also damaged, i. e. t he loss of ice product ion
plants and cold storage facilities, fsh processing, marketing and transport infrastructure. Total
estimated damage in fsheries is close to K 30 billion while total losses from foregone production are
proj ect ed t o be around K 130 billion.
2.3.2. inDustRy AnD cOmmERcE
I ndust ry ( manufact uring, mining and energy, and power) generat ed about 20 percent of
t he nat ional GDP in 2007. I t account s for a t hird of Yangon Division’s GDP, but only 7 percent of
Ayeyarwady Division’s GDP.
The main component s of t he indust rial sect or in t he t wo affect ed divisions are: salt farms,
dried fsh/shrimp and fsh paste production, rice mills, factories located in industrial parks, other
small and medium indust rial ent erprises, and micro- ent erprises. The commerce sect or includes:
wholesale and retail markets, along with trading frms, many of which are micro-enterprises engaged
in small- scale ret ail commerce.
I ndust ry and commerce are t wo of t he most affect ed sect ors by Cyclone Nargis. Tot al damage
and losses in indust ry account for almost K 2, 000 billion, of which economic losses are K 1, 484 billion
and damages are slight ly above K 500 billion. Nearly 45 percent of indust ry losses are at t ribut able
to the larger frms located in several industrial parks in Yangon division.
Tot al losses in commerce are est imat ed at around K 483 billion while damages amount t o
slight ly more t han K 37 billion.
Bot h indust ry and commerce include many micro- ent erprises t hat t ypically represent
easy ent ry, subsist ence act ivit ies of poor households, including t hose headed by women. The salt
production and fsh processing industries in particular, concentrated in the Delta region, also suffered
ext ensive losses of human life. Small- scale ret ail t rading, oft en used by women and poor households
t o supplement incomes, will suffer from reduced earnings over several mont hs. The socio- economic
impact of damage and losses t o indust ry and commerce is t herefore wide ranging, wit h a severe
impact on poor families.
Tabl e 5: Summar y of Damage and Losses: I ndust r y and Commer ce ( Ky at s bi l l i on)
Damage Losses Tot al
I ndust r y 513 1, 484 1, 997
Commer ce 37 483 521
Source: PONJA t eam est imat es.
2.4. inFRAstRuctuRE
2.4.1. hOusing
There are t wo t ypes of housing in t he Delt a region: t radit ional houses and modern ( solid)
houses. Tradit ional houses are generally a combinat ion of wooden and bamboo st ruct ures. Before
t he cyclone, it is est imat ed t hat about 50 percent of all housing unit s were built of wood and bamboo
with wooden or bamboo foors on stilts. About 35 percent were all wooden and about 15 percent
were brick or concret e. The const ruct ion t echnology most commonly in use is represent at ive of
t radit ional knowledge and skills.
I t is est imat ed t hat Nargis affect ed approximat ely 800, 000 housing unit s: around 450, 000
unit s are est imat ed t o have been t ot ally dest royed and around 350, 000 unit s were more light ly
damaged. The total damage and losses are estimated at around K 686 billion.
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Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
Tabl e 6: Damage and Losses i n t he Housi ng Sect or ( Ky at s mi l l i on)
Di sast er Ef f ect s Ownership by Sect or
Damage Losses Tot al Public Privat e
660,000 26,000 686,000 - 686,000
Source: PoNJA t eam est imat es.
The fgure and map below (see map 8) show the proportion of households with severely or
t ot ally damaged houses. As expect ed, t he geographical pat t ern of shelt er dest ruct ion follows t he
pat h of t he cyclone from West t o Nort h- East t hrough t he lower Delt a region, up t o Yangon.
Fi gur e 1: Shel t er damage due t o t he cy cl one i n t he most af f ect ed t ow nshi ps
57%
25%
16%
2%
Tot al l y dest royed
Part i al l y damaged
Li t t l e damage
No damage
F

Source: VTA household survey
To address t his need for shelt er, t ent s, t arpaulins and non- food it ems have been provided t o
over 195, 000 cyclone- affect ed households living in Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions, represent ing
over 30 percent of families in need of shelt er assist ance.
People have made a t remendous collaborat ive effort and part ially rebuilt an est imat ed 80
percent of houses already. Given the communities’ meagre resources, there has been a signifcant
shift to smaller bamboo houses; these are generally less stable and have a shorter life.
I n t he immediat e aft ermat h of t he cyclone, many people sought shelt er wit h ext ended
family, friends and neighbours, as well as in relief camps, creat ing a t ot al displaced populat ion of up
t o 800, 000. Alt hough many camps and set t lement s have been dismant led and people have st art ed
t o ret urn t o t heir communit ies of origin, 14% of t he affect ed villages had t emporary set t lement s in
mid June, wit h displaced persons bereft of t heir mat erial asset s and in need of support unt il t heir
housing and income sit uat ions are st abilized.
14
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
Map 8: Pr opor t i on of houses t ot al l y damaged i n t he Del t a

Source: VTA survey.
2.4.2. WAtER supply AnD sAnitAtiOn
Prior t o t he cyclone, wat er supply for rural communit ies in t he affect ed areas consist ed
primarily of household- level rain wat er harvest ing t anks, communal rain wat er ponds, open wells,
t ube wells, and rivers. Most households had a roof- rainwat er harvest ing syst em t hat collect ed
rainwat er t hrough a gut t er int o large eart hen pot s as t he main source of wat er during t he rainy
season, while in t he dry season communal ponds t hat collect ed rainwat er served as t he primary
source of wat er, wit h most communit ies having at least one or t wo ponds. Only a small percent age
of communit ies were connect ed t o piped wat er supply net works.
Ponds and household rainwat er harvest ing syst ems were most impact ed by t he disast er.
The cyclone, and the fooding that followed, damaged close to 13 percent of ponds in Yangon and
up t o 43 percent of ponds in Ayeyarwady Division. The map 9 shows t he ext ent of t he salinat ion of
pond wat er t hroughout t he Delt a.
15
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
Map 9: Pond sal i nat ed f ol l ow i ng t he cy cl one
Source: VTA survey.
This salinat ion led many households t o shift wat er sources from ponds t o rain wat er t anks.
Tabl e 7: Sour ces of w at er bef or e and af t er cy cl one i n Yangon and Ay ey ar w ady Di v i si ons
Wat er source Yangon Di vi si on Ay ey ar w ady Di v i si on
Bef or e Af t er Bef or e Af t er
Hand pump 23% 21% 2% 2%
Tube well 14% 15% 4% 4%
Pond 48% 40% 42% 24%
Rain wat er t ank 25% 30% 16% 30%
Wat er t ruck 6% 5% 1% 2%
River 2% 2% 21% 19%
Open dug well 8% 8% 21% 19%
Ot her 6% 0% 8% 0%
Source: VTA household survey
Sixt y- t hree percent of people surveyed consider t heir current access t o clean wat er t o be
inadequat e, wit h approximat ely 1. 8 million severely affect ed people in need of improved wat er
supply. To reduce t he risk of wat er- borne diseases among affect ed populat ions, relief int ervent ions
are focusing on t he provision of an adequat e supply of safe wat er, and on support ing hygiene and
sanit at ion measures. I nit ial recovery act ivit ies will help families t o reacquire eart hen pot s wit h which
t o harvest rainwat er, t he dominant source of clean drinking wat er.
The damage and losses in t he wat er sect or result ing from Cyclone Nargis are est imat ed at
around K 8. 5 billion.
16
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
Tabl e 8: Damage and Loss Est i mat es i n t he Wat er Suppl y Sect or
( Kyat s million)
Tot al
Damage 8,136
Losses 380
Damage and Losses 8,516
Source: PONJA Team Est imat es
Sanitary facilities, including both pit and open or foating latrines, existed in most communities
in bot h Yangon and Ayeyarwady Divisions. Most lat rines t hat exist ed prior t o t he cyclone have
collapsed or are now unsafe for use due to fooding. Open defecation has increased, and unsafe
excret a disposal wit h direct drop lat rines, wit hout pit s, is common. The proport ion of households
practicing unsanitary defecation – open defecation, foating latrines or trenches – almost doubled to
40 percent .
The proport ion of households pract icing unsanit ary defecat ion, which includes open
defecation, the use of foating latrines as well as trenches. The shift to unsanitary defecation
pract ices is st rong in t he lower Delt a area. I n part icular, t he combinat ion of households using river
water as a source for drinking water and the rise in the use of foating latrines poses stark health
risks in t his area.
2.4.3. REligiOus inFRAstRuctuRE
The Delt a, like t he rest of Myanmar, is home t o a large number of monast eries, pagodas,
churches, and mosques. These buildings play an import ant part in t he life of t he communit ies. The
religious communit y has been at t he forefront of effort s t o bring assist ance t o cyclone survivors
during May and June and has provided aid t o all fait hs on an equit able basis. The damage t o
religious buildings amount s t o around K 150 billion. Most of t hese damages occurred in Ayeyarwady
Division.
2.4.4. tRAnspORt AnD cOmmunicAtiOns
The t ransport and communicat ions sect ors include road, rail, wat er and air t ransport , and
post and t elecommunicat ions.
The total damage is estimated to be above K 120 billion and the total losses at close to K 65
billion. I t should be not ed t hat t he public sect or prices in t he t ransport and communicat ions sect or
are generally low or subsidized in Myanmar. As t hese sect ors are dominat ed by t he public sect or,
t he damage and loss est imat es may be lower t han t he act ual resource cost s.
Tabl e 9: Damage and Losses i n Tr anspor t and Communi cat i ons ( Ky at s mi l l i on)
Di sast er Ef f ect s Ow ner shi p by Sect or
Sect or Damage Losses Tot al Publ i c Pr i vat e
Road Tr anspor t 12,609 28, 033 40,642 18,216 22,426
Wat er Tr anspor t 99, 929 30, 887 130, 815 76,186 54,629
Rai l Tr anspor t 2, 357 140 2, 497 2, 497 0
Ai r Tr anspor t 23 23 23 0
Post and Tel e- communi cat i ons 7, 073 3,621 10,694 10,694 -
Tot al 121,968 62,703 184,671 107,616 77,056
Source: PONJA Team est imat es
Road Tr anspor t : Cyclone Nargis caused damage t o some lower st andard secondary roads and
bridges, as well as trails and bamboo foot bridges that were close to the coastline. The fooding,
17
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
fallen t rees and fallen t elephone/ elect ric power post s also caused some minor damage t o ot her
roads. Damage t o roads and bridges in Yangon was minimal. Subsequent t o Cyclone Nargis, t he
high traffc volumes and heavy loads of trucks bringing relief goods and supplies to the Delta have
caused some damage t o t he main road net work and some minor damage t o bridges. I n t ot al,
approximat ely 15 percent of t he net work lengt h suffered damages. These damages are est imat ed
at about K 13 billion.
Losses regarding primary and secondary road net works are mainly incurred in t he form of higher
vehicle operat ing cost s and longer freight and passenger t ravel t ime associat ed wit h t he worsened
road condit ions. Losses in t ert iary roads and bridges are considered minimal, as eit her t ransport
volumes are so low t hat t he amount s are effect ively negligible or are handled by inland wat er
t ransport services which have part ially resumed. The losses are est imat ed t o be close t o K 30
billion.
Wat er Tr anspor t : Almost all t ownships and sub- t ownships in t he Delt a rely heavily on inland wat er
t ransport for freight and passenger t ransport . I nland wat er t ransport infrast ruct ure in t he Delt a
townships is rudimentary, basically consisting of wooden jetties and occasionally foating pontoons.
Cyclone Nargis has caused subst ant ial damage t o t he j et t ies, vessels and boat s, and relevant
buildings. Many j et t ies and pont oons sank, broke, or collapsed. A large number of vessels and boat s
sank, capsized, were blown/ washed t o shore, or lost at sea. Yangon port s suffered t he heaviest
damage in t erms of asset value. The t ot al damages are est imat ed at K 100 billion.
Subst ant ial revenue losses have been incurred due t o service int errupt ion, and furt her losses are
expect ed due t o lower level of services caused by a short age of vessels and boat s. I n t he Delt a
region, t he publicly provided inland wat er t ransport services were resumed j ust a few days aft er t he
cyclone, but t he service supply has fallen short of demand due t o t he heavy losses of vessels and
boat s. Moreover, t he privat e sect or freight t ariffs and passenger fares have increased. This sit uat ion
will cont inue for an ext ended period of t ime, as a year of t ime would normally be required t o build a
medium- t o large- sized vessel and at least t wo- mont hs t ime for a small boat . The t ot al losses are
est imat ed t o be slight ly more t han K 30 billion.
Post and Tel ecommuni cat i ons: Cyclone Nargis caused major damages to the post offces, fxed-
line t elephone syst ems and a few microwave t owers. Fort unat ely, t he mobile phone syst ems were
largely unaffect ed. The t ot al damages are est imat ed at about K 7 billion. Service t o most t owns was
rest ored wit hin one t o t hree weeks. Reconst ruct ion of t he t elecommunicat ions net work is already
underway for all Nargis- affect ed t ownships and should be complet ed wit hin a few mont hs.
Rai l and Ai r Tr anspor t : The rail and air t ransport facilit ies are mainly locat ed in Yangon Cit y, and
much of t he railway net work is beyond t he areas affect ed by t he cyclone. Except for some damages
t o buildings, bot h rail and air t ransport infrast ruct ure largely managed t o weat her t he st orm. A few
days int errupt ion caused moderat e revenue losses.
2.4.5. ElEctRicity
Alt hough more t han four million people were direct ly affect ed by lack of elect ricit y aft er
Cyclone Nargis, t he effect of t he cyclone on t he elect ricit y sect or was modest from a nat ional
perspect ive. Tot al damage and losses in t he sect or amount ed t o slight ly more t han K 15 billion.
Most of t he dist ribut ion and t ransmission syst em had been reconst ruct ed by 30 June but , in places,
to a standard below generally accepted technical specifcations.
2.4.6. public inFRAstRuctuRE
The physical damages to the infrastructure of the ‘combined offces’ (su paung yone) of the
Ministry of General Administration, where several government departments often have their offces
within common premises, together with the General Administration Department Offce amount to
close t o K 70 billion.
18
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
2.5. cROss-cutting issuEs
2.5.1. cOAstAl zOnE mAnAgEmEnt AnD EnviROnmEnt
The Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions of t he Ayeyarwady Delt a are among t he most
exposed areas along Myanmar ’s sout hwest coast . These low- lying areas, int erspersed wit h many
t idal wat erways, are nat urally exposed t o st orms and monsoon winds blowing from t he sout hwest .
However, their vulnerability to natural hazards had been signifcantly enhanced by losses of natural
forest cover and coast al veget at ion t hat have accompanied t ransformat ion of t he land for paddy
cult ivat ion.
The damage assessment for t he environment is conservat ively est imat ed only on t he basis
of replacing t he damage t o exist ing mangrove forest s, bot h nat ural forest s and plant at ions, and t he
loss is based on t he loss of environment al services in t he nat ural forest s. Some 17, 000 ha of nat ural
forest and 21, 000 ha of forest plant at ions were damaged, wit h an est imat ed cost around K 14 billion.
Loss of environmental services of the natural mangrove forests is estimated at about K 46 billion.
The loss of mangrove forest s and associat ed ecosyst em goods and services will have a
signifcant impact on those segments of the rural population that are heavily or partially dependent
on forest ry for t heir livelihood. Besides cash employment from t he forest ry sect or, villagers obt ain
lots of construction material and food (fsh especially) from the mangrove forests. This loss, which
usually does not ent er t he cash economy, can be subst ant ial for many forest - dependent people.
Despit e t he use of salvage mat erials in rebuilding act ivit ies, t he recovery act ivit ies will
increase t he demand for mat erials, including wood for t he rebuilding of houses, boat s, and j et t ies.
The environment al assessment recommended by t he PONJA should include t he development of
det ailed recommendat ions t o ensure t hat t hese recovery act ivit ies are environment ally sust ainable.
2.6. summARy OF DAmAgE AnD lOssEs
tOtAl EFFEcts OF thE DisAstER
I n addit ion t o t he t ragic loss of life, t he t ot al amount of damage and losses caused by Cyclone
Nargis in t he affect ed areas of Myanmar is est imat ed at about K 4, 500 billion ( USD 4, 057 million)
3

( See Table 10) . The value of damages, which is an expression of t he dest ruct ion of physical asset s
by t he disast er, amount s t o almost K 2, 000 billion ( or 43 percent of t he t ot al effect s of t he disast er) .
Losses, on the other hand, which refect the reduction in economic activity after the cyclone, amount
t o about K 2, 500 billion ( 57 percent of t he t ot al) .
3 The aggregat ion of damage and losses present ed here differs slight ly from t he arit hmet ic summat ion of damage and losses
described for each and all sect ors of t he economy t aken separat ely, since special care has been t aken here t o avoid double
account ing and also t o include disast er effect s in t he food- product ion chain t hat cross several sect ors of t he economy. An
exchange rat e of 1, 100 Kyat per US Dollar has been used t hroughout .
19
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
Tabl e 10: Over al l Summar y of Damage and Losses
Ky at s bi l l i on USD mi l l i on
I nf r ast r uct ur e 831.5 89.3 920.8 837.1
Housing 686 25.9 711.9 647.2
Tr anspor t and Communicat ions 122 62.7 184.7
167.9
Wat er Supply 8.1 0.4 8.5 7.7
Elect r icit y 15.4 0.3 15.7 14.3
Soci al Sect or s 128 7.2 135.2 122.9
Educat ion 115.3 1 116.3 105.7
Healt h 12.7 6.2 18.9 17.2
Pr oduct i v e Sect or s 736 2,352 t o
2,475
3,088 t o
3,211
2,806 t o
2,918
I ndust r y 512.5 1,483.50 1,996.00 1,814.5
Commer ce 37.2 483.4 520.6 473.3
Cr oss- Cut t i ng I ssues 234.2 46.1 280.3 254.8
Envir onment 1/ 16.8 46.1 62.9 57.2
Public Buildings 2/ 217.4 0 217.4 197.6
Tot al I n Kyat s billion 1,930 2,495 t o
2,618
4,424 t o
4,547
I n USD million 1,754
2,268 t o
2,380
4,022 t o
4,134
519 to 630
Sect or Sub sect or Damage Losses Tot al
571 to 694 Agr icult ur e, Livest ock, Fisher ies 186.3 385 t o 508
1/ I ncludes damage t o embankment s ( est imat ed at K 2. 8 billion) .
2/ I ncludes damage t o administ rat ive buildings as well as religious buildings.
Source: Est imat es by PONJA Team ( using secondary dat a as of June 27, 2008)
Most of t he losses t hat have been est imat ed will occur in t he present calendar year. Some
product ion losses will occur in subsequent years – for example, in permanent plant at ions t hat will
t ake more t han one year t o recover, t oget her wit h corresponding processing and market ing losses.
I t is t o be not ed t hat t he value of damage and losses is equivalent t o 21 percent of t he
country’s gross domestic product in the previous fscal year, providing an additional illustration of the
magnit ude of t he disast er. Worse st ill, t he equivalent magnit udes for t he Ayeyarwady and Yangon
Divisions are 74 and 57 percent of their respective gross domestic product, fgures that are high in
t hemselves, and t hat are comparable t o t he magnit ude of t he 2004 t sunami in different areas of t he
affect ed count ries.
4

4 As a comparison, magnitudes of the 2004 tsunami were as follows: Aceh, 80 percent of GDP; Maldives Islands, 84 percent;
Phang Nga, Krabi and Phuket provinces in Thailand, 90, 69 and 68 percent, respectively.
20
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
sEctiOn 3: thE EcOnOmic AnD sOciAl impAct
3.1. mAcRO-EcOnOmic impAct
3.1.1. thE EcOnOmy pRE-nARgis
Myanmar ’s economy since 2002 has been charact erized by modest growt h and relat ively high
infation. Offcial statistics estimate double-digit growth rates since 2000. These statistics, however,
are const rained by weaknesses in t he underlying dat a in t erms, for example, of complet eness and
t imeliness. Ot her est imat es from publicly available independent sources show growt h rat es t o be
3.9 percent and 3.3 percent in 2006 and 2007 respectively, with comparable projections for the near
fut ure.
Myanmar ’s est imat ed GDP per capit a is USD 234 and populat ion is 51. 5 million ( in 2007)
1
.
I n FY07 t he agricult ure sect or account ed for 43. 7 percent of GDP, wit h indust ry ( including mining)
comprising 19.8 percent, and services 36.5 percent of the economy. GDP growth in the past
t wo years has been driven primarily by high export s, part icularly nat ural gas, good agricult ural
performance, and high capit al expendit ures. Tot al export growt h in 2007 was 37 percent , wit h a
t rade balance est imat ed at USD 3. 3 billion. Record prices for energy export s have led t o a st eady
strengthening of the external balance, and offcial reserves have grown rapidly. The strong external
balance has result ed in a relat ively st able parallel market exchange rat e for t he Kyat in t he past 2
years in the range of K 1,100-1,300 per US dollar despite high infation and monetary growth. The
offcial exchange rate averaged K6.08 per US dollar in 2007.
bOx 2: ExchAngE RAtE
Myanmar has a multiple exchange-rate system. The offcial exchange rate applies
t o t he t ransact ions undert aken by t he government and st at e- owned ent erprises and is used
primarily for accounting purposes. Foreign Exchange Certifcates (FECs) are also issued by the
government , exchangeable at a market - det ermined rat e. A large parallel market also exist s
t hat exchanges US dollars wit h Kyat s at a small premium over t he rat e for FECs. This report
ut ilizes t he exchange rat e used by t he Government of Myanmar in it s present at ion of damages
immediat ely following Cyclone Nargis at t he ASEAN- UN I nt ernat ional Pledging Conference in
Yangon on 25 May 2008 ( K 1, 100/ USD) , which was consist ent wit h t he prevailing rat e on t he
parallel market at t he t ime of t he assessment . *
Tax revenues as a percent age of GDP have been rising since reforms undert aken st art ing
in 2003, but cont inuing high expendit ures have offset t he revenue gains, driven primarily by large
increases in civil servants’ salaries in 2006 and ongoing large capital expenditures. The fscal defcit
has remained between 3 and 4 percent of GDP for most of the last decade. Fiscal defcits have
been largely fnanced through borrowing from the Central Bank, putting upward pressure on prices.
Resurgent and high infation remains a source of concern. Infation rates have been in double digits,
at 26 percent and 34 percent, respectively, in 2006 and 2007.
3.1.2. impAct OF nARgis
Overall, Cyclone Nargis is expect ed t o have a modest impact on GDP, result ing in lower
growth in fscal year 2008-09. The aggregate estimated loss in value added in the current fscal year
( FY08) from t he cyclone amount s t o approximat ely K 850 billion or USD780 million. The economic
losses are estimated to be about 2.7 percent of the offcially projected national GDP in 2008.
2
1 UNFPA, St at e of t he World Populat ion Report , 2007.
* FEC and USD rates are fuctuating at present and should be kept under close review during the initial stages of the relief
and recovery program: t he upcoming Art icle I V consult at ions would be a good opport unit y for review.
2 The impact on GDP would not alt er dramat ically if independent est imat es of GDP growt h were used, increasing t o 3. 1% of
GDP.
21
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
Tabl e 11: I mpact on GDP
Nominal GDP
2008 Kyat
billion
Gross Losses Value Added
Coeffcients
Value Added
Losses
I mpact on
Sect or/ Tot al
GDP
Agricult ure 10,632 225 0. 8 185 1. 7%
Livest ock and Fisheries 2, 330 160 0.6 98 4. 2%
I ndust ry 5, 130 1,362 0. 2 239 4.6%
Commerce 6,708 461 0. 7 334 5. 0%
Tot al GDP 31,672 857 2.7%
Source: MOPED; PONJA team estimates.
The relat ively high economic losses from Cyclone Nargis st em from t he disast er ’s impact
on asset s, indust rial product ion and commerce in t he largest cit y in t he count ry ( Yangon) as well
as a main agricult ure producing region ( Ayeyarwady Delt a) . Economic losses, concent rat ed in t he
Yangon and Ayeyarwady Divisions, are est imat ed t o be around 11 percent of t he region’s economy.
Wit hin t he product ive sect ors, rice crops in agricult ure, small, informal ret ail sect ors in commerce
and larger frms in the industrial parks in Yangon suffered relatively larger losses in value added
t erms.
The impact on t he ext ernal balance is expect ed t o be modest , wit h a small decrease in t he
current account surplus.
A signifcant impact is expected to be on the government’s fnances and the budget defcit,
given that the primary means of fnancing the budget defcit has been money creation. The government
defcit is expected to increase due to expenditures related to the relief and recovery initiatives and
increased capit al expendit ures t owards reconst ruct ion. Upcoming Art icle I V consult at ions wit h t he
International Monetary Fund would provide a mechanism to review the fscal impact of the cyclone.
3.2. impAct On livElihOODs AnD incOmEs
Cyclone Nargis caused ext ensive damage and loss of livelihoods, employment and income
of t he people living in t he affect ed areas of t he coast al zone, t he agricult urally product ive zone, and
t he urban and peri- urban area.
The meager asset base t hat poor people living in t hese zones depend upon for t heir
livelihoods was severely damaged by t he cyclone. Small holder farmers, communit ies dependent
on small-scale inshore and offshore fshing, landless poor dependent on wage-labour in agriculture,
and skilled workers previously employed in a wide- range of resource- based small and medium scale
manufact uring and processing have lost income earning opport unit ies for a subst ant ial period. These
vulnerable groups will require urgent assist ance in t heir st ruggle t o revive t heir livelihood act ivit ies,
while in t he immediat e t erm t hey will cont inue t o need humanit arian and relief support .
Beyond t he support t o meet basic needs in t he short t erm, early recovery act ivit ies
will focus on helping people rest ore livelihoods, including t hrough t he provision of farming and
fshing implements, as well as the provision of funds to self-reliance and livelihood groups. These
programmes will pay special at t ent ion t o single- headed households, t hose living wit h HI V, and t he
disabled, including t hrough t he promot ion of employment opport unit ies.
The fgure below illustrates the shift in occupation before and after Cyclone Nargis.
22
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
Fi gur e 2: Changes i n sour ces of i ncome bef or e and af t er cy cl one i n t he Del t a
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
agriculture fishery livestock casual work small trade other
before after
Source: VTA survey.
Overall, about 200 million working days of labour are likely t o be lost , result ing in a loss of
earnings of around K665 billion. Job losses are largely in the informal sector such as seasonal jobs
in agriculture, short-term jobs in community works, small-scale fshing, rice mills, fsh processing,
salt product ion, wood cut t ing, and ot her resource based economic act ivit ies. I f t he local economies
do not fully recover in t he next 12 mont hs, it is likely t hat a large number of j ob seekers will be at
risk of ext reme povert y. Est imat es of income losses in key sect ors are summarized below.
Agr i cul t ur e. The cyclone damage caused a total loss of 76 million working days for a total loss of
earnings of K415 billion. Loss of earnings in agricult ure includes forward proj ect ions for fut ure yield
losses. Ayeyarwady Division is worst affect ed, wit h j ob losses in Dedaye in t he order of 7. 5 million
working days, Pyapon 19 million days, and Labut t a 17 million days. I n Yangon Division, Kyaukt an
sust ained t he worst loss in t he order of 7. 5 million working days.
Fi sher i es. The loss in employment is est imat ed at 10 million working days for an est imat ed income
loss of K26 million in earnings. Sea and in-land fsher folk were affected by the loss of boats
(canoes), fshing gear and other fshing equipment causing them to suspend their activities until
t hey will be able t o recover t heir asset s. Fisheries workers have also lost t heir j obs due t o t he
destruction or damage to large off-shore and in-shore boats and vessels which will disrupt fshery
act ivit ies for up t o one year.
I ndust r y . An est imat ed 23 million working days have been lost result ing in an income loss of K45
billion. Almost 5,630 establishments sustained partial or complete destruction to business premises,
equipment and machinery, and invent ories. Many of t hese ent erprises had t o suspend operat ions and
will have to operate substantially below capacity for two to fve months. A large number of informal
ent erprises and small and medium ent erprises ( SMEs) have also been damaged and unaccount ed
for in different sect ors such as met al works, boat building, wood processing, furnit ure making, brick
making, etc. An estimated 24,360 acres of salt farms have been damaged in the Delta. Assets of
a large number of informal micro- ent erprises and SMEs have also sust ained t ot al or part ial damage,
but t he damage and loss is not yet account ed for.
Commer ce. I n t his sect or, micro- ent erprises – represent ing almost t he t ot alit y of t he commercial
est ablishment s – have been most affect ed wit h a loss of 88 million working days. The t ot al income
loss is est imat ed at more t han K175 billion. An est imat ed 20, 000 est ablishment s, most ly t rading
shops, have been completely or partially damaged. The cyclone inficted destruction to livelihood
23
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
asset s ( equipment , t ools and invent ories) and income of t he self- employed in micro- small t rading,
handicraft , wat er t ransport service and a wide range of t rade skill services. These micro and small
businesses had t o sust ain an int errupt ion or reduct ion in t heir act ivit ies for one t o t wo weeks, and
are likely t o operat e at a subst ant ially lower capacit y for up t o four t o six mont hs depending on t heir
access to fnancial support or credit in the immediate term.
Only 27 percent of households in t he affect ed areas report ed t o have access t o small grant s
or credit s t o rest art businesses according t o VTA dat a. Of t hose who act ually have access t o such
forms of fnancing, 95 percent obtain them from family and friends (see fgure 3 below).
Figure 3: Main sources of credit fnancing as reported by households in the Delta
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
humanitarian ngo
bank/microfinance
other
government
family friends
Access to credit to restart business
Source: VTA survey.
3.3. sOciAl impAct
Analyzing how Cylone Nargis has affect ed local pat t erns of life, social st ruct ures and
inst it ut ions, and vulnerable groups is import ant in order t o underst and it s impact s and t o develop
plans for effect ively delivering post - disast er assist ance.
Field visit s during t he PONJA observed a high level of unit y and social cohesion among
survivors, who have no doubt been brought t oget her by t heir common effort s t o survive and
rebuild.
Though no visible t ensions bet ween et hnic and religious groups have so far arisen, int er-
group relat ions could pot ent ially worsen due t o possible inequit ies in aid provision, depending on
t he nat ure of t he relief and recovery effort . Conversely, t here is t he pot ent ial for t he post - cyclone
response t o improve relat ionships bet ween religious and et hnic groups. Religious leaders, who
provided early aid, have emphasized t he non- sect arian nat ure of t heir assist ance. This out pouring
of assist ance from all fait hs t o all fait hs may be a unifying force.
There is a risk of a redist ribut ion of land away from small- scale farmers t o t hose wit h
larger holdings. Renewal of land user right s is cont ingent on product ive use of land in t he past
year. This, along wit h a desperat e need t o ensure food securit y, appears t o be a cent ral reason
why farmers were disproport ionat ely likely t o ret urn t o t heir villages soon aft er t he cyclone, even t o
t he most affect ed areas close t o t he coast . The loss of document at ion recording land use hist ory is
problemat ic in t his regard.
There is a risk t hat loan- based responses furt her indebt affect ed villagers, increasing povert y
in t he medium t o long run. Besides providing relief, t he government response has focused on asset
replacement , wit h implement s and seeds being provided in t he form of loans. Such a st rat egy works
against aid dependency. At t he same t ime, it assumes a relat ively smoot h ret urn t o land cult ivat ion,
which is not likely t o occur evenly across t he Delt a. The policy of provision of loans rat her t han
grant s may, t herefore, lock communit y members int o a cycle of povert y and debt t hat could be hard
t o break.
24
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
The recovery effort , if it is sizeable, will const it ut e anot her great shock on t he social fabric
of life in t he Delt a. Villages in affect ed regions received relat ively lit t le aid from out side prior t o
t he cyclone. I nt eract ion wit h t he st at e and civil bodies at higher levels was limit ed. Wit h some
exceptions, local cultures and practices changed relatively slowly in response to outside infuences
and pressures. The response t o t he cyclone has t he pot ent ial t o change life in Delt a villages for
t he bet t er. Yet it also has t he pot ent ial t o result in negat ive consequences. This indicat es t he need
t o build in measures t o address low absorpt ive capacit y, in part icular t hrough communit y capacit y
building, as well as progress monit oring mechanisms.
Many of the critical areas identifed, which require attention if recovery is to be sustainable,
cannot be addressed through projects alone; policy decisions, including reforms, will be necessary.
Key issues where policy at t ent ion is needed include land use and reset t lement . Good pract ice from
ASEAN Member St at es and elsewhere in addressing t hese issues include: ( i) ensuring t hat an open
consult at ive process is in place t o est ablish t he wishes of affect ed families and communit ies wit h
regard t o ret urn and reset t lement , providing families wit h appropriat e assist ance depending on t heir
aspirations; (ii) ensuring that due process is established to protect the access of survivors to their
families’ land and to settle any land claim issues; (iii) minimizing changes to settlement and land
use pat t erns, in part icular avoiding t ransfer of land away from smaller farmers, which would t end t o
be regressive in impact .
3.3.1. vulnERAblE gROups
Cat ast rophic event s such as Cyclone Nargis can int ensify t he vulnerabilit y of already
marginalized members of t he communit y, who are in normal t imes less likely t o have access t o services
or cont rol resources. These vulnerable groups are least likely t o have t he physical capabilit ies, social
power or economic resources t o ant icipat e, survive and recover from t he effect s of t he disast er, or
access services for recovery. As such, t hey depend on recovery programs t hat offer prot ect ion and
address t heir needs.
cAusAl FActORs
Mult iple fact ors may cont ribut e t o changes in social hierarchy, power dynamics, and social
vulnerabilit ies of communit ies in post - disast er sit uat ions. These include disrupt ion of family and
t radit ional net works, changes in t he demographic composit ion of affect ed communit ies, and pre-
exist ing social marginalizat ion. Three principal fact ors pose part icular challenges for vulnerable
groups in the aftermath of the cyclone: frstly, a loss of documentation of essential papers that can
make it diffcult for people to receive necessary assistance and restart their livelihoods; secondly,
an infow of predominantely male migrant workers that exacerbates a gender imbalance caused
by the cyclone and increases vulnerabilities for women; and thirdly, a potential push into high-risk
occupat ions in search of income.
vulnERAblE gROups
Women face special vulnerabilit ies in t he aft ermat h of t he cyclone, as discussed in t he
next sect ion. Ot her vulnerable groups include children, who are at great er risk of abuse, violence,
exploitation and neglect and may face diffculties continuing their education as families struggle
to rebuild livelihood; the landless, who are economically vulnerable; and the elderly or chronically
sick or disabled, who may be less able t o rebuild livelihoods on t heir own and may be dependent on
support from families or t he communit y.
To address t he needs of vulnerable groups, assist ance programmes should involve communit y
members in decision- making t hroughout t he proj ect cycle, wit h a focus on vulnerable groups. At t he
same t ime, a complement ary syst em could be reinforced, wit h skilled social workers, communit y
child prot ect ion and development workers, as well as funct ioning referral mechanisms.
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3.3.2. gEnDER
According to the assessment data, the majority of the cyclone’s victims are female: 61 percent
of t hose dead are female, wit h t he number much higher in some villages. The disproport ionat e
number of female vict ims is especially evident in t he key product ive and reproduct ive age group of
18-60.
This demographic change will have signifcant impacts on the roles of, and relationships
bet ween, different genders, and may cause social reverberat ions, including a spat e of remarriage, or
early marriage. There may be a need for men to go to other villages or towns to fnd a wife, which
could increase out - migrat ion from severely affect ed areas or lead t o more int er- village marriages.
Fi gur e 4: I ndi cat i ve Age- Sex Py r ami d of t he Deat hs i n 10 Sel ect ed Sev er el y Af f ect ed Vi l l ages
Under 5
5-12
12-18
18-60
60+
Female
Male
Source: VTA survey.
The economic effect s of t he cyclone may cause younger unmarried women t o leave t he village
to fnd work, especially as the labor of women in the Delta tended to be labor-based, compared to
t hat of men, which t ended t o be land- based. I nexperienced in urban life, t hese young women are
vulnerable to exploitation, forced labor, forced prostitution and traffcking.
An infux of migrant populations increases vulnerabilities for women in the Delta. Data
shows t hat while t here is a balance bet ween migrat ion int o and out of t he Delt a, t he incoming
migrant populat ion is four t imes more likely t o be male t han female. This will furt her exacerbat e
t he gender imbalance result ing from uneven mort alit y in some areas and increase t he pot ent ial
for exploit at ion and abuse, including gender- based violence. Careful monit oring and provision of
advocacy and prot ect ion services for women and children will be import ant .
These vulnerabilit ies highlight t he need for relief and recovery st rat egies t o incorporat e an
underst anding of t he social realit ies and impact of t he cyclone, including t he needs, experiences, and
cont ribut ions of each gender t o fost er an environment promot ing nondiscriminat ory humanit arian
assist ance, t hrough comprehensive and represent at ive consult at ion wit h t he affect ed populat ion.
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sEctiOn 4. thE WAy FORWARD – humAnitARiAn AnD REcOvERy stRAtEgy
As t he sect ions above have described, Cyclone Nargis caused immense human suffering and
exact ed a severe social and economic t oll on t he affect ed families and communit ies. I mmediat e
assist ance t o complet e urgent relief act ivit ies and t he init iat ion of an early recovery programme t hat
t ransit ions int o t he medium and longer t erm, aimed at rest oring livelihoods, asset s of t he poor and
essent ial services is crit ical t o relieve t he suffering of communit ies and families of t he Delt a, many
of whom have been st ruggling t o rebuild on t heir own.
Humanit arian planning is more advanced t han recovery planning, and t he revised humanit arian
appeal lays out a set of relief and early recovery priorit ies which aim t o: ( i) Address t he basic
humanitarian needs of the cyclone-affected population; and (ii) Early recovery to begin rebuilding
t he live and livelihoods of t he cyclone- affect ed populat ion. These will t ransit ion int o medium and
longer- t erm recovery act ivit ies, which will require furt her work at a sect oral level following t he j oint
assessment ( as recommended during t he ASEAN roundt able on regional experiences in post - disast er
assist ance) .
However, the PONJA has enabled a preliminary identifcation of some of the principal
remaining recovery issues, aimed at: (i) Completing programs to restore basic needs and livelihoods;
( ii) Ensuring cont inued prot ect ion of t he most vulnerable households who lack sust ainable livelihoods
or who cannot or do not wish to return to their land; (iii) Restoring essential infrastructure, such as
housing, schools, clinics, and religious buildings and increasing disast er preparedness.
1
4.1. guiDing pRinciplEs
A set of guiding principles should govern t he implement at ion of act ivit ies designed t o address
relief, early recovery and medium and longer- t erm recovery. The purpose of such an agreed set of
principles is t o enhance t he effect iveness of humanit arian and recovery effort s, increase t ransparency
and account abilit y of different act ors, and promot e underst anding bet ween st akeholders. The
principles out lined below build on lessons learned from t he immediat e humanit arian response t o
Cyclone Nargis, as well as from medium and longer- t erm recovery processes in ot her disast er- hit
count ries.
EFFECTIVENESS, TRANSPARENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITY:
Sust ained access t o all affect ed populat ions, including access for assessment and •
monit oring.
Aid is given regardless of t he gender, race, creed or nat ionalit y of recipient s and wit hout •
adverse dist inct ion of any kind. Aid priorit ies are calculat ed on t he basis of need alone.
Commit ment t o coordinat ed and coherent approaches, t hrough t ransparent informat ion •
sharing to avoid overlap and fll gaps.
Est ablish common st andards and approaches, wit h an independent complaint - handling •
mechanism t o ensure account abilit y.
Institute a comprehensive system for tracking the fow of aid and its utilization, with regular •
public report s.
Assist ance provided t o t he cyclone- affect ed populat ion should not come at t he expense of •
ot hers in need in Myanmar – aid should be in addit ion t o current assist ance t o Myanmar,
rat her t han redirect ed from ot her part s of t he count ry.
1 Disaster recovery aims at recovery rather than longer-term development outcomes. Hence the identifcation of recovery
needs and est imat ion of cost s in t his sect ion address only t he infrast ruct ure necessary t o ensure recovery or provide increased
resilience t o disast ers, and does not include an expansion or upgrading of infrast ruct ure or economic development .
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INDEPENDENCE, SELF-SUFFICIENCY AND CAPACITY-BUILDING:
I nvolve communit ies at all st ages in t he management of relief, including decision- making •
and feedback on qualit y of t he relief and recovery effort s.
Maximize use of local init iat ive, resources and capacit ies. Base planning and execut ion on •
local knowledge, skills, mat erials and met hods, t aking int o account t he need for affordable
solut ions.
Build t he capacit y of local communit ies at every st age of t he relief and recovery effort wit h •
a focus on reducing vulnerabilit y t o fut ure disast ers.
Recognit ion of limit ed absorpt ive capacit y in affect ed areas for large scale provision of aid. •
Ensure a progressive scaling up, as capacit y of local communit ies increases.
FOCUS ON THE MOST VULNERABLE GROUPS:
Alt hough disast ers increase t he vulnerabilit y of all, groups who are already disadvant aged •
may need special assist ance and prot ect ion from exploit at ion.
Give priorit y t o t he most vulnerable groups, including female- headed households, children •
and orphans, and t he poor, and t ake account of t hose wit h special needs.
STRENGTHEN COMMUNITIES:
Prot ect t he humanit arian int erest s of t he affect ed populat ion while respect ing local cult ure •
and cust oms.
“ Build back bet t er,” t o reduce fut ure disast er risks but avoid radical redesign and rest ruct uring •
of set t lement s or pat t erns of land use.
Ensure t hat sensible and realist ic measures are t aken t o prot ect t he environment . •
4.2. OvERAll humAnitARiAn AnD REcOvERy AppROAch
The comprehensive assessment of t he cyclone impact , which has now been complet ed,
has made possible bot h t he revision t o t he init ial humanit arian appeal for Cyclone Nargis and a
preliminary identifcation of remaining recovery needs. The PONJA exercise, in addition to being the
frst post-disaster assessment to be led by a regional organization, is also the frst assessment to
at t empt t o provide an int egrat ed and sequenced approach t o humanit arian, including relief and early
recovery, and medium and long t erm recovery needs, closely focused on providing direct assist ance
t o families and communit ies.
The communit ies’ percept ion of needs should be t aken int o considerat ion in t his process
t hrough consult at ions. Result s from t he Village Tract Assessment provide some init ial indicat ions
(see fgures 5 and 6).
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Fi gur e 5: Faci l i t i es t hat need i mmedi at e suppor t f or r epai r or r econst r uct i on, as r epor t ed
by v i l l ager s i n t he Del t a
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%
community halls
footpath
health facilities
other
religious places
schools

Fi gur e 6: Communi t y suppor t t hat i s most needed, accor di ng t o v i l l ager s i n t he Del t a
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40%
assistance for transportation
farm land / fishing ponds
restocking of livestock and
assistance for heath care
grants or credit for small
assistance for immediate repair
Source: VTA survey.
Relief, early, medium and longer- t erm recovery needs are summarised in a sequenced
manner below, including discussion of areas where furt her work is needed t o facilit at e effect ive
recovery.
4.2.1. sOciAl sERvicEs
I n healt h, effect ive recovery will require a sequenced approach which provides emergency
healt h services while facilit ies are being rest ored and re- equipped. I mmediat e humanit arian
assistance is needed to ensure a suffcient supply of emergency drugs and support to essential
healt h services, provided t o t he affect ed populat ion t hrough healt h facilit ies and t emporary healt h
service delivery point s in shelt ers and relocat ion sit es. Mobile clinics and out reach services will be
used and mechanisms put in place t o improve access t o referral cent res.
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The aim of t he healt h response plan is t o reduce morbidit y, disabilit y and prevent able
mort alit y among t he 2. 4 million people most severely affect ed by t he cyclone, and t o improve
sust ainable access t o prevent ive and curat ive healt h care. To address immediat e needs, essent ial
healt h services will be provided t o t he affect ed populat ion t hrough healt h facilit ies in shelt ers and
mobile clinics, t o ensure response t o healt h needs and disease cont rol. Priorit ies for early recovery
will include rest oring t he funct ionalit y of t he healt h syst ems and building t he capacit y for effect ive
service delivery. The total early recovery cost for the frst 12 months is estimated at USD13 million,
of which USD11 million are included in t he UN Revised Appeal.
2
The Appeal also includes USD35. 5
million for emergency healt h provision.
Given t he on- going risks caused by t he impact of t he cyclone, support t o healt h services
should pay particular attention to epidemiological surveillance of the population; infectious disease
prevention and control (including adequate supplies and mobile response capacity); and health
promot ion t hrough communit y out reach among vulnerable groups, especially for vect or wat er borne
disease prevent ion and t reat ment .
To ensure a coordinat ed approach t o t he provision of healt h services, t he development of
t ownship- level coordinat ion mechanisms will be import ant t o agree bet ween t he different part ners
engaged in the health sector on the key outcomes expected and increase the effciency of resource
allocat ion from different inst it ut ions. Township- level plans would include det ailed assessment s of t he
necessary repairs t o healt h facilit ies t o disast er resist ant st andards. Coordinat ion at t his level would
also allow for furt her assessment of demand- side const raint s t o address t he barriers prevent ing
t he poorest households from accessing healt h services, as well as special needs for t he inj ured and
displaced. Finally, t he healt h program should also est ablish a syst em t o t rack t he needs and use of
pharmaceut ical and medical supplies provided t hrough int ernat ional resources.
I n educat ion, immediat e needs include t he provision of t emporary safe learning spaces for
basic educat ion schools, providing t emporary safe learning spaces for early childhood development
act ivit ies, and providing school and learning mat erials t o affect ed girls and boys. The goal of t he
early recovery st rat egy is t o provide and rest ore qualit y early learning and educat ion in formal
and non- formal set t ings in cyclone- affect ed t ownships, including by repairing, rehabilit at ing and
beginning t o rebuild damaged and dest royed schools ( bot h public and monast ic schools) , and
strengthening teacher capacity through training. The total cost for education programmes in the frst
12 mont hs is est imat ed at USD32 million, of which USD2. 5 million is covered in t he Revised Appeal.
The Revised Appeal also includes USD23 million for relief assist ance for t emporary safe learning
spaces and emergency supplies. Given t he ext ensive dest ruct ion of school- buildings, reconst ruct ion
of some of t he schools in t he worst - affect ed areas will likely need t o cont inue over t wo t o t hree
years. Assist ance should be provided t o bot h public and monast ic schools, and accompanied wit h
t he t raining of new and volunt eer t eachers, psychosocial assist ance t o t eachers and children, and
communit y mobilizat ion t o support children’s educat ion.
To st rengt hen communit ies as part of t he early recovery act ivit ies, t here is a need for support
t o vulnerable groups, including women, children, t he elderly, single- headed and landless households,
t he inj ured and disabled, wit h t he goal of ensuring food securit y, prot ect ion from exploit at ion, abuse
and ot her forms of violence, and prot ect ing t hem from t aking on risky employment . Communit y-
based and communit y- driven prot ect ion st rat egies will be promot ed, such as Child Friendly Spaces
for t he prot ect ion and psychosocial recovery of children, and designat ed places for women’s
prot ect ion and psychosocial recovery. A common case management approach is being developed t o
incorporat e family t racing for separat ed children, ongoing monit oring ( and where necessary referral
t o ot her sect ors for t heir int ervent ion or t o communit y based prot ect ion mechanisms) for children in
int erim care, orphans, child vict ims of abuse, exploit at ion, violence and neglect or ot her vulnerable
children. Costs for the protection of children and women over the frst 12 months are estimated at
USD16.8 million.
4.2.2. shEltER AnD hOusing
Shelt er is crit ical in providing basic securit y and personal safet y from element s and resist ance
2 Myanmar Revised Appeal: Cyclone Nargis Response Plan 2008. Launched at t he Unit ed Nat ions in New York, 10 July 2008.
Available online at : www. humanit arianappeal. net
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Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
t o diseases, as well as for sust aining t he dignit y and st ruct ure of families and communit ies. The
relief st rat egy will ensure t hat 450, 000 of t he most severely affect ed households will have adequat e
shelt er and non- food it ems, such as cooking ut ensils, blanket s, mosquit o net s, and wat er collect ion
cont ainers. Early recovery act ivit ies will support t he ongoing rebuilding by households, including
reducing vulnerabilit ies t o fut ure nat ural disast ers by improving housing t echniques. Early recovery
costs for the frst 12 months are estimated at USD47 million, of which USD21.5 million are included
in t he Revised Appeal. The Revised Appeal also includes anot her USD21 million for emergency
shelt er act ivit ies.
As not ed in t he impact assessment , most families have already st art ed t o rebuild on t heir
original land. Lessons from post - disast er recovery in ot her count ries indicat e t hat support t o housing
is most likely t o be successful if it support s families’ own effort s t hrough t he provision of cash
or mat erials, wit h careful monit oring syst ems t o ensure t hat assist ance is used for t he purposes
int ended. Rebuilding t o more disast er resist ant st andards can be st art ed under t he humanit arian
assistance program during the frst twelve months, by providing support to families to support their
own effort s t o rebuild, and supplement ed by furt her assist ance in subsequent years. A uniform
approach is also desirable, where guidelines on t he level of support provided t o households are
agreed bet ween different inst it ut ions providing assist ance t o avoid causing t ensions bet ween families
and communit ies.
Preliminary results from the feld assessments indicate that the majority of households wish
t o ret urn t o t heir own land, and t his would be consist ent wit h ot her nat ural disast er event s in t he
region. However, no syst emat ic dat a is available on t he number of households who wish t o ret urn
versus t hose who wish t o reset t le elsewhere, on land which is hazardous or on land where t he
ent ire family or t he regist ered user of t he land died.
3
Good pract ice from ASEAN Member St at es
and elsewhere in addressing reset t lement and land use issues t hrough part icipat ory processes are
discussed in sect ion 3, under social impact s.
4.2.3. FOOD AnD AgRicultuRE
Food assist ance int ervent ions will cover a period of 12 mont hs ( May 2008 – April 2009) and
will help maint ain adequat e food consumpt ion, st abilize t he nut rit ional st at us of t he most vulnerable
groups and rest ore livelihoods, including t hrough food- for- work schemes and cash int ervent ions.
For t he families of t he Delt a, food insecurit y is inext ricably linked t o t he recovery of pre- cyclone
levels of agricult ural product ion, wit h t he maj or rice harvest s occurring in Oct ober- November and
April- May. Needs for food dist ribut ion will t herefore remain high for t he next six mont hs, st art ing
t o phase down aft er t he Oct ober- November period t o more t arget ed modes of assist ance t o t he
most vulnerable households and t hose who are unable t o ret urn t o t heir land. The cost for food
assistance for the frst 12 months is estimated in the Revised Appeal at USD112.5 million. The cost
for nut rit ion programmes for infant s, children, and pregnant and lact at ing women over t he same
period is est imat ed at USD17. 9 million.
I n order t o ensure early recovery of agricult ural livelihoods, t here is an urgent need for
assist ance for rice seeds, fert ilizer, feed for draught animals, and fuel for power t illers. Assist ance wit h
input s, including seeds, fert ilizers, t ract ors and draught animals is likely t o be needed in preparat ion
for t he next t wo harvest s if rice product ion is t o be rest ored t o pre- crisis levels, wit h some cont inued
assist ance for families who are not immediat ely able t o ret urn t o t heir land. I n addit ion, support for
small breeders t o expand livest ock breeding programs will be import ant bot h t o rest ore t he st ock
of draught animals and small livest ock ( e. g., ducks, chickens, pigs) and promot e t he rest orat ion of
sust ainable livelihoods.
While rice is t he principal crop in t he Delt a, veget able crops and small livest ock are also
import ant sources of income for t he poor, in part icular for landless families. St art ing under early
recovery act ivit ies in t he next t welve mont hs and cont inuing unt il sust ainable livelihoods are rest ored,
communit y- based grant or micro- credit schemes would be an appropriat e mechanism t o support
t hese households in regaining a sust ainable source of income. The cost for early recovery act ivit ies
to restore agricultural livelihoods is estimated at USD57 million for the frst 12 months, of which
3 This is normal at t his st age aft er t he disast er – it is not generally possible t o est imat e reset t lement and land use/ land claim
implicat ions unt il a lat er st age.
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USD40 million are included in t he Revised Appeal. The Appeal also includes USD18. 5 million for
relief act ivit ies in agricult ure.
4.2.4. cOmmunity REcOvERy AnD livElihOODs
Supplement ing support t o agricult ure by ot her effort s t o get cash incomes t o t he poorest
families is import ant bot h t o rest ore market act ivit y and provide social prot ect ion t o t he landless or
t hose who are unable t o cult ivat e in t ime for t he upcoming harvest season.
There have been some successful communit y- based development approaches in Myanmar
prior t o t he cyclone. The PONJA t eams visit ed several communit y- based proj ect s and found t hat t hese
are well managed in t erms of part icipat ion of disadvant aged groups in decision- making, avoidance of
capture by elites, and transparent budget and fnancial management procedures. While replication
and expansion of such approaches should be undert aken carefully, t hey do provide pot ent ial t o
ensure t hat cash grant s for t he rest orat ion of household asset s and labour int ensive works for local
infrast ruct ure can be carried out in a way t hat is in accordance wit h communit y priorit ies. St rong
efforts at community capacity-building in areas such as simple fnancial management and accounting
as well as effect ive monit oring should accompany t hese act ivit ies. Where labour- int ensive works are
provided t hrough communit y- based mechanisms, care should be t aken t o ensure t hat wages do not
exceed local market wages, t o avoid undermining t he resumpt ion of regular market act ivit ies.
4
Micro- credit , similarly building on lessons learned from pre- cyclone programs, would also be
a useful component of a st rat egy t o support non- farm incomes for t he poorest families. Finally, t he
rehabilit at ion work which will be conduct ed provides an opport unit y t o provide vocat ional t raining
t o individuals in affect ed communit ies and support t o small business organizat ions t o ensure t hat
they gain a longer term beneft from the cyclone relief and early, medium and longer-term recovery
programs.
Assistance to replace small fshing boats and equipment that have been lost is also an
import ant element of early and medium- t erm recovery act ivit ies: prior t o launching a maj or program
t o import or dist ribut e boat s cent rally, it would be desirable t o make an assessment of t he opt ions
for provision of cash grant s t o communit ies t o buy boat s in neighboring villages. Where boat s are
provided in kind rather than through cash grants, prior consultation with fshers’ communities is
crucial t o ensure t hat replacement boat s are suit ed t o communit ies’ needs.
Religious buildings are cent ral t o t he life of communit ies in t he count ry as a whole, including
in t he Delt a, and wit h schools, are t he t op priorit y for assist ance request ed by communit ies in t he
VTA. The damage t o religious buildings was very ext ensive and init ial est imat es of recovery cost s
have been included in t he recovery program. I n discussion wit h t he PONJA t eams, religious and
communit y- based organisat ions have suggest ed t hat det ailed t ownship- level assessment s of t he
damage to religious buildings could be refned by the religious institutions themselves, working
together on a non-sectarian basis. These detailed assessments would then confrm the full recovery
cost for religious st ruct ures. As described above, religious groups have been in t he forefront of
disast er- relief effort s, and have all st ressed t he non- sect arian nat ure of t heir assist ance. I t will
cont inue t o be import ant in t he recovery process t o pursue t his inclusive approach.
Early recovery cost s t o support non- agricult ural livelihoods and social recovery, rebuild
religious and communit y infrast ruct ure and begin environment al prot ect ion and disast er risk
reduction activities are estimated at USD89 million over the frst 12 months, of which USD54 million
are included in t he Revised Appeal.
4.2.5. cOAstAl mAnAgEmEnt
While t he j oint assessment has provided init ial indicat ions of environment al damage, a
more comprehensive environmental assessment and an updated food and storm surge assessment
would be desirable to confrm impact, guide recovery activities, identify hazardous land, and assess
4 Agencies and NGOs in some areas are current ly paying daily wages of 2, 000 K, which likely exceeds t he normal wage for
agricult ural labour. I t would be import ant t o review t his prior t o t he next harvest season.
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long- t erm vulnerabilit ies and inst it ut ional const raint s. Some early recovery act ivit ies t o support
t he reforest at ion of mangrove reserves can be st art ed in t he int erim, but a more comprehensive
assessment would inform a program t o repair environment al damage and reduce risks and
vulnerabilit ies, such as t he upgrading of coast al embankment s and a more comprehensive program
t o rehabilit at e t he mangrove forest s which play a crucial role in prot ect ing human set t lement s,
agricultural lands and fsheries.
4.2.6. inFRAstRuctuRE
To address immediat e needs for clean wat er, sanit at ion, and hygiene, priorit ies include t he
provision of safe drinking wat er and safe excret a disposal facilit ies for 1. 4 million cyclone- affect ed
people t hrough April 2009, and t he rehabilit at ion of t radit ional ponds and rainwat er harvest ing
systems by September 2008. The total cost for the frst 12 months is estimated at USD27 million,
of which USD12 million are included in t he Revised Appeal. The Revised Appeal also includes
USD38 million for t he emergency provision of safe drinking wat er and safe excret a disposal facilit ies
t hrough April 2009. The remaining communit y infrast ruct ure needs would be best addressed t hrough
communit y- based mechanisms which can also provide opport unit ies for t emporary work for families
who lack incomes. Except ional road maint enance effort s in t he delt a t o repair damage caused by
heavy relief t rucks will also be import ant .
The immediate relief effort required a signifcant logistical network to deliver assistance to
t he most severely affect ed populat ion, wit h t he cyclone having made an already limit ed t ransport
system largely impassable. An air bridge from Bangkok to Yangon, as well as helicopter fights
from Yangon to fve operating hubs in the Delta, facilitated the effective delivery of relief. As the
surface t ransport syst em ( including by road and river) regains st rengt h, t hese will be phased out .
Relat ed logist ics cost s are est imat ed at USD50. 5 million, and emergency t elecommunicat ions cost s
at USD1.6 million, as refected in the Revised Appeal.
Repairs t o t he maj or infrast ruct ure needed t o deliver t he humanit arian and recovery program
have already been complet ed in most sect ors and infrast ruct ure needs overall are low, due bot h t o
t he fast act ion t aken t o rest ore services such as elect ricit y, and t he relat ively low damage done t o
t he road net work and ot her large- scale infrast ruct ure. Using t he basic principle of rest oring essent ial
infrast ruct ure t o pre- cyclone levels ( but not beyond) , probable recovery cost s in t ransport t ot al
USD24 million in the frst year (10 percent of total recovery estimates), with 75 percent covering
road and small bridge repair.
4.3. nEEDs AnD cOsts
4.3.1. RElAtiOnship tO thE REvisED AppEAl
The relief costs for the frst 12 months following the cyclone (May 2008 through April 2009)
are est imat ed in t he Revised Appeal which was present ed by t he Unit ed Nat ions on 10 July 2008.
The Revised Appeal includes cost s for bot h meet ing immediat e needs and early recovery act ivit ies,
and calls for a total of USD482 million, of which about USD360 million will be for relief activities.
4.3.2. EARly AnD lOngER-tERm REcOvERy cOsts
The recovery needs cost ed as part of t he PONJA and present ed in Table 12 below are higher
t han t he early recovery act ivit ies in t he Revised Appeal because: ( i) t hey cover an indicat ive est imat e
of total frst year needs, not only those activities which can be delivered by the UN agencies and
NGOs covered in t he appeal, hence t he difference in sect ors such as housing, agricult ure, healt h,
education and livelihoods; and (ii) they include sectors such as transport and communications (ten
percent of t he t ot al) which are not covered in t he Revised Appeal.
The j oint assessment does not const it ut e a recovery plan, which would require furt her
work to refne sectoral needs and priorities, elaborate recovery approaches and implementation
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Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
arrangements and complete and refne estimates of costs. As part of the assessment, an initial
identifcation of recovery costs has however been completed for some of the principal recovery
act ivit ies. Around 90 percent of all recovery cost s est imat ed – all t hose except t ransport and
communicat ions - are for act ivit ies delivered direct t o t he local communit y level.
I t should also be not ed t hat t he cost s below are not equivalent t o an “ appeal” for int ernat ional
assistance. The Government of Myanmar is fnancing and implementing its own recovery activities,
and as in other disasters in neighboring ASEAN Member States, will look for external fnancing only
t o complement it s own init iat ive in t his regard.
5
Table 12: Indicative fnancial estimates of relief and recovery needs (Kyats billion)
REVI SED APPEAL
Ky at s
bi l l i on
USD
million
Relief 398 362
Early recovery 132 120
Tot al 530 482
PONJA COMPREHENSI VE ASSESSMENT - FULL I NDI CATI VE RECOVERY NEEDS
K bi l l i on
USD million
Soci al Sect or s 45 140 53 238 216
Educat i on* 32 118 51 201 183
Heal t h* 13 23 2 37 34
Communi t y Recov er y and Li v el i hoods 84 114 109 307 280
Li v el i hoods 44 44 42 130 118
Rel i gi ous st r uct ur es* 40 70 68 178 162
Essent i al househol d and publ i c i nf r ast r uct ur e 98 191 206 495 450
Housi ng* 47 154 198 399 362
Tr anspor t and Communi cat i ons 24 32 9 64 59
Wat er Suppl y 27 5 - 32 29
El ect r i ci t y - - - - -
Pr oduct i v e Sect or s 57 - - 57 51
Agr i cul t ur e* * 57 TBD TBD 57 51
I ndust r y - - - - -
Commer ce - - - - -
Cr oss- Cut t i ng I ssues 5 5 4
Env i r onment * * * 5 TBD TBD 5 4
Tot al Recov er y Needs
I n Kyat s billion 288 445 369 1,102
I n USD million 262 405 335 1,002
* * * Possible furt her act ivit ies discussed during PONJA which would require furt her assessment for first or
second year cost ing are passenger ferries ( init ial est imat e of K20 billion) ; upgrading of coast al embankment s
t o prot ect against flood and st orm surges ( init ial est imat e at K40 billion) ; and mangrove rehabilit at ion ( init ial
est imat e of K30 billion) .
Year 1
Year 3 Tot al
* Suggest ed furt her det ailed t ownship- level assessment t o be complet ed for housing, religious buildings,
schools, and healt h facilit ies.
* * Agricult ure needs for years 2 and 3 st ill t o be det ermined, depending on recovery progress.
Year 1 Year 2
4.3.3. thE RElAtiOnship bEtWEEn DAmAgE AnD lOssEs AnD REcOvERy nEEDs
As is normally t he case in disast er recovery programs, recovery needs are only a sub- set of
total damage and losses. This is because many losses cannot later be compensated, a signifcant part
of t he damage st ems from large scale privat e and commercial ent erprises: t he cost of compensat ing
t his damage does not form part of t he needs which are generally incorporat ed int o allocat ions from
the Government budget or presented for external fnancing.
5 The Myanmar Government has announced allocat ions amount ing t o K50 billion and has expressed t he wish t o discuss t he
budget allocat ions made t o t he cyclone recovery wit h t he I MF as part of t he upcoming Art icle I V mission.
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Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
4.3.4. cOORDinAtiOn, mOnitORing AnD AiD tRAcking
I mmediat e relief, early recovery and medium- t erm recovery programs will all need t o
be accompanied by st rong mechanisms t o t rack aid, coordinat e programs and monit or progress.
Effect ive coordinat ion, progress monit oring and aid t racking will be ext remely import ant t o ensure
t hat t he effort s of Government , UN agencies, int ernat ional donors, nat ional and int ernat ional NGOs
and t he privat e sect or combine t o produce effect ive result s for t he people of t he affect ed areas.
The t ri- part it e st ruct ure of t he TCG has operat ed effect ively in facilit at ing init ial relief effort s.
Progress in meet ing humanit arian and recovery needs will be monit ored t hrough a communit y-
based syst em over t he next t welve mont hs, complement ed by a syst em t o t rack aid pledges
and disbursement s from all sources, t o ensure t hat a comprehensive pict ure is available of t he
expendit ures on humanit arian and recovery act ivit ies. This would ensure regular report ing on t he
impact of assist ance provided, as well as enabling communit ies t o provide feedback on t he support
provided and adj ust priorit ies according t o t heir needs.
A forum of t he humanit arian communit y t o t ake st ock of progress in t he humanit arian and
recovery programme could be held on a regular basis. Sect oral coordinat ion mechanisms in areas
cent ral t o t he recovery effort such as healt h, educat ion, agricult ure and housing, on a more frequent
basis, will also be import ant .
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Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
sEctiOn 5. thE REspOnsE tO cyclOnE nARgis
5.1. thE immEDiAtE REspOnsE
The Government of Myanmar, Myanmar- based civil societ y organizat ions, privat e ent erprises
and individuals responded swift ly and generously t o assist t he cyclone vict ims. The New Light of
Myanmar newspaper report ed t hat individual cash and in- kind donat ions amount ing t o Kyat 12, 418
million had been accepted by the Government’s fnancial sub-committee as of 15 June.
On 9 May, t he Unit ed Nat ions Emergency Relief Coordinat or launched t he Myanmar Cyclone
Flash Appeal, request ing USD 187 million t o carry out emergency relief act ivit ies over a six mont h
period. The appeal included 49 proj ect s in 12 sect ors, involving t en UN agencies and nine int ernat ional
NGOs. On 10 July, a Revised Appeal was presented, taking into account data from the PONJA feldwork
t hat allowed for a more comprehensive assessment of needs and st rat egy t o address t hem. Covering
t he 12 mont h period from t he cyclone t hrough April 2009, t he appeal request s USD482 million t o
address ongoing humanit arian needs and t ake advant age of opport unit ies for early recovery.
Once Government permission had been grant ed on 2 June, a common t ransport net work
was est ablished, including an air bridge for supplies from Bangkok t o Yangon, warehouse services
in Yangon and fve hubs in the affected region (Labutta, Mawlamyingyun, Pathein, Pyapon, Bogale)
and t ransport by helicopt er, t ruck and river barge t o out lying villages. The emergency response t o
t he cyclone by t he Unit ed Nat ions and int ernat ional NGOs was organized in t erms of 12 clust ers,
covering crit ical needs including healt h, nut rit ion, shelt er, wat er, sanit at ion and hygiene, agricult ure
and logist ics.
By 30 June, a total of 18,163 mt of food commodities had been delivered to 684,000
benefciaries in the Ayeyarwady Division. Treated water (or the means to treat water) was distributed
t o 250, 000 people on a daily basis, wit h 29 wat er t reat ment plant s having been put int o operat ion,
delivering close t o 800, 000 lit res of t reat ed wat er every day. As of 30 June, emergency shelt er
assist ance had been provided t o over 195, 000 cyclone- affect ed households in 11 t ownships in
Ayeyarwady Division and 29 t ownships in Yangon Division. Medical care had been provided, including
by a range of medical t eams from ASEAN Member St at es and neighboring count ries.
To refect the response to date, each organization of the Tripartite Core Group – the
Government of Myanmar, ASEAN, and t he Unit ed Nat ions – has provided a cont ribut ion t o t his report
reviewing t heir response component s. To maint ain t he spirit wit h which t hese cont ribut ions were
provided, t hey have not been edit ed or assessed by t he PONJA t eam, but are present ed in t heir
ent iret y below.
5.1.1. nAtiOnAl REspOnsE
INTRODUCTION
1. Cyclone Nargis, which st ruck Myanmar on 2 and 3 May 2008 wit h recorded wind speeds of up
t o 200 kph and a diamet er of 240 kilomet ers, was one of t he most dest ruct ive st orms t o hit Asia in
decades. I t made landfall at Hainggyikyun at 1430 hours on 2 May. Taking a nort h- east erly direct ion,
it swept t hrough t he densely populat ed Ayeyarwady delt a region passing t hrough Pyinsalu, Labut t a,
Mawlamyinegyun, Bogale, Pyapon, and Kungyangon before it reached Yangon, t he largest cit y and
t he count ry’s commercial hub, in t he early hours of 3 May 2008. The cit y sust ained a direct hit wit h
heavy damage t o it s buildings, infrast ruct ure, power, wat er, and communicat ion lines. A maj orit y of
it s famed great t rees were also uproot ed. Nevert heless, it was in t he Ayeyarwady delt a where t he
effect s of ext reme winds, heavy rains, and a powerful st orm surge, wreaked t he most damage.
2. The Ayeyarwady Division covers 13,566 square miles with a population of over 6.5 million
giving a population density of 466 persons per square mile. Agriculture is predominant, although
fsheries have become an increasingly important industry along the coast and in the extensive
net work of rivers and creeks t hat are t he dist ribut aries of t he Ayeyarwady river as it ent ers t he sea
t hrough t his huge and fert ile delt a. The principal crop and st aple food is rice, wit h maize, sesame,
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Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
groundnut, sunfower, pulses, vegetables, jute and fruit trees being grown for both household
consumpt ion and income generat ion.
3. Over 7 million people lived direct ly in t he pat h of t he st orm. Among t hem, init ial assessment s
indicat ed t hat 1. 5 million in Ayeyarwady Division were seriously affect ed. About 370, 000 houses
were damaged with a signifcant portion completely destroyed. A million acres of farmland were
inundat ed wit h seawat er, causing serious deat h and dest ruct ion t o humans, livest ock, farm animals,
infrast ruct ure, and means of product ion and livelihoods. Many survivors faced unt old misery and
hardships. The damage and dest ruct ion was underst andably highest in t he immediat e area over
which t he ' eye' of t he st orm passed. Most affect ed were t he 7 t ownships of Ngaput aw, Labut t a,
Mawlamyinegyun, Bogale, Pyapon, Kyaiklat t and Dedaye. Labut t a followed by Bogale sust ained t he
heaviest damage. I t is est imat ed t hat 95% of st ruct ures were demolished in t hese t wo t ownships
and in Hainggyikyun. There were similar heavy losses t o physical st ruct ures in ot her t ownships as
well, with a loss of 90% reported for Pyapon and Mawlamyinegyun, while damage was signifcant in
t he remaining t ownships.
4. Alt hough t he st orm’s fury abat ed somewhat when it reached t he densely populat ed Yangon
Division, it affected 4 million people, causing damage to 486,539 houses, over 7,900 factories and
commercial establishments. Moreover 300,713 acres of farmland were fooded. Electricity, water,
t ransport at ion, t elecommunicat ion facilit ies, net works of roads, bridges, rail- t racks, j et t ies and
docks, t ransmission lines, public buses and rolling st ock were affect ed. Many boat s, bot h mot orized
and non- mot orized, and st eamers were also damaged, beached or sunk alt oget her. Some 75% of
t he t rees were uproot ed which result ed in blocking of roads, and dest ruct ion of houses. Elect ricit y
was also cut off due t o t he collapse of elect ric poles.
THE HUMAN TOLL
5. The human t oll caused by Cyclone Nargis was overwhelmingly devast at ing and unprecedent ed
in living memory. Small villages in t he low- lying areas of t he delt a were hopelessly exposed t o t he
ferocit y of t he winds and t he waves and many of t hem were simply oblit erat ed and wiped off t he
map. The offcial toll to date is 84,537 deaths with 53,836 missing, and 19,359 injured. Details of
t he deat d and missing per t ownship is provided at Annex ( 19) .
THE GOVERNMENT’S RESPONSE
6. As a lesson learned from the 2004 Asian Tsunami experience, the Government of Myanmar
has already est ablished even before t he onset of t he cyclone, a Nat ional Nat ural Disast er Preparedness
Cent ral Commit t ee ( NDPCC) chaired by t he Prime Minist er General Thein Sein. A meet ing of t his
Cent ral Commit t ee was held on t he morning of 3 May, 2008, wit h an address by t he Chairman t o
formulat e and implement an immediat e response t o Nargis. Accordingly, 10 Emergency Disast er
Response Sub- commit t ees were formed t o work in close cooperat ion. Furt her, implement at ion plans
were urgent ly prepared t o meet goals set out for each Sub- commit t ee t hat required immediat e
at t ent ion for relief, recovery, rehabilit at ion, and reconst ruct ion. The t en sub- commit t ees formed
dealt wit h:
( 1) News and I nformat ion,
( 2) Emergency Communicat ion,
( 3) Search and Rescue,
( 4) Assessment and Emergency Relief,
(5) Confrmation of Loss and Damage,
(6) Transportation and Route Clearance,
( 7) Nat ural Disast er Reduct ion and Emergency Shelt er Provision,
( 8) Healt hcare,
( 9) Rehabilit at ion and Re- const ruct ion, and
( 10) Securit y.
7. For close and effect ive supervision in undert aking relief and rehabilit at ion t asks in t he
t ownships wit hin t he st orm- hit region, individual minist ers were assigned t o each of t hem. The
38
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
Prime Minister also opened an offce in Yangon to provide close supervision and support to the
Nat ional Disast er Preparedness Cent ral Commit t ee. I mmediat ely aft er t he cyclone, t he Government
earmarked Kyat s 50 billion ( USD 45. 45 million) for t he overall relief and recovery effort . Armed wit h
t hese funds, t he Government was able t o immediat ely commence, manage, spend and supervise
relief and rehabilitation operations including the setting up of relief camps, feld hospitals, verifcation
and cremat ion of t he dead, inst allat ion of a t emporary communicat ion syst em, clearance of t he main
roads, provision of fuel, opening of market s, rest oring securit y in t he affect ed areas and ot her relief
act ivit ies. For example, reinst allat ion of elect ricit y and wat er, and renovat ion of hospit als were
complet ed wit hin 4 days in Yangon Division which rest ored 33 t ownships back t o normalcy. Also,
milit ary personnel in collaborat ion wit h t he local aut horit ies and t he public carried out relief t asks
such as st orm debris removal in 7 t ownships out side t he Yangon Cit y Development area. Relief camps
were set up in t he affect ed areas, and st at ist ical dat a of t he dead and t he missing was collect ed
wit hin 3 days. Moreover, t he Yangon Division Peace and Development Council was able t o rest ore
food and drinking wat er supplies wit hin seven days, t hereby alleviat ing t he emergency sit uat ion in
t he cit y.
8. Aft er carrying out emergency relief and rehabilit at ion operat ions, t he NDPCC plans t o
cont inue it s work in four phases, namely:
Phase 1: Transit ion ( The period bet ween emergency relief/ rescue and rehabilit at ion) ,
Phase 2: Short Term Rebuilding ( Quick rebuilding of bot h urban and rural areas unt il farming and
fshery activities can be resumed and livelihoods restored),
Phase 3: Longer Term Reconst ruct ion ( Furt her improvement and upgrading of reconst ruct ion and
reset t lement t asks carried out under Phase 2) ,
Phase 4: Preparedness and Prevent ion ( Creat e early warning syst ems, est ablish procedures and
mechanisms t o mobilize local and nat ional effort for quick response t o t he danger and const ruct ion of
facilities and structures in order to avoid similar casualties and deaths in the future. More specifcally,
special at t ent ion will be devot ed t o building st ronger and st orm resist ant roads, embankment s, and
polders. St orm shelt ers of proven design t o cat er t o needs of t hose in impending danger and in
dist ress will also be const ruct ed t o prot ect humans as well as farm animals. These shelt ers could
also be used as communit y cent ers t o improve t he social and cult ural life of villagers. Moreover, an
expanded program is already underway for t he regenerat ion and development of mangrove forest s
t hroughout t he coast al regions. ) .
9. I n responding t o t he import ant t ask of rehabilit at ion and reconst ruct ion of t he damaged
and dest royed t owns, villages, business ent erprises, schools, hospit als, monast eries and places of
worship, as well as in providing assistance to the unifcation of divided families, and more generally
to uplift the morale and to fulfll the psychological needs of the storm victims, the government’s
approach and priorit ies can be summarized as follows: -
Rebuilding of houses by t he t ownspeople, •
Reconst ruct ion of hospit als, schools and market s, •
Repairing of roads and bridges, •
Reconst ruct ion of communicat ion, •
Rest orat ion of elect ricit y, •
Reset t ling and const ruct ion of villages t hat were washed away by t he st orm surge, •
Const ruct ion of damaged houses in village t ract s, •
Rehabilit at ion of drinking wat er sources, •
Resuscit at ion of business ent erprises, fact ories and workplaces for employment generat ion, •
Revival of agricult ure and rural indust ries t o rest ore basic livelihoods of t he villagers, •
Revival of the fshery industry for restoring employment and earning opportunities for village •
folk,
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Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
Rehabilit at ion of rice mills, •
Rest orat ion of salt product ion facilit ies, •
Rest orat ion of t he means of product ion for fruit s, veget ables, and livest ock by rural •
populat ion.

10. At t he height of t he relief period in mid- May, 419 relief camps in 29 t ownships in Yangon
and Ayeyarwady Divisions were set up t o cat er t o t he urgent needs of t he st orm vict ims. A t ot al of
380, 529 st orm vict ims were shelt ered in t hese camps, where t hey were provided wit h food, clot hing,
medical care and other daily needs. The camp population presently stands at 10,567 persons living
in a t ot al of 7 camps in t he Ayeyarwady Division.
11. To dat e, t he Government has spent a t ot al of over Kyat s 70 billion for relief and early
recovery. A furt her Kyat s 17 billion has been spent for t his purpose, out of funds received from
cont ribut ions.
RESPONSE FROM THE MYANMAR PUBLIC AND CIVIL SOCIETY
12. The grave adversit y and t he immense challenge posed by t he cyclone also brought t he best
out of t he Myanmar people. Known for t heir humanit y, charit y, generosit y, kinship and neighborliness,
t hey shared not only t heir wealt h but in many cases, what ever lit t le t hey possess. Many people of
Myanmar t hroughout t he count ry gave generously t o t heir less fort unat e st orm affect ed compat riot s
in cash and in kind. I n t he days following t he st orm, t he roads leading out of Yangon and ot her big
towns to the affected townships were flled with motorcades of people carrying with them cash, food
and household supplies. Many of them ventured further afeld by boats to diffcult to access villages,
spurred on by a humanit arian urge t o help. Similarly, many Buddhist monks from all over t he count ry
also went to the affected diffcult to access areas and disbursed substantial quantities of cash and
relief mat erials t o t he villagers using t he local monast ery as base. Likewise, religious leaders and
members of all ot her fait hs in t he count ry cont ribut ed subst ant ially t o t he relief effort s. The large
Myanmar diaspora out side t he count ry also responded generously. Many of t hem ret urned home
t o help in ways big and small. Ot hers organized collect ions of mainly cash in favor of t he affect ed
populat ion. Such spont aneous help from t he public, religious leaders and civil societ y in general,
reached t he needy populat ion, in a t imely manner. The recorded cont ribut ions in cash and kind
from Myanmar nationals reached a total of 13,040,881,369 Kyats or about USD11.86 million by 24
June. This fgure does not tell the whole story as many donations and contributions have been made
anonymously and wit hout regist rat ion anywhere. The unrecorded port ion is quit e possibly as large
as, if not larger than the recorded fgure. It is therefore quite impossible to put a precise value to
t he ent ire massive out pouring of generosit y by t he people of Myanmar. Nevert heless, t he fact t hat
st arvat ion and disease t hat was originally feared and voiced in some quart ers was avoided, is due in
no small measure, t o t he unst int ing, if not complet ely recorded generosit y of t he people.
RESPONSE FROM THE TATMADAW (MYANMAR ARMED FORCES)
13. I n t he immediat e aft ermat h of t he cyclone t he Tat madaw provided subst ant ial assist ance in
the overall relief and early recovery effort. Senior military offcials accompanied the Prime Minister
in his frst tour of the affected regions in the Ayeyarwady Division on 3 May. Two divisions of
infant ry servicemen were also deployed in t he region t o ensure t he cont inued maint enance of peace,
securit y and t ranquilit y during t he t urbulent days in t he wake of t he cyclone. I n addit ion, t hey
undert ook a myriad of t asks ranging from search and rescue, evacuat ion of t he inj ured, set t ing
up of camps for the displaced, collection, identifcation and burial of the dead, clearing of roads,
removal of debris, loading and unloading of relief goods, and generally t o help in t he dist ribut ion
of relief assist ance t o t he dist ressed. Doct ors and nurses from t he Defense Services Medical Corps
also provided emergency medical care in t he affect ed areas. Fleet s of milit ary t rucks were used t o
t ransport relief goods, oil and fuel, seeds, agricult ural machinery and implement s. Wat er buffaloes
were t ransport ed from up count ry t o t he lower delt a region in t ime for t he plant ing season. The Air
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Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
Force has placed it s helicopt ers at t he disposal of t he relief operat ion for ferrying and evacuat ing t o
and from t he affect ed areas. On it s part t he Myanmar Navy deployed a number of it s boat s and crew
at a number of locat ions in t he lower delt a region t o generally help in t he relief effort .
14. To summarize, in an at mosphere of shock, dismay, grief and uncert aint y t hat prevailed in t he
immediat e aft ermat h of t he cyclone, t he Tat madaw made a valuable cont ribut ion by calming fears,
providing securit y, and maint aining peace and harmony in t he affect ed areas. Furt her, t he armed
forces provided services t hat assist ed t he government , t he privat e sect or, civil societ y organizat ions,
local communit y and int ernat ional aid workers for more effect ive, and t imely delivery of aid supplies
and services t o t he vict ims of t he cyclone.

RESPONSE FROM MYANMAR BUSINESS COMMUNITY
15. The Myanmar business communit y, consist ing bot h of large ent erprises and small and medium
frms, responded in a timely and effective manner to the crisis. They contributed substantially in
cash, kind, and essent ial services t o t he relief and reconst ruct ion t asks. Many of t hem made a special
effort t o provide assist ance in areas of t heir compet ence. I n t his regard, t he large const ruct ion and
engineering frms, with their considerable capacity in equipment, technical know-how, manpower,
and fnancial muscle were well suited to repair and rebuild the physical infrastructure damaged by
the storm. These large frms, in close cooperation with the government authorities and village and
t ownship elders, gave priorit y t o t he renovat ion and rebuilding of hospit als and schools and t he
const ruct ion of relief camps. The Government provided const ruct ion mat erials including t imber, zinc
sheet s and nails eit her free of charge, or at heavily subsidized prices. Some const ruct ion mat erials
were also permit t ed t o be import ed from abroad free of t ax or dut y. These companies were also
t asked t o reconst ruct ent ire villages t o replace t hose t hat were complet ely swept away by t he
cyclone. Many villages have eit her been complet ed or are already in various st ages of complet ion in
t he Ayeyarwady Division. The t ot al value of t heir init ial input s and cont ribut ions of t hese companies
to date is USD 68.13 million.
16. For the next phase, the government intends to build more than 50,000 houses in various
villages t o replace t hose lost in t he cyclone. These would be durable houses superior in qualit y t o t hose
that were lost, with cement post shoes, zinc roofng, and wood. They would measure 16’ x 20’, self
standing in individual plots of land measuring 40’ x 60’. To ensure that cost are kept down, the State
will provide corrugated zinc sheets, roofng nails, nails, cement and other construction materials.
Many of these houses, which are of a uniform design and specifcation are already completed and
are available for donation at a low cost of Kyats 600,000 or USD 545.45 each. Provided there is good
support and cooperat ion from donors, t he government expect s t he const ruct ion of t hese houses t o
be complet ed wit hin a short t ime.
AGRICULTURE, IRRIGATION, LIVESTOCK AND FISHERIES
17. I n t he rehabilit at ion of t he cyclone devast at ed areas, t he Minist ry of Agricult ure and I rrigat ion
set t hree main st rat egies namely,
Timely provision of agricultural inputs; •
Repair and upgrading of damaged embankments; and •
I mproving paddy yields in areas, where feasible, t hrough applicat ion of int ensive agricult ural •
met hods and input s.
Wit h regards t o agricult ural input s, t imely provision of seeds and availabilit y of draught power and
equipment for land preparat ion are urgent ly needed in t he affect ed areas for July/ August plant ing
season. Bot h t he Government and t he privat e sect or have responded t o meet ing t his requirement .
Accordingly, t he government has t o dat e dist ribut ed 23, 205 met ric t ons of paddy seeds t o 7 t ownships
in t he Ayeyarwady Division, which is 71% of t he requirement . Similarly, 4, 024 met ric t ons which
met 88% of requirement have been distributed in 6 townships in Yangon Division. At the same time,
a privat e donor has cont ribut ed a furt her 5, 013 met ric t ons of paddy seeds wort h USD1. 25 million,
for distribution to farmers in the above divisions. As for draught power 6,708 power tillers were
41
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
provided by t he Government while 15 privat e donors have cont ribut ed 1, 489 power t illers wort h
USD2.08 million. Assisted by these efforts a total of 322,694 hectares of land have been prepared
for paddy cult ivat ion. Wit h regards t o embankment s, 34 which were near t he coast line and locat ed
in 6 townships of Ayeyarwady Division were damaged. Heavy machineries were deployed and to
dat e 42% of t he damage have been repaired. I n t he Yangon Division, all damaged embankment s
have been repaired. Tables showing dist ribut ion of paddy seeds, crop input s, land preparat ion and
progress of repairs t o embankment s in t he affect ed areas are annexed at 19a and 19b.
18. Farmers faced diffculties in land preparation due to loss of draught animals particularly
wat er buffaloes. Many of t hose t hat survived are incapacit at ed due t o ingest ion of salt wat er during
the foods and are unft for work. To assist farmers in the Ayeyarwady Division, 2,173 water buffaloes
were t ransferred from ot her regions of t he count ry at a cost of USD0. 59 million. St art ing from t he
t hird day aft er Nargis, vaccinat ion against foot and mout h and hemorrhagic sept icemia diseases
have been undert aken in Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions. The rest ocking of pig, chicken and duck
for backyard farming is also underway.
19. Fishing is bot h an import ant income generat ing act ivit y as well as a source of food for t he
rural people in t he Ayeyarwady delt a. Unfort unat ely, a very large proport ion of boat s and t rawlers
owned by the fshermen were lost in the storm and with it their livelihoods. The larger and more well-
to-do commercial fshing enterprises are expected to fund the replacement of their feets with credit
provided by the Government. As for the poorer fshermen with limited resources, the Government
intends to provide subsidies to purchase boats, nets, and fshing gear. Accordingly, 9500 fshing
boat s are present ly under const ruct ion for sale at heavily subsidized prices. They will be equipped
with a 3.5 Hp engines. The total cost of the 9,500 fshing boats plus the engines is USD3.45 million.
Similarly, arrangements are being made for 16,793 fshing nets of various types and sizes to be
distributed to the fshermen at a total cost of USD 3.23 million.
20. The national contribution towards the agriculture, livestock, and fshery sectors is USD16.16
million, made up of
Crop sub- sect or USD8. 89 millions •
Livest ock sub- sect or USD0. 59 millions •
Fishery sub-sector USD6.68 millions •
HEALTH AND NUTRITION
21. Medical Care. I mmediat ely aft er t he cyclone, healt h t eams accompanying t he Prime Minist er
visit ed Mawlamyinegyun, Pyapon and Bogale and provided emergency medical care. Severely
inj ured pat ient s were t ransferred t o specialist and t ert iary care hospit als in Yangon by milit ary
helicopt ers. At t he same t ime, t he Minist er of Healt h init iat ed a series of emergency response
act ions. Specialist t eams comprising of physicians, surgeons, t rauma specialist s, paediat ricians,
anest het ist s, psychiat rist s, eye specialist s, dent al surgeons, general medical doct ors and nurses
from general hospit als in groups of 20 were formed and sent t o t he disast er hit areas of Ayeyarwady
Division st art ing from 5 May 2008. Since t hen medical t eams, fully equipped wit h medicines and
supplies, were sent t o t he relief camps in rot at ion.
22. I n t he Ayeyarwady Division ( 12) front line relief camps were formed in Pyinkayaing,
Thingangyi, Saluseik, Theikpankonegyi, Pyinsalu, Hlaingphone, Polaung, Kwinpauk, Kyeinchaung,
Kyonedar, Setsan, and Kadonkani, (6) intermediate camps in Hainggyi, Labutta, Mawlamyaingkyun,
Bogale, Pyapon and Dedaye and ( 3) rear camps were formed in Myaungmya, Wakema and Maubin.
Up till 30 June six batches of specialist teams totaling (762) health personnel were sent to the storm
hit areas of Ayeyarwady Division which increased access t o medical care for cyclone hit vict ims.
Three bat ches of ( 297) house surgeons were also mobilized t o enhance t he coverage of medical care
services at cyclone hit areas.
23. In Yangon Division, since 6th May, specialist teams had been stationed at Kungyangon,
Kawhmu, Twant e and Kyaukt an t ownships for provision of medical care. Daily t rips for medical care
and healt h educat ion were accomplished by doct ors and nurses from medical universit ies, Universit y
42
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
of Public Healt h, Universit y of Nursing, Depart ment of Medical Research ( Lower Myanmar) , personnel
from Myanmar Medical Associat ion, Myanmar Nurses and Midwife Associat ion and Myanmar Healt h
Assist ant Associat ion. Public healt h measures were undert aken by t he Yangon Healt h Division.
24. Ment al Healt h. For management of ment al healt h disorders, ment al healt h care act ivit ies
were provided to patients in the camps by 6 teams of psychiatrists based at Myaungmya. They
provided individual and group counselling as well as curat ive services. Psychiat rist s were also sent
along with the mobile health teams stationed on foating hospitals.
25. Mobile Float ing Healt h Teams. The Minist ry of Transport made available four double decker
river boats to be used as mobile foating hospitals in the storm affected areas. Health teams
comprising doct ors from various specialt ies were st at ioned on t hese boat s t o provide medical care
for pat ient s living along t he sea coast , st reams and creeks in t he Ayeyarwady Delt a. The ships were
based at Pyapon, Bogale, Labut t a and Mawlamyaingkyun. Seven bat ches had already been deployed
t o st orm- hit areas where t hey have been giving curat ive services as well as disease cont rol and ot her
public healt h measures. Ment al healt h care was also t aken care of by psychiat rist s on board and
pat ient s t hat needed referral were referred t o t he base camp for furt her ment al healt h care.
26. Public Health Measures. Public health professionals together with health education personnel
and environment al sanit at ion engineers were sent t o t he relief camps and provided necessary
services. Healt h educat ion wit h emphasis on good personal hygiene, sanit ary habit s, consumpt ion of
safe drinking water, fy-proof latrines, use of insecticide treated bed-nets were given to the people in
t he disast er hit areas. Up t ill 30 June, 5 bat ches of public healt h professionals in group of ( 30s) had
been sent t o cyclone hit areas t o provide public healt h measures. I n addit ion ( 72) Healt h Assist ant s
were also mobilized t o front ier and middle camps for t wo weeks t o provide public healt h services.
27. Emphasis has been given on measures t o cont rol vect or- borne diseases as well as wat er-
borne diseases by daily surveillance, preparedness and response. I mmunizat ion part icularly wit h
polio vaccines for children up t o 5 years and measles vaccinat ion for children up t o 15 years have
been carried out in all t he camps. Vit amin A dist ribut ion, moral support , ment al healt h care and
surveillance of disease out break are also t aken care of at t he camps. As regards rest orat ion of
routine health care delivery services, National TB program offcers renewed efforts toward tracing
old cases to be able to continue treatment. In addition new case fndings have also been done at the
camps as well as at t he hospit als. Similarly, midwives at t he healt h cent ers are resuming t heir daily
ant e- nat al care services, delivery and post - nat al care services as well as immunizat ion act ivit ies.
Disease cont rol and surveillance act ivit ies were augment ed by t he WHO which had provided 12 cars
with Regional Surveillance Offcers.
28. Nutrition. Rapid assessment of the nutritional status among under-fve children was
accomplished by Nat ional Nut rit ion Cent re j oint ly wit h t he UNI CEF. Moderat e malnut rit ion rat e was
found to be 3.9% and 6.5% in Yangon and Ayeyarwady Divisions respectively. High potency vitamin
A was also provided to under- fve children in camps. Severe and moderate nutrition cases were
t reat ed by Plumpy nut s and BP 5 biscuit s. I n t he affect ed six t ownships basic healt h personnel were
t rained on management of malnut rit ion.
29. Traditional Medical Care. Traditional medicine services were provided since 6 May in both
Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions. Tradit ional medicine clinics were opened at st orm- hit areas. Since
11 June, a ship had been provided to offer traditional medicine services in far fung areas.
30. Provision of Medical Care by Medical Associat ions and Privat e Healt h Clinics. Healt h care
act ivit ies were also provided by local NGOs, such as Myanmar Medical Associat ion, Myanmar Nurses
and Midwife Associat ion and Myanmar Healt h Assist ant Associat ion. Healt h personnel from t he
privat e sect or also part icipat ed in provision of medical care as doct ors and nurses from t he Asia
Royal Privat e Clinic, Pun Hlaing Privat e Hospit al and Pinlon ( SSC) Privat e Clinic also provided medical
services in t he areas t hey were st at ioned in t he Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions. Healt h personnel
from t he Defense Medical Services also provided healt h care alongside wit h t he healt h personnel
from t he Minist ry of Healt h. Similarly, I nt ernat ional NGOs also provided healt h care services in t he
cyclone- hit regions.
31. Provision of Medical Care by I nt ernat ional Medical Teams. ASEAN and int ernat ional medical
t eams had responded t o Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar wit h solidarit y. Many st at es rapidly deployed
43
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
medical teams both bilaterally and as a regional outft, working hand-in-hand with teams from other
count ries. Up t ill 30 June medical t eams from Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, I ndonesia, Viet nam,
Philippines and Laos from t he ASEAN Member St at es and t eams from Japan, China, France, Korea,
I ndia, Bangladesh, Hungary and Sri Lanka had collaborat ed wit h t he Minist ry of Healt h in t reat ing
pat ient s in bot h Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions.
32. Logist ics. As regards logist ics, an adequat e amount of essent ial medicines and equipment
were provided t o t he cyclone- hit regions by t he Minist ry of Healt h cent ral logist ics and supply t eam
managing t he logist ics from t he Cent ral Medical St ore Depot as well as t hose donat ed by various
organizat ions bot h nat ional and int ernat ional. The medical t eams t hat visit ed t he cyclone- hit areas
were well- equipped wit h medicines including ant i- snake venom. For prevent ion and cont rol of vect or
borne diseases, fogging machines wit h insect icides were dist ribut ed t o t he cyclone- hit areas and
also insect icide impregnat ed bed- net s. For prevent ion and cont rol of diarrhea and dysent ery wat er
guard t ablet s and bleaching powder for chlorinat ion of wat er were dist ribut ed t o t hese areas. Good
sanit ary pract ice was observed part ly by building sanit ary lat rines and provision of healt h educat ion.
Safe delivery kit s were dist ribut ed t o cyclone- hit regions t o provide adequat e mat ernal care.
33. Laborat ory Services. The Nat ional Healt h Laborat ory has been t aking care of invest igat ions
of diseases and laboratory confrmation for prevention of communicable diseases at the cyclone-
hit areas. I n addit ion it has been t aking care of wat er qualit y t est ing and support of laborat ory
equipment t o t he hospit als at cyclone- hit regions. Capacit y building of laborat ory healt h workers has
also been provided.
34. Outcome. As a result of provision of effcient and continuous medical care by different
sources of medical t eams from t he Minist ry of Healt h as well as from ot her sources, healt h sit uat ion
of t he people in t he cyclone- hit regions is improving day by day wit hout any serious complicat ions.
As public healt h measures had been t aken t o prevent t he out break of diseases such as diarrhea,
dysent ery and dengue hemorrhagic fever t oget her wit h sanit ary measures t hat had been t aken at
emergency relief camps and cont inuous disease surveillance, t here were no out breaks of diseases
up t ill now.
35. Daily out pat ient s from hospit als and camps, in- pat ient s, diarrhea and referred cases at t he
Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions from (6-5-2008) to (30-6-2008). Medical treatment given by
traditional medicine professionals and foating hospitals' activities are shown in Annex 3a.
36. Financial Component. The fnancial cost to the Ministry of Health in taking the extraordinary
healt h care measures described above in response t o cyclone Nargis amount t o USD1. 19 million. A
det ailed breakdown is at Annex 19b.
TELECOMMUNICATION INFRASTRUCTURE
37. Most communicat ion links of Myanma Post s and Telecommunicat ions ( MPT) were damaged
and some telephone exchanges in the low-lying areas were inundated with food waters and
damaged. Most t elephone cable lines were cut off by fallen t rees and lamp post s. Alt oget her, in
Yangon Division alone, some 3,600 telephone posts broke and fell, downing and damaging some
466 kilometers of telephone cables and 14 kilometers of fber optic cables which were broken and
damaged. I nside Yangon Cit y, t hree t elephone exchanges in Mingaladon, Not rt h Oakalar, and Shwe
Paukkan were damaged and 92 sub- exchanges lost connect ion leaving only 25% of t he 157, 300
of t he aut o t elephone lines left in a serviceable condit ion. I nt ernat ional links via sat ellit e were cut
off when t he ant enna of t he microwave link bet ween ground st at ions lost it s balance and t ilt ed.
The same was true of the overhead and underground fber links, underwater cable systems, voice
and int ernet links among t he MPT sat ellit e t erminals and dat a communicat ion net works. Similarly
telecommunications by mobile phones stopped when 37 of the 56 GSM radio stations were cut off
and ant enna pole mount s failed and fell. Long dist ance communicat ion wit h and wit hin t he affect ed
area stopped as the various cable, microwave and fber-optic links failed following the storm. The
main t elecommunicat ion t owers at Dedaye, Pyabon, and Mawgyun all collapsed.
38. Repair work was carried out wit h t wo purposes - for emergency t elecommunicat ion, and
for enhancing qualit y for long t erm improvement in t elecommunicat ion sect or. I nt ensive work on
repairing t he downed infrast ruct ure commenced almost immediat ely aft er t he st orm has passed.
44
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
This involved clearing fallen t rees, renovat ing and const ruct ing buildings, repairing and replacing
fber-cable transmission lines. International direct dialing from the microwave link was restored
by May 4, 2008, and between Yangon and Ayeyarwady Division in stages between May 6 and May
13. By May 6, underwater cable systems were repaired and all IDD and internet connections came
back into service. The broken fber optic link between gateways was also repaired to enable voice
and int ernet services t o be resumed t hrough t he MPT sat ellit e syst em. Repair work on all GSM radio
st at ions was accomplished. Twent y- t hree main exchanges and 92 sub- exchanges of aut o t elephone
lines were repaired and are now being used. New CDMA 450 stations were opened enabling 3,662
CDMA phones t o be t o be put int o service which proved t o be vit al in t he ongoing emergency relief
and rehabilitation work. By June 26 , 100% of all repair work in the Ayeyarwady Division involving
erect ing new post s, mending t he t ilt ed post s, and replacing cables, was accomplished.
INLAND WATER TRANSPORTATION
40. I nland wat erways form t he main form of t ransport at ion of goods in t he Ayeyarwady Division
and t his is part icularly so for t he movement of relief supplies during t he emergency. All in all, t he
I nland Wat er Transport Corporat ion was called upon t o provide t hese services. For t he period from
May 4 to June 30, 2008 a total of 6,973.88 tons of relief supplies were transported to and through
various destinations in the Ayeyarwady Division costing a total of USD 143,368.
FORESTRY
41. I n t he relief st age but even more import ant ly, at t he st age of early recovery, availabilit y
of t imber are crucial for t he repairs and reconst ruct ion of houses in t ownships and villages and for
construction of fshing boats. The Government has called upon the various departments within the
Minist ry of Forest ry not only t o provide t he required t imber but t o do so at highly subsidized prices
so as t o alleviat e t he hardships already caused t o t he affect ed populat ion. I n t he 7 t ownships of
Ayeyarwady Division and 1 in Yangon Division, about 50, 000 economy houses are under const ruct ion.
To support t hat effort , t he Government has provided about 90, 000 cubic t ons of bot h round wood and
scantlings at a cost of about USD16.36 million. In addition, the Government has also provided about
5, 000 cubic t ons of sawn t imber for t he purpose of reconst ruct ion of infrast ruct ure and dwellings.
The act ual cost of product ion of t he t imber is Kyat s 222, 000 per t on but t he price act ually charged
was only Kyat s 40, 000 per t on, giving a t ot al subsidy valued at USD0. 82 million. Furt hermore 4, 000
t ons of t imber was provided for t he reconst ruct ion of schools, hospit als, and religious buildings.
Last ly, 9, 000 cubic t ons of round logs were provided t o t he Minist ry of Livest ock Breeding and
Fisheries specifcally for the purpose of constructing fshing boats. All in all, a total of some 101,903
cubic t ons of sawn t imber was provided at a special subsidized price of Kyat s 40, 000 per t on even
t hough, t he act ual product ion cost is Kyat s 222, 000 per t on. The t ot al value of t he Government ’s
subsidy in this sector is USD16.82 million. The Ministry of Forestry's itemized contribution for the
reconst ruct ion act ivit ies of cyclone damaged areas is at Annex 19- 4a and t he it emized cont ribut ion
for t he reconst ruct ion act ivit ies of cyclone damaged areas is at Annex 19- 4b.
EDUCATION
42. I nst it ut ions of learning ranging from primary schools t hrough t o higher educat ion inst it ut es
in t he st orm affect ed areas suffered considerable loss of life and propert y. A t ot al of 1, 778 primary
schools, 166 middle schools, 129 high schools and 163 university buildings and offce complexes
under t he Higher Educat ion Depart ment , were eit her t ot ally or part ially damaged. Roofs were blown
off over 2, 000 ot her schools. The Government has accorded priorit y t o t imely reopening of schools
and much effort was made t o achieve t his obj ect ive. Those schools t hat could be repaired have been
repaired eit her by t he Minist ry of Educat ion or wit h t he help of t he privat e const ruct ion companies.
Temporary school buildings were const ruct ed in many cases of bamboo and t hat ch, wit h t he aim
mainly t o get children back int o t he classrooms wit hout furt her delay. Clearly, t his is a t emporary
measure and neit her adequat e nor sat isfact ory in t he longer run. As such t here is an urgent need t o
reconst ruct permanent school buildings. The Government has t o dat e spent t he equivalent of USD
2. 15 million for school reconst ruct ion and will cont inue t o devot e effort s in t his regard.
45
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
ELECTRICITY
43. Comparat ively, damage t o elect ricit y generat ing facilit ies in bot h Ayeyarwady and Yangon
Divisions was slight . Damage t o generat ing set s in places like Hainggyikyun, and Labut t a were
repaired and put back int o operat ion wit hin a few days. The small gen- set at Pyinsalu however was
complet ely washed away by t he st orm surge and was lost j ust like t he rest of t he ent ire village.
Similarly, many generating units in a number of villages that were affected by the fooding have
suffered extensive loss or damage although there are no precise fgures. Most of the loss and
damage is in t he t ransmission and dist ribut ion area where in places like Mawlamyinegyun, Bogale,
Kyaiklat , Pyapon, and Dedaye t ownships, t here was ext ensive damage of up t o 82%. I n Yangon
Division, t here was considerable loss and damage t o bot h t ransmission and dist ribut ion lines, largely
caused by fallen t rees and st ruct ures.
44. The overall cost of t he repairs, recovery and rehabilit at ion wit hin t he elect ricit y sect or came
to USD9.68 million of which USD 5.67 was in respect of Yangon Division and USD 4 million in the
Ayeyarwady Division.
5.1.2. REgiOnAl AnD intERnAtiOnAl REspOnsE
I n addit ion t o t he t remendous nat ional response from Government , local communit ies,
monast eries, churches, local civil societ y groups, non- government organisat ions and t he privat e
sect or, t here was also a swift , sizeable and sust ained response from regional count ries and t he
int ernat ional communit y, delivered bot h bilat erally and mult ilat erally t hrough int ernat ional NGOs,
regional mechanisms and t he Unit ed Nat ions.
5.1.2.1. thE REgiOnAl REspOnsE
From t he out set , t he Associat ion of Sout heast Asian Nat ions ( ASEAN) t ook an act ive lead
in providing assist ance and coordinat ing t he int ernat ional response in collaborat ion wit h t he Unit ed
Nat ions and it s various agencies. ASEAN’s regional response was in line wit h t he spirit and purposes
of t he ASEAN Agreement on Disast er Management and Emergency Response, even t hough t he 2005
agreement had not yet ent ered int o force.
Table 1 capt ures a fract ion of t he regional response as recorded by t he ASEAN Secret ariat .
As it is t rue in any emergency sit uat ions, a lot more emergency asset s and commodit ies have been
deployed t hrough various ot her mechanisms.
An ASEAN Emergency Rapid Assessment Team ( ERAT) , coordinat ed by t he ASEAN Commit t ee
on Disast er Management , was dispat ched on 9 – 18 May 2008 t o assess crit ical needs in t he aft ermat h
of the cyclone. The ASEAN team comprised experts with specifc knowledge in coordination, water
and sanit at ion, healt h, logist ics and food. The Emergency Rapid Assessment Team was deployed t o
complement t he rapid assessment effort s by t he Unit ed Nat ions Disast er Assessment and coordinat ion
t eam and t he Government of t he Union of Myanmar.
thE AsEAn FOREign ministERs mEEting
The role of ASEAN in providing assist ance in t he aft ermat h of t he cyclone was agreed upon
by t he foreign minist ers of ASEAN, at t heir special meet ing in Singapore on 19 May 2008. Based on
recommendat ions from t he ASEAN Emergency Rapid Assessment Team, t he foreign minist ers agreed
t o est ablish an ASEAN- led coordinat ing mechanism t o facilit at e effect ive dist ribut ion and ut ilizat ion
of assist ance from t he int ernat ional communit y, including expedit ious and effect ive deployment of
relief workers, especially healt h and medical personnel.
To operat ionalise t his ASEAN- led approach, t he Foreign Minist ers set up t he ASEAN
Humanit arian Task Force for t he Vict ims of t he Cyclone Nargis ( AHTF) , headed by ASEAN Secret ary-
General Dr. Surin Pit suwan. The Task Force works closely wit h t he Unit ed Nat ions as well as t he
cent ral coordinat ing body set up by t he Myanmar Government .
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Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
thE plEDging cOnFEREncE
The ASEAN- Unit ed Nat ions I nt ernat ional Pledging Conference was held in Yangon on 25 May
2008, bringing t oget her delegat ions from 51 count ries, including ASEAN Member St at es, as well
as 24 Unit ed Nat ions agencies, t he World Bank, Asian Development Bank and non- government al
organisat ions. Myanmar Prime Minist er General Thien Sein, ASEAN Chair Mr. George Yeo from
Singapore and Unit ed Nat ions Secret ary- General Ban Ki- moon opened t he conference, which
concluded wit h unanimous agreement on t he need t o urgent ly scale up relief effort s t o ensure t hat
all t hose in need were reached quickly and wit h adequat e relief supplies. The Pledging Conference
also st ressed t he need and import ance of a credible assessment , which led t o t he commissioning of
t his Post - Nargis Joint Assessment . This report is t he out come of t his j oint assessment
AsEAn-lED mEchAnisms
For the purpose of a day-to-day effcient operation, ASEAN also set up a Yangon-based
“ Tripart it e Core Group” comprising nine represent at ives from t he Government of t he Union of
Myanmar, ASEAN and Unit ed Nat ions as a working mechanism for coordinat ing, facilit at ing, and
monitoring the fow of international assistance into the country. This report was commissioned by
the Tripartite Core Group. The frst two press releases of the TCG are included in Annex 20.
I n order t o assist t he Task Force in providing relevant t echnical expert ise and input s,
an Advisory Group t o t he ASEAN Humanit arian Task Force was est ablished. The Advisory Group
current ly consist s of represent at ives from t he neighbouring count ries of Myanmar ( i. e. China, I ndia
and Bangladesh) , Unit ed Nat ions, t he Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement , t he World Bank, t he
Asian Development Bank and int ernat ional non- government organisat ions.
To support t he ASEAN- led coordinat ing mechanism, ASEAN Secret ariat set up a Coordinat ing
Offce in Yangon to work closely with representatives of the Government of Myanmar and the United
Nat ions under t he Tripart it e Core Group and provide secret ariat support for t he ASEAN Humanit arian
Task Force.
The ASEAN- led coordinat ion mechanism is shown in Figure 7.
Fi gur e 7: ASEAN- l ed coor di nat i on mechani sm

ASEAN Humanitarian Task
Force for the Victims of
Cyclone Nargis
(Chaired by SG of ASEAN)
Myanmar
Central
Coordinating
Board (CCB)
Advisory Group
(UN and invited
IOs/ countries)
Tripartite Core Group (TCG)
(Yangon-based, chaired by Myanmar)
• Representatives of Govt of Myanmar
• Representatives of ASEAN
• Representatives of UN
ASEAN ASEAN- -LED COORDI NATI NG MECHANI SM LED COORDI NATI NG MECHANI SM
47
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
thE AsEAn ROunDtAblE
On 24 June, an ASEAN roundt able was held in Yangon, bringing t oget her t he ASEAN
Humanit arian Task Force and Tripart it e Core Group members, Government of Myanmar, pot ent ial
donors and humanit arian and development part ners, t o review progress made since t he May pledging
conference, and present initial fndings of the Post-Nargis Joint Assessment.
Tabl e 13: ASEAN Member St at es' Assi st ance t o Cy cl one Nar gi s ( as of 11 Jul y 2008)
Count r y Fi nanci al Ai ds Rel i ef and Ot her Ai ds Rel i ef Teams Rapi d
Assessment
B / R
Brunei
Darussalam
USD 1, 100, 000 Wat er, foods, emg
shelt er, medicines
12 pax medical t eam,
SAR, logist ics t eams on
st andby
1 pax for ERAT B &
R
Cambodia USD 300, 000 B
I ndonesia USD1, 000, 000 25 MT relief aids in 2
planes
29- pax medical t eam 3 pax for ERAT B &
R
Lao PDR USD 120, 000 2. 5 MT food aid 1. 3 MT
clot hing, drinking wat er
23- pax medical t eam B
Malaysia USD1, 000, 000 13 MT relief goods in
t wo planes wort h MYR
500, 000
25- pax medical t eam

2 pax for ERAT B &
R
Philippines USD 359, 000 13 MT drinking wat er,
and relief aids
30- pax medical t eam 1 UNDAC
4 pax for ERAT
B &
R
Singapore USD 3, 293, 470
relief package as
of 23 May 08
USD 5 million
pledge
SAR equipment ,
infocomms t echnology,
base camp supplies,
medicals and vehicles
Airport ground handling
equipment
23- pax Medical “ Team
Singapore”
2 UNDAC

2 pax for ERAT
B &
R
Thailand USD800, 000 USD 15.26M worth of
food and non- food relief
it ems and equipment s
in 26 fights. Pledge
includes st aging area at
Don Muang Cargo, and
post - immediat e relief
2 medical t eams
30 pax
and 32 pax
4 pax B &
R
Viet Nam USD 200, 000
( t hrough t he UN)
Viet Nam
Red Cross:
USD170, 000
Medical t eam 15 pax B
Note B: through bilateral mechanism; B & R: through bilateral supported by regional mechanism
REgiOnAl implicAtiOns OF cyclOnE nARgis
Cyclone Nargis happened in t he eve of t he ASEAN Chart er, a crit ical j unct ure of t his region
coming of age wit h regard t o int egrat ion. I n t he background is t he ASEAN Agreement on Disast er
Management and Emergency Response ( AADMER) , a cornerst one of t he region’s int egrat ion in t he
feld of disaster management. The agreement was signed soon after the Indian Ocean Tsunami and
has strong favor of the Hyogo Framework for Action, although it was conceptualized and negotiated
by and in t he ASEAN Commit t ee on Disast er Management far before t hose event s. This inst rument ,
which Myanmar has ratifed, is a progressive regional instrument comprising complete elements
of regional cooperat ion in disast er risk reduct ion, preparedness, response and recovery wit h rich
reference t o ASEAN’s own long t radit ions in relief – orient ed cooperat ion, Unit ed Nat ions’ inst rument s,
as well as t he I nt ernat ional Disast er Response Laws and Regulat ions ( I DRL) .
The AADMER has several associat ed apparat uses t hat are const ant ly evolving and are at
varying levels of mat urit y. These include t he ASEAN Commit t ee on Disast er Management ( ACDM) ,
St andby Arrangement s and St andard Operat ing Procedures ( SASOP) , ASEAN Regional Programme
on Disast er Management ( ARPDM) , ASEAN Regional Disast er Emergency Response Simulat ion
48
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
Exercise ( ARDEX) , ASEAN Disast er Management and Emergency Relief Fund, and at t he core t he
ASEAN Coordinat ing Cent re for Humanit arian Assist ance on disast er management ( AHA Cent re) .
I n addit ion, t here are host s of ot her relevant regional frameworks including t he disast er relief
cooperat ion component of t he ASEAN Regional Forum, t he ASEAN cooperat ion on land and forest
fre and transboundary haze pollution.
Some of t he regional implicat ions of t he response mechanism t o Cyclone Nargis are:
Operat ionalising t he regional cooperat ion mechanism for disast er response: This operat ion
ut ilised t he st eps and phases st ipulat ed in t he SASOP, st art ing wit h a deployment of an emergency
rapid assessment team that triggered a policy decision at ministerial level, forming of a specifc task
force, mounting of international conference, forming of the Tripartite Core Group as a feld level
convergence policy making body, conduct ing j oint assessment , planning for implement at ion and
monit oring. Throughout t he course of t he operat ion, ASEAN relies on it s regional inst rument s while
it adopt s innovat ive measures and adj ust s t o t he fast - changing environment . Through conscious
and t horough document at ion, ASEAN is feeding back t he experience int o t he regional cooperat ion
mechanisms for disast er response. Fut ure performance of ASEAN and t he region will most likely be
guided by t his precedent .
Refning of ASEAN Roles in humanitarian practices: As ASEAN is becoming more conversant in
applying t he provisions of it s regional inst rument in disast er management and emergency response,
it will also develop confdence in actively engaging in humanitarian discourse and practices in the
sub- region. The ASEAN values and framework, it s mat uring int egrat ion, and int ernat ional roles will
provide st rat egic infusion of a unique role in humanit arian t heat re. As such, t he unique experience
from Nargis will shape t he humanit arian set up in t he sub- region. ASEAN will maint ain it s polit ical
non- implement at ion nat ure.
This bodes well for fut ure j oint init iat ives t hat aim t o bring t oget her different int erest s and
st rengt hs, and serves as a model for regional communit y- building in t he area of disast er management
and emergency response. Regional mechanisms t hat have not yet been brought t o bear – such as
the ARF search, rescue and disaster-related work, and the scope of the ACDM itself – can fnd a new
rat ionale for more collaborat ive work.
5.1.2.2. thE intERnAtiOnAl REspOnsE
The humanit arian response in t he wake of Cyclone Nargis init iat ed t hrough t he Unit ed
Nations, including in the fash appeal launched on 9 May, was organized into 11 thematic clusters.
The relief delivered t hrough t hese clust ers is summarized below.
49
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
Tabl e 14: Rel i ef pr i or i t i es and act i v i t i es by t he 11 cl ust er s
Agr i cul t ur e and
Ear l y Recov er y
A j oint FAO- Government needs assessment highlight ed t he complex logist ics involved •
in dist ribut ing agricult ural input s, as well as t he urgent need for procurement of local
and high yielding paddy rice seeds, fert iliser, power t illers, diesel, draught animals and
animal vaccines.
Dist ribut ion of t hese input s t o 40, 900 farming households is underway in 11 of t he •
most affect ed t ownships of t he t wo Divisions of Yangon and Ayeyarwady.
While it is unlikely that produce will be suffcient for all affected populations, efforts are •
being direct ed t owards not losing t he full plant ing season. Alt ernat ive crop st rat egies
have been identifed to mitigate the negative impact of the cyclone on the planting
season.
Quick impact proj ect s focusing on immediat e clean- up and debris removal and t he •
rest orat ion of communit y infrast ruct ure, are facilit at ing access for delivery of urgent ly
needed assist ance while support ing families and communit ies in rebuilding t heir
lives.
By t he end of June, a basic services package had provided early recovery support •
to 250 villages, reaching an estimated population of 113,000; such support can be
quickly expanded under t he Revised Appeal.
An early recovery net work has been set up for int er- clust er coordinat ion, and t hemat ic •
working groups are addressing areas not covered by ot her clust ers.
Other observations/fndings
The frst response in many of the cyclone-affected areas was carried out by the •
communit ies t hemselves, wit h an import ant role played by monast eries, churches,
local civil societ y groups and NGOs. Valuable support has also been provided by t he
Government of Myanmar and t he privat e sect or.
Preparat ion of t he land for t he up- coming rice plant ing season, which needs t o t ake •
place before t he end of July, has been hampered by lack of draught animals ( e. g.
buffalo) .
Educat i on I n Yangon ( 11 t ownships)
46 temporary schools set up benefting 7,248 children and 280 teachers. •
Essential learning packages (exercise books, pencils, erasers, etc) provided to 52,610 •
children.
435 Schools-in-a-Box and 459 Recreation Kits distributed benefting 34,800 children. •
Repairs of 440 primary school roofs (government, monastic and affliated) initiated •
using 16,271 roofng sheets.
I n Ayeyarwady ( t en t ownships)
Essential learning packages provided for 59,600 children in six townships (including •
Labut t a, Bogale, Mawlamyinegyun, Pyapon) .
367 Schools-in-a-Box and 317 Recreation Kits distributed benefting 29,360 children. •
824 primary school roofs repaired with 29,354 roofng sheets and tarpaulins. •
123 tents provided to Labutta and Bogale Townships; of which 48 set up to provide •
t emporary learning spaces.
Tarpaulins provided to 18 affliated and monastic schools in Wakema Township. •
One informal school in a camp in Labut t a set up by recruit ing high school st udent s in •
t he camp t o t each younger st udent s at primary and middle school level.
Food As of 3 July, a t ot al of 18, 703 met ric t onnes ( MTs) of food assist ance has been delivered •
to the affected areas, of which 14,564 MTs has been distributed.
The Food Cluster has now reached a total of approximately 733,490 benefciaries with •
food and cash assistance: 684,000 in the Ayeyarwady Division (food) and a further
49, 490 in t he Yangon Division ( cash t ransfer) .
12 cooperat ing part ners working around t he clock wit h WFP t o ensure out reach t o •
previously unreachable areas for food dist ribut ion
Heal t h Disease surveillance: no out breaks report ed. •
Nut r i t i on More t han 200 t onnes of ready- t o- use t herapeut ic food ( RTF) has been dist ribut ed by •
UNI CEF t o part ners who have already st art ed supplement ary and t herapeut ic feeding
programmes in the feld.
Exist ing St at e and Divisional Nut rit ional Teams and local NGOs are fully involved in •
micronutrient supplementation and identifcation/management of acute malnutrition
t hrough t he vast exist ing net work of midwives and rural healt h sub- cent res.
The Minist ry of Healt h ( MoH) in collaborat ion wit h UNI CEF has been able t o est ablish •
four hospit al t herapeut ic feeding unit s in affect ed areas and dozens of workers are
t rained in t arget ed feeding.
Staffng, training and initial assessments have enabled delivery systems to be in line •
wit h nat ional guidelines on micronut rient supplement at ion, t o avoid duplicat ion, and
t o ensure t hat all of t he most vulnerable are reached.
50
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
Pr ot ect i on of
Woman and
Chi l dr en
Prot ect ion assessment carried out j oint ly by clust er members and informat ion •
syst emat ically shared wit h key part ners regarding child regist rat ion, int erim care,
family tracing and reunifcation. Some key data includes:
The mortality rate of women between the ages of 18 to 60 years was Ö
twice that of men in the same age range;
At least 22% of t he affect ed populat ion suffer from post - cyclone Ö
psychosocial distress;
Only 12% of t he affect ed populat ion report ed availabilit y of child care Ö
services ( including day care, schools and orphanages) .
Sub- clust ers act ivat ed in affect ed areas t o coordinat e and support communit y- based •
prot ect ion net works.
Technical support provided t o t he development of a Nat ional Plan of Act ion for Child •
Prot ect ion in Emergencies by t he Depart ment for Social Welfare
132 child friendly spaces ( CFS) funct ioning, and includes t he provision of psychosocial •
support t o children.
30, 000 Dignit y Kit s, 398 early childhood development kit s and 1, 519 child prot ect ion •
kit s have been dist ribut ed t o vulnerable women and children.
UNFPA also dist ribut ed emergency reproduct ive healt h kit s and supplies t o provide •
care t o approximat ely 450, 000 people in affect ed areas
Shel t er As of 30 June, t he humanit arian communit y has provided some form of emergency •
shelt er assist ance t o over 195, 000 cyclone- affect ed households living in 11 t ownships
in Ayeyarwady Division and 29 t ownships in Yangon Division. To dat e, t he following
has been provided;
390,000 plastic sheets/tarpaulins (4mx6m sheets, two per household); •
19,000 community tool kits (one kit per fve families); •
7, 000 household relief kit s ( t wo blanket s, t wo mosquit o net s, wat er cont ainer, cooking •
set s and sanit ary mat erials per household) .
WASH 800, 000 lit res of wat er supplied t o 250, 000 persons per day t hrough 29 wat er •
t reat ment plant s.
Nearly 250 ponds rehabilit at ed. •
I n spit e of poor living condit ions in camps, and cont aminat ion of wat er sources in t he •
villages, t here has been no alarming increase in incidence of diarrhoea as per WHO
disease surveillance report s.
Common
Suppor t
Ser v i ces
Coor di nat i on Overall coordinat ion st ruct ures st rengt hened at Yangon level aft er t he cyclone t o •
support planning, fundraising, and delivery.
Common humanit arian act ion plans developed t hrough t he clust er approach, and are •
monit ored t hrough t he I ASC count ry t eam.
I nit ially a Unit ed Nat ions disast er assessment and coordinat ion t eam was deployed •
for t his support . This was replaced by an OCHA t eam t o provide support t o t he HC’s
Offce.
Sit uat ion report s det ailing t he current sit uat ion and response effort s at t he nat ional •
and int ernat ional levels have been compiled and disseminat ed regularly.
The Myanmar I nformat ion Management Unit provides an updat ed range of product s •
including maps, dat abases and cont act direct ories.
An early recovery net work has been set up for int er- clust er coordinat ion, while •
complement ary t hemat ic working groups are addressing early recovery areas t hat are
not covered by other clusters (non-agricultural livelihoods; social recovery; community
infrastructure; environment; and disaster risk reduction).
As early recovery effort s gain moment um over relief needs, OCHA support t o t he •
Offce of the UN Humanitarian Coordinator will be handed over to the Offce of the UN
Resident Coordinat or/ Humanit arian Coordinat or.
Emer gency
Tel ecommuni -
cat i ons
Emergency Dat a communicat ion support was provided in Yangon, Laput t a and Bogale, •
Pyapon, Mawlamyingyun and Pat hein, allowing UN agencies, NGOS and Government
t o bet t er coordinat e assessment , rescue and relief operat ions in t he Ayeyarwady
Division and t he Yangon valley.
51
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
Logi st i cs Five logist ics hubs ( Labut t a, Mawlamyingyun, Pat hein, Pyapon, Bogale) est ablished in •
the affected areas;
7,645 MTs cargo dispatched into Myanmar by the Logistics Cluster; •
Tot al est imat ed number of relief aircraft s which delivered supplies t o dat e: 528, •
including:
Donor (Government) fights: 260, including 185 USAID fights, 22 DFID Ö
fights, 19 Thai fights;
UN Flights: 89 including 39 WFP fights; Ö
NGO Flights: 89; Ö
I FRC Flight s: 79. Ö
Web- based logist ics informat ion service est ablished. •
Warehouse facilit ies were also set up in Yangon, from where relief goods were dist ribut ed •
using t en helicopt ers, 33 t rucks and seven boat s/ barges. 89 remot e locat ions have
been reached through 466 rotations of ten helicopters.
The feld hubs allocated warehouse space to all interested UN agencies and NGOs and •
organised supply delivery t o t arget ed locat ions
As t he immediat e relief operat ions scale down, t he logist ics clust er will phase out by •
helping agencies t o prepare t heir own t ransport arrangement s as of August .
52
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
sEctiOn 6. DisAstER Risk mAnAgEmEnt
6.1. institutiOnAl ARRAngEmEnts
The Government of Myanmar has est ablished inst it ut ional arrangement s for dealing wit h
disast ers. The nat ional level Nat ural Disast er Preparedness Cent ral Commit t ee ( NDPCC) , chaired
by t he Prime Minist er, formulat es policy and provides guidance on disast er preparedness. Similarly,
t he Chairmen of t he St at e/ Division/ Township Peace and Development Councils also head Disast er
Preparedness Commit t ees at various levels. Emergency response funct ions are primarily assigned
t o t he Fire Services depart ment under t he Minist ry of Social Welfare, Relief and Reset t lement .
I n addit ion, t he Depart ment for Met eorology and Hydrology ( DMH) is responsible for disast er
forecast ing and early warning disseminat ion, and is current ly leading several new init iat ives in t he
area of disaster risk identifcation, assessment and monitoring. Other major partners for disaster
risk management include t he Myanmar Red Cross Societ y, t he Depart ment s of Heat h, I rrigat ion and
General Administ rat ion, as well as t he police and armed forces.
6.2. REgiOnAl pARtnERships FOR DisAstER Risk mAnAgEmEnt
The ASEAN Agreement on Disast er Management and Emergency Response ( AADMER) was
signed by member count ries in 2005 and provides mechanisms t o achieve a subst ant ial reduct ion
of disast er losses in t he lives and social, economic and environment al asset s of member count ries.
AADMER also provides for cooperat ion and collaborat ion among ASEAN Member St at es in areas
of common concern along t he priorit ies of act ion. The ASEAN Regional Programme on Disast er
Management ( ARPDM) being implement ed by t he ASEAN Commit t ee on Disast er Management
( ACDM) also provides a framework for promot ing regional cooperat ion and out lines ASEAN’s regional
st rat egy, priorit y areas and act ivit ies for DRR for t he 2004- 10 period.
6.3. immEDiAtE AnD shORt tERm nEEDs
Communit y- based disast er preparedness and enhancing risk awareness: There is an
opport unit y t o use communit y- based organizat ions t o enhance disast er preparedness at t he village
level, including t hrough t he format ion of village disast er preparedness commit t ees and of specialized
disaster management teams on various aspects of disaster preparedness (search and rescue, frst
aid, evacuation, etc.); community-based risk assessment, including mapping of past disasters and
their impacts; and identifcation of priority interventions at the community level. These actions will
not necessarily reduce fut ure disast er risks but can enhance communit y preparedness t o respond t o
disast ers and minimize t he loss of lives and livelihoods.
St rengt hening local level element s of early warning syst ems: Cyclone Nargis has exposed
weaknesses in early warning syst ems. Under t he leadership of t he government , and in cooperat ion
wit h regional and int ernat ional agencies, an end- t o- end review of t he early warning syst ems is
current ly underway. St rengt hening of early warning syst ems will require a comprehensive effort . The
effort s t o generat e improved forecast s and warning need t o be mat ched wit h effect ive communicat ion
syst ems, public awareness and social infrast ruct ure at t he communit y level so t hat t he warnings can
be act ed on.
I nt roducing disast er risk reduct ion in reconst ruct ion and recovery effort s The rebuilding
of permanent shelt ers is an opport unit y t o “ build back bet t er,” including t hrough t he use of locally
appropriat e const ruct ion t echnologies, t raining of building art isans, and manuals on const ruct ion
t echnologies. There is a need t o init iat e t he process of set t ing design and safet y guidelines for t he
housing sect or, as well as for set t lement planning, infrast ruct ure, healt h and educat ion facilit ies,
wat er and sanit at ion, and livelihoods.
53
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
6.4. mEDium tERm nEEDs
I n t he short and medium t erm, a comprehensive mult i- hazard risk assessment should be carried
out , t o guide t he reconst ruct ion process as well as fut ure development . This could be accompanied
by an assessment of t he exist ing early warning syst em t o clarify roles and responsibilit ies, and a
st rengt hening of inst it ut ional and legislat ive arrangement s for disast er risk management syst ems,
including st rengt hening local level disast er preparedness and response syst ems t o increase capacit y
t o manage risks.
Fost ering nat ional public- privat e part nerships would cont ribut e t o a holist ic approach t owards
DRR, and t he creat ion and st rengt hening of nat ional int egrat ed disast er risk reduct ion mechanisms.
Finally, exploring t he development of micro- insurance mechanisms could serve t o guard against
nat ural hazards for small farmers as well as small and micro ent erprises, while t he const ruct ion of
mult i- purpose evacuat ion shelt ers would provide physical safet y.
54
Po s t - Na r g i s Jo i n t As s e s s m e n t
AnnEx 1: thE villAgE tRAct AssEssmEnt mEthODOlOgy
ObjEctivEs OF thE AssEssmEnt
I n t he immediat e aft ermat h of Cyclone Nargis, local aut horit ies, UN Agencies, int ernat ional
non- government al organisat ions ( I NGOs) and communit y based organisat ions ( CBOs) made various
rapid assessment s of t he sit uat ion. These assessment s
1
guided t he very early humanit arian response.
However, t hese assessment s were neit her consist ent in t heir cont ent nor comprehensive in t heir
geographical coverage, and this resulted in signifcant knowledge gaps.
The Village Tract Assessment was t hus designed as a single assessment t hat would ident ify
the vulnerabilities and capacities in the areas worst affected by the cyclone. Specifcally, the
assessment identifes relief and early recovery priorities for intervention in the immediate future,
by collect ing informat ion on a range of sect ors/ clust ers and in a number of communit ies across t he
affect ed areas. The assessment will also support fut ure needs for monit oring and evaluat ion by
providing a baseline on a range of issues.
AssEssmEnt pRinciplEs AnD pROcEDuREs
The assessment focuses on “affected” areas. The defnition of ‘affected’ used to select
t he t ownships is t he loss of life and/ or propert y t hat has an impact on an individual’s, family’s or
communit y’s livelihood, wit hout any considerat ion for t heir abilit y t o cope wit h t he damage and
dest ruct ion. The 30 t ownships assessed by t he VTA are dist inct from t he 57 Townships included
in t he DaLA, in t hat t he Townships select ed for t he VTA had populat ions requiring humanit arian
assist ance according previous assessment s
2
.
The grid- based sampling frame endeavours t o select communit ies of an even spat ial
dist ribut ion, whilst t he assessment inst rument s ensure t he gaps from previous assessment s
3
.
Communit ies were assessed using a household survey and various part icipat ory approach t ools,
including t ransect walks, key informant int erviews and focus group discussions.
The assessment uses t he cent ric syst emat ic area sample ( CSAS) met hod t o ident ify Probabilit y
Sampling Unit s ( PSU) . The met hod involves dividing t he assessment area int o non- overlapping
squares ( quadrant s) of equal area ( 15km by 15km) and assessing t he communit y or communit ies
locat ed closest t o t he cent re of each quadrat . GI S is used in combinat ion wit h sket ch maps.
Map 1 illust rat es t he sampling met hod. The map displays a select ion of t he sampled area as
an example of how t o select communit ies. Two lines were drawn from corner t o corner of each grid,
as shown in t he zoomed squares wit h a dot t ed lines t o locat e t he communit y closest t o t he cent re.
Map 2 present s t he locat ion of t he communit ies which were visit ed by t he assessment t eams.
The number of communit ies sampled from each quadrant was primarily det ermined
st at ist ically: it represent ed 5% of all villages in t he quadrant as well as being feasible t o assess in a
single day. The number varied bet ween quadrant s.
1 Myanmar I nformat ion Management Unit ( MI MU) ( 2008) . Summary of Preliminary Assessment s of Areas Affect ed by Cyclone
Nargis, submit t ed t o MI MU bet ween 3 and 30 May 2008. 11 June 2008.
2 MI MU ( 2008) , op. cit .
3 MI MU ( 2008) , op. cit .
An n e x 1 : Th e Vi l l a g e Tr a ct As s e s s m e n t Me t h o d o l o g y
55
Map 1: Gr i d appl i ed t o sampl e v i l l ages

Source: VTA survey
Map 2: Popul at i on densi t y as r epor t ed by t he VTA

Source: VTA survey
The VTA collects primary information specifcally from various sources at village level. Key
informants, people representing an opinion or view on behalf of a community, were identifed as
An n e x 1 : Th e Vi l l a g e Tr a ct As s e s s m e n t Me t h o d o l o g y
56
religious leaders, a t eacher or head t eacher, healt h worker for t he communit y, village leader, a
farmer and agricult uralist .
The assessment t ool combined key quest ions from nine clust ers: Healt h, Food and Nut rit ion,
Prot ect ion of Women and Children, Wat er and Sanit at ion, Agricult ure, Early Recovery, Temporary
Set t lement s, Educat ion, and Emergency Shelt er. The quest ionnaires underwent t ranslat ion and back-
t ranslat ion by independent t ranslat ors t wice and evaluat ed in t he Pilot survey.
The quest ionnaires used for each village visit comprised of 10 Household survey int erviews,
6 Key Informant interviews, 3 Focus Group Discussions, and 1 Observation checklist. Teams of
enumerat ors visit ed 291 villages across 30 t ownships over a t en- day period in early June 2008.
The Myanmar aut horit ies provided full cooperat ion, and no rest rict ions were placed on access
t o any locat ion. Sub- nat ional cent res, referred t o as Hubs in t his document , were creat ed in t he
Affect ed Area by t he Unit ed Nat ions t o assist in operat ional act ivit ies responding t o t he devast at ion
left by Cyclone Nargis. The Hubs, locat ed in Bogale, Labut t a, Pat hein, Pyapon, Wakema, and Yangon
were used by t he Village Tract Assessment ( VTA) t eams t o implement t he assessment . These Hubs
are represent ed by t he red st ar symbol on Map 1 in t he main report . Ten villages were unable t o be
assessed due t o logist ical reasons
stREngths OF thE AssEssmEnt mEthOD
The quadrat sampling met hod allowed sampling of villages wit hout having t heir populat ion
fgures. The sampling method guarantees even spatial coverage of the sample with small and large
communit ies equally likely t o be included in t he sample, whereas met hods such as PPS would have
concent rat ed sampling on t he most populous communit ies and areas. The even spat ial sample
allows reasonably det ailed maps of prevalence t o be made. Ot her met hods would have produced a
single wide- area est imat e or allow only for coarse mapping.
The mult i- disciplinary nat ure of t he survey ( i. e., quant it at ive, qualit at ive, and direct
observat ions) provided a rish dat aset and allowed dat a from different source and met hods t o be
( part ially) validat ed against each ot her. The effort was also inclusive. I t provides a springboard for
furt her in- dept h invest igat ions t hat may follow as well as a baseline of informat ion against which
t o monit or recovery. Finally, it provides a far more subst ant ial basis for monit oring t han has been
available in many disast er recovery effort s in t he past .
limitAtiOns OF thE AssEssmEnt
The sample selection for households within each village was diffcult to standardize. Some
villages are so spread out t hat randomizat ion was impract ical. Part s of some villages could not be
reached because bridges had been washed out . I n large villages, a proximit y sample cent ered on a
single random locat ion were assessed. I n smaller villages, syst emat ic sampling were used.
Somet imes quest ions had t o be re- phrased or expanded wit h examples for villagers t o
underst and t hem. Some women were reluct ant t o respond direct ly t o male enumerat ors, in which
case relat ives were recruit ed t o assist . Some were reluct ant t o answer cert ain quest ions. At t imes,
observers had diffculties identifying destroyed houses when foundations had been entirely washed
away. These variations may have introduced some biases which are diffcult or impossible to correct
in t he analysis. Such biases are not unique t o t his t ype of assessment .
The lack of dat a on some key areas, namely a short age of dat a on household populat ion, has
restricted the ability to confdently make statistical inferences. Finally, the administrative boundaries
on maps of Myanmar are inaccurat e, making it impossible t o provide Township est imat es of affect ed
population and other fndings other than proportions.
DAtA pROcEss AnD REsults
Procedures were followed t o ensure t he dat a was not int erfered wit h in t ransit from village
An n e x 1 : Th e Vi l l a g e Tr a ct As s e s s m e n t Me t h o d o l o g y
57
t o Hub and onwards t o dat a headquart ers. The original document s were phot ocopied t wice. Dat a
entry started as soon as a suffcient number of data had been collected. Data was entered twice and
merged t o limit t he dat a- ent ry errors. Differences bet ween t wo ent ries were checked by referring t o
t he original dat a sheet .
Result s on quest ions t o Key I nformant s, Focus Groups, and Observat ion Checklist s are
reported as non-weighted proportions of affected villages. In the case of Household Surveys, fndings
are weight ed based on t he populat ion est imat es provided by t he int erview wit h t he Village Leader.
There was a rigorous procedure t o check t he accuracy of each village locat ion by comparing GPS
coordinat es, quadrant record and numerous ot her locat ion sources.
Interpretation of the fndings was done by statisticians in close collaboration with Myanmar
expert s who are familiar wit h t he Delt a Region and specialist s from t he clust ers.
An n e x 1 : Th e Vi l l a g e Tr a ct As s e s s m e n t Me t h o d o l o g y
58
AnnEx 2: thE DAmAgE AnD lOss AssEssmEnt mEthODOlOgy
The damage and loss assessment ( DaLA) met hodology was developed originally by t he Unit ed
Nat ions Economic Commission for Lat in America and t he Caribbean ( ECLAC) in t he early 1970s.
1

This met hodology has been cont inuously expanded and updat ed over t he past t hree decades, and
in recent years has been simplifed and customized for application in different regions of the world.
I t has been applied by t he World Bank and ot her int ernat ional organizat ions in numerous cases of
recent disast ers, and provides a sat isfact ory framework t o ident ify and quant ify t he socio- economic
and environment al impact of disast ers.
cOncEptuAl FRAmEWORk
The DaLA met hodology is based on t he ut ilizat ion of t he syst em of nat ional account s of t he
affect ed count ry as a means for valuat ion of t he damage and t he losses caused by t he disast er. I n
t he simplest t erms, t he DaLA met hodology provides for t he est imat ion of t he dest ruct ion of asset s
caused by the natural event that caused the disaster, the changes in the fows of the economy
caused by the temporary absence of the destroyed assets, and the modifcations in the performance
of t he affect ed economy. I n addit ion, it also provides t he basis for assessing t he negat ive impact on
personal or household income and overall well being.
Damage is defned as the monetary value of fully or partially destroyed assets. It is initially
assumed t hat asset s will be replaced t o t he same condit ion – in quant it y and qualit y – t hat t hey had
prior t o t he disast er.
Losses are defned as the changes in the fows of goods and services that will not be
fort hcoming unt il t he dest royed asset s are rebuilt , over t he span of t ime t hat elapses from t he
occurrence of t he disast er and t he end of t he recovery period. Losses include product ion of goods
and services that will not be obtained; higher costs of operation and production, and the cost of the
humanit arian assist ance act ivit ies.
tOtAl DisAstER EFFEcts ARE thE sum OF DAmAgE AnD lOssEs
Macro-economic effects are defned as the manner in which the disaster modifes the
performance of t he main macro- economic aggregat es in t he affect ed count ry or region. These
effect s arise from t he damage and losses caused by t he disast er. Macro- economic effect s represent
a different view of disast er impact – as t hey describe t he effect s of t he disast er on t he funct ioning
of t he economy and t he result ing macro- economic imbalances – and are t herefore not added t o t he
sum of damage and losses t o avoid double account ing.
Main macro- economic effect s include t he impact on t he level and growt h of t he gross domest ic
product of the country or region affected by the disaster; the modifcation of the normal pattern and
st ruct ure of t he balance of t rade due t o increased import s and lower export s of goods and services
arising from the disaster; and the corresponding impact on the fscal sector that may occur due to
lower revenues and higher expendit ures of t he government .
The post - disast er macro- economic analysis also includes an examinat ion of t he impact on
gross invest ment t o t ake int o considerat ion t he invest ment s t o be made during t he recovery, t he
examination of possible infation stemming from the effects of the disaster, and negative impacts on
employment and income at t he personal and household or family level.
ObjEctivEs OF thE AssEssmEnt
The assessment of damage and losses aft er disast ers is essent ial for t he est imat ion of
fnancial needs for recovery. Priorities are defned in terms of the most affected sectors of the
economy, geographical areas of t he count ry and populat ion groups t o be at t ended during recovery.
1 Economic Commission for Lat in America and t he Caribbean ( 2003) . Handbook for Est imat ing t he Socio- Economic and
Environment al I mpact of Disast ers, ECLAC, Unit ed Nat ions, second version.
An n e x 2 : Th e Da m a g e a n d Lo s s As s e s s m e n t Me t h o d o l o g y
59
Furt hermore, t he assessment of damage and losses provides a quant it at ive basis t o monit or progress
in t he execut ion of post - disast er programmes.
AssEssmEnt pRinciplEs AnD pROcEDuREs
The DaLA relies on t he est imat ion of disast er effect s in each and all sect ors of t he affect ed
economy. Once all sect ors have been assessed in t erms of damage and losses, t he result s are
aggregat ed t o obt ain t he t ot al amount of disast er effect s ensuring t hat no double account ing and/
or gaps exist .
The above enables t he analysis of t he impact of damage and losses on t he funct ioning of
t he affect ed economy, using t he forecast ed performance for t he current year—and in some cases for
several subsequent years—if t he disast er had not occurred. I n addit ion, est imat es are made of t he
decline in personal or household income arising from t he est imat ed losses in all sect ors.
From there, estimates are derived of the fnancial needs for ensuring recovery, based on
public policies designed t o mit igat e t he negat ive impact of t he losses on product ion as well as on a
preliminary st rat egy for recovery t hat t akes int o considerat ion t he possibilit y of “ building back bet t er ”
the destroyed or damaged assets for increased disaster resilience, within fnancial constraints.
Recovery est imat es include support t o rebuild privat e asset s of t he poorest households ( such
as housing, farming tools, and fshing equipment) but do not include compensation for private assets
of t he wealt hier households or for t he asset s of indust rial and commercial ent erprises.
The procedure used in t he Myanmar assessment involves many st eps and act ivit ies, beginning
wit h t he collect ion of baseline informat ion and of dat a on damages provided by t he government
through its different technical and service delivery ministries and offces. Immediately after, the
DaLA assessment t eam carried out plausibilit y reviews of t he dat a, including t riangulat ion and
independent verifcation of the data.
Baseline dat a was t ime- normalized across various sect ors of t he economy t o provide t he best
possible reference for the analysis. This included desk reviews of information and the identifcation
of information gaps and the possible sources for flling them, as well as detailed feld surveys of the
affected areas where extensive consultations were held with inter alia township offcials, community
leaders and represent at ives, non- government al organizat ions, villagers, business owners and ot her
st akeholders.
The assessment analysed informat ion on disast er effect s in a t ot al of 79 t ownships locat ed
in Ayeyarwady, Yangon and ot her affect ed Divisions, and t he macro- economic analysis covered t he
ent ire count ry wit h special reference t o t he Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions for which t he syst em
of nat ional account s provides adequat e coverage.
An n e x 2 : Th e Da m a g e a n d Lo s s As s e s s m e n t Me t h o d o l o g y
60
AnnEx 3: nutRitiOn AnD FOOD sEcuRity
summARy
I n Myanmar, food securit y is more an issue of ‘access t o food’ and ‘food ut ilizat ion’ rat her
than availability. Generally, Myanmar is a food surplus country, producing suffcient quantities of rice,
pulses and a variet y of ot her food commodit ies. Alt hough t he count ry has been able t o produce a
food surplus, large segment s of t he populat ion, including in t he cyclone- affect ed areas, were food
insecure and levels of nut rit ion were a serious concern before Nargis.
The Village Tract Assessment ( VTA) survey result s indicat e t hat 42 percent of households
lost all t heir food st ocks during t he cyclone, wit h anot her 33 percent losing most or some of t heir
st ocks. Thirt y four percent of households report ed no remaining food st ocks on t he day of t he
survey, and a further 45 percent reported stocks suffcient to last only 1 to 7 days. VTA results also
show t hat while 54 percent of households were able t o source food from local market s, over 50
percent of households obt ained food from humanit arian agencies, wit h many households depending
on mult iple sources. Aft er Nargis, households surveyed by t he VTA consumed a much more limit ed
variet y of food it ems. Consequent ly, many households face increasing risks of acut e malnut rit ion and
micronutrient defciencies among infants, young children and pregnant and lactating women.
The assessment t eam proposes a t wo- pronged approach t o st abilise and improve t he nut rit ion
and food consumpt ion st at us of t he populat ion in t he affect ed areas over a 12- mont h period aft er
Nargis. Firstly, signifcant relief food (in cash or in kind) for a period of 6-12 months after Nargis,
depending on needs. Secondly, nut rit ion int ervent ions over a 12- mont h period aimed at prevent ing
a det eriorat ion of t he nut rit ional st at us of t he most vulnerable groups, especially t hose who are
pot ent ially ‘at risk’.
pRE-DisAstER situAtiOn
While Myanmar is a food surplus count ry, and has recent ly export ed up t o half a million
t ons of rice and more t han one million t ons of pulses annually, malnut rit ion remains a concern.
Micronutrient defciencies, especially Vitamin A Defciency (VAD), Iodine Defciency Disorders (IDDs)
and Iron Defciency Anemia (IDA), are signifcant public health problems.
While t he Ayeyarwady Division is a maj or producer of rice, t he sout hernmost areas, where
t he cyclone hit t he hardest , were charact erized as being t he poorest areas of t he Delt a. Primary
reasons for t his include poor soils, lower yields, an elevat ed populat ion densit y in a fragile ecological
environment , and a high percent age of landlessness. Thus, while t he count ry has been able t o
produce a food surplus, large segment s of t he populat ion, including in t he cyclone- affect ed areas,
remain food insecure and levels of nut rit ion are a serious concern.
impAct
I n t he immediat e aft ermat h of t he cyclone, a maj orit y of households in t he affect ed areas,
many of whom were displaced at least t emporarily
1
, faced diffculties in meeting their basic daily
food needs. The Village Tract Assessment ( VTA) survey result s indicat e t hat 42 percent of households
lost all t heir food st ocks, wit h anot her 33 percent losing most or some of t heir st ocks ( see map 2 in
main report ) . Thirt y- four percent of households report ed no remaining food st ocks on t he day of t he
survey, and a further 45 percent reported stocks suffcient to last only 1 to 7 days (Figure 1).
1 See Annex 16 (Vulnerable Groups).
An n e x 3 : Nu t r i t i o n a n d Fo o d Se cu r i t y
61
Fi gur e 1: Avai l abi l i t y of f ood st ock as r epor t ed by househol ds i n t he Del t a
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%
more than 30 days
7-30 days
1 day
2-7 days
nothing
Figure 2
Percentage of households reporting the number of days
their current food stock would last on the day of the survey

Source: Village Tract Assessment ( 2008) .
The map below shows t he availabilit y of food last ing for one week or less. While green areas
have enough food t o last over a week, villages in t he red areas represent t hose wit h t he lowest food
availability, meaning that 100 per cent stands for the fact that all their food stocks will be fnished
by t he end of a week. The map shows t hat many villages in Labut t a and Bogale st ill have low food
st ocks, not last ing for longer t han a week. Despit e st rong effort s t o bring aid and food supplies t o
these townships, the fact that most of their arable lands are fooded and that the cyclone took most
of t heir livest ock prevent s households from holding a const ant supply of food. There are, however,
ot her areas in Myaungmya, Ngapudaw and Twant ay which do not have enough food st ocks t o last
for over a week.
Map 1: Avai l abi l i t y of f ood st ock as r epor t ed by househol ds i n t he Del t a0

Source: VTA Survey.
An n e x 3 : Nu t r i t i o n a n d Fo o d Se cu r i t y
62
VTA result s also show t hat while 54 percent of households were able t o source food from
local market s, over 50 percent of households obt ained food from humanit arian agencies, wit h many
households depending on mult iple sources ( Figure 2) . Dependence on food aid surpassed 90 percent
in some villages in t he front line t ownships of Labut t a and over 70 percent in Dedaye. Overall, food
was t he highest priorit y expendit ure for surveyed households, wit h 89 percent placing it as t he t op
priorit y, followed by healt h ( 32 percent ) , educat ion ( 31 percent ) , and shelt er ( 14 percent ) ( Figure
3) .
2
Fi gur e 2: Sour ces of f ood as r epor t ed by househol ds i n t he Del t a
Figure 3
Percentage of households depending on multiple sources of
food after the cyclone 1/
household stock,
7%
own farm, 14%
humanitarian
distribution, 51%
grocery shop,
54%
1/ Mult iple answers.
Source: VTA survey.
Fi gur e 3: Pr i or i t y ex pendi t ur es as r ank ed by househol ds i n t he Del t a
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%
alcohol
funeral
hygiene
clothing
other
shelter
education
health
food
Figure 4
Household Priority Expenditures after Nargis 1/
1/ Mult iple answers.
Source: VTA survey.
I n addit ion t o t he low availabilit y of food st ocks at t he household level, households surveyed
by t he VTA consumed a much more limit ed variet y of food it ems ( Figure 4) . While rice remains t he
staple food for all households, the proportion of households consuming fsh and eggs, the main
sources of prot ein and fat , dropped from 80 percent before Nargis t o 54 percent aft er t he cyclone. The
consumpt ion of veget ables and fruit s, one of t he main sources of vit amins and minerals, decreased by
9 percent age point s and of edible oil by 11 percent age point s. Consequent ly, many households face
increasing risks of acute malnutrition and micronutrient defciencies among infants, young children
and pregnant and lact at ing women.
3
Malnut rit ion poses pot ent ially t remendous consequences on
children’s cognit ive, social and mot or skills and t heir physical and emot ional development .
2 Respondent s provided mult iple answers.
3 Micronutrient defciencies can be exacerbated due to disrupted or insuffcient access to micronutrient-rich foods such as
fruits and vegetables. Those suffering from micronutrient defciencies are at a higher risk of acute morbidity and death
due t o common illnesses t hat can arise during emergencies, such as diarrhoea and respirat ory infect ions. The VTA survey
indicat es t hat 34 percent and 39 percent of household members experienced such healt h condit ions, respect ively.
An n e x 3 : Nu t r i t i o n a n d Fo o d Se cu r i t y
63
Fi gur e 4: Food consumpt i on i n t he Del t a bef or e and af t er cy cl one
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
r
i
c
e
f
r
u
i
t

&

v
e
g
e
t
a
b
l
e
m
e
a
t
,

f
i
s
h

a
n
d

e
g
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e
d
i
b
l
e

o
i
l
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u
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Figure 5:
Percentage of households reporting consumption of food
commodities before and after the cyclone
before after
Source: VTA survey.
Existing REliEF AnD REcOvERy EFFORts
I n addit ion t o t he Minist ry of Healt h and t he Nat ional Nut rit ion Cent re, a broad range of
agencies is working t oget her in order t o reach affect ed communit ies. These agencies include UN
organizat ions, int ernat ional NGOs, t he Myanmar Red Cross, fait h- based organizat ions, local NGOs
and communit y- based organizat ions.
The World Food Programme report ed as of 30 June 2008 t hat as much as 17, 000 MT of food
commodities had been delivered to close to 730,000 benefciaries in the Delta. An additional 50,000
benefciaries received cash transfer to purchase food commodities from functional markets in fve
t ownships in Yangon Division. I n t ot al, USD 175, 000 has been disbursed t hat way. WFP and part ners
have been working around t he clock t o ensure t hat previously unreachable areas for food dist ribut ion
are being served.
Feeding for children under age fve has been initiated. The Ministry of Health in cooperation
wit h UNI CEF has been able t o est ablish four t herapeut ic feeding cent ers in affect ed areas and
dozens of workers are t rained in t arget ed feeding. More t han 200 t ons of t herapeut ic food has been
dist ribut ed by UNI CEF t o part ners and WFP has import ed special complement ary food for children
6-23 months old in worst-affected areas.
VTA result s indicat e t hat dist ribut ion of various forms of infant feeding—powdered milk,
feeding bot t les and t eat s—was report ed by 3 percent , 3 percent and 1 percent of households,
respect ively. These it ems were mainly dist ribut ed by privat e companies, individuals, local aut horit ies
and NGOs.
REcOvERy nEEDs AnD stRAtEgy
Needs. VTA dat a demonst rat e t hat 55 percent of households had food for 1 day or less on t he
day of t he int erview, and over half depended in part or wholly on food aid. The cont inued provision
of food assist ance and nut rit ional assist ance is t herefore essent ial unt il at least t he next harvest ,
especially t o marginal farmers ( t hose who farm less t han one acre of land) and t he landless. Though
market s are funct ioning, it is proposed t o pursue a mixed provision of food—t o reduce pressure
on market s on t he supply side—and cash—t o increase peoples’ purchasing power and st imulat e
demand—in t he short - t erm, unt il market supplies recover fully.
St rat egy. The assessment t eam proposes a t wo- pronged approach t o st abilise and improve
t he nut rit ion and food consumpt ion st at us of t he populat ion in t he affect ed areas over a 12- mont h
period after Nargis. Firstly, signifcant relief food (in cash or in kind) for a period of 6 months
An n e x 3 : Nu t r i t i o n a n d Fo o d Se cu r i t y
64
aft er Nargis unt il t he next harvest in Oct ober/ November 2008 ( see below) . This would allow needy
families t o rest art t heir livelihoods wit hout worrying about basic food it ems. The provision of relief
food would be reduced progressively t hereaft er, and phased out ent irely wit h t he subsequent harvest
in April/ May 2009. Secondly, nut rit ion int ervent ions over t he 12- mont h period aimed at prevent ing
a det eriorat ion of t he nut rit ional st at us of t he most vulnerable groups, especially t hose who are
pot ent ially ‘at risk’.
A cent ral t enet of food assist ance during t he 12- mont h period would be t he supply of basic
food commodit ies t o households for free, and a shift t o condit ional t ransfers ( cash/ food for work) as
and when the conditions in the villages improve. In the frst 6-month period, 724,000 benefciaries
in t he affect ed areas of t he Delt a would receive a basic food basket , consist ing of rice, pulses,
fortifed oil and iodized salt. Furthermore, 200,000 affected families in urban areas would receive
cash t ransfers t o increase t heir purchasing power.
Cent ral element s of immediat e nut rit ion support are: effect ive management of acut e
malnutrition through supplementary and therapeutic feeding to 60,000 children aged 6-59 months
and 28,000 pregnant and lactating women; support for the local production of blended fortifed
food; support to and the promotion of appropriate feeding practices; and control and prevention of
micronutrient defciencies through the provision of vitamin A and multi-micronutrient supplementation
to 218,000 children aged 6-59 months and 100,000 pregnant and lactating women.
Cost est imat e. The t ot al est imat ed cost for food securit y and nut rit ion int ervent ions during
the 12-month post-Nargis period amounts to USD134 million, of which USD116 million is for food
assist ance and USD18 million for nut rit ion. I mplement ing agencies will aim t o avoid duplicat ion of
effort s t hrough coordinat ion in t he exist ing Food and Nut rit ion Clust ers. Crit ical for t he successful
provision of food and nut rit ion assist ance will be effect ive t arget ing of t he neediest , t he t imely
and safe delivery of supplies and services t o t he affect ed villages, and harmonized dist ribut ion
mechanisms
4
.
Next st eps. Household food securit y and nut rit ional assessment s, and regular monit oring
t hrough rout ine dat a collect ion and report ing, rapid nut rit ional assessment s, household surveys
and surveillance, are essential to review the effciency and effectiveness of the interventions in
accordance wit h t he obj ect ives of t he recovery programme. I n t his regard, a Food and Nut rit ion
Survey is planned for July/ August 2008 t o provide a bet t er underst anding of t he nut rit ional st at us
of the households in the affected areas. This survey will help direct future programming and refne
t he t arget groups, as needed.
4 See Annex 15 on Social I mpact s.
An n e x 3 : Nu t r i t i o n a n d Fo o d Se cu r i t y
65
AnnEx 4: hEAlth
summARy
Despit e recent improvement s in some indicat ors, t he healt h st at us of t he people of Myanmar
remains of concern, wit h considerable disparit ies in healt h and nut rit ion out comes across geographic
areas. Government expendit ure on healt h is low, represent ing only 0. 2 percent of GDP in 2005. UN
agencies and bilat eral agencies, as well as I nt ernat ional Non Government Organizat ions ( I NGOs) ,
cont inue t o provide mult i- and bilat eral assist ance.
Overall, t he level of damage t o healt h facilit ies and services is est imat ed t o be around
K12,800 million whilst the losses are estimated at around K6,100 million. Most of the damage
affect ed facilit ies t hat serve more remot e and rural populat ions. I nformat ion from t he Village Tract
Assessment survey indicates there are signifcant health impacts following the cyclone at the village
level including: ( i) a range of healt h risks t hat will require t he healt h syst em t o be vigilant wit h
respects to potential disease outbreaks; and (ii) urgent and on-going health needs for survivors.
The assessment team proposes a recovery strategy aimed at preventing disease outbreaks;
meet ing basic needs of t he populat ion and assist ing t hem t o recover from t he physical and ment al
effects of the cyclone; and restoring the local health care system of the Delta in a way that manages
pre- cyclone resources t o provide bet t er healt h care and improves t he healt h out comes of t he
populat ion in t he affect ed areas. The indicat ive cost s of t he recovery st rat egy are est imat ed at
K31, 000 million.
pRE-DisAstER situAtiOn
Healt h and nut rit ion out comes. Despit e recent improvement s in some indicat ors, t he healt h
st at us of people in Myanmar remains a concern. Recent est imat es of infant and child mort alit y
rat es vary
1
. Nutrition is also a concern, with iron defciency anemia, iodine defciency disorders and
Vitamin A defciency common causes of micronutrient defciencies.
Communicable diseases remain a maj or challenge and cont ribut e t he largest share of t he
disease burden, accounting for an estimated 60 percent of years of life lost in 2002. For example,
70 percent of t he populat ion lives in endemic malaria areas, and Myanmar is one of t he 23 count ries
globally designat ed as a “ high t uberculosis burden” count ry.
2
Est imat es for people living wit h HI V/
AIDS range from 240,000 upwards (which translates to a prevalence rate of at least 0.67 percent
among t he age group of 15- 49 years)
3
indicat ing t hat HI V/ AI DS poses a sust ained challenge t o
improved healt h out comes in Myanmar. Dat a on causes of child morbidit y are limit ed, but acut e
respirat ory infect ions, diarrhoea, meningit is, and malaria are believed t o be t he main causes, wit h
high rates of malnutrition being both a cause and consequence of this morbidity profle.
The healt h syst em. Healt h care is provided t hrough bot h t he public and privat e sect ors. The
public sect or is cent ralized wit h most basic healt h services provided at t he t ownship level and below.
Townships, covering 100, 000- 200, 000 people, have t he primary responsibilit y for providing healt h
services. A t ypical t ownship public medical care syst em includes a t ownship hospit al wit h 50, 25 or
16 beds depending on population, one or two station hospitals and 4 to 7 rural health centres (RHCs)
serving about 20, 000- 25, 000 people each. An RHC would have, on average, about four sub- cent res
( sub- RHCs) operat ed by a midwife and a communit y healt h worker. By 2008, t he Minist ry of Healt h
(MOH) reported having 839 hospitals, 86 primary and secondary health centres and 1,473 RHCs and
6,599 sub-RHCs.
Healt h out comes have improved somewhat in recent years.
4
For example, t he 2003 Mult iple
1 See UNICEF report “State of the Worlds Children 2008” as well as Overall and Cause Specifc Under Five Mortality Survey
2002/03, Department of Health/UNICEF, 2003, and Overall and Cause Specifc Maternal Mortality Survey 2004/05,
Depart ment of Healt h/ UNI CEF, 2005.
2 The incidence of t uberculosis is 171/ 100, 000 populat ion compared t o 141 in t he region.
3 Est imat ed by UNAI DS, WHO Nat ional AI DS Programme, 2007.
4 The nat ional programs include nat ional malaria, t uberculosis, HI V/ AI DS, immunizat ion, nut rit ion, int egrat ed management of
childhood illnesses ( I MCI ) reproduct ive healt h and birt h spacing, leprosy eliminat ion, healt h promot ion and educat ion, and
school healt h services
An n e x 4 : He a l t h
66
An n e x 4 : He a l t h
I nt egrat ed Clust er Survey ( MI CS) found t hat 79 percent of children aged 12- 23 mont hs were fully
covered by t he immunizat ion program. The percent age of birt hs at t ended by a healt h worker rose
from 46 percent in the 1990s to 57 percent during 2000-2006. Notwithstanding these achievements,
utilization of government health services has declined over the last decade. This, in part, refects the
expansion of t he privat e sect or following t he market - orient ed reforms of t he lat e 1980s and early
1990s. Sixt y percent of all visit s are now est imat ed t o occur in privat e facilit ies.
5
Tradit ional medicine
also plays an import ant role in service delivery.
Health fnancing and health system resources. Myanmar’s health sector is fnanced by a
mix of general government revenue, ext ernal assist ance, social securit y cont ribut ions, communit y
cont ribut ions, and out - of- pocket payment s by households. Government expendit ure on healt h is
low. Expanding healt h infrast ruct ure wit h declining government spending led t o a growing reliance
on out - of- pocket spending by households for st aff incent ives and recurrent cost s. The social securit y
syst em covers approximat ely 1 percent of t he populat ion.
Healt h human resources. There has been a rapid increase in t he supply of healt h human
resources in t he lat e 1990s and early 2000s. Bet ween 2004 and 2008 t he t ot al t rained professional
health workforce is reported to have increased by 27 percent from over 56,500 to 71,800. The number
of doct ors, nurses and midwives increased 27 percent , 35 percent and 20 percent , respect ively, over
t he same period. Not ably t he number of doct ors in cooperat ive and privat e pract ice also increased
t o at least maint ain t heir share of t he t ot al over t his period.
6
Public sect or doct ors also provide a
signifcant range of private services.
I nt ernat ional support for healt h. UN agencies ( WHO, UNI CEF, UNFPA, UNAI DS) and bilat eral
agencies ( JI CA, DFI D) cont inue t o provide mult i- and bilat eral assist ance. Moreover, in 2002, t here
were at least 27 I NGOs act ive in t he sect or, most ly in mat ernal and child healt h, primary healt h care,
environment al sanit at ion, rehabilit at ion of disabled and handicapped, and prevent ion and cont rol of
communicable diseases. Bilat eral agencies and t he European Commission ( EC) provide funding t o
address HI V, t uberculosis and malaria. The EC and USAI D, in collaborat ion wit h WHO and t echnical
support from t he World Bank, also provide assist ance for preparedness and surveillance of Avian and
Human Infuenza.
DAmAgE AnD lOssEs
The assessment t eam est imat es t hat t he cyclone result ed in t he dest ruct ion or severe
damage of about 57 percent of public facilit ies in all affect ed areas. 10- 15 percent of t hese facilit ies
were fully dest royed while t he remainder were part ially damaged.
7
Village leaders indicat e t hat
about 50 percent of t he damaged facilit ies have been part ially repaired. Cyclone damage was largely
in t wo Divisions, Ayeyarwady and Yangon, wit h t he number and proport ion of facilit ies damaged
being great er in Ayeyarwady ( Table 1) .
Tabl e 1: Damage t o Publ i c Heal t h Faci l i t i es by Di v i si on/ St at e
3 Annex 4: Healt h

The assessment t eam est imat es t hat t he cyclone result ed in t he dest ruct ion or
severe damage of about 57 percent of public facilit ies in all affect ed areas. 10- 15
percent of t hese facilit ies were fully dest royed while t he remainder were part ially
damaged.
7
Village leaders indicat e t hat about 50 percent of t he damaged facilit ies
have been part ially repaired. Cyclone damage was largely in t wo Divisions,
Ayeyarwady and Yangon, wit h t he number and proport ion of facilit ies damaged
being great er in Ayeyarwady ( Table 1) .

Tabl e 1: Damage t o Publ i c Heal t h Faci l i t i es by Di vi si on/ St at e
Damage
Di v i si on/ St at e Ful l Par t i al Roof None Tot al *
Ayeyarwady Division 15% 21% 24% 40% 621
Yangon Division 6% 14% 32% 48% 548
Bago East Division 4% 17% 67% 12% 24
Mon St at e 0% 35% 45% 20% 18
Kayin St at e 0% 0% 0% 100% 6
Percent age Tot al 11% 18% 29% 42% 1, 217
Tot al 129 222 346 520 1, 217
* Number of facilit ies
Source: PONJA Team Est imat es

Most of t he cyclone affect ed facilit ies serve more remot e and rural populat ions,
namely st at ion hospit als, RHCs or sub- RHCs ( Table 2) . Larger facilit ies and
t raining cent res were also affect ed but t he damage was eit her part ial or rest rict ed
t o roofing damage. Housing of st aff was also affect ed: about 18 houses were
report ed t o be t ot ally dest royed and 76 part ially dest royed. Housing damage is
likely an underest imat e as many midwives in villages somet imes reside in t he
sub- cent res and lost t heir residence when t hese sub- RHCs were dest royed.
Damage t o healt h facilit ies was also accompanied by losses in equipment ,
supplies, vehicles and ambulances. More import ant ly, such damage has result ed
in t he disrupt ion of healt h services t o t he maj orit y of t he rural populat ion and t he
poor who rely on t hese facilit ies.

Tabl e 2: Damage t o Publ i c Heal t h Faci l i t i es by Ty pe
Faci l i t y Ty pe Ful l Par t i al Roof None Tot al
100+ Bed Hospit als 0% 46% 18% 36% 28
50- 100 Bed Hospit als 0% 24% 47% 29% 17
16- 25 Bed/ St at ion Hospit als 13% 25% 26% 36% 85
RHCs/ Clinics 7% 25% 42% 26% 257
Sub- RHCs 12% 14% 24% 50% 821
Training Schools 0% 11% 89% 0% 9
Tot al 129 222 346 520 1, 217
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.

Get t ing an accurat e est imat e on t he privat e sect or was difficult . First , many
providers are bot h privat e and public. Second, some of t he facilit ies t hat are list ed
as public are at t imes owned or even built by t he communit y or t he providers ( for
inst ance, some of t he sub- RHCs) . The assessment t eam was able t o obt ain some
est imat e of t he privat e sect or as well as est imat es of t he proport ion of facilit ies
t hat are privat e at t he divisional level. This allowed a rough est imat ion of t he
privat e sect or damages at t he divisional level.


7
Based on administ rat ive est imat es, field visit s, validat ion wit h humanit arian agencies and t he Village
Tract Assessment ( VTA) : while 70 percent of communit ies in t he VTA report damage t o facilit ies, t his
covers only t he 30 most severely affect ed t ownships.
* Number of facilit ies
Source: PONJA Team Est imat es
5 UNI CEF
6 Health in Myanmar 2008, Ministry of Health, 2008.
7 Based on administrative estimates, feld visits, validation with humanitarian agencies and the Village Tract Assessment
( VTA) : while 70 percent of communit ies in t he VTA report damage t o facilit ies, t his covers only t he 30 most severely affect ed
t ownships.
67
Most of t he cyclone affect ed facilit ies serve more remot e and rural populat ions, namely
st at ion hospit als, RHCs or sub- RHCs ( Table 2) . Larger facilit ies and t raining cent res were also
affected but the damage was either partial or restricted to roofng damage. Housing of staff was also
affected: about 18 houses were reported to be totally destroyed and 76 partially destroyed. Housing
damage is likely an underest imat e as many midwives in villages somet imes reside in t he sub- cent res
and lost t heir residence when t hese sub- RHCs were dest royed. Damage t o healt h facilit ies was also
accompanied by losses in equipment , supplies, vehicles and ambulances. More import ant ly, such
damage has result ed in t he disrupt ion of healt h services t o t he maj orit y of t he rural populat ion and
t he poor who rely on t hese facilit ies.
Tabl e 2: Damage t o Publ i c Heal t h Faci l i t i es by Ty pe
3 Annex 4: Healt h

The assessment t eam est imat es t hat t he cyclone result ed in t he dest ruct ion or
severe damage of about 57 percent of public facilit ies in all affect ed areas. 10- 15
percent of t hese facilit ies were fully dest royed while t he remainder were part ially
damaged.
7
Village leaders indicat e t hat about 50 percent of t he damaged facilit ies
have been part ially repaired. Cyclone damage was largely in t wo Divisions,
Ayeyarwady and Yangon, wit h t he number and proport ion of facilit ies damaged
being great er in Ayeyarwady ( Table 1) .

Tabl e 1: Damage t o Publ i c Heal t h Faci l i t i es by Di vi si on/ St at e
Damage
Di vi si on/ St at e Ful l Par t i al Roof None Tot al *
Ayeyarwady Division 15% 21% 24% 40% 621
Yangon Division 6% 14% 32% 48% 548
Bago East Division 4% 17% 67% 12% 24
Mon St at e 0% 35% 45% 20% 18
Kayin St at e 0% 0% 0% 100% 6
Percent age Tot al 11% 18% 29% 42% 1, 217
Tot al 129 222 346 520 1, 217
* Number of facilit ies
Source: PONJA Team Est imat es

Most of t he cyclone affect ed facilit ies serve more remot e and rural populat ions,
namely st at ion hospit als, RHCs or sub- RHCs ( Table 2) . Larger facilit ies and
t raining cent res were also affect ed but t he damage was eit her part ial or rest rict ed
t o roofing damage. Housing of st aff was also affect ed: about 18 houses were
report ed t o be t ot ally dest royed and 76 part ially dest royed. Housing damage is
likely an underest imat e as many midwives in villages somet imes reside in t he
sub- cent res and lost t heir residence when t hese sub- RHCs were dest royed.
Damage t o healt h facilit ies was also accompanied by losses in equipment ,
supplies, vehicles and ambulances. More import ant ly, such damage has result ed
in t he disrupt ion of healt h services t o t he maj orit y of t he rural populat ion and t he
poor who rely on t hese facilit ies.

Tabl e 2: Damage t o Publ i c Heal t h Faci l i t i es by Ty pe
Faci l i t y Ty pe Ful l Par t i al Roof None Tot al
100+ Bed Hospit als 0% 46% 18% 36% 28
50- 100 Bed Hospit als 0% 24% 47% 29% 17
16- 25 Bed/ St at ion Hospit als 13% 25% 26% 36% 85
RHCs/ Clinics 7% 25% 42% 26% 257
Sub- RHCs 12% 14% 24% 50% 821
Training Schools 0% 11% 89% 0% 9
Tot al 129 222 346 520 1, 217
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.

Get t ing an accurat e est imat e on t he privat e sect or was difficult . First , many
providers are bot h privat e and public. Second, some of t he facilit ies t hat are list ed
as public are at t imes owned or even built by t he communit y or t he providers ( for
inst ance, some of t he sub- RHCs) . The assessment t eam was able t o obt ain some
est imat e of t he privat e sect or as well as est imat es of t he proport ion of facilit ies
t hat are privat e at t he divisional level. This allowed a rough est imat ion of t he
privat e sect or damages at t he divisional level.


7
Based on administ rat ive est imat es, field visit s, validat ion wit h humanit arian agencies and t he Village
Tract Assessment ( VTA) : while 70 percent of communit ies in t he VTA report damage t o facilit ies, t his
covers only t he 30 most severely affect ed t ownships.
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.
Getting an accurate estimate on the private sector was diffcult. First, many providers are
bot h privat e and public. Second, some of t he facilit ies t hat are list ed as public are at t imes owned or
even built by t he communit y or t he providers ( for inst ance, some of t he sub- RHCs) . The assessment
t eam was able t o obt ain some est imat e of t he privat e sect or as well as est imat es of t he proport ion of
facilit ies t hat are privat e at t he divisional level. This allowed a rough est imat ion of t he privat e sect or
damages at t he divisional level.
Overall, t he level of damage is est imat ed t o be around K12, 800 million—about 10 percent is
privat e and 90 percent is public and communit y owned ( Table 3) . Some of t he facilit ies have been
repaired. However, some of t he repairs have been done wit hout adequat e t echnical assessment t o
examine t he level of damage and t he t ype of rest orat ion needed. These may require addit ional work
in t he fut ure.
Tabl e 3: Damage and Loss Est i mat es by Ty pe of Heal t h Faci l i t y
( Kyat million)
Annex 4: Healt h 4

Overall, t he level of damage is est imat ed t o be around K12, 800 million—about 10
percent is privat e and 90 percent is public and communit y owned ( Table 3) . Some
of t he facilit ies have been repaired. However, some of t he repairs have been done
wit hout adequat e t echnical assessment t o examine t he level of damage and t he
t ype of rest orat ion needed. These may require addit ional work in t he fut ure.

Tabl e 3: Damage and Loss Est i mat es by Ty pe of Heal t h Faci l i t y
( Kyat million)
Publ i c Pr i vat e Tot al BOP
Fi scal
Sect or
Damage
100+ Bed Hospit al 3, 380 - 3, 380 826 -
50- 100 Bed Hospit al 659 - 659 108 -
16- 25 Bed/ St at ion Hospit al 4, 093 - 4, 093 1, 207 -
RHC/ ot her clinics 1, 472 - 1, 472 493 -
Sub- RHC 1, 894 - 1, 894 540 -
Training school 47 - 47 7 -
Privat e clinics - 1, 236 1, 236 374 -
Total 11,545 1,236 12,781 3,555 -
Losses

Addit ional medical care
( inj ury, ment al, disabilit y) - 4, 971 4, 971 1, 491 -
Prevent ive programs 1, 086 - 1, 086 326 1, 086
Temporary facilit ies, et c. 55 - 55 - 55
Total 1,141 4,971 6,113 1,817 1,141
Damage and Losses 12,686 6, 208 18, 894 5, 372 1, 141
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.

The losses are est imat ed at around K6, 100 million wit h j ust over 80 percent of
losses being privat e. Losses include est imat es of t he cost s of addit ional medical
care, prevent ive programs and supply side response as well as t emporary
response measures. There are report s of increased inj uries as a result of Nargis
and t hese are likely t o be accompanied by an increase in disabilit ies. Populat ion
based est imat es of such inj uries were used t o est imat e t he likely losses. The
psychological and social impact s are also an import ant source of disabilit y. Table
4 present s t he est imat es of damage and losses by Division, again demonst rat ing
t hat t ot al damage and loss falls largely in Ayeyarwady and Yangon.

Tabl e 4: Summar y of Damage and Losses by Di v i si on/ St at e
( Kyat million)
Di vi si on/ St at e Damage Loss Publ i c Pr i vat e Tot al BOP Fi scal
Ayeyarwady Division 5, 425 2, 594 5, 431 2, 587 8, 018 2, 220 484
Yangon Division 6, 393 3, 058 6, 223 3, 228 9, 451 2, 764 571
Bago East Division 479 229 506 202 708 173 43
Mon St at e 474 227 516 188 704 213 42
Kayin St at e 9 4 10 3 13 2 1
Tot al 12, 781 6, 113 12, 686 6, 208 18, 894 5, 372 1, 141
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.

HEALTH I MPACTS AT VI LLAGE LEVEL

VTA findings indicat e t hat t here are significant healt h impact s following t he
cyclone at t he village level including: ( i) a range of healt h risks t hat will require
t he healt h syst em t o be vigilant wit h respect s t o pot ent ial disease out breaks; and
( ii) urgent and on- going healt h needs for survivors.

The most common services available at t he nearest healt h facilit y before t he
cyclone were immunizat ions, t reat ment of prevalent diseases, delivery, and
Source: PONJA Team estimates.
An n e x 4 : He a l t h
68
The losses are estimated at around K6,100 million with just over 80 percent of losses being
privat e. Losses include est imat es of t he cost s of addit ional medical care, prevent ive programs and
supply side response as well as t emporary response measures. There are report s of increased inj uries
as a result of Nargis and t hese are likely t o be accompanied by an increase in disabilit ies. Populat ion
based est imat es of such inj uries were used t o est imat e t he likely losses. The psychological and social
impact s are also an import ant source of disabilit y. Table 4 present s t he est imat es of damage and
losses by Division, again demonst rat ing t hat t ot al damage and loss falls largely in Ayeyarwady and
Yangon.
Tabl e 4: Summar y of Damage and Losses by Di v i si on/ St at e
( Kyat million)
Annex 4: Healt h 4

Overall, t he level of damage is est imat ed t o be around K12, 800 million—about 10
percent is privat e and 90 percent is public and communit y owned ( Table 3) . Some
of t he facilit ies have been repaired. However, some of t he repairs have been done
wit hout adequat e t echnical assessment t o examine t he level of damage and t he
t ype of rest orat ion needed. These may require addit ional work in t he fut ure.

Tabl e 3: Damage and Loss Est i mat es by Ty pe of Heal t h Faci l i t y
( Kyat million)
Publ i c Pr i vat e Tot al BOP
Fi scal
Sect or
Damage
100+ Bed Hospit al 3, 380 - 3, 380 826 -
50- 100 Bed Hospit al 659 - 659 108 -
16- 25 Bed/ St at ion Hospit al 4, 093 - 4, 093 1, 207 -
RHC/ ot her clinics 1, 472 - 1, 472 493 -
Sub- RHC 1, 894 - 1, 894 540 -
Training school 47 - 47 7 -
Privat e clinics - 1, 236 1, 236 374 -
Total 11,545 1,236 12,781 3,555 -
Losses

Addit ional medical care
( inj ury, ment al, disabilit y) - 4, 971 4, 971 1, 491 -
Prevent ive programs 1, 086 - 1, 086 326 1, 086
Temporary facilit ies, et c. 55 - 55 - 55
Total 1,141 4,971 6,113 1,817 1,141
Damage and Losses 12,686 6, 208 18, 894 5, 372 1, 141
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.

The losses are est imat ed at around K6, 100 million wit h j ust over 80 percent of
losses being privat e. Losses include est imat es of t he cost s of addit ional medical
care, prevent ive programs and supply side response as well as t emporary
response measures. There are report s of increased inj uries as a result of Nargis
and t hese are likely t o be accompanied by an increase in disabilit ies. Populat ion
based est imat es of such inj uries were used t o est imat e t he likely losses. The
psychological and social impact s are also an import ant source of disabilit y. Table
4 present s t he est imat es of damage and losses by Division, again demonst rat ing
t hat t ot al damage and loss falls largely in Ayeyarwady and Yangon.

Tabl e 4: Summar y of Damage and Losses by Di v i si on/ St at e
( Kyat million)
Di vi si on/ St at e Damage Loss Publ i c Pr i vat e Tot al BOP Fi scal
Ayeyarwady Division 5, 425 2, 594 5, 431 2, 587 8, 018 2, 220 484
Yangon Division 6, 393 3, 058 6, 223 3, 228 9, 451 2, 764 571
Bago East Division 479 229 506 202 708 173 43
Mon St at e 474 227 516 188 704 213 42
Kayin St at e 9 4 10 3 13 2 1
Tot al 12, 781 6, 113 12, 686 6, 208 18, 894 5, 372 1, 141
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.

HEALTH I MPACTS AT VI LLAGE LEVEL

VTA findings indicat e t hat t here are significant healt h impact s following t he
cyclone at t he village level including: ( i) a range of healt h risks t hat will require
t he healt h syst em t o be vigilant wit h respect s t o pot ent ial disease out breaks; and
( ii) urgent and on- going healt h needs for survivors.

The most common services available at t he nearest healt h facilit y before t he
cyclone were immunizat ions, t reat ment of prevalent diseases, delivery, and
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.
hEAlth impActs At villAgE lEvEl
VTA fndings indicate that there are signifcant health impacts following the cyclone at the
village level including: ( i) a range of healt h risks t hat will require t he healt h syst em t o be vigilant wit h
respects to potential disease outbreaks; and (ii) urgent and on-going health needs for survivors.
The most common services available at t he nearest healt h facilit y before t he cyclone were
immunizat ions, t reat ment of prevalent diseases, delivery, and ant enat al care. Access by villages t o
t hese services has declined by 18 percent , 9 percent , 10 percent , and 9 percent , respect ively.
Fi gur e 1: Decl i ne i n heal t h ser vi ces as r epor t ed by heal t h w or k er s i n t he most af f ect ed
t ow nshi ps
Decline in health services
-20%
-15%
-10%
-5%
0%
D
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

(
%

p
o
i
n
t
s
)

di f f -18% -10% -10% -9% -9% -5% -5%
Immuni zat i on Bi r t hspaci ng Bi r t hdel i ver y
Communi cabl e
di seases
Post -nat al
car e
Ant e-nat al
car e
Nut r i t i on

Source: VTA survey – Key informant Healt h st aff
An n e x 4 : He a l t h
69
Report ed healt h problems/ condit ions. Almost t wo- t hirds of households in t he household
survey report ed healt h problems among household members during t he 15 days prior t o t he survey.
Map 1 below shows the variation of reported health problems at the village level; the areas in orange
and red have higher proport ions of households report ing healt h problems among household members.
The most common healt h problems, according t o VTA dat a, were cold ( 39 per cent ) , followed by
fever, diarrhoea and respirat ory problems ( 37 per cent , 34 per cent , and 22 per cent , respect ively) .
Trauma and inj ury account ed for 8 per cent of problems. About a quart er of all respondent s list ed
more t han one complaint .
Map 1: Heal t h pr obl ems as r epor t ed by househol ds i n t he Del t a ( ear l y June 2008)

Source: VTA household survey
The danger of a rise in ent eric ( gast ro- int est inal) diseases is clear. Prior t o t he cyclone, 77
percent of those interviewed had a pit latrine; now this has declined to 60 percent. Most of those
who lost their latrines now defecate openly, rising from 8 percent to 16 percent while defecation in
t renches increased from 12 percent t o 17 percent . Toget her t he pract ice of unsanit ary defecat ion –
comprising open defecation, foating latrines and trenches – has almost doubled after the cyclone
from 23 to 40 per cent. A particular concern is also the increasing use of foating latrines from 3 to
7 per cent in combinat ion wit h t he st ill common use of river wat er as a drinking wat er source as well
as the low usage of soaps in only one-third of households. This is refected in almost 60 percent of
households who report not having access t o clean wat er, furt her underscoring t he pot ent ial for fut ure
healt h problems.
Almost 40 percent of t he villages surveyed report ed t hat t heir rivers and ponds have been
salinat ed. Most have shift ed from t hese sources t o rainwat er t ank collect ion. 74 percent are using risky
wat er sources at t he household level, which include ponds, rivers and open dug wells. Households
are aware of this risk; more than 60 percent of households reported the use unsafe water sources.
An n e x 4 : He a l t h
70
Fi gur e 2: Wat er Sour ces of Af f ect ed Househol ds
High dependence on unsafe water sources
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
45%
50%
Rainwater
collection
Pond Open dug
well
River Hand
pump
Water
trucking
Tube well
H
o
u
s
e
h
o
l
d
s
Before
After
Source: Village Tract Assessment survey.
On t he psychological impact of t he cyclone, 23 percent of all respondent s report ed t hat
family members had experienced or observed psychological problems due t o Nargis. Report ing of
psychological problems varied across townships (ranging from 6 percent to 51 percent). Among
t hose wit h problems, only 11 percent had received any support or services t o deal wit h it . This varied
across t ownships, from 33 percent t o only 3 percent . Healt h workers and village leaders report ed
slightly lower rates of the need for psychological care at 11 percent and 16 percent, respectively, and
also report ed, respect ively, t hat 7 percent and 25 percent in need had received care.
Healt h service challenges. Less t han half ( 47 percent ) of respondent s st at ed t hat t hey had
adequat e access t o healt h facilit ies. About 80 percent of respondent s indicat ed t hat t hey lived wit hin
an hour' s walk or boat ride t o a healt h facilit y. An addit ional 17 percent were 1- 2 hours away, while
4 percent were more t han 2 hours from a healt h facilit y.
As for availabilit y of medicines, 53 percent of respondent s report ed t hat some essent ial
medicines were part ly available at t he healt h facilit y. A furt her 18 percent report ed t hat medicines
were widely available, 14 percent said t hat t hey were unavailable, and 15 percent said t hat t hey did
not know. Village leaders report ed t hat facilit ies wit h some medicines declined aft er t he cyclone by 3
percent age point s, t hose wit h widely available medicines declined by 10 percent age point s, and t hose
wit hout medicines increased 21 percent age point s. Healt h workers report ed nearly ident ical rat es
of change in access t o medicines. At t he t ownships level, almost everyone report ed t hat medicines
were widely available, but in remot e t ownships almost everyone had only part ial or no access.
Existing REliEF AnD REcOvERy EFFORts
The relief effort worked t o ensure t hat prevent ive measures were t aken t o prevent disease
out breaks and ensure access t o basic healt h care. WHO and ot her agencies assist ed t he Minist ry of
Healt h ( MOH) t hrough t he est ablishment of an Early Warning and Response Syst em in t he affect ed
areas t o complement t he MOH’s exist ing disease surveillance syst em. No maj or disease out breaks
have been identifed to date. Mobile teams have been organized to provide public health services as
well as medical care. These effort s have succeeded in reaching t he affect ed populat ion: VTA result s
est imat e t hat while prior t o t he cyclone only 9 percent of communit ies had service from a physician,
that fgure has now increased to 16 percent.
REcOvERy stRAtEgy AnD nEEDs
The overall obj ect ive of t he healt h st rat egy is t o ensure t he provision of basic services and
rest ore t he healt h care syst em in a way t hat provides bet t er healt h care and improves t he healt h
out comes of t he populat ion in t he affect ed areas. The main pillars of t he approach include: ( i)
ensuring basic health services including adequate disease surveillance and disaster preparedness;
(ii) reconstruction of health facilities to agreed standards for cyclone resistence; (iii) responsiveness
to demand-side constraints; and (iv) community support and reporting on results.
An n e x 4 : He a l t h
71
The act ivit ies will be facilit at ed by: ( i) agreeing on one implement at ion plan and est ablishing
coordinat ion and informat ion sharing arrangement s bet ween delivery agencies ( including int ernat ional
partners) and MOH; (ii) ensuring provision of services per the agreed plan, including options for mobile
services and deployment of st aff and t emporary facilit ies in areas of great est need and est ablishing
services in temporary accommodation; (iii) tracking needs and use of facilities and pharmaceutical
and medical supplies ( including vaccines) . As many act ivit ies t ake place at t he t ownship level, one
int egrat ed t ownship plan t hat includes all support ed act ivit ies is import ant t o ensure adequat e
coordinat ion of various input s. The plans should out line key needs as well as key out comes expect ed
and provide a mechanism to ensure adequate coordination and effciency of resource allocation at
the township level and below (including options to re-map/reconfgure facilities to better serve the
populat ion where t hey are fully dest royed) .
Ensuring basic health services. For t he next 12 mont hs, t he focus of t he relief program
will be on: immunizat ion, supply of emergency drugs, out break preparedness and response, TB
and HI V care and t reat ment , primary healt h care, sexual and reproduct ive healt h, ment al healt h,
hospit al referrals for secondary and t ert iary medical care and wast e management . Damaged healt h
and medical equipment will be replaced, including cold chain and wast e- disposal infrast ruct ure. The
nat ional and local primary healt h care net works and syst ems will be react ivat ed by mobilizing and
support ing communit y healt h workers and volunt ary workers.
Healt h facilit y reconst ruct ion: This would involve: ( i) undert aking, by specialized t eams,
detailed facility assessments and design as well as human resource needs; and (ii) rehabilitation
of part ially and complet ely damaged facilit ies, and equipment , supplies and vehicles needed for
t he rest orat ion of services. A close examinat ion of t he st andards for const ruct ion is warrant ed and
consist ent wit h t he “ build back bet t er ” agenda for rest orat ion, t aking int o account lessons from t his
experience and from ot her count ries t hat faced similar recovery challenges aft er nat ural disast ers.
The guidelines should look at opt ions t o make facilit ies more cyclone resist ant , including, in addit ion
t o bet t er building st andards, t he provision of solar syst ems or ot her measures t o ensure sust ained
cold chain and power supply. I t is est imat ed t hat one t hird of damaged healt h facilit ies can be
rehabilitated in the frst twelve months.
Responsiveness t o demand side const raint s. This would involve identifcation of constraints
and ot her issues t o t he use of healt h services as well as ot her special needs for t he poor and
t hose seriously disadvant aged by t he cyclone, including changes in populat ion needs, locat ion and
affordabilit y. Technical assist ance would be required for a demand side assessment and opt ions
for implementation design of demand side fnancing arrangements. Options should draw on both
int ernat ional experience and experience wit hin Myanmar from ongoing init iat ives. Ot her t ypes
of assistance would include fnancing of health services for those disabled (hence, with reduced
incomes) due to events surrounding the cyclone, and fnancing of health services for the most
vulnerable arising from t he impact of t he cyclone, including t he displaced.
Communit y support and report ing on result s. Part of t he success of t he recovery phase will
involve linkages wit h t he communit y and mobilizat ion of t heir support . This is not a new phenomenon
as many of t he previous RHCs and sub- RHCs were support ed by t he communit ies t hey served.
Financing needs. Overall healt h sect or recovery cost s are est imat ed c. K31, 000 million,
including K20, 900 million ( 70 percent ) for facilit y rest orat ion and K10, 100 million ( 30 percent ) for
service delivery rest orat ion ( Table 5) .
An n e x 4 : He a l t h
72
Tabl e 5: Est i mat e of Heal t h Recov er y Needs
( Kyat million)
9 Annex 4: Healt h

( Kyat million)
I t ems Tot al
A. Faci l i t y Repai r and Rest or at i on
Township healt h syst em planning 400
Facilit y assessment ( supply side needs) 100
Facilit y design 772
Repair and rest orat ion 19, 606
Sub-total 1/ 20,878
B. Ser vi ce Del i ver y Rest or at i on
Public healt h ( including mobile t eams) 1, 380
Human resource development and redeployment 440
Management and coordinat ion of healt h services ( t ownship level) 150
Demand side financing design 200
Healt h services for t he disabled 132
Healt h services for t he most vulnerable( including displaced) 6, 520
Emergency/ disast er management ( incl. surveillance) 800
Communit y support and result monit oring 500
Sub-total 10,122
Tot al 31, 000
1/ I ndicat ive est imat es suggest it might cost an addit ional K3,000 million t o reconfigure t he healt h
syst em t o meet long- t erm healt h service needs at t he t ownship level and below.
Not e: Cost ings in t his r eport cover all ident ified r est orat ion healt h needs at 2008/ 09 prices. I t is
assumed t hat t he r est orat ion program will be undert aken over t hree years. By cont rast , t he cost s of
t he overall program reflect ed in t he overview sect ion include inflat ion est imat es for t hat proport ion of
t he program est imat ed t o be under t aken in 2009/ 10 and 2010/ 11; cost s, t hus, will be great er t han
report ed in t his Annex.
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.

1/ Indicative estimates suggest it might cost an additional K3,000 million to reconfgure the health system to meet long-term
healt h service needs at t he t ownship level and below.
Note: Costings in this report cover all identifed restoration health needs at 2008/09 prices. It is assumed that the restoration
program will be undertaken over three years. By contrast, the costs of the overall program refected in the overview section
include infation estimates for that proportion of the program estimated to be undertaken in 2009/10 and 2010/11; costs, thus,
will be great er t han report ed in t his Annex.
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.
An n e x 4 : He a l t h
73
AnnEx 5: EDucAtiOn
summARy
According to the Human Development Report 2005, Myanmar scores 0.76, just below the
world average ( 0. 77) , on it s Educat ion I ndex.
1
The Educat ion for All ( EFA) Mid Decade Assessment
2007 report s net enrolment levels at 82 percent for primary educat ion and 34 percent for secondary
education in 2005/06. These aggregate fgures mask signifcant variations across income levels.
Dat a derived from t he Mult iple I nt egrat ed Clust er Survey ( MI CS) of 2000 indicat e t hat almost 20
percent of children from t he poorest quint ile of t he populat ion never enrol in school, compared t o
less t han 5 percent who do not enrol from t heir wealt hier count erpart s in t he t op quint ile.
2
Cyclone Nargis had a severe impact on t he educat ion sect or, dest roying about 4, 000 schools.
The VTA also shows t hat ( i) a large share of schools were left wit h unusable lat rines ( 57 percent ) ,
raising issues of public health safety; and (ii) there was widespread loss of school furniture, teaching
and learning mat erials, all of which need t o be replaced. The t ot al damage and losses in t he educat ion
sector due to Cyclone Nargis are estimated at K116 billion including K115 billion for replacement
facilit ies, furnit ure and educat ion mat erials and loss est imat es of K1 billion ( inclusive of expendit ures
relat ed t o t emporary school facilit ies, recruit ment and t raining of new t eachers, clean- up cost s and
psycho- social counseling) . Public general educat ion account ed for t he overwhelming proport ion of
the damages K106 billion (92 percent) of which primary education accounted for K92 billion (87
percent ) .
Education sector needs are est imat ed at K179 billion wit h: ( i) K2 billion being required for
service delivery restoration and overhead support; and (ii) K177 billion being for facility restoration
including for resupplying furnit ure, t eaching and learning mat erials and t ext books. I t is est imat ed
that K167 billion is required for the public general education cycle (93 percent of needs) while early
childhood, monast ic, higher educat ion facilit ies and repair of administ rat ive buildings require K11
billion (6 percent of overall needs). Most signifcantly the cost of restoring the primary education
syst em is est imat ed at K142 billion ( almost 80 percent of t ot al needs) .
pRE-DisAstER situAtiOn
The government has a clearly art iculat ed EFA st rat egy. The educat ion syst em is st ruct ured
around fve years of primary school, four years of middle school and two years of high school.
Students are expected to enter primary school at the age of fve and complete it by the age of ten.
Education participation. According t o t he Human Development Report 2005, Myanmar scores
0.76, just below the world average (0.77), on its Education Index. The EFA Mid Decade Assessment
( MDA) 2007 report s net enrolment levels at 82 percent for primary educat ion and 34 percent for
secondary education in 2005/06. Comparable middle school and high school rates were 43 percent
and 28 percent, respectively. These fgures are fairly congruent with the Integrated Household
Living Condit ions ( I HLC) survey of 2004 which suggest s an 85 percent primary net enrolment rat e.
According t o I HLC, Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions have generally ranked slight ly above t he
nat ional average in t erms of primary net enrolment rat es at about 88 percent each.
These aggregate fgures mask signifcant variations across income levels. Data derived from
t he MI CS indicat e t hat almost 20 percent of children from t he poorest quint ile of t he populat ion never
enrol in school, compared t o less t han 5 percent who do not enrol from t heir wealt hier count erpart s
in t he t op quint ile.
3
By the age of 11, approximately 60 percent of students in the richest quintile
t ransferred t o middle school, while only 10 percent of st udent s in t he poorest quint ile cont inued t o
middle school.
Gender does not appear t o be a crit ical fact or in det ermining educat ion at t ainment . The
gender gap among younger age cohort s has been reduced not ably compared t o older cohort s. At
1 Unit ed Nat ions Development Program, Human Development Report , 2005.
2 Unit ed Nat ions Children Fund ( UNI CEF) , Mult iple I nt egrat ed Clust er Survey, 2000. This informat ion on wealt h quint iles
derived from t he 2000 MI CS dat a base ( unpublished) . I t was derived from an analysis of t he household charact erist ics
document ed in t he report applying a st andard met hodology used for est ablishing wealt h indexes.
3 ibid.
An n e x 5 : Ed u ca t i o n
74
present, the ratio of girls to boys in primary education is around 96 girls for 100 boys. Drawing from
I HLC survey dat a, while Ayeyarwady Division had achieved gender parit y, Yangon Division lagged
behind wit h a rat io of girls t o boys in primary level enrolment of 0. 92 t o 1. Table 1 below provides
est imat es of t he number of school children in t he cyclone affect ed areas.
Tabl e 1: Number of School Chi l dr en ( 2007)
Annex 5: Educat ion 2

primary net enrolment rat e. According t o I HLC, Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions
have generally ranked slight ly above t he nat ional average in t erms of primary net
enrolment rat es at about 88 percent each.

These aggregat e figures mask significant variat ions across income levels. Dat a
derived from t he MI CS indicat e t hat almost 20 percent of children from t he
poorest quint ile of t he populat ion never enrol in school, compared t o less t han 5
percent who do not enrol from t heir wealt hier count erpart s in t he t op quint ile.
3
By
t he age of 11, approximat ely 60 percent of st udent s in t he richest quint ile
t ransferred t o middle school, while only 10 percent of st udent s in t he poorest
quint ile cont inued t o middle school.

Gender does not appear t o be a crit ical fact or in det ermining educat ion
at t ainment . The gender gap among younger age cohort s has been reduced
not ably compared t o older cohort s. At present , t he rat io of girls t o boys in
primary educat ion is around 96 girls for 100 boys. Drawing from I HLC survey
dat a, while Ayeyarwady Division had achieved gender parit y, Yangon Division
lagged behind wit h a rat io of girls t o boys in primary level enrolment of 0. 92 t o 1.
Table 1 below provides est imat es of t he number of school children in t he cyclone
affect ed areas.

Tabl e 1: Number of School Chi l dr en ( 2007)
Di v i si on Hi gh Mi ddl e Pr i mar y Tot al 1/
Ayeyarwady 49, 532 135, 683 499, 108 684, 321
Yangon 124, 222 288, 769 520, 363 933, 354
Tot al 173, 752 424, 452 1, 019, 471 1, 617, 675
1/ I t is est imat ed t hat a furt her 7,800 st udent s are enroled in early
childhood programs, t he maj orit y of whom are privat e.
Source: Minist ry of Educat ion, 2008.

The number of public general educat ion schools has increased st eadily in t he last
10 years. According t o t he Government of Myanmar, privat e general educat ion
schooling does not exist in t he count ry, as all schools are public, managed by
various Minist ries such as Educat ion, Agricult ure, Science and Technology.
Monast ic schools receive a public subsidy for educat ion cost s t hrough t he Minist ry
of Religious Affairs. I n 2005/ 06 t he st udent - t eacher rat io for primary educat ion
was 30: 1 ( 34: 1 in Yangon and Ayeyarwady) and for middle educat ion was 33: 1
( 30: 1 in Yangon and 39: 1 in Ayeyarwady) . Rural rat ios t end t o be higher, while
urban rat ios are oft en smaller.

Tabl e 2: Number of Publ i c School s ( 2007)
Di v i si on Hi gh Mi ddl e Pr i mar y Tot al
Ayeyarwady 207 317 4, 068 4, 592
Yangon 229 232 2, 204 2, 665
Tot al 436 549 6, 272 7, 257
Source: UNI CEF, 2008.

Complet ion of primary schooling is const rained by bot h supply and demand
fact ors. On t he supply side, limit at ions exist in mat erials and infrast ruct ure, as
well as opport unit ies for t eacher t raining, alt hough access t o schools does not
appear t o be a crit ical issue: according t o t he I HLC 2004 survey, 91 percent of
t he populat ion lives wit hin 30 minut es of walking dist ance t o a primary school ( 90
percent for rural areas and 96 percent in urban areas) ; t hus. The sit uat ion is
different for access t o higher educat ion levels, where 46 percent of t he populat ion
( 36 percent in rural areas) lives wit hin 30 minut es of a middle school, and 32

3
ibid.

1/ I t is est imat ed t hat a furt her 7, 800 st udent s are enroled in early childhood programs, t he maj orit y of whom are privat e.
Source: Minist ry of Educat ion, 2008.
The number of public general educat ion schools has increased st eadily in t he last 10 years.
According t o t he Government of Myanmar, privat e general educat ion schooling does not exist in t he
count ry, as all schools are public, managed by various Minist ries such as Educat ion, Agricult ure,
Science and Technology. Monast ic schools receive a public subsidy for educat ion cost s t hrough t he
Ministry of Religious Affairs. In 2005/06 the student-teacher ratio for primary education was 30:1
( 34: 1 in Yangon and Ayeyarwady) and for middle educat ion was 33: 1 ( 30: 1 in Yangon and 39: 1 in
Ayeyarwady) . Rural rat ios t end t o be higher, while urban rat ios are oft en smaller.
Tabl e 2: Number of Publ i c School s ( 2007)
Annex 5: Educat ion 2

primary net enrolment rat e. According t o I HLC, Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions
have generally ranked slight ly above t he nat ional average in t erms of primary net
enrolment rat es at about 88 percent each.

These aggregat e figures mask significant variat ions across income levels. Dat a
derived from t he MI CS indicat e t hat almost 20 percent of children from t he
poorest quint ile of t he populat ion never enrol in school, compared t o less t han 5
percent who do not enrol from t heir wealt hier count erpart s in t he t op quint ile.
3
By
t he age of 11, approximat ely 60 percent of st udent s in t he richest quint ile
t ransferred t o middle school, while only 10 percent of st udent s in t he poorest
quint ile cont inued t o middle school.

Gender does not appear t o be a crit ical fact or in det ermining educat ion
at t ainment . The gender gap among younger age cohort s has been reduced
not ably compared t o older cohort s. At present , t he rat io of girls t o boys in
primary educat ion is around 96 girls for 100 boys. Drawing from I HLC survey
dat a, while Ayeyarwady Division had achieved gender parit y, Yangon Division
lagged behind wit h a rat io of girls t o boys in primary level enrolment of 0. 92 t o 1.
Table 1 below provides est imat es of t he number of school children in t he cyclone
affect ed areas.

Tabl e 1: Number of School Chi l dr en ( 2007)
Di vi si on Hi gh Mi ddl e Pr i mar y Tot al 1/
Ayeyarwady 49, 532 135, 683 499, 108 684, 321
Yangon 124, 222 288, 769 520, 363 933, 354
Tot al 173, 752 424, 452 1, 019, 471 1, 617, 675
1/ I t is est imat ed t hat a furt her 7,800 st udent s are enroled in early
childhood programs, t he maj orit y of whom are privat e.
Source: Minist ry of Educat ion, 2008.

The number of public general educat ion schools has increased st eadily in t he last
10 years. According t o t he Government of Myanmar, privat e general educat ion
schooling does not exist in t he count ry, as all schools are public, managed by
various Minist ries such as Educat ion, Agricult ure, Science and Technology.
Monast ic schools receive a public subsidy for educat ion cost s t hrough t he Minist ry
of Religious Affairs. I n 2005/ 06 t he st udent - t eacher rat io for primary educat ion
was 30: 1 ( 34: 1 in Yangon and Ayeyarwady) and for middle educat ion was 33: 1
( 30: 1 in Yangon and 39: 1 in Ayeyarwady) . Rural rat ios t end t o be higher, while
urban rat ios are oft en smaller.

Tabl e 2: Number of Publ i c School s ( 2007)
Di vi si on Hi gh Mi ddl e Pr i mar y Tot al
Ayeyarwady 207 317 4, 068 4, 592
Yangon 229 232 2, 204 2, 665
Tot al 436 549 6, 272 7, 257
Source: UNI CEF, 2008.

Complet ion of primary schooling is const rained by bot h supply and demand
fact ors. On t he supply side, limit at ions exist in mat erials and infrast ruct ure, as
well as opport unit ies for t eacher t raining, alt hough access t o schools does not
appear t o be a crit ical issue: according t o t he I HLC 2004 survey, 91 percent of
t he populat ion lives wit hin 30 minut es of walking dist ance t o a primary school ( 90
percent for rural areas and 96 percent in urban areas) ; t hus. The sit uat ion is
different for access t o higher educat ion levels, where 46 percent of t he populat ion
( 36 percent in rural areas) lives wit hin 30 minut es of a middle school, and 32

3
ibid.

Source: UNI CEF, 2008.
Complet ion of primary schooling is const rained by bot h supply and demand fact ors. On t he
supply side, limit at ions exist in mat erials and infrast ruct ure, as well as opport unit ies for t eacher
t raining, alt hough access t o schools does not appear t o be a crit ical issue: according t o t he I HLC
2004 survey, 91 percent of t he populat ion lives wit hin 30 minut es of walking dist ance t o a primary
school (90 percent for rural areas and 96 percent in urban areas); thus. The situation is different
for access to higher education levels, where 46 percent of the population (36 percent in rural areas)
lives wit hin 30 minut es of a middle school, and 32 percent has access t o a secondary school ( 17
percent in rural areas) . I n Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions, t he proport ion of t he populat ion wit h
access to primary schooling was 96 percent and 97 percent respectively. The proportion of the
population with access to middle and high school drops signifcantly to 51 percent and 31 percent,
respectively, in Ayeyarwady, and 76 percent and 69 percent in Yangon.
Monastic schools follow the offcial school curriculum but fall under the administration of the
Minist ry of Religious Affairs. They primarily serve t ownships where access t o schooling is limit ed.
Formally regist ered monast ic schools represent approximat ely 3 percent of primary educat ion
enrolment s and under 1 percent of secondary educat ion enrolment s. I n 2008, it is est imat ed t hat
there were 308 registered monastic schools serving approximately 51,600 students in Yangon and
Ayeyarwady Divisions. However, most village monast eries provide schooling ( using t he st andard
curriculum) for village school- age children. Enrolment s in t hese schools are believed t o be quit e
signifcant in aggregate terms and could account for as much as 10 percent of total primary school
enrolment s
4
.
4 The estimates provided here are subject to some uncertainty but can be confrmed by detailed assessments which religious
inst it ut ions consult ed offered t o facilit at e at t ownship level. The rebuilding of t hese monast ic premises used for village
schooling is included in t he rest orat ion of religious buildings. I f t hese schools enrolled 10 percent of t he st udent s, t hen t he
cost of furnit ure and learning mat erials could account for an addit ional K2, 000 million.
An n e x 5 : Ed u ca t i o n
75
Early Childhood Care and Educat ion service provision is limit ed and largely provided by
a constellation of private sector providers including NGOs, INGOs, for-proft operators and faith-
based organizat ions. The Depart ment of Social Welfare is also an import ant player in t he delivery of
early childhood care. The Minist ry of Educat ion manages approximat ely 1, 800 preschool cent res for
37,000 students nationwide, from a total of 7,500 centres catering to 256,000 children. Yangon and
Ayeyarwady Divisions have amongst t he highest concent rat ion of pre- primary educat ion facilit ies.
The government also manages 896 community learning centres to provide basic literacy
services t o adult s. A t wo- year program provides equivalency degrees t o formal primary educat ion
for out - of- school children who never enroled in or dropped out of school. However, t hese programs
are relat ively small. Non- formal educat ion has been generally hampered by weak infrast ruct ure and
insuffcient funding.
Education fnancing. On t he demand side, household expendit ure for educat ion varies from
0. 78 percent of t ot al household expendit ure in t he East ern Shan St at e t o 2. 4 percent of expendit ure
in Yangon City. Primary education is offcially free in Myanmar. However, parents usually contribute
payment s for t ext books, paper, supplies, Parent Teacher Associat ion Fund cont ribut ions, and
miscellaneous school improvement fees. Cont ribut ions t o enrol in school are est imat ed at K5, 000-
K8, 000 for middle school rural st udent s and K10, 000- K14, 000 for urban st udent s. At t he primary
level, direct cost s ( cont ribut ions, school uniforms, privat e t uit ion and t ransport cost s et c. ) have
been assessed at around K25, 000 per child per year. A st udy in Yangon high schools est imat ed t hat
education represented 16 percent of household income and private tutoring fees raised this fgure
t o 27 percent ( Bray, 1999)
5
.
Government education expenditure has been on the rise—from K68,700 million in 2005/06
to K204,000 million in 2007/08 (Table3), yet total education investments remain low. In 2005/06,
education represented about 8 percent of the total government budget or 0.6 percent of GDP; this
is in cont rast t o 2001/ 02 when educat ion expendit ures amount ed t o K32, 000 million represent ing
about 18 percent of t he government budget or 1. 3 percent of GDP. Budget ary increases in basic
educat ion have been driven largely by increases in recurrent spending for t eacher salaries.
Tabl e 3: Gover nment Educat i on Ex pendi t ur es ( Ky at Mi l l i on)
Annex 5: Educat ion 4

t he t ot al government budget or 0.6 percent of GDP; t his is in cont rast t o 2001/ 02
when educat ion expendit ures amount ed t o K32, 000 million represent ing about 18
percent of t he government budget or 1. 3 percent of GDP. Budget ary increases in
basic educat ion have been driven largely by increases in recurrent spending for
t eacher salaries.

Tabl e 3: Gover nment Educat i on Ex pendi t ur es
( Kyat Million)
2005/ 06
Act ual
2006/ 07
Est i mat ed
2007/ 08
Est i mat ed
Recurrent 46, 500 151, 700 160, 700
Capit al 22, 200 30, 900 43, 300
Tot al 68, 700 182, 600 204, 000
Source: Budget Depar t ment , Cent ral Bank of Myanmar .

Parent - Teacher Associat ions ( PTA) and School Boards of Trust ees play maj or
roles in financing educat ion. Schools possess a PTA t hat raises funds regularly
and levies fees on st udent s.

Teachers. Tradit ionally seen as role models and communit y leaders, t eachers are
highly regarded in Myanmar societ y. I n 2005, t he government support ed 210, 705
t eachers in basic educat ion wit h over 85 percent being female ( EFA MDA 2007) .
Teachers are t rained using a t wo- pronged approach, wit h pre- service and in-
service t raining provided. Qualificat ions of t eachers vary according t o t he level of
school being t aught . Primary school t eachers receive a Cert ificat e of Educat ion
t hrough a one- year course offered at Educat ion Colleges aft er complet ing high
school. Middle school t eachers are expect ed t o complet e a t wo- year program
aft er high school and receive a Diploma of Educat ion. Meanwhile, high school
t eachers are t rained at t he I nst it ut e of Educat ion and are conferred a Bachelor of
Educat ion aft er t wo years of dist ance learning or one year in residence ( UNESCO,
2005) .

Mont hly base salary of primary school t eachers st art s at approximat ely K27, 000
( see Table 4) . Teachers in urban areas conduct privat e t ut oring t o supplement
t heir income, while rural t eachers oft en work part t ime pursuing act ivit ies such as
t he sale of local produce. Approximat ely 75 percent of all t eachers are st at ioned
in rural areas, around half of whom receive some kind of support ( food or
accommodat ion) from t he communit y. I n June 2004, t he government ceased t o
provide rice t o government employees but is paying an ext ra living allowance.

Tabl e 4: Mont hl y Teacher Base Sal ar i es
( Kyat )
Level Mont hl y Sal ar y
Primary school 27, 000
Middle school 33, 000
High school 39, 000
Source: Minist ry of Educat ion.

Damage and Losses

Cyclone Nargis had a significant impact on t he educat ion sect or. Bet ween 50- 63
percent of schools were damaged or dest royed ( 3, 600 t o 4, 500 schools) .
6
School
buildings are a cent re piece in t he livelihoods of many of t he villages in t he
affect ed areas. According t o t he VTA, 73 percent of village leaders ident ified

6
The informat ion is drawn fr om administ rat ive dat a, UN Agencies and t he Village Tract Assessment
( VTA) . Administ rat ion figur es show a range of 43- 49 percent dest royed. Only t he VTA indicat es 63
percent of schools damaged, but t his focused on t he t hir t y most sever ely damaged t ownships.

Source: Budget Depart ment , Cent ral Bank of Myanmar.
Parent-Teacher Associations (PTA) and School Boards of Trustees play major roles in fnancing
educat ion. Schools possess a PTA t hat raises funds regularly and levies fees on st udent s.
Teachers. Tradit ionally seen as role models and communit y leaders, t eachers are highly
regarded in Myanmar societ y. I n 2005, t he government support ed 210, 705 t eachers in basic
educat ion wit h over 85 percent being female ( EFA MDA 2007) . Teachers are t rained using a t wo-
pronged approach, with pre-service and in-service training provided. Qualifcations of teachers
vary according to the level of school being taught. Primary school teachers receive a Certifcate of
Educat ion t hrough a one- year course offered at Educat ion Colleges aft er complet ing high school.
Middle school t eachers are expect ed t o complet e a t wo- year program aft er high school and receive a
Diploma of Educat ion. Meanwhile, high school t eachers are t rained at t he I nst it ut e of Educat ion and
are conferred a Bachelor of Educat ion aft er t wo years of dist ance learning or one year in residence
( UNESCO, 2005) .
Mont hly base salary of primary school t eachers st art s at approximat ely K27, 000 ( see Table
4) . Teachers in urban areas conduct privat e t ut oring t o supplement t heir income, while rural t eachers
oft en work part t ime pursuing act ivit ies such as t he sale of local produce. Approximat ely 75 percent
of all t eachers are st at ioned in rural areas, around half of whom receive some kind of support ( food
5 The Shadow Educat ion Syst em: Privat e Tut oring and it s I mplicat ions for Planners. Paris. I I EP.
An n e x 5 : Ed u ca t i o n
76
or accommodat ion) from t he communit y. I n June 2004, t he government ceased t o provide rice t o
government employees but is paying an ext ra living allowance.
Tabl e 4: Mont hl y Teacher Base Sal ar i es ( Kyat )
Annex 5: Educat ion 4

t he t ot al government budget or 0.6 percent of GDP; t his is in cont rast t o 2001/ 02
when educat ion expendit ures amount ed t o K32, 000 million represent ing about 18
percent of t he government budget or 1. 3 percent of GDP. Budget ary increases in
basic educat ion have been driven largely by increases in recurrent spending for
t eacher salaries.

Tabl e 3: Gov er nment Educat i on Ex pendi t ur es
( Kyat Million)
2005/ 06
Act ual
2006/ 07
Est i mat ed
2007/ 08
Est i mat ed
Recurrent 46, 500 151, 700 160, 700
Capit al 22, 200 30, 900 43, 300
Tot al 68, 700 182, 600 204, 000
Source: Budget Depar t ment , Cent ral Bank of Myanmar .

Parent - Teacher Associat ions ( PTA) and School Boards of Trust ees play maj or
roles in financing educat ion. Schools possess a PTA t hat raises funds regularly
and levies fees on st udent s.

Teachers. Tradit ionally seen as role models and communit y leaders, t eachers are
highly regarded in Myanmar societ y. I n 2005, t he government support ed 210, 705
t eachers in basic educat ion wit h over 85 percent being female ( EFA MDA 2007) .
Teachers are t rained using a t wo- pronged approach, wit h pre- service and in-
service t raining provided. Qualificat ions of t eachers vary according t o t he level of
school being t aught . Primary school t eachers receive a Cert ificat e of Educat ion
t hrough a one- year course offered at Educat ion Colleges aft er complet ing high
school. Middle school t eachers are expect ed t o complet e a t wo- year program
aft er high school and receive a Diploma of Educat ion. Meanwhile, high school
t eachers are t rained at t he I nst it ut e of Educat ion and are conferred a Bachelor of
Educat ion aft er t wo years of dist ance learning or one year in residence ( UNESCO,
2005) .

Mont hly base salary of primary school t eachers st art s at approximat ely K27, 000
( see Table 4) . Teachers in urban areas conduct privat e t ut oring t o supplement
t heir income, while rural t eachers oft en work part t ime pursuing act ivit ies such as
t he sale of local produce. Approximat ely 75 percent of all t eachers are st at ioned
in rural areas, around half of whom receive some kind of support ( food or
accommodat ion) from t he communit y. I n June 2004, t he government ceased t o
provide rice t o government employees but is paying an ext ra living allowance.

Tabl e 4: Mont hl y Teacher Base Sal ar i es
( Kyat )
Level Mont hl y Sal ar y
Primary school 27, 000
Middle school 33, 000
High school 39, 000
Source: Minist ry of Educat ion.

Damage and Losses

Cyclone Nargis had a significant impact on t he educat ion sect or. Bet ween 50- 63
percent of schools were damaged or dest royed ( 3, 600 t o 4, 500 schools) .
6
School
buildings are a cent re piece in t he livelihoods of many of t he villages in t he
affect ed areas. According t o t he VTA, 73 percent of village leaders ident ified

6
The informat ion is drawn fr om administ rat ive dat a, UN Agencies and t he Village Tract Assessment
( VTA) . Administ rat ion figur es show a range of 43- 49 percent dest royed. Only t he VTA indicat es 63
percent of schools damaged, but t his focused on t he t hir t y most sever ely damaged t ownships.

Source: Minist ry of Educat ion.
DAmAgE AnD lOssEs
Cyclone Nargis had a signifcant impact on the education sector. Between 50-63 percent of
schools were damaged or destroyed (3,600 to 4,500 schools).
6
School buildings are a cent re piece
in t he livelihoods of many of t he villages in t he affect ed areas. According t o t he VTA, 73 percent of
village leaders identifed schools as the priority facilities needing immediate support for rebuilding.
Damage brought about by t he cyclone affect ed many schools t hroughout t he region as observed in
t he map of Damaged School Buildings ( map xxx in t he main report ) . Most villages in t he sout hern
part of Ngapudaw Township were affect ed as well as many areas of Labut t a, Bogale, Pyapone and
Dedaye. Some school buildings are also report ed as damaged near Yangon, in Kyaukt an, Thanlyin
and Twant ay. The survey also found t hat lat rines were rendered unusable in 57 percent of village
schools, and a widespread loss of school furnit ure, t eaching and learning mat erials, all of which need
to be replaced. Table 5 present key fndings of the VTA.
Tabl e 5: VTA Key I nf or mant Responses *
( Percent )
5 Annex 5: Educat ion

schools as t he priorit y facilit ies needing immediat e support for rebuilding.
Damage brought about by t he cyclone affect ed many schools t hroughout t he
region as observed in t he map of Damaged School Buildings ( map xxx in t he
main report ) . Most villages in t he sout hern part of Ngapudaw Township were
affect ed as well as many areas of Labut t a, Bogale, Pyapone and Dedaye. Some
school buildings are also report ed as damaged near Yangon, in Kyaukt an,
Thanlyin and Twant ay. The survey also found t hat lat rines were rendered
unusable in 57 percent of village schools, and a widespread loss of school
furnit ure, t eaching and learning mat erials, all of which need t o be replaced. Table
5 present key findings of t he VTA.

Tabl e 5: VTA Key I nf or mant Responses *
( Per cent )
Per cent of Vi l l ages
Vi l l age
l eader s
( n= 281)
Teacher s
( n= 206)
Di r ect
obser vat i on
( n= 283)
wit h schools damaged * 32 - - 63* *
wit h unusable school lat rines 57 57 54
School furnit ure needed 89 90 - -
Text books needed 57 63 - -
Learning mat erials needed 64 56 - -
%wit h t eachers t rained on ways t o
help children deal wit h a cyclone
7 19 - -
Source: VTA Survey
Not e: * Covers only a proport ion of t he most severely affect ed t ownships, hence will overest imat e
t ot al percent ages.
* * 39 per cent of schools wer e report ed t ot ally damaged and a furt her 24 per cent part ly damaged

Damage in similar proport ions t o government primary and middle school buildings
were also report ed t o monast ic schools, public Early Childhood, Yout h
Development , and Communit y Learning Cent ers. Approximat ely 242 Early
Childhood Care est ablishment s managed by t he privat e sect or also incurred t ot al
or part ial damages.

Addit ionally, educat ion administ rat ive offices experienced roof and part ial
damages, while about 500 universit y buildings and higher educat ion
administ rat ive offices are report ed t o have had roofs t oppled. Government report s
t hat 113 t eachers and school personnel lost t heir lives and t hat about 250
t eachers are current ly absent from t heir post s.

The educat ion working group ident ified t he immediat e need for repair,
rehabilit at ion, and support for mat erials, as t he school year st art ed on 2 June.
The group agreed t hat at t ent ion t o safet y was paramount , and on t he need t o
“ Build Back Bet t er” , wit h increased resilience t o fut ure cyclones or nat ural
disast ers. Opport unit ies, part icularly where schools have been t ot ally dest royed,
exist t o make school designs more child friendly.

Damage assessment of schools. The high level of dest ruct ion of civil works was a
product of long- st anding infrast ruct ure t hat has been maint ained inadequat ely or
recent ly- erect ed buildings where const ruct ion st andards have not been enforced.
While educat ion part icipat ion has grown st eadily over t ime, capit al invest ment s
have remained limit ed. Recurrent financing is dedicat ed most ly t o financing
t eacher salaries, limit ing regular operat ions and maint enance expendit ures.

Damages in t he educat ion sect or by School Type and locat ion are present ed in
Table 6 below. Table 7 present damages t o t he public general educat ion sect or in
more det ail.


Source: VTA Survey
Not e: * Covers only a proport ion of t he most severely affect ed t ownships, hence will overest imat e t ot al percent ages.
* * 39 per cent of schools were report ed t ot ally damaged and a furt her 24 per cent part ly damaged
Damage in similar proport ions t o government primary and middle school buildings were also
report ed t o monast ic schools, public Early Childhood, Yout h Development , and Communit y Learning
Cent ers. Approximat ely 242 Early Childhood Care est ablishment s managed by t he privat e sect or
also incurred t ot al or part ial damages.
Additionally, education administrative offces experienced roof and partial damages, while
about 500 university buildings and higher education administrative offces are reported to have had
roofs t oppled. Government report s t hat 113 t eachers and school personnel lost t heir lives and t hat
about 250 t eachers are current ly absent from t heir post s.
The education working group identifed the immediate need for repair, rehabilitation, and
support for mat erials, as t he school year st art ed on 2 June. The group agreed t hat at t ent ion t o safet y
6 The information is drawn from administrative data, UN Agencies and the Village Tract Assessment (VTA). Administration
fgures show a range of 43- 49 percent destroyed. Only the VTA indicates 63 percent of schools damaged, but this focused
on t he t hirt y most severely damaged t ownships.
An n e x 5 : Ed u ca t i o n
77
was paramount , and on t he need t o “ Build Back Bet t er ”, wit h increased resilience t o fut ure cyclones
or nat ural disast ers. Opport unit ies, part icularly where schools have been t ot ally dest royed, exist t o
make school designs more child friendly.
Damage assessment of schools. The high level of dest ruct ion of civil works was a product
of long- st anding infrast ruct ure t hat has been maint ained inadequat ely or recent ly- erect ed buildings
where const ruct ion st andards have not been enforced. While educat ion part icipat ion has grown
steadily over time, capital investments have remained limited. Recurrent fnancing is dedicated
mostly to fnancing teacher salaries, limiting regular operations and maintenance expenditures.
Damages in the education sector by School Type and location are presented in Table 6 below.
Table 7 present damages t o t he public general educat ion sect or in more det ail.
Tabl e 6: Damages i n Educat i on Sect or by School Ty pe and Locat i on
( Kyat million)
Annex 5: Educat ion 6



Tabl e 6: Damages i n Educat i on Sect or by School Ty pe and Locat i on
( Kyat million)
Damages Per cent age
Publ i c gener al educat i on
Tot ally or part ially damaged schools 68. 040 58. 8
Roof damaged schools 12, 518 10. 8
Furnit ure, equipment and learning mat erials 25, 832 22. 3
Monast i c educat i on
Part ially damaged schools 1, 584 1. 4
Furnit ure and learning mat erials 259 0. 2
Ear l y chi l dhood, y out h and adul t l i t er acy cent er s
Part ially or t ot ally damaged public inst it ut ions 392 0. 3
Furnit ure and learning mat erials 84 0. 1
Part ially or t ot ally damaged privat e inst it ut ions 2, 939 2. 4
Furnit ure and learning mat erials 508 0. 4
Hi gher educat i on
Roof damaged higher educat ion inst it ut ions and offices 2, 742 2. 4
Furnit ure, equipment and learning mat erials 208 0. 2
Admi ni st r at i ve of f i ces 559 0. 5
Tot al 115, 665 100
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.

Tabl e 7: Damages i n Publ i c Pr i mar y , Mi ddl e and Secondar y School s
( Kyat million)
Damages Per cent age
Pr i mar y school
Tot ally or part ially damaged schools 59, 297 55. 9
Roof damaged schools 10, 407 9. 8
Furnit ure, equipment and learning mat erials 22, 352 21. 1
Mi ddl e school
Tot ally or part ially damaged schools 5, 118 4. 8
Roof damaged schools 1, 005 0. 9
Furnit ure, equipment and learning mat erials 1, 964 1. 9
Hi gh school
Tot ally or part ially damaged schools 3, 367 3. 2
Roof damaged schools 1, 105 1. 0
Furnit ure, equipment and learning mat erials 1, 434 1. 4
Tot al 106, 050 100
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.

Losses relat e primarily t o cost s from providing int erim public school facilit ies
during reconst ruct ion, compensat ion t o families for t eacher deat hs, professional
t raining for st aff replacement s and provision of psycho- social counselling in
affect ed areas ( Table 8) . Revenue st ream losses in t he privat e sect or are
considered minimal.

Tabl e 8: Losses i n Educat i on Sect or
( Kyat million)
Losses
Provision of int erim public school facilit ies 672
Family compensat ion benefit s 11
Professional t raining for st aff replacement s 100
Psycho- social counselling 240
Tot al 1,023
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.


Source: PONJA Team est imat es.
Tabl e 7: Damages i n Publ i c Pr i mar y , Mi ddl e and Secondar y School s
( Kyat million)
Annex 5: Educat ion 6



Tabl e 6: Damages i n Educat i on Sect or by School Ty pe and Locat i on
( Kyat million)
Damages Per cent age
Publ i c gener al educat i on
Tot ally or part ially damaged schools 68. 040 58. 8
Roof damaged schools 12, 518 10. 8
Furnit ure, equipment and learning mat erials 25, 832 22. 3
Monast i c educat i on
Part ially damaged schools 1, 584 1. 4
Furnit ure and learning mat erials 259 0. 2
Ear l y chi l dhood, y out h and adul t l i t er acy cent er s
Part ially or t ot ally damaged public inst it ut ions 392 0. 3
Furnit ure and learning mat erials 84 0. 1
Part ially or t ot ally damaged privat e inst it ut ions 2, 939 2. 4
Furnit ure and learning mat erials 508 0. 4
Hi gher educat i on
Roof damaged higher educat ion inst it ut ions and offices 2, 742 2. 4
Furnit ure, equipment and learning mat erials 208 0. 2
Admi ni st r at i ve of f i ces 559 0. 5
Tot al 115, 665 100
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.

Tabl e 7: Damages i n Publ i c Pr i mar y , Mi ddl e and Secondar y School s
( Kyat million)
Damages Per cent age
Pr i mar y school
Tot ally or part ially damaged schools 59, 297 55. 9
Roof damaged schools 10, 407 9. 8
Furnit ure, equipment and learning mat erials 22, 352 21. 1
Mi ddl e school
Tot ally or part ially damaged schools 5, 118 4. 8
Roof damaged schools 1, 005 0. 9
Furnit ure, equipment and learning mat erials 1, 964 1. 9
Hi gh school
Tot ally or part ially damaged schools 3, 367 3. 2
Roof damaged schools 1, 105 1. 0
Furnit ure, equipment and learning mat erials 1, 434 1. 4
Tot al 106, 050 100
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.

Losses relat e primarily t o cost s from providing int erim public school facilit ies
during reconst ruct ion, compensat ion t o families for t eacher deat hs, professional
t raining for st aff replacement s and provision of psycho- social counselling in
affect ed areas ( Table 8) . Revenue st ream losses in t he privat e sect or are
considered minimal.

Tabl e 8: Losses i n Educat i on Sect or
( Kyat million)
Losses
Provision of int erim public school facilit ies 672
Family compensat ion benefit s 11
Professional t raining for st aff replacement s 100
Psycho- social counselling 240
Tot al 1,023
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.


Source: PONJA Team est imat es.
Losses relat e primarily t o cost s from providing int erim public school facilit ies during
reconst ruct ion, compensat ion t o families for t eacher deat hs, professional t raining for st aff
An n e x 5 : Ed u ca t i o n
78
replacement s and provision of psycho- social counselling in affect ed areas ( Table 8) . Revenue st ream
losses in t he privat e sect or are considered minimal.
Tabl e 8: Losses i n Educat i on Sect or
( Kyat million)
Annex 5: Educat ion 6



Tabl e 6: Damages i n Educat i on Sect or by School Ty pe and Locat i on
( Kyat million)
Damages Per cent age
Publ i c gener al educat i on
Tot ally or part ially damaged schools 68. 040 58. 8
Roof damaged schools 12, 518 10. 8
Furnit ure, equipment and learning mat erials 25, 832 22. 3
Monast i c educat i on
Part ially damaged schools 1, 584 1. 4
Furnit ure and learning mat erials 259 0. 2
Ear l y chi l dhood, y out h and adul t l i t er acy cent er s
Part ially or t ot ally damaged public inst it ut ions 392 0. 3
Furnit ure and learning mat erials 84 0. 1
Part ially or t ot ally damaged privat e inst it ut ions 2, 939 2. 4
Furnit ure and learning mat erials 508 0. 4
Hi gher educat i on
Roof damaged higher educat ion inst it ut ions and offices 2, 742 2. 4
Furnit ure, equipment and learning mat erials 208 0. 2
Admi ni st r at i ve of f i ces 559 0. 5
Tot al 115, 665 100
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.

Tabl e 7: Damages i n Publ i c Pr i mar y , Mi ddl e and Secondar y School s
( Kyat million)
Damages Per cent age
Pr i mar y school
Tot ally or part ially damaged schools 59, 297 55. 9
Roof damaged schools 10, 407 9. 8
Furnit ure, equipment and learning mat erials 22, 352 21. 1
Mi ddl e school
Tot ally or part ially damaged schools 5, 118 4. 8
Roof damaged schools 1, 005 0. 9
Furnit ure, equipment and learning mat erials 1, 964 1. 9
Hi gh school
Tot ally or part ially damaged schools 3, 367 3. 2
Roof damaged schools 1, 105 1. 0
Furnit ure, equipment and learning mat erials 1, 434 1. 4
Tot al 106, 050 100
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.

Losses relat e primarily t o cost s from providing int erim public school facilit ies
during reconst ruct ion, compensat ion t o families for t eacher deat hs, professional
t raining for st aff replacement s and provision of psycho- social counselling in
affect ed areas ( Table 8) . Revenue st ream losses in t he privat e sect or are
considered minimal.

Tabl e 8: Losses i n Educat i on Sect or
( Kyat million)
Losses
Provision of int erim public school facilit ies 672
Family compensat ion benefit s 11
Professional t raining for st aff replacement s 100
Psycho- social counselling 240
Tot al 1,023
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.


Source: PONJA Team est imat es.
Privat e sect or damages in t he educat ion sect or only account for a relat ively small share of
overall damages, around K3 billion or j ust over 2. 5 percent of t he t ot al damages, given it s limit ed
presence ( only in t he early childhood care and development sub- sect or) .
Existing REliEF AnD REcOvERy EFFORts
The initial response to damages caused to the school system have been signifcant.
Government , privat e sect or organizat ions, NGOs and int ernat ional donors have already provided
funding est imat ed at K4. 9 billion for t he repair of primary and secondary schools wit h damaged
roofs. The Minist ry of Educat ion has also delivered t ext books and some educat ional mat erials t o
schools in affect ed areas. NGOs and int ernat ional part ners have been support ing government effort s
t o reopen educat ional est ablishment s or set up t emporary learning spaces wit h a minimum set of
educat ional input s.
Since the launch of the Flash Appeal 430 school roofs (government, monastic and affliated)
have been repaired by humanit arian organizat ions ( as of 4 July) . Some 518 t emporary safe learning
spaces have been provided for schools and early childhood care and development ( ECD) , and st udent
packages ( exercise books, pencils, erasers, ruler and school bag, et c. ) have been provided for
133, 500 children. Over 800 Schools- in- a- Box and 837 recreat ion kit s have also been dist ribut ed,
potentially benefting 65,560 children.
REcOvERy stRAtEgy AnD nEEDs
The Recovery st rat egy in t he educat ion sect or is t o:
Re- est ablish access t o formal and non- formal educat ion for all children affect ed by Cyclone •
Nargis t hrough: ( a) rest orat ion of schools and ot her inst it ut ions of learning ( e. g. ECD cent res,
monastic schools, affliated schools); and (b) provision of immediate transitional schooling
( e. g. t ent classrooms) in affect ed t ownships, providing basic educat ion mat erials and logist ical
support t o facilit at e back- t o- school and ot her learning opport unit ies for children.
Promot e t he resumpt ion of qualit y educat ion act ivit ies, including child friendly t eaching/ •
learning pract ices during recovery. An addit ional focus will cover provision of psychosocial
support for t eachers and children.
Ensure a support ive learning environment t hrough communit y mobilizat ion t o facilit at e •
children’s access t o schooling and ot her learning opport unit ies.
Select ed early recovery act ivit ies are covered under t he revised Humanit arian Appeal, which
aims in a 12- mont h period t o increase t he provision of t emporary safe learning spaces ( t o 1, 315
school and 520 ECD spaces); to provide repair and reconstruction of schools (1,640 schools, the
majority temporary repairs which will need subsequent replacement); to provide basic materials to
362,400 girls and boys; and train education professionals (9,300) in Disaster Risk Reduction, and
An n e x 5 : Ed u ca t i o n
79
child- friendly met hodologies including psychosocial support .
Tot al recovery needs for t he educat ion sect or are summarized in Table 9. I t is est imat ed
t hat t ot al facilit y rehabilit at ion cost s ( including t o furnit ure and school supplies and t ext books) are
K146.5 billion with K125.1.billion required for primary schools, K11.5 billion for middle schools,
and K8. 7 billion for high schools. Addit ionally, close t o K4 billion has been est imat ed for service
delivery restoration including: (i) community mobilization and monitoring K900 million; (ii) interim
public school provision not covered in the relief appeal (K2,500 million); and (iii) costs for family
compensation benefts, training and psycho-social counselling, with emphasis for townships/areas
not covered in t he relief program ( K510 million) .
Const ruct ion/ rehabilit at ion of schools is being undert aken t hrough various modalit ies, and at
different st andards. I t will be import ant early in t he relief operat ion t o agree on appropriat e st andards
at different levels ( t emporary rebuilding, permanent rehabilit at ion) and t o agree on successor
arrangement s for schools which will last t hrough only one rainy season. Urgent act ion is also needed
t o ensure st udent safet y in schools t hat have sust ained serious part ial or non- visible damage. A
review by t echnical personnel of st anding est ablishment s is required in order t o guarant ee st ruct ural
soundness. Where st ruct ures are found t o be unsound, repair and rehabilit at ion should cede t o
complet e reconst ruct ion of school facilit ies. To address t he emerging healt h, hygiene, psycho- social
and ot her life- t hreat ening issues affect ing children in schools, coordinat ion and part nership should
also be promot ed in t he areas of wat er, sanit at ion and hygiene, prot ect ion, healt h, nut rit ion and
shelt er.
There appears t o be some anecdot al evidence t hat t he cyclone may have affect ed educat ion
demand, but this should be corroborated later in the school year with student attendance fgures.
While some form of children’s work t o support household livelihoods is a common occurrence, older
children may now face increased pressure t o help increase family earnings and compensat e for
inficted economic losses. Through mobilizing government, well-wishers and NGOs, some support
is being provided t o families t o help reduce t he direct and opport unit y cost s of schooling t hrough
provision of cash and supplies, such as uniforms, t ext books or school mat erials. Effort s t o improve
livelihoods (Annex 14) will abate this problem but if enrolments do fall signifcantly a more formal
approach including direct subsidies t o t hose who are very vulnerable as a consequence of t he impact
of t he cyclone might be needed.
Tabl e 9: Educat i on Sect or Needs
( Kyat million)
Annex 5: Educat ion 8

public school provision not covered in t he relief appeal ( K2, 500 million) ; and ( iii)
cost s for family compensat ion benefit s, t raining and psycho- social counselling,
wit h emphasis for t ownships/ areas not covered in t he relief program ( K510
million) .

Const ruct ion/ rehabilit at ion of schools is being undert aken t hrough various
modalit ies, and at different st andards. I t will be import ant early in t he relief
operat ion t o agree on appropriat e st andards at different levels ( t emporary
rebuilding, permanent rehabilit at ion) and t o agree on successor arrangement s for
schools which will last t hrough only one rainy season. Urgent act ion is also
needed t o ensure st udent safet y in schools t hat have sust ained serious part ial or
non- visible damage. A review by t echnical personnel of st anding est ablishment s is
required in order t o guarant ee st ruct ural soundness. Where st ruct ures are found
t o be unsound, repair and rehabilit at ion should cede t o complet e reconst ruct ion of
school facilit ies. To address t he emerging healt h, hygiene, psycho- social and
ot her life- t hreat ening issues affect ing children in schools, coordinat ion and
part nership should also be promot ed in t he areas of wat er, sanit at ion and
hygiene, prot ect ion, healt h, nut rit ion and shelt er.

There appears t o be some anecdot al evidence t hat t he cyclone may have affect ed
educat ion demand, but t his should be corroborat ed lat er in t he school year wit h
st udent at t endance figures. While some form of children’s work t o support
household livelihoods is a common occurrence, older children may now face
increased pressure t o help increase family earnings and compensat e for inflict ed
economic losses. Through mobilizing government , well- wishers and NGOs, some
support is being provided t o families t o help reduce t he direct and opport unit y
cost s of schooling t hrough provision of cash and supplies, such as uniforms,
t ext books or school mat erials. Effort s t o improve livelihoods ( Annex 14) will abat e
t his problem but if enrolment s do fall significant ly a more formal approach
including direct subsidies t o t hose who are very vulnerable as a consequence of
t he impact of t he cyclone might be needed.

Tabl e 9: Educat i on Sect or Needs
( Kyat million)
A. Faci l i t y Rest or at i on 1/
Early childhood 1, 200
Primary schools 2/ 125, 100
Middle schools 11, 500
High schools 8, 700
Sub- t ot al A. Facilit y Rest orat ion 146, 500
B. Ser vi ce Del i v er y Rest or at i on
Management , supplies and communit y mobilizat ion 900
I nt erim public school provision 2, 500
Family compensat ion benefit s 510
Training ( including st aff replacement s) 300
Psycho- social counselling 200
Sub- Tot al B Service Delivery Rest orat ion 3, 910
Tot al ( A+ B) 150, 910
1/ I ncluding est imat es for fur nit ure and educat ion mat erials.
2/ I ncluding monast ic schools.
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.

The process of reconst ruct ing schools which have been complet ely dest royed
provides an opport unit y t o int roduce changes t o t he current school building
design t o allow for cyclone resist ance, improved qualit y and an environment more
conducive t o “ child- friendly” t eaching and learning. Recovery plans should also

1/ I ncluding est imat es for furnit ure and educat ion mat erials.
2/ I ncluding monast ic schools.
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.
The process of reconst ruct ing schools which have been complet ely dest royed provides an
opport unit y t o int roduce changes t o t he current school building design t o allow for cyclone resist ance,
An n e x 5 : Ed u ca t i o n
80
improved qualit y and an environment more conducive t o “ child- friendly” t eaching and learning.
Recovery plans should also t ake int o considerat ion possible changes in educat ion demand due t o
demographic shift s and villages having been washed out during Cyclone Nargis. More generally, t he
“ build back bet t er ” allowance enables all damaged schools t o be rebuilt t o a st andard more resilient
t o fut ure cyclones.
Next st eps. Det ailed planning for next st eps is essent ial and should include: ( i) a det ailed
assessment of damages as input to design and documentation for the restoration effort; (ii) a review
of options to reconfgure/redesign schools which were destroyed to produce schools more conducive
to “child-friendly” teaching and learning; (iii) set priorities for the recovery effort including how to
respond in those areas not covered adequately by the revised humanitarian appeal; (iv) agreement
on how t he overall program is t o be managed, coordinat ed and monit ored and ( iv) agreement on t he
specifcs of the “build back better” standards to be implemented for the school rebuilding program,
including guidelines on appropriat e st andards at different levels ( t emporary rebuilding, permanent
rehabilit at ion) and successor arrangement s for rebuilt schools which will last t hrough only one rainy
season.
An n e x 5 : Ed u ca t i o n
81
AnnEx 6: AgRicultuRE, livEstOck AnD FishERiEs
summARy
The agriculture sector, encompassing crops, plantations, livestock and fsheries, comprised
about a t hird of t he regional GDP of Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions. Average farm size is report ed
as 3.4 ha and 4.1 ha in Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions, respectively. According to offcial fgures,
t he 13 hardest - hit t ownships normally produce an annual t ot al of 4. 3 million MT paddy. Livest ock
plays an import ant role in t he livelihoods of t he rural populat ion, bot h as a source of food and as
draught animals for agricult ure. Fisheries and aquacult ure are equally import ant , as bot h income for
rural communit ies and for commercial product ion.
Estimating the impacts on the agricultural sector must take into account several signifcant
challenges, given t hat rice product ion in t he Delt a plays an import ant role in home consumpt ion as
well as exports. Field interviews with farmers indicated a wide range of actual production fgures
based on several fact ors including land qualit y and fert ilizer use. There are also uncert aint ies
over t he losses associat ed wit h land which will not be replant ed, and yields for t he 2008 monsoon
paddy season where effort s are current ly underway t o provide input s t o farmers. This assessment ,
t herefore, provides ranges. I t should be not ed t hat t hese ranges vary part icularly in t erms of t he
losses associat ed wit h reduct ions in paddy product ion for t he current monsoon season and t herefore
the implications are most signifcant for ensuring that food security support is maintained for at least
six mont hs and possibly t hrough t he 2009 summer cropping season.
1
Due t o t he uncert aint y
2
regarding impact s t o t he upcoming monsoon paddy rice crop,
damages and losses t o t he agricult ure sect or are est imat ed over a range of K575, 000 million t o
K700,000 million. There was a signifcant mortality of livestock, including the deaths of approximately
50 percent of buffaloes in t he worst - affect ed t ownships. Small in t erms of direct economic losses,
but signifcant in terms of household well-being is the loss of small family vegetable gardens and
small-scale cash crops that complement rice production. The damages to capture fsheries, both
marine and inland, and aquacult ure are est imat ed at K29, 700 million, and t he losses from foregone
product ion in t his sub- sect or at K129, 500 million.
A signifcant effort has been launched in recent weeks by the government, UN agencies,
bilat eral donors and int ernat ional and nat ional NGOs t o ensure t he t imely plant ing of t he monsoon
paddy crop by end-July. These activities are facing some diffculties, due to shortages of fuel and
wit h t he supplied implement s not always suit able for product ion in t he lower Delt a. The affect ed
communit ies remain heavily reliant on ext ernal sources of assist ance and will need considerable t ime
and support t o fully overcome t he effect s of t he disast er. The main goal of recovery in t he agricult ure
sector is two-fold: frst, the re-establishment of food security; second, the re-establishment of
household livelihoods, economic securit y and st andard of living.
pRE-DisAstER situAtiOn
The agriculture sector, encompassing crops, plantations, livestock and fsheries, comprised
44 percent of t he nat ional economy in 2007, and about a t hird ( 31 percent ) of t he regional GDP of
Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions.
3
The sect or is t he mainst ay of t he rural economy in t he Ayeyarwady
Delta area; of the total population of about 14 million in the two Divisions, the rural population
comprises about 39 percent (68 percent excluding the approximately six million inhabitants of the
Cit y of Yangon) .
Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions, in which t he 13 hardest - hit t ownships considered in t his
assessment are sit uat ed,
4
comprise mainly Delt a lowlands at t he mout h of t he Ayeyarwady River,
1 The impact in t erms of overall rice availabilit y in Myanmar should also be assessed so t hat appropriat e policy measures can
be t aken t o avoid furt her price impact s on consumers.
2 Given t hat t he cyclone damage occurred j ust prior t o t he monsoon paddy land preparat ion period, est imat es of t he impact s
on plant ing vary considerably.
3 The analysis draws on government st at ist ics and t he recent ly conduct ed FAO assessment [ FAO, 2008. Myanmar: Emergency
& Rehabilit at ion Program Needs Assessment for Cyclone Nargis Affect ed Areas. 13 June 2008] .
4 Seven townships in Ayeyarwady Division: Bogale, Dedaye, Kyaiklat, Labutta, Mawlamyinegyun, Ngaputaw and Pyapon; and
six t ownships in Yangon Division: Thanlyin, Kyaukt an ( including Tada) , Thonegwa, Twant ay, Kawhmu, Kwanchankone. Three
An n e x 6 : Ag r i cu l t u r e , Li v e s t o ck a n d Fi s h e r i e s
82
An n e x 6 : Ag r i cu l t u r e , Li v e s t o ck a n d Fi s h e r i e s
int erspersed wit h many t idal wat erways. Soils wit hin t he area are predominant ly riverine sediment s,
wit h t ext ures ranging from clays t o silt and sand, which are ideal for monsoon rice cult ivat ion wit h
limit ed input s. The rural populat ion lives in bot h small villages along t he banks of t he t idal wat erways
and in scat t ered set t lement s t hroughout t he Delt a. Many areas of t he sout hern Delt a area are
accessible only by river, making boat s an import ant means of t ransport . Forest product s, principally
mangrove, which grow in t he reserve forest s and amongst t he set t lement s, provide t he main source
of materials for housing and fuel wood, and are a nursery area for fsheries. The divisional township
administ rat ive cent res are also t he main commercial cent res wit hin t he Delt a.
Farms range in size from less t han 0. 4 hect ares ( ha) t o over 20. 2 ha, wit h t he average farm
size report ed in t he Myanmar Census of Agricult ure ( 2003) as 3. 4 ha and 4. 1 ha in Ayeyarwady and
Yangon Divisions, respect ively. The same report not es t hat average farms owned by poor households
range in size from less t han 0. 4 ha t o 1. 2 ha, and t hat 30 percent and 20 percent of t hose involved
in agriculture in these respective Divisions are landless; they rely on fshing, home gardens and
agricult ural labour for t heir livelihoods.
5
Paddy is t he maj or crop, which relies ent irely on rainfall during t he monsoon season, and
low- level pumping and t idal irrigat ion during t he summer season.
6
The principal crop is t he monsoon
crop, which is grown on 2. 0 million ha in t he t wo divisions and produces approximat ely 7. 5 million
met ric t ons ( MT) of paddy ( 29 percent of t he nat ional t ot al) . A second, summer season rice crop is
grown on 0.6 million ha, and produces approximately 2.7 million MT paddy annually (48 percent of
nat ional t ot al)
7
.
According to reported fgures, the 13 hardest-hit townships normally produce 3.3 million MT
monsoon paddy on 0. 9 million ha, and 1. 0 million MT summer paddy on 0. 2 million ha, for an annual
t ot al product ion of 4. 3 million MT paddy
8
. Bot h t radit ional
9
and high- yielding variet ies of rice are
grown, wit h relat ively low levels of input s of fert ilizer and insect icides. These crops are report ed t o
achieve yields of 3. 7 MT/ ha in t he monsoon season and 4. 9 MT/ ha during t he summer season when
only high- yielding variet ies are grown. These yields are relat ively high by regional st andards, given
t he low levels of fert ilizer and ot her input s applied.
Other important crops include pulses (628,000 ha) and sesame (12,200 ha) in the late
monsoon, j ut e ( 18, 800 ha) and kenaf grown during t he pre- monsoon season, and groundnut grown
in t he wint er and rainy seasons ( 52, 200 ha) .
10
Home gardens include a variet y of veget ables, and
plant at ion crops include mango, coconut ( 27, 400 ha) , banana, bet el nut ( 8, 500 ha) , bet el leaf
(3,700 ha), cashew nut, rubber (13,800 ha) and nipa palm (for roofng/building materials).
Within the Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions, 37 food embankments (polders), totalling
over 1010 km in length and encompassing 162,500 ha of cropland, provide protection against
fooding and saline intrusion during the monsoon season. These embankments protect about 7.7
percent of t he agricult ure land in t he t wo divisions ( 2. 4 million ha) .
11
Livest ock plays an import ant role in t he livelihoods of t he rural populat ion, bot h as a source of
food and as draught animals for agricult ure. The adopt ion of agricult ural mechanizat ion is relat ively
low, wit h buffalo and oxen being widely used as draught animals. Cat t le, pigs, goat s, chicken and
ducks provide an import ant source of farm income and subsist ence product ion. Most are raised by
small farmers, alt hough several dairy farms and a number of poult ry farms exist in Yangon Division.
Of the large ruminants (buffalo and cattle), about 55 percent (about 360,000) are used as draught
animals, for agricult ural land preparat ion and t ransport .
t ownships each in Bago Division and Mon St at e were also affect ed but t he losses were relat ively minor and are not included
in t he dat a report ing or analysis.
5 The percentage of landless in individual townships can be signifcantly higher; see Annex 15 (Social Impacts).
6 The monsoon season rice crop is planted from end-June to August and harvested from October to February (depending on
variet y, high yielding or local) The summer season rice crop is plant ed from December t o February, and harvest ed from
March t o May ( high yielding variet y) .
7 As indicated above, these are broad estimates based on offcial statistics with feld work indicating signifcant variations in
product ivit y amongst farms.
8 See foot not e 8.
9 Tradit ional variet ies include bot h preferred variet ies for eat ing qualit y and salt t olerant variet ies. Some of t hese variet ies can
only be grown in t he delt a area. High yielding variet ies require high fert ilizer applicat ion, whereas t radit ional variet ies are
t ypically grown wit h less.
10 Myanmar Statistical Yearbook (2006). Crop production are quoted for 2005.
11 The embankments were largely constructed under two World Bank fnanced Paddy Land Development Projects between
1976 and 1990, though some date back over a century.
83
Fisheries and aquacult ure are also import ant , as bot h a subsist ence food source for rural
communit ies
12
and for commercial product ion. While no st at ist ics are available for t he subsist ence
catch, MoLF reports that commercial production of marine and inland fsheries and aquaculture was
1,517,000 MT, 717,000 MT and 604,000 MT, respectively, in 2006/07. Over 1,100 marine fshing
vessels, over 1,160 small inland motorized boats and over 1,130 small non-motorized boats were
licensed in t he t wo Divisions. I n addit ion, a large number of rural families in t he Delt a own small
canoes used for local transport and subsistence fshing. Most fshing requires the use of a boat to
set or tow the fshing gear.
DAmAgEs AnD lOssEs
Damages to the agriculture sector are estimated at a foor of K186,000 million. Given the
uncert aint ies regarding pre- Nargis product ion and t he act ual ext ent of likely reduct ions in monsoon
paddy production in 2008, a range of feld crop loss estimates is provided from K160,0000 million
t o K283, 000 million which t ranslat es int o a damage and loss range of K570, 000 million t o almost
K700, 000 million.
Tabl e 1: Est i mat es of Agr i cul t ur al Damage and Loss ( Ky at mi l l i on)
Damage Losses Tot al Publ i c Pr i v at e
Field Crops 65,336 159,929 t o 283,000 225,265 to 348,336 225,265 to 348,336
Farm Equipment 24,046 24,046 24,046
Plant at ions 22,043 65,209 87,252 87,252
Livest ock 45,190 30,775 75,965 75,965
Capt ure Fisheries 25,609 99,932 125,541 125,541
Fish Farms 4,120 29,394 33,514 33,514
Tot al 186,344 385,239 t o 508,310 571,583 to 694,654 0 571,583 to 694,654
Di sast er Ef f ect s Ow ner shi p by Sect or

Source: PoNJA t eam est imat es.
cROps
Damage was reported to about 16,200 ha of the standing summer paddy crop, equivalent
t o 80, 000 MT of product ion. I n addit ion, paddy and milled rice in farmers’ st orage ( including seed
and paddy for home consumpt ion and sale) was damaged or dest royed, est imat ed at 251, 000 MT.
13

Overall damage t o farm equipment is est imat ed at K24, 000 million.
The cyclone' s t iming, j ust prior t o t he st art of monsoon paddy plant ing season, will likely
result in signifcant future production losses. The Village Tract Assessment reports that 28 percent of
farmers’ land was damaged, only 25 percent of farmers have enough seeds. As observed in map 5
( see main report ) , villages in t he t ownships of Labut t a, Bogale, Pyapon, Dedaye, Kyaiklat ( all in red)
are among t he worst affect ed, report ing not having enough seeds for t he upcoming season. The
VTA also indicat es t hat less t han 23 percent of farmers have fert ilizer, only 10 percent have enough
cash to purchase needed inputs, and 51 percent have enough labour. The VTA data also confrm a
reduct ion in agricult ural incomes and in paddy land for t he monsoon season. Trauma and/ or physical
inj ury may also impact t he abilit y of households t o undert ake product ive work. Furt hermore, some
equipment and replacement animals provided have only limit ed usabilit y ( for inst ance, some t illers
are ftted with the wrong wheels, there are shortages of fuel; and animals suffer from changes in
environment ) .
Seed stock was lost as a result of the fooding and cyclone damage to grain storage facilities.
Short ages of seed for t he monsoon crop have been widely report ed by remot e communit ies in
t he Delt a area. Lack of seeds is a maj or issue for t he upcoming monsoon paddy season, and will
undoubt edly persist for some t ime ( including t he 2008/ 09 summer paddy crop) .
The cyclone-fooded areas cover approximately 615,000 ha based on township-level and
sat ellit e dat a for t he 13 worst - affect ed t ownships.
14
Wit hin t his area, t he government est imat es
12 Fishermen acquire fshing rights annually from licensed operators; see Annex 15 (Social Impacts).
13 Additional losses to stocks of paddy stored by rice millers and traders (estimated at about 376,500 MT) are accounted for
under the industries sector; see Annex 7 (Industry and Commerce).
14 The government est imat es saline int rusion on 53, 000 ha in t he coast al areas due t o t he t idal inundat ion and st orm surge
An n e x 6 : Ag r i cu l t u r e , Li v e s t o ck a n d Fi s h e r i e s
84
a reduct ion in paddy area t hrough damage t o agricult ure land at 38, 500 ha while FAO has est imat ed
130, 000 hect ares and t he VTA survey suggest s t hat as much as 28 percent of land ( equivalent t o
172,200 ha) are damaged). The wide variance is likely due to different defnitions of land damage,
the consequences in terms on this year’s monsoon crop are refected in the range of potential
impact s t o rice product ion calculat ed. Plant ed area will also be low due t o a lack of draught animals
and lost or damaged farm equipment and farm labour.
The assessment t eam assumes t hat t he above const raint s will persist for t he monsoon rice
season in the areas affected by tidal and storm-surge fooding.
Plant ed area and yields will be lower t han usual due t o lack of seed and ot her input s and
problems wit h seed viabilit y. Urgent effort s are being made t o dist ribut e seeds, equipment , and
fert ilizer t o affect ed farmers, but concerns remain whet her farmers will be able t o fully cult ivat e
t he monsoon paddy crop. Following t hese considerat ions, a model was developed based on area
available for paddy plant ing, damaged area and areas not plant ed, and ant icipat ed yield ( t able 2) .
Tabl e 2: Losses i n Pr oduct i on due t o
( i ) Ar ea Pl ant ed and ( i i ) Yi el d Reduct i on
5 Annex 6: Agricult ure, Livest ock and Fisheries


The assessment t eam assumes t hat t he above const raint s will persist for t he
monsoon rice season in t he areas affect ed by t idal and st orm- surge flooding.

Plant ed area and yields will be lower t han usual due t o lack of seed and ot her
input s and problems wit h seed viabilit y. Urgent effort s are being made t o
dist ribut e seeds, equipment , and fert ilizer t o affect ed farmers, but concerns
remain whet her farmers will be able t o fully cult ivat e t he monsoon paddy crop.
Following t hese considerat ions, a model was developed based on area available
for paddy plant ing, damaged area and areas not plant ed, and ant icipat ed yield
( t able 2) .

Tabl e 2: Losses i n Pr oduct i on due t o
( i ) Ar ea Pl ant ed and ( i i ) Yi el d Reduct i on
Loss expressed
as a percent age of maximum yield
Loss expressed
as product ion loss ( million basket s)
( i) Area plant ed ( percent of
available)
( i) Area plant ed ( percent of
available)
( ii) Yield % 100% 80% 60% ( i) Yield % 100% 80% 60%
100% 7% 27% 47% 100% 7 29 50
80% 25% 41% 57% 80% 27 45 62
60% 44% 56% 68% 60% 48 61 74
40% 63% 71% 79% 40% 68 77 85
Not es: Flooded area approx. 615,000 ha, damaged area 38,000 ha. Normal report ed monsoon paddy
yield is 3.7 MT/ ha and product ion in flooded area is 109 million basket s ( 2.24 million MT) . Fixed yield
loss of 7 million basket s paddy due t o 38,000 ha damaged land.
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.

The reduct ion in paddy product ion is ant icipat ed t o be 40- 70 percent of t he
officially report ed, pre- Nargis crop, or an est imat ed 0. 8- 1. 5 million MT.
15
The
lower range is based on MOAI assumpt ions t hat 85 percent of t he flooded area
can be cult ivat ed and 80 percent of t he yield can be achieved, leading t o an
est imat ed loss of 0. 8 million MT in t he flood- affect ed areas, and implying a t ot al
loss of K160, 000 million. However, if only 60 percent of t he flooded area could be
plant ed and only 60 percent of normal yield was achieved, t he loss would be as
high 1. 5 million MT, implying a t ot al loss of K283, 000 million. A loss wit hin t his
range is also commensurat e wit h FAO est imat es t hat t he loss of draught animals
and inabilit y t o make effect ive use of power t illers will affect land preparat ion
act ivit ies on about 183, 000 ha. Not e t hat assumpt ions of lower, pre- Nargis
baseline product ion due t o lower normal yield rat es would, however, suggest
losses at t he lower end of t he range present ed.


15
Annual monsoon paddy product ion in t he flooded ar ea is around 2. 2 million MT, based on
provisional 2007/ 08 yields and flooded ar ea of 615,000 ha. I n 2007/ 08, 904,000 ha were plant ed t o
monsoon paddy in t he 13 worst - affect ed t ownships, producing 3.33 million MT.
Notes: Flooded area approx. 615,000 ha, damaged area 38,000 ha. Normal reported monsoon paddy yield is 3.7 MT/ha and
production in fooded area is 109 million baskets (2.24 million MT). Fixed yield loss of 7 million baskets paddy due to 38,000 ha
damaged land.
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.
The reduction in paddy production is anticipated to be 40-70 percent of the offcially
report ed, pre- Nargis crop, or an est imat ed 0. 8- 1. 5 million MT.
15
The lower range is based on MOAI
assumptions that 85 percent of the fooded area can be cultivated and 80 percent of the yield can be
achieved, leading to an estimated loss of 0.8 million MT in the food-affected areas, and implying a
total loss of K160,000 million. However, if only 60 percent of the fooded area could be planted and
only 60 percent of normal yield was achieved, the loss would be as high 1.5 million MT, implying
a t ot al loss of K283, 000 million. A loss wit hin t his range is also commensurat e wit h FAO est imat es
t hat t he loss of draught animals and inabilit y t o make effect ive use of power t illers will affect land
preparat ion act ivit ies on about 183, 000 ha. Not e t hat assumpt ions of lower, pre- Nargis baseline
product ion due t o lower normal yield rat es would, however, suggest losses at t he lower end of t he
range present ed.
livEstOck
There was a signifcant mortality of livestock, including the deaths of approximately 50
percent of buffalo and 20 percent cat t le in t he worst - affect ed t ownships. Since buffalo and a large
number of cat t le ( oxen) are used as draught animals ( about 55 percent of large ruminant s overall) ,
this loss of livestock will have a signifcant impact on agricultural production. Many surviving animals
accompanying t he cyclone. Saline int rusion is furt her discussed in Annex 12 ( Coast al Environment and Nat ural Resources
Management ) . However, t he issue of salinit y is not considered t o be as severe a problem as previously t hought due t o t he
occurrence of t he cyclone at t he st art of t he monsoon season in early May, when much of t he soil was already sat urat ed by
rainfall. Subsequent heavy rains appear to have fushed out much of the residual saline water, except in low-lying areas,
such as natural depressions and open, fresh water ponds widely used for drinking water and fshery production.
15 Annual monsoon paddy production in the fooded area is around 2.2 million MT, based on provisional 2007/08 yields and
fooded area of 615,000 ha. In 2007/08, 904,000 ha were planted to monsoon paddy in the 13 worst-affected townships,
producing 3. 33 million MT.
An n e x 6 : Ag r i cu l t u r e , Li v e s t o ck a n d Fi s h e r i e s
85
are severely weakened due t o ingest ion of salt wat er during t he st orm and a lack of fodder ( a lot of
which was destroyed by the cyclone), and are unft for work.
Maps 1- 2: Per cent age of househol ds r epor t i ng l i vest ock as a mai n sour ce of i ncome
bef or e and af t er cy cl one


Source: VTA survey
Ext ensive damage was also report ed t o small livest ock, including pigs, sheep, goat s,
An n e x 6 : Ag r i cu l t u r e , Li v e s t o ck a n d Fi s h e r i e s
86
chickens and ducks, which are an import ant component of t he backyard farming act ivit ies of small
and marginal farmers and landless agricult ural workers. Tot al damage t o livest ock is est imat ed at
K45, 200 million. I n addit ion t o t he livest ock it self, damage t o holding pens and livest ock shelt ers
amounts to over K5,600 million. The impact of the cyclone in terms of losses is also signifcant as
illust rat ed as follows: ( i) 22, 800 MT of beef product ion ( ii) 4, 000 Mt of pork product ion, ( iii) 5, 400
MT of chicken and duck meat , and ( iv) 30 million chicken and duck eggs. Tot al est imat ed losses in
livest ock are K30, 800 million.
WAtER mAnAgEmEnt
During t he st orm surge, most embankment s overt opped and breached at numerous places,
and 14 sluices were damaged. Embankments were damaged over a total length of 265 km in the
Ayeyarwady Division and over a lengt h of 1. 4 km in Yangon Division. This damage has been included
under t he environment al and coast al zone management sect or. There was also damage t o wat er
dist ribut ion schemes built and maint ained by villages, wit h 9 percent of VTA survey respondent s
indicat ing part ial damage and 5 percent indicat ing minor damage.
hOmE gARDEns AnD plAntAtiOn cROps
Small in terms of direct economic losses, but signifcant in terms of household well-being
is t he loss of small family veget able gardens and small- scale cash crops t hat complement rice
product ion. Almost all rural families, irrespect ive of t heir land holdings, plant veget ables, primarily
for own consumpt ion. While relat ively low in t erms of t ot al calories, t hese gardens are crit ical for
maint aining a nut rit ional balance, especially for children and mot hers in poor households.
16
According
to the VTA survey only 6 percent of the households have vegetable seeds after the cyclone.
About 33, 900 ha of plant at ion crops wort h K22, 000 million were damaged, including mango
( 2, 700 ha) , coconut ( 8, 700) , rubber ( 2, 700 ha) , banana ( 3, 900 ha) , nipa palm ( 10, 800 ha) , bet el
leaf ( 400 ha) , bet el nut ( 3, 300 ha) and cashew nut ( 1, 400) . The plant at ions, wit h t he except ion
of rubber, are t ypically widely disbursed. Those most import ant t o t he poor are bet el leaf, which is
generally grown on small plot s of less t han 1 ha, and nipa palm, which is produced along river banks
and edges of felds. Wind damage was widespread in the form of knocked down trees, and will take
considerable amount s of capit al t o re- est ablish.
Given t he t ime required t o re- est ablish t ree crops t o product ion ( t ypically 3- 5 years) , t he
losses in terms of foregone production are considerable; for 2008, these amount to an estimated
K65,200 million. The magnitude of these losses will increase if the plantation crops are not re-
est ablished at an early dat e.
FishERiEs
The damage to capture fsheries, both marine and inland, and aquaculture was mainly caused
by the high winds and the storm surge. Damages to fsheries are estimated at K29,700 million; this
includes damage to post-harvest capabilities, i.e. the loss of ice plants and cold storage facilities, fsh
processing, market ing and t ransport infrast ruct ure. Tot al losses from foregone product ion amount
to K129,500 million. The VTA reports that income from fshing has dropped by half as a result of the
cyclone.
As observed in t he maps below, before Nargis 33 per cent of households in Labut t a report ed
fshing as their main income activity, as opposed to only half that number after the cyclone. In
Dedaye and Bogale a ffth of all households reported fshing as their main activity before the cyclone,
in cont rast t o only 8 per cent right aft er t he disast er. Alt hough t o a lesser ext ent , Mawlamyinegyun
and Ngapudaw also observed a signifcant fall in their earnings through fshing.
16 See Annex 3 ( Food Securit y and Nut rit ion) .
An n e x 6 : Ag r i cu l t u r e , Li v e s t o ck a n d Fi s h e r i e s
87
Maps 3-4: Percentage of households reporting fshery as their main income before and after cyclone


Source: VTA survey
Marine fsheries were struck hard, particularly in Pyapon township. A total of 136 marine
fshing vessels are reported lost while 168 vessels were damaged but are in a salvageable condition.
Fishing gear was also lost . More t han 100 j et t ies most ly belonging t o t he owners of t he marine
fshing vessels were damaged; VTA data show almost 10 percent of jetties were partially and 14
percent slightly damaged. Rebuilding of the offshore feet may take a year or longer as the owners
may face diffculties in mobilizing the needed capital.
An n e x 6 : Ag r i cu l t u r e , Li v e s t o ck a n d Fi s h e r i e s
88
Inland fsheries suffered the largest damage in terms of number of lost or damaged boats.
More than 1,800 licensed boats are offcially reported lost, most of them non-motorized. However,
the actual number of small boats may be signifcantly higher. The VTA survey reports that half of all
small boats were lost, as was 70 percent of fshing gear. Since these boats are small compared to
the marine fshing vessels, the overall damage value of the inland boats is signifcantly less than for
the marine fsheries feet. However, the massive loss of small multi-purpose boats will have a serious
impact on t he livelihoods of t he households involved.
The cyclone and t he st orm surge also caused subst ant ial damage t o commercial int ensive
aquacult ure, wit h more t han 37, 000 ha of aquacult ure ponds, represent ing 38 percent of t he t ot al,
damaged. Besides breached and eroded pond embankment s, t here was damage t o pumps, cages,
mobile aquacult ure equipment such as aerat ors, and buildings for feed st orage and processing.
Hatcheries, which provide the fsh and shrimp material to stock ponds and restock the lease-able
fsheries water bodies also sustained damage. Aquaculture, as well as inland fsheries, employs large
numbers of labourers, and t he processing of t he cat ch is an import ant source of employment for
women. Many of t hese j obs have been lost and will t ake t ime t o be recreat ed.
Existing REliEF AnD REcOvERy EFFORts
Although farmers are taking the initiative to prepare felds for the monsoon paddy crop, they
lack t he necessary input s. I n recent weeks t he government , WFP, bilat eral donors and int ernat ional
and nat ional NGOs have launched a maj or recovery effort in t he agricult ure sect or t o ensure t he
t imely plant ing of t he monsoon paddy crop by end-July. This includes employing draught animals
t ransport ed from ot her regions, replacing t he lost animals wit h hand t ract ors/ power t illers and
providing farm equipment and key input s ( seeds, fert ilizers and fuel) t o farmers. Amongst t he
villages sampled in the VTA, plans to distribute fertilizers were confrmed by 11 percent of villages,
seeds by 21 percent , t ools 17 percent , and pest icides by 4 percent . Government also report s t hat
emergency repairs t o coast al embankment s are almost complet ed.
However, effort s t o enable t imely plant ing of t he monsoon paddy crop are facing some
diffculties such as lack of farmers' experience with hand tractors, or cash to purchase fuel and
lubricant s. I n some cases t here are report s of unsuit able equipment , wit h missing or incompat ible
equipment part s supplied. St ored ( un- milled) paddy is current ly being dist ribut ed as seed, but it s
viability is reportedly low. Moreover, according to feld assessments, inputs are provided on a loan
basis wit h farmers having t o repay t he loans, which creat es a risk of fut ure indebt edness.
17
REcOvERy nEEDs AnD stRAtEgy
Needs. The most pressing need is t o ensure t he plant ing of t he next monsoon crop in t ime
t o provide food and income for t he coming year. The affect ed communit ies are current ly heavily
reliant on government and non- government sources of assist ance, and will need considerable t ime
and support t o fully overcome t he effect s of t he disast er.
This requires making available the rice seeds in suffcient quantity and adequate quality on
t ime.
18
Feed needs t o be made available for t he draught animals. Where draught animals cannot be
used for t his season, power t illers wit h fuel should be made available as an alt ernat ive. Given t he risk
many farmers may miss t his monsoon season, provision of seeds coupled wit h wat er pumps for t he
following summer season would also required. With the fshing activities traditionally resuming after
the monsoon, early restoration of fshing capacity is a critical need for households relying mainly on
fshing and fsh processing for their livelihoods. Grants, rather than credit, would be the preferred
opt ion, and land and wat er user right s need t o be secured.
19
St rat egy. The main goal of recovery in the agriculture sector is two-fold: frst, the re-
establishment of food security; second, the re-establishment of household livelihoods, economic
17 See also Annex 15 ( Social I mpact s) .
18 The Minist ry of Agricult ure and I rrigat ion est imat es t hat 51, 700 MT of seed are required t o plant over 540, 000 ha of t he
monsoon paddy crop wit hin Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions ( 19, 700 MT of high yielding variet y seed and 32, 000 MT of
t radit ional seed variet ies) .
19 See Annex 15 ( Social I mpact s) .
An n e x 6 : Ag r i cu l t u r e , Li v e s t o ck a n d Fi s h e r i e s
89
securit y and st andard of living.
20
Primary target groups are the small-scale farming and fshing
communit ies as well as landless households.
Priorit y act ivit ies under t his st rat egy include t he provision of immediat e input s for t he
monsoon paddy season described above. Priorit ies for t he summer cropping season will include
expanding seed production and multiplication facilities; restoring the availability of fertilizer and
other key inputs, as well as post-harvest facilities and marketing; providing assistance to replace lost
draught animals. Given t he vulnerabilit y of t he affect ed populat ions and t he import ance t o regional
and nat ional level food securit y of re- est ablishing agricult ural product ion as quickly as possible,
accurat e monit oring of food and nut rit ion st at us of affect ed populat ions, agricult ural product ion and
food market s should be an int egral part of t he recovery program. As in t he case of any disast er of
t his scale, set backs can be ant icipat ed in t he process of recovery. Accordingly, as has occurred in
most count ries following similar disast ers, t he current sit uat ion should be used t o st rengt hen t he
accuracy of informat ion collect ed as a means t o adj ust assist ance st rat egies and avoid unnecessary
furt her hardship or economic set backs from t he cyclone.
I n t he longer- t erm, priorit ies include t he resumpt ion of small ruminant , pigs and poult ry
rearing as income generat ion act ivit ies, part icularly for poor, landless and disadvant aged families
(including women- and single-parent households); and resumption of fshing and other non-
agricult ural livelihood act ivit ies. St art ing under early recovery act ivit ies in t he next t welve mont hs
and cont inuing unt il sust ainable livelihoods are rest ored, communit y- based grant or micro- credit
schemes would be an appropriat e mechanism t o support t hese households in regaining a sust ainable
source of income. Assistance to replace small fshing boats and gear that have been lost is also an
import ant focus of early and medium- t erm recovery act ivit ies ( cost ed under t ransport ) : prior t o
launching a maj or program t o import or dist ribut e boat s cent rally, it would be desirable t o make an
assessment of t he opt ions for provision of cash grant s t o communit ies t o buy boat s in neighboring
villages. Where boat s are provided in kind rat her t han t hrough cash grant s, prior consult at ion wit h
fshers’ communities is crucial to ensure that replacement boats are suited to communities’ needs.
Next st eps. The st rat egy for providing prot ect ion t o t he lower part s of t he Delt a against
exceptional foods and storm surges may need to be reviewed and updated. This review should
t ake int o account t he overall disast er risk reduct ion st rat egy ( see Sect ion VI ) , t he dynamic hydro-
met eorological processes in t he Delt a, current and medium and long- t erm development scenarios,
and climate change scenarios. To provide the appropriate level of protection, food and storm surge
risk assessment s should also be updat ed.
20 These obj ect ives are consist ent wit h t he programme t hat FAO out lined for recovery in t he agricult ure sect or, and which t he
assessment team supports; (see footnote 2)
An n e x 6 : Ag r i cu l t u r e , Li v e s t o ck a n d Fi s h e r i e s
90
AnnEx 7: inDustRy AnD cOmmERcE
summARy
I ndust ry and commerce are t wo of t he sect ors most affect ed by Cyclone Nargis. Tot al damage
and losses in indust ry account for almost K2 billion, of which economic losses are K1. 48 billion and
damages are K512 million. Nearly 45 percent of industry losses are attributable to the larger frms
locat ed in several indust rial parks in Yangon division. Tot al losses in commerce are est imat ed at
K483. 4 million while damages amount t o K37. 2 million. Bot h indust ry and commerce include many
micro- ent erprises t hat t ypically represent easy ent ry, subsist ence act ivit ies of poor households,
including those headed by women. The salt production and fsh processing industries in particular,
concent rat ed in t he Delt a region, also suffered ext ensive losses of human life.
pRE-DisAstER situAtiOn
Myanmar is primarily a rural economy wit h agricult ure account ing for 43. 7 percent share of
t he GDP in 2007 compared t o a 19. 8 percent share of indust ry ( manufact uring, mining and energy
and power) . The t wo affect ed divisions, Ayeyarwady and Yangon, cumulat ively also are primarily
agricult ural, which account s for 31 percent of t he regional GDP. However, t he t wo divisions are
quit e asymmet ric: while indust ry account s for 33 percent of Yangon division' s GDP, t he share of
industry is only 7.1 percent in Ayeyarwady, where agriculture's share is 44.6 percent (GoUM data
for 2007). Damage and losses in industry therefore refect primarily the impact of the cyclone in
Yangon division, and within that, Yangon city; Yangon Division accounts for almost 40 percent of
nat ional indust rial out put . The geographical scope of t he assessment is limit ed t o affect ed t ownships
in Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions based on availability of data; while townships in other areas
( Kayin and Mon St at es, and Bago Division) were also affect ed, t he damage was relat ively less and
is not included.
I t is wort h not ing t he st at ist ically const rained cont ext of t hese dat a. I ndust rial st at ist ics,
perhaps more so t han many ot hers in t he economy, are const rained in t erms of complet eness of
coverage and t imeliness. For t his assessment informat ion from GoUM st at ist ics was supplement ed
by discussions wit h relevant indust ry associat ions and a rapid assessment survey of a hundred
industrial frms and an equal number of commercial enterprises in the affected regions. Additionally,
the same survey questionnaire was flled out by almost 70 frms located in industrial parks. The team
is grat eful t o t hese ent erprises for t aking t ime t o respond t o t he survey quest ionnaire.
The main component s of t he indust rial sect or in t he t wo affect ed divisions are: salt farms,
dried fsh/shrimp and fsh paste production, rice mills, factories located in industrial parks, other
small and medium indust rial ent erprises, and micro- ent erprises. The commerce sect or includes:
wholesale and retail markets, along with trading frms, many of which are micro-enterprises engaged
in small- scale ret ail commerce.
Much of t he count ry’s salt product ion comes from salt farms locat ed in t he Ayeyarwady
Delta region with some 30,000 acres of salt felds in Ayeyarwady division alone. Farms are located
along t he coast line and product ion is seasonal, wit h ground being prepared t o hold seawat er for
evaporat ion during t he last quart er of t he year and salt harvest ed from January unt il t he onset of t he
rainy season in April/ May. Harvest ed salt is t ypically st ored in warehouses during t he rainy season
and released gradually t o t he market .
The indust ry is labour int ensive and has t radit ionally relied on a workforce import ed from
ot her part s of t he count ry as agricult ural workers in t he Delt a region are not used t o t he harsh
environment al condit ions t hat prevail on salt farms during harvest season. Workers are encouraged
t o set t le in t he area wit h t heir families, and in many cases families have been resident for several
generat ions. As an incent ive t o st ay, farm owners t ypically provide workers wit h small plot s of land
t o grow crops and raise shrimp t o supplement incomes. I t is est imat ed t hat t here were some 20, 000
salt farm workers in Ayeyarwady Division along wit h t heir families at t he t ime of t he disast er.
Ayeyarwady Division is also a major production centre for dried fsh and shrimp as well as fsh
An n e x 7 : I n d u s t r y a n d Co m m e r ce
91
paste. Most frms also own a number of offshore fshing vessels
1
that are used to both catch fsh and
shrimp and to carry out the drying process at sea. The dried fsh and shrimp are further processed
onshore in fact ories t ypically locat ed along a riverbank wit h j et t ies for t he boat s. Fact ories may also
produce and package fsh paste and/or fsh sauce in addition to the dried and salted products.
The largely agrarian Ayeyarwady Division also has a large number of rice mills, classifed
int o t wo size cat egories based on out put capacit y: t hose below 15 t ons/ day are “ small”, and t he
remainder considered “ medium t o large”. Larger mills can employ 100 workers or more during
periods of peak out put and are t ypically locat ed near large t owns along river banks—allowing for use
of wat erways in addit ion t o rural roads t o procure paddy. Small mills are t ypically family businesses
employing 5- 10 workers ( including family members) and found in villages and t owns t hroughout
t he count ryside. These mills have higher running cost s and t ypically produce lower qualit y out put
than the larger ones, but due to high transport costs in rural areas, they fll a signifcant niche and
out number larger mills by a rat io of almost 10 t o 1. The combined out put capacit y of small mills in
t he affect ed areas is roughly double t hat of t he larger ones.
The maj orit y of medium and large- sized fact ories in t he affect ed areas are concent rat ed
in Yangon, and much of t his populat ion is in t urn cont ained wit hin indust rial parks locat ed in 12
townships. These parks host a wide range of industries and together contain over 5,000 frms
employing an estimated 250,000 workers. In addition, based on registration fgures, there are an
estimated 28,000 small and medium-sized manufacturing frms in the affected areas of Yangon and
Ayeyarwady Divisions.
2
Dat a on micro- ent erprises, t ypically household businesses for sale largely
in local market s, are not available. Based on a recent UNDP household survey,
3
it is est imat ed t hat
t here may have been over 130, 000 such ent erprises in t he affect ed areas.
Yangon is a major commercial hub with some 168 organized marketplaces housing over
130, 000 individual shops and st alls. Ret ail market s range from modern shopping cent res t o more
t radit ional covered market s as well as farmers’ market s. There are also t wo large wholesale market s
t hat supply foodst uffs and building mat erials t o ret ail shops t hroughout Yangon as well as much
of t he Delt a region. Ayeyarwady has 53 organized market places. These are comprised of bot h
t radit ional covered market s as well as farmers’ market s and t oget her t hey account for some 15, 000
individual st alls. Commercial act ivit y out side of organized market places is t ypically conduct ed by
home- based shops t hat sell a wide range of cheap consumer and ot her goods. Based again on t he
UNDP household survey, it is est imat ed t hat t here may have been over 210, 000 such businesses in
t he affect ed areas.
DAmAgE AnD lOssEs
Damage and loss assessment for indust ry and commerce are summarized in Table 1.
1 Vessels range from 55’ t o 70’ in lengt h and average cost per vessel including equipment is about K30, 000, 000
2 A typical example of such a frm in Ayeyarwady Division might be a workshop that makes agricultural machinery (e.g. pumps
and t illers) .
3 UNDP. Minist ry of Nat ional Planning and Economic Development ( 2007) . I nt egrat ed Household Living Condit ions Survey in
Myanmar.
An n e x 7 : I n d u s t r y a n d Co m m e r ce
92
Tabl e 1: Summar y of Damage and Losses: I ndust r y and Commer ce ( Ky at mi l l i on)
3 Annex 7: I ndust ry and Commerce:

organized market places is t ypically conduct ed by home- based shops t hat sell a
wide range of cheap consumer and ot her goods. Based again on t he UNDP
household survey, it is est imat ed t hat t here may have been over 210, 000 such
businesses in t he affect ed areas.

Damage and Losses

Damage and loss assessment for indust ry and commerce are summarized in
Table 1.

Tabl e 1: Summar y of Damage and Losses: I ndust r y and Commer ce
( Kyat million)
Ow ner shi p
( per cent )

Damage

Losses

Tot al
publ i c pr i vat e
I ndust r y
Salt farms 35, 334 15, 230 50, 563 12 88
Dried fish/ shrimp, and fish past e 26, 240 36, 080 62, 320 100
Rice mills 23, 123 150, 184 173, 308 100
Rice processing fut ure losses 112, 000 112, 000 100
Fact ories in indust rial parks 209, 880 673, 200 883, 080 100
Ot her SMEs 218, 122 290, 250 508, 372 100
Micro- ent erpr ise manufact uring 206, 605 206, 605 100
Tot al i ndust r y 512,669 1, 483, 549 1, 996, 248

Commer ce
Wholesale market s 757 13, 420 14, 177 100
Ret ail market s 36, 491 123, 666 160, 157 100
Fut ure rice sales losses 22, 400 22, 400 100
Micro- ent erpr ise ( commerce) 323, 927 323, 927 100
Tot al commer ce 37,248 483, 414 520, 662
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.

Sal t Far ms

Salt fields are locat ed in areas most vulnerable t o sea surge. Cyclone Nargis not
only dest royed almost 80 percent of t he t ot al salt field acreage in Ayeyarwady
Division ( see Table 2) , but also killed virt ually t he ent ire workforce along wit h
t heir families in t he affect ed areas.

The cyclone' s t iming caused maximum damage t o st ocks, as warehouses in t he
affect ed areas were complet ely dest royed along wit h full invent ories of salt from
t he j ust complet ed harvest . Salt prices subsequent ly soared—reaching a peak at
one point of 1, 300 kyat per viss ( 1. 6kg) from a pre- cyclone price of about 200
kyat per viss. Prices have since fallen and st abilized, but are st ill about t hree
t imes t he pre- cyclone price and are not expect ed t o furt her ease unt il t he next
harvest season. This will have a knock- on effect over t he short t erm on t he price
of many goods in which salt is an import ant input . These not ably include a
number of foodst uffs ( e. g. salt fish, fish past e, and fish sauce) which are widely
consumed in Myanmar and serve as an import ant source of prot ein in people’s
daily diet s.

Source: PONJA Team est imat es.
sAlt FARms
Salt felds are located in areas most vulnerable to sea surge. Cyclone Nargis not only
destroyed almost 80 percent of the total salt feld acreage in Ayeyarwady Division (see Table 2), but
also killed virt ually t he ent ire workforce along wit h t heir families in t he affect ed areas.
The cyclone' s t iming caused maximum damage t o st ocks, as warehouses in t he affect ed
areas were complet ely dest royed along wit h full invent ories of salt from t he j ust complet ed harvest .
Salt prices subsequently soared—reaching a peak at one point of 1,300 kyat per viss (1.6kg) from
a pre- cyclone price of about 200 kyat per viss. Prices have since fallen and st abilized, but are st ill
about t hree t imes t he pre- cyclone price and are not expect ed t o furt her ease unt il t he next harvest
season. This will have a knock- on effect over t he short t erm on t he price of many goods in which salt
is an important input. These notably include a number of foodstuffs (e.g. salt fsh, fsh paste, and
fsh sauce) which are widely consumed in Myanmar and serve as an important source of protein in
people’s daily diet s.
Tabl e 2: Est i mat ed Damage and Losses t o Sal t Far ms by Tow nshi p
Annex 7: I ndust ry and Commerce 4

Tabl e 2: Est i mat ed Damage and Losses t o Sal t Far ms by Tow nshi p
Ay ey ar w ady
Di vi si on
Tot al ar ea
( acr es)
Af f ect ed ar ea
( acr es)
Damage
( Ky at m)
Losses
( Ky at m)
Ngaput aw 19, 855 15, 781 22, 882 9, 863
Labut t a 9, 011 7, 162 10, 385 4, 476
Pyapon 1, 794 1, 425 2, 066 891
Total 30,660 24,368 35,333 15,230
Sources: Minist ry of Mines and PONJA Team est imat es.

The ext ent of losses as a result of lost product ion will largely depend on t he
cyclone’s impact on next season’s out put . To ret urn t o product ive use, salt fields
will need t o be cleared of sand, warehouses and ot her facilit ies rebuilt , and
equipment such as pumps and piping replaced. Compared t o t he challenge of
replacing t he lost workforce, however, t hese are relat ively easy t asks and, by
t hemselves, may only delay t he st art of t he next harvest season by a mont h or so
in affect ed areas.

Replacing t he lost workforce will be a lengt hier and more difficult process due t o
t he nat ure of work as well as t he scale of numbers involved. Salt farm owners
have indicat ed t hat t hey will t ry and recruit skilled workers from salt farms in
unaffect ed regions, but t hey will need t o offer higher wages and are unlikely t o be
able t o source enough workers from t his limit ed supply t o adequat ely replace t he
lost workforce by t he next harvest season. The remaining balance will,
necessarily, have t o come from workers new t o t he indust ry and t hese will need
t ime t o acquire skills and adj ust t o working condit ions before t hey become fully
product ive. Higher wage cost s and lower levels of out put are likely t o offset gains
t o revenue from higher salt prices over t he next harvest season.

Dr i ed Fi sh/ Shr i mp and Fi sh Past e Pr oduct i on

Three of t he main t owns where t his indust ry is concent rat ed ( Bogale, Labut t a,
and Pyapon) were hit hard by t he cyclone result ing in heavy damage t o bot h
onshore product ion facilit ies and fishing boat s. Out of some 300 vessels, about
half were dest royed while much of t he rest were heavily damaged.

Given t he scale and ext ent of damage, a ret urn t o normal product ion levels will
require at least anot her year. Fishing boat s, in part icular, will be difficult t o
replace quickly as t hey are expensive and require skilled labor as well as
adequat e supplies of wood t o build.

Ri ce Mi l l s

Over half of small mills and t wo- t hirds of larger mills in t he affect ed areas were
damaged by t he cyclone ( t able 3) . Large invent ories of paddy and rice from t he
recent ly harvest ed summer crop were dest royed or damaged. While some 88
percent of damaged mills are expect ed t o be operat ional by t he next harvest , t he
sect or will suffer significant losses due t o st oppages from cyclone damage,
dest ruct ion of paddy st ocks, and lower expect ed yields and qualit y of t he next
paddy crop.

Sources: Minist ry of Mines and PONJA Team est imat es.
The ext ent of losses as a result of lost product ion will largely depend on t he cyclone’s
impact on next season’s output. To return to productive use, salt felds will need to be cleared of
sand, warehouses and ot her facilit ies rebuilt , and equipment such as pumps and piping replaced.
Compared t o t he challenge of replacing t he lost workforce, however, t hese are relat ively easy t asks
and, by t hemselves, may only delay t he st art of t he next harvest season by a mont h or so in affect ed
areas.
Replacing the lost workforce will be a lengthier and more diffcult process due to the nature
of work as well as t he scale of numbers involved. Salt farm owners have indicat ed t hat t hey will t ry
and recruit skilled workers from salt farms in unaffect ed regions, but t hey will need t o offer higher
An n e x 7 : I n d u s t r y a n d Co m m e r ce
93
wages and are unlikely t o be able t o source enough workers from t his limit ed supply t o adequat ely
replace t he lost workforce by t he next harvest season. The remaining balance will, necessarily, have
t o come from workers new t o t he indust ry and t hese will need t ime t o acquire skills and adj ust
t o working condit ions before t hey become fully product ive. Higher wage cost s and lower levels of
out put are likely t o offset gains t o revenue from higher salt prices over t he next harvest season.
DRiED Fish/shRimp AnD Fish pAstE pRODuctiOn
Three of t he main t owns where t his indust ry is concent rat ed ( Bogale, Labut t a, and Pyapon)
were hit hard by t he cyclone result ing in heavy damage t o bot h onshore product ion facilit ies and
fshing boats. Out of some 300 vessels, about half were destroyed while much of the rest were
heavily damaged.
Given t he scale and ext ent of damage, a ret urn t o normal product ion levels will require
at least another year. Fishing boats, in particular, will be diffcult to replace quickly as they are
expensive and require skilled labor as well as adequat e supplies of wood t o build.
RicE mills
Over half of small mills and t wo- t hirds of larger mills in t he affect ed areas were damaged by
t he cyclone ( t able 3) . Large invent ories of paddy and rice from t he recent ly harvest ed summer crop
were dest royed or damaged. While some 88 percent of damaged mills are expect ed t o be operat ional
by the next harvest, the sector will suffer signifcant losses due to stoppages from cyclone damage,
dest ruct ion of paddy st ocks, and lower expect ed yields and qualit y of t he next paddy crop.
Tabl e 3: Damage and Losses t o Ri ce Mi l l s by Tow nshi p
5 Annex 7: I ndust ry and Commerce:

Tabl e 3: Damage and Losses t o Ri ce Mi l l s by Tow nshi p
Smal l Medi um t o Lar ge Di vi si on
Tot al Damaged Tot al Damaged
Damage
( K million)
Losses ( K
million)
Ay ey ar w ady
Ngaput aw 271 200 8 6 2, 561 19, 712
Labut t a 149 100 22 22 3, 008 18, 260
Mawlamyinegyun 281 102 34 8 1, 755 12, 238
Pyapon 222 148 25 20 3, 310 21, 469
Bogale 254 170 31 31 4, 532 28, 211
Kyaiklat 323 142 28 20 3, 250 20, 957
Dedaye 259 159 30 21 3, 512 22, 849
Yangon
Kyaukt an 8 40 26 5 535 2, 893
Twant ay 7 2 181 884
Kungyangon 11 55 4 4 474 2707
Tot al 1, 907 1, 040 215 139 23, 123 150, 184
Capacit y ( t ons) 9, 535 5, 200 5, 574 3, 604
Sources: Minist ry of Commer ce, Myanmar Rice Millers’ Associat ion, and PONJA t eam est imat es.

I ndust r i al Par k s

Almost 75 percent of firms in indust rial parks were damaged by t he cyclone ( see
Table 4) . While t he ext ent of damage varied, firms on average report ed
st oppages of about t hree weeks for necessary repairs t o damaged buildings and
machinery. A maj orit y of firms also report ed significant ly reduced sales following
t he cyclone and expect t hese condit ions t o persist for at least 3- 6 mont hs due t o
t he cyclone’s impact on cust omers. An overwhelming proport ion of firms have, for
t he moment , ret ained regular workers, but unemployment may rise should out put
cont inue t o remain depressed t hrough next year.

Tabl e 4: Damage and Losses t o Fact or i es i n I ndust r i al Par k s
by Tow nshi p
Yangon Tot al Damaged Damage
( K million)
Losses
( K Million)
Mingalardon 8 7 371 1, 295
Shwepyit ha 507 174 9, 222 32, 190
Hlaingt haya 497 203 10, 759 37, 555
Sout h Okkalapa 132 81 4, 393 14, 985
Nort h Okkalapa 91 91 4, 823 16, 835
Thakayt a 156 150 7, 950 27, 750
DagonMyoThit ( Sout h) 2, 392 2, 309 122, 377 427, 165
DagonMyoThit ( East ) 32 27 1, 431 4, 995
DagonMyoThit ( Seikkan) 146 142 7, 526 26, 270
Thanlyn 1, 075 532 28, 196 98, 420
Shwe Paukkan 252 165 8, 745 30, 525
Shwe Lin Ban 92 79 4, 187 14, 615
Tot al 5,380 3, 960 209, 880 673, 200
Sources: Minist ry of I ndust r y, indust r ial park management commit t ees, MSR Survey, PONJA Team
est imat es.

Smal l and Medi um Ent er pr i ses

An est imat ed t wo- t hirds of small and medium indust rial ent erprises suffered some
form of cyclone damage. I n t erms of value, t he surveyed firms indicat ed t hat
damage t o invent ories was great est , followed by damage t o buildings, and t hen
t o machinery. Most firms report ed st oppages of about t wo weeks for necessary
repairs. Sales following t he cyclone have been less t han 50 percent of prior levels
on average, and most firms do not expect demand t o recover for at least anot her
t hree mont hs.

Sources: Minist ry of Commerce, Myanmar Rice Millers’ Associat ion, and PONJA t eam est imat es.
inDustRiAl pARks
Almost 75 percent of frms in industrial parks were damaged by the cyclone (see Table 4).
While the extent of damage varied, frms on average reported stoppages of about three weeks for
necessary repairs to damaged buildings and machinery. A majority of frms also reported signifcantly
reduced sales following the cyclone and expect these conditions to persist for at least 3-6 months due
to the cyclone’s impact on customers. An overwhelming proportion of frms have, for the moment,
ret ained regular workers, but unemployment may rise should out put cont inue t o remain depressed
t hrough next year.
An n e x 7 : I n d u s t r y a n d Co m m e r ce
94
Tabl e 4: Damage and Losses t o Fact or i es i n I ndust r i al Par k s by Tow nshi p
5 Annex 7: I ndust ry and Commerce:

Tabl e 3: Damage and Losses t o Ri ce Mi l l s by Tow nshi p
Smal l Medi um t o Lar ge Di vi si on
Tot al Damaged Tot al Damaged
Damage
( K million)
Losses ( K
million)
Ay ey ar w ady
Ngaput aw 271 200 8 6 2, 561 19, 712
Labut t a 149 100 22 22 3, 008 18, 260
Mawlamyinegyun 281 102 34 8 1, 755 12, 238
Pyapon 222 148 25 20 3, 310 21, 469
Bogale 254 170 31 31 4, 532 28, 211
Kyaiklat 323 142 28 20 3, 250 20, 957
Dedaye 259 159 30 21 3, 512 22, 849
Yangon
Kyaukt an 8 40 26 5 535 2, 893
Twant ay 7 2 181 884
Kungyangon 11 55 4 4 474 2707
Tot al 1, 907 1, 040 215 139 23, 123 150, 184
Capacit y ( t ons) 9, 535 5, 200 5, 574 3, 604
Sources: Minist ry of Commer ce, Myanmar Rice Millers’ Associat ion, and PONJA t eam est imat es.

I ndust r i al Par k s

Almost 75 percent of firms in indust rial parks were damaged by t he cyclone ( see
Table 4) . While t he ext ent of damage varied, firms on average report ed
st oppages of about t hree weeks for necessary repairs t o damaged buildings and
machinery. A maj orit y of firms also report ed significant ly reduced sales following
t he cyclone and expect t hese condit ions t o persist for at least 3- 6 mont hs due t o
t he cyclone’s impact on cust omers. An overwhelming proport ion of firms have, for
t he moment , ret ained regular workers, but unemployment may rise should out put
cont inue t o remain depressed t hrough next year.

Tabl e 4: Damage and Losses t o Fact or i es i n I ndust r i al Par k s
by Tow nshi p
Yangon Tot al Damaged Damage
( K million)
Losses
( K Million)
Mingalardon 8 7 371 1, 295
Shwepyit ha 507 174 9, 222 32, 190
Hlaingt haya 497 203 10, 759 37, 555
Sout h Okkalapa 132 81 4, 393 14, 985
Nort h Okkalapa 91 91 4, 823 16, 835
Thakayt a 156 150 7, 950 27, 750
DagonMyoThit ( Sout h) 2, 392 2, 309 122, 377 427, 165
DagonMyoThit ( East ) 32 27 1, 431 4, 995
DagonMyoThit ( Seikkan) 146 142 7, 526 26, 270
Thanlyn 1, 075 532 28, 196 98, 420
Shwe Paukkan 252 165 8, 745 30, 525
Shwe Lin Ban 92 79 4, 187 14, 615
Tot al 5,380 3, 960 209, 880 673, 200
Sources: Minist ry of I ndust r y, indust r ial park management commit t ees, MSR Survey, PONJA Team
est imat es.

Smal l and Medi um Ent er pr i ses

An est imat ed t wo- t hirds of small and medium indust rial ent erprises suffered some
form of cyclone damage. I n t erms of value, t he surveyed firms indicat ed t hat
damage t o invent ories was great est , followed by damage t o buildings, and t hen
t o machinery. Most firms report ed st oppages of about t wo weeks for necessary
repairs. Sales following t he cyclone have been less t han 50 percent of prior levels
on average, and most firms do not expect demand t o recover for at least anot her
t hree mont hs.

Sources: Minist ry of I ndust ry, indust rial park management commit t ees, MSR Survey, PONJA Team est imat es.
smAll AnD mEDium EntERpRisEs
An est imat ed t wo- t hirds of small and medium indust rial ent erprises suffered some form of
cyclone damage. In terms of value, the surveyed frms indicated that damage to inventories was
greatest, followed by damage to buildings, and then to machinery. Most frms reported stoppages of
about t wo weeks for necessary repairs. Sales following t he cyclone have been less t han 50 percent
of prior levels on average, and most frms do not expect demand to recover for at least another
t hree mont hs.
micRO-EntERpRisEs
As ent erprises in t his sect or are usually home- based, damages are presumed covered under
housing and not included here. Homes are t ypically const ruct ed of bamboo and t hat ch and can be
rebuilt wit hin a few days and it is assumed most micro- ent erprises resumed operat ions wit hin a week
t o minimize losses t o income. Demand for handicraft s produced by micro- ent erprises, however, is
likely to be signifcantly reduced for at least 4-6 months until customers’ incomes recover as such
it ems are not normally considered necessit ies.
cOmmERcE: REtAil AnD WhOlEsAlE mARkEts
Almost all commercial market s in Ayeyarwady suffered cyclone damage, wit h a t hird of t hese
being heavily damaged or dest royed. Market s in Yangon, in general, were not as badly affect ed wit h
less than half of markets reporting damage—much of which was confned to loss of roofng panels
and rain damage t o goods.
Shops in most market s, in spit e of damage, were back t o business wit hin 2- 3 days. Sales on
average, however, are est imat ed t o be some 40 percent lower t han pre- cyclone levels and demand
is not expected to recover for another 4-6 months, until the next harvest. Even goods that are
necessit ies and are in short supply such as rice have not risen in price as cust omers cannot afford
t hem—opt ing inst ead for lower qualit y subst it ut es such as damaged rice which is plent iful in supply
after the cyclone and sells for about one-third the price of regular rice (6,000 kyat vs. 16,000 kyat
per 50kg bag) .
Shops in Ayeyarwady have been part icularly badly affect ed as most of t heir cust omers are
farmers and fshermen who will not be able to earn income until the next harvest season or boats are
rebuilt . Many shop owners in t his area will also face losses from having t o writ e off credit ext ended
t o cust omers who have been killed by t he cyclone or can ot herwise no longer repay due t o changed
circumst ances.
An n e x 7 : I n d u s t r y a n d Co m m e r ce
95
cOmmERcE: micRO-EntERpRisEs
As wit h home- based manufact uring ent erprises, damages here are presumed covered
under housing. Shops are also assumed t o have reopened wit hin a week t o resume needed income.
Consumer demand, as in other sectors, is likely to be signifcantly reduced for at least 4-6 months
unt il incomes recover in t he economy.
sOciO-EcOnOmic impAct
The socio- economic impact of damage and losses t o indust ry and commerce is wide ranging
but will be part icularly severe on poor and vulnerable households, including t hose headed by women.
An ent ire populat ion of workers and t heir families has been wiped out lit erally overnight in t he salt
farms. Replacing this workforce will entail signifcant migration from other parts of the country and
subsequent adj ust ment . I ncreased price of salt will have a knock- on impact on t he price of foodst uffs
such as fsh-paste that are widely consumed and serve as an important source of protein particularly
for t he poor. Prices for t hese goods will be furt her affect ed by t he heavy damage suffered by t he dried
fsh/shrimp and fsh paste industry in Ayeyarwady. The projected slow recovery of this industry will
also adversely affect the circumstances of signifcant numbers of factory workers and fshing vessel
crews it employs. Damage t o rice mills and lower yields of paddy from t he next harvest will reduce
t he need for workers by rice mills which serve as a maj or employer of farmers in t he off season.
Small- scale ret ail t rading, oft en used by women and poor households t o supplement incomes, will
suffer from reduced earning over several mont hs.
REcOvERy nEEDs
Losses t o indust ry and commerce are ent irely privat e in nat ure and, except for t hose in t he
Yangon indust rial parks, were incurred by owners of indust rial and commercial ent erprises who are
amongst t he poorest sect ions of t he populat ion. These losses are not appropriat e for compensat ion
from public funds or int ernat ional assist ance. The except ion is micro- ent erprises, for whom recovery
needs are est imat ed in Annex 14 ( Employment and Livelihoods) . This sect ion, t herefore, focuses on
policy issues relat ed t o indust rial and commercial recovery.
Recovery of salt indust ry will depend on t he replenishment and recovery t o full product ivit y
of it s decimat ed workforce. A key need and challenge from bot h a risk mit igat ion and economic
perspective will be to provide effective protection for such exposed populations, including in fsh
processing, from fut ure sea surges result ing from cyclones or t sunamis.
Recovery in industry and commerce will be constrained by access to fnance. Many frm
owners in fsh processing lack the capacity to self-fnance rebuilding and access to fresh bank loans
may oft en be hindered by exist ing loans ( t hat cannot be current ly repaid due t o lack of income) as
well as lack of collateral (either destroyed or already pledged). Alternative sources of fnance such
as friends and family or local t raders are likely t o have also been adversely affect ed by t he cyclone
and unable to provide signifcant fnancing. Small and medium enterprises, which typically have
relatively little access to institutional fnance will also be constrained by lack of capital to invest in
repairing or replacing damaged physical asset s.
To support recovery, regulat ory aut horit ies and banks may need t o allow for rest ruct uring
exist ing debt of indust rial ent erprises and even, under some circumst ances, t he writ ing off of loans,
part icularly for economically disadvant aged and vulnerable households. Ot her measures may also
be needed, such as relaxat ion of collat eral requirement s and provision of fresh loans on t erms
appropriat e t o allow for reconst ruct ion and recovery.
While much of t he damage t o fact ories in indust rial parks was quickly repaired by owners, t he
cost of doing so has been subst ant ial, and will dampen fut ure invest ment s from ret ained earnings.
Few factory owners had insurance, and those that did typically had coverage only for fre damage.
Undert aking measure t o promot e wider insurance coverage will, t herefore, be import ant .
I nadequat e credit will be most severe for micro- ent erprises, in bot h indust ry and commerce,
whose recovery will need infusion of well t arget ed and appropriat e credit int ervent ions. Considerat ion
might be given t o development and provision t hrough part nership wit h NGOs where appropriat e,
of t arget ed micro- credit and t raining schemes t o allow for supplement ary or alt ernat ive sources of
income. This is covered under Annex 14 ( Employment and Livelihoods) .
An n e x 7 : I n d u s t r y a n d Co m m e r ce
96
An n e x 8 : Ho u s i n g
AnnEx 8: hOusing
summARy
There are t wo t ypes of housing in t he Delt a region: t radit ional houses and modern ( solid)
houses. Tradit ional houses are generally a combinat ion of wooden and bamboo st ruct ures. Before
t he cyclone, it is est imat ed t hat about 50 percent of all housing unit s were built of wood and bamboo
with wooden or bamboo foors on stilts. About 35 percent were all wooden and about 15 percent
were brick or concret e. The const ruct ion t echnology most commonly in use is represent at ive of
t radit ional knowledge and skills.
I t is est imat ed t hat Nargis dest royed or damaged approximat ely 450, 000 housing unit s,
and around 350, 000 unit s lost all or part of t heir roof. The damage and losses are est imat ed at K
686,000 million.
People have made a t remendous collaborat ive effort and rebuilt an est imat ed 77 percent
of houses already. Given the communities’ meagre resources, there has been a signifcant shift
to smaller bamboo houses; these are generally less stable and have a shorter life. The aim of the
housing sect or recovery st rat egy is, t herefore, t o support owners’ effort s t o rebuild on t heir own land
and t o st rengt hen t he st ruct ures t hey put in place t o improve disast er resilience. Due considerat ion
should be given t o t he poor, and t o equit y in t he provision of assist ance. Experience wit h nat ural
disast ers and from recovery proj ect s elsewhere should be applied t o t hose requiring relocat ion t o a
safer and more sust ainable environment t hrough a proper consult at ive process.
pRE-DisAstER situAtiOn
Wit h t he last nat ional census carried out in 1987, t here are clear challenges in present ing
an accurate profle of the pre-disaster situation in the housing sector of the affected area. The
assessment t eam used various dat a sources
1
t o gain an underst anding of t he sit uat ion.
Ownership and t enure. About 98 percent of rural resident s and about 85 percent of urban
dwellers own t heir houses. At t he same t ime, most of t he rural land in Myanmar is st at e- owned land
and leased t o resident s. I n urban areas t here is bot h st at e- owned and privat ely- owned land.
Housing t ypes. There are t wo t ypes of housing in t he Delt a region: t radit ional houses and
modern ( solid) houses. Tradit ional houses are generally a combinat ion of wooden and bamboo
st ruct ures. Before t he cyclone, it is est imat ed t hat about 50 percent of all housing unit s were built
of wood and bamboo with wooden or bamboo foors on stilts. About 35 percent were all wooden and
about 15 percent were brick or concret e.
The walls of t radit ional houses are most ly palm fronds or woven bamboo panels which are
nailed or fast ened t o t he main load- bearing st ruct ure. Roofs are generally palm t hat ch but t here
are some unit s wit h corrugat ed/ galvanized iron or zinc sheet s. I n t he affect ed areas, housing unit s
average around 22 by 11 feet and are locat ed on plot s averaging 30 by 50 feet .
Tradit ional houses generally have a mult i- purpose room, one small bedroom for adult s,
an ent rance porch or veranda, and an out door kit chen. There are generally no windows or doors
but some houses have open weave bamboo t o allow light and breeze t o ent er. Typical household
cont ent s consist of kerosene lamps or candles, sleeping mat s, cooking and eat ing ut ensils, a small
radio/ casset t e player, wraparound clot hing, rain wat er clay j ars and a supply of rice and ot her basic
necessit ies.
Modern houses are usually about 26 by 20 feet and comprise two stories. They are commonly
found more in t owns rat her t han in villages. They have wooden and/ or brick walls, wit h wooden
roof support st ruct ures, and corrugat ed/ galvanized iron or zinc sheet s. Pillars are eit her wooden,
concret e or in brick. Flooring is most ly st abilized cement . Typical plot sizes in urban areas are 40 by
60 or 80 by 80 feet.
1 Ministry of Interior; Myanmar Nargis Information Centre, Myanmar Survey Research (17 May 2008); Ministry of Planning
and Economic Development , UNDP and UNOPS ( 2007) . I nt egrat ed Household Living Condit ion Survey in Myanmar – Povert y
Profle, Yangon June 2007; and Village Tract Assessment survey, June 2008.
97
Wat er and sanit at ion. Tradit ional houses usually have t heir own wat er wells and/ or wat er
j ars, or rely on rainwat er harvest ing and wat er supply from nearby rivers, canals and ponds. Wat er
collect ed from rivers and canals is usually consumed unt reat ed, and can t hus pose a considerable
healt h risk t o users. I n t he t owns t here exist s some degree of coverage of public supply of piped
wat er. However, in many cases, privat e wat er wells coexist besides t he modern supply syst em.
Toilet s ( lat rines) in rural areas are normally separat e out door shacks, and washing facilit ies are
generally planks or st airs leading t o t he river. I n urban areas, households use sept ic t anks wit h t wo
chamber soak pit s.
Building pract ices and building code. Most of t he housing unit s appear t o be owner or
user- built or built by local craft smen. Const ruct ion of a house is oft en a collaborat ive effort wit hin
t he village and several households will work t oget her t o build any one household’s house. The
const ruct ion t echnology most commonly in use is represent at ive of t radit ional knowledge and skills.
In its feld visits, the assessment team observed that while there appears to be a fair knowledge
of const ruct ion wit h wood and t hat ch mat erials, bamboo mat s and bamboo st ruct ures, appropriat e
const ruct ion t echniques for j oint s of wooden poles and beams are oft en not properly applied for bot h
t radit ional and modern houses. St eel reinforcing, bolt s, grooved j oint s, et c., are rarely used. I n many
cases, t he component s are simply nailed or fast ened in a rudiment ary manner. Few roofs, whet her
t hat ched or covered wit h corrugat ed/ galvanized iron or zinc sheet s, appear t o have had proper ant i-
cyclone prot ect ion such as nailed- on braces or t ract ion resist ant nails.
The country’s frst building code was published in 1947 by the Rangoon Trust, and revised as
a nat ional code in 1991 by t he Minist ry of Border Areas and Nat ional Races Development . I t is not
known how easily accessible t his document is or what t he monit oring or enforcement mechanisms
are at t his t ime. I t seems t hat some basic design st andards and building codes are not widely known
or available.
DAmAgE AnD lOssEs
Dat a collect ed by t he assessment t eam show t hat Nargis dest royed or damaged approximat ely
450,000 housing units. These fgures have been corroborated, based on feld observations by the
assessment t eam, report s from various agencies working on t he post - disast er response, and dat a
from t he Village Tract Assessment ( VTA) survey.
The damage of roofs varies according t o t he condit ion of t he building as well as Nargis’ pat h,
int ensit y and relat ed feat ures, as document ed on geographically referenced cyclone impact maps.
Tabl e 1: Damage and Losses i n t he Housi ng Sect or ( Ky at mi l l i on)
3 Annex 8: Housing

The damage of roofs varies according t o t he condit ion of t he building as well as
Nargis’ pat h, int ensit y and relat ed feat ures, as document ed on geographically
referenced cyclone impact maps.

Tabl e 1: Damage and Losses i n t he Housi ng Sect or
( Kyat million)
Disast er Effect s Ownership by Sect or Effect s on
Damage Losses Tot al Public Privat e BOP 1/ Fiscal Sect or 2/
660, 000 26, 000 686, 000 - 686, 000 80, 000 -
1/ Balance of payment s: lower export s, higher import s.
2/ Lower t ax r evenues, unexpect ed expendit ures.
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.

Damages are est imat ed at K427, 000 million and K231, 000 million in Ayeyarwady
and Yangon divisions, respect ively. Damages t ot alling K2, 200 million were also
incurred in Bago Division and Mon and Kayin st at es.

According t o t he VTA, t he cyclone t ot ally dest royed 57 percent and part ially
damaged 25 percent of t he shelt ers among sampled households in t he affect ed
area. 16 percent of households indicat ed lit t le damage and only 2 percent no
damage t o t heir houses. These figures appear t o be consist ent wit h t he dat a
provided by t he government t o t he assessment t eam, t he t eam’s field visit s, and
various report s.

The result s from t he VTA household survey furt her reveal t hat t he level of shelt er
dest ruct ion was closely linked t o t he t ype of shelt er before t he cyclone. The low-
qualit y bamboo shelt ers have been t he hardest hit wit h 65 percent among t hem
t ot ally dest royed.
2
I n order t o underst and bet t er t he implicat ions of t his
dest ruct ion pat t ern across shelt er t ypes, t he proport ions of households living in
t he different shelt er t ypes before t he cyclone have been added.

Fi gur e 1: Dest r uct i on l evel per house t y pe i n 37 t ow nshi ps
Destruction level for different house types
0%
2%
51%
46%
0%
5%
50%
65%
0% 20% 40% 60% 80%
Concrete
Brick
Wood
Bamboo
Proportion of households
% HHs with to
destroyed shel
cyclone, by ho
tally
ters after
use type
% HHs living i
type before cy
n house
clone

Source: VTA household survey

Ex i st i ng Rel i ef and Recov er y Ef f or t s


2
Anot her explanat ion for t his dest r uct ion pat t ern across house t ypes could be t hat t he cyclone passed
t hrough an area wit hin t he affect ed region where bamboo houses were more common.
1/ Balance of payment s: lower export s, higher import s.
2/ Lower t ax revenues, unexpect ed expendit ures.
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.
Damages are est imat ed at K427, 000 million and K231, 000 million in Ayeyarwady and Yangon
divisions, respect ively. Damages t ot alling K2, 200 million were also incurred in Bago Division and
Mon and Kayin st at es.
According t o t he VTA, t he cyclone t ot ally dest royed 57 percent and part ially damaged 25
percent of the shelters among sampled households in the affected area. 16 percent of households
indicated little damage and only 2 percent no damage to their houses. These fgures appear to be
consistent with the data provided by the government to the assessment team, the team’s feld visits,
and various report s.
The result s from t he VTA household survey furt her reveal t hat t he level of shelt er dest ruct ion
was closely linked t o t he t ype of shelt er before t he cyclone. The low- qualit y bamboo shelt ers have
An n e x 8 : Ho u s i n g
98
been the hardest hit with 65 percent among them totally destroyed.
2
I n order t o underst and bet t er
t he implicat ions of t his dest ruct ion pat t ern across shelt er t ypes, t he proport ions of households living
in t he different shelt er t ypes before t he cyclone have been added.
Fi gur e 1: Dest r uct i on l evel per house t y pe i n 37 t ow nshi ps
Destruction level for different house types
0%
2%
51%
46%
0%
5%
50%
65%
0% 20% 40% 60% 80%
Concrete
Brick
Wood
Bamboo
Proportion of households
% HHs with totally
destroyed shelters after
cyclone, by house type
% HHs living in house
type before cyclone

Source: VTA household survey
Existing REliEF AnD REcOvERy EFFORts
The result s of t he VTA household survey show t hat overall, over t hree- quart ers of households
have rebuilt t heir homes already ( Table 2) .
3
I n t he villages and t ownships, in t he process of salvaging
const ruct ion mat erial for emergency ( or lat er) use, most of t he debris volume of t radit ional and
wooden houses has been reduced by t he affect ed resident s and owners.
4
Tabl e 2: Reconst r uct i on r at es per house t y pe
Annex 8: Housing 4

The result s of t he VTA household survey show t hat overall, over t hree- quart ers of
households have rebuilt t heir homes already ( Table 2) .
3
I n t he villages and
t ownships, in t he process of salvaging const ruct ion mat erial for emergency ( or
lat er) use, most of t he debris volume of t radit ional and wooden houses has been
reduced by t he affect ed resident s and owners.
4


Tabl e 2: Reconst r uct i on r at es per house t y pe
% t ot al l y dest r oy ed
per house t y pe
% r ebui l t per house
t y pe
5
% not i n t hei r
home
6
Bamboo Wood Brick Concret e Bamboo Wood

65% 50% 5% 0% 77% 67% 6%
Source: VTA household survey

Given t he communit ies’ meagre resources, t here has been a significant shift t o
smaller bamboo houses. VTA dat a indicat e an increase in bamboo houses from 46
t o 65 percent and a decrease in wood houses from 51 t o 33 percent ( see figure 2
below) . Bamboo is generally less st able t han wood wit h a short life if exposed t o
humidit y. This is of part icular concern given t hat t he proport ion of t ot al
dest ruct ion among bamboo shelt ers was much higher t han among ot her t ypes of
shelt er ( see t able above) .

Fi gur e 2: Pr opor t i on of house t y pes i n t he Del t a bef or e and af t er cy cl one
Shift from wood to bamboo houses
46%
51%
2%
0%
65%
33%
2%
0%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
Bamboo Wood Brick Concret e
P
r
o
p
o
r
t
i
o
n

o
f

h
o
u
s
e
h
o
l
d
s
before
aft er

Source: VTA household survey

Following t he disast er, t hree t ypes of kit s have been assembled for dist ribut ion: a
Household Tarpaulin Kit ( 2 t arps and 30m rope) , a Communit y Tool Kit ( t he
st andard t ool kit of t he I nt ernat ional Federat ion of t he Red Cross, one kit per five
households) , and a Household Relief Kit ( blanket s, mosquit o net s, j erry can and
kit chen set ) . These kit s provide bot h short and longer- t erm assist ance as
beneficiaries const ruct t emporary and/ or permanent shelt er solut ions as
condit ions permit .


3
I n Ayeyarwady Division alone, an est imat ed 70 percent of houses has been rebuilt .
4
I n t he case of heavier brick and concret e sect ions, debr is r emoval has been much slower.
5
This does not reflect any possible changes in t he t ype of shelt er aft er rebuilding. The t wo cat egor ies
for % rebuilt of brick and concret e shelt er s have been excluded as t oo few households live in t hese
shelt er t ypes among t he sampled villages.

6
Based upon t he VTA household survey quest ion ‘Where ar e you st aying?’
Source: VTA household survey
Given the communities’ meagre resources, there has been a signifcant shift to smaller
bamboo houses. VTA data indicate an increase in bamboo houses from 46 to 65 percent and a
decrease in wood houses from 51 to 33 percent (see fgure 2 below). Bamboo is generally less
st able t han wood wit h a short life if exposed t o humidit y. This is of part icular concern given t hat t he
proport ion of t ot al dest ruct ion among bamboo shelt ers was much higher t han among ot her t ypes of
shelt er ( see t able above) .
2 Anot her explanat ion for t his dest ruct ion pat t ern across house t ypes could be t hat t he cyclone passed t hrough an area wit hin
t he affect ed region where bamboo houses were more common.
3 I n Ayeyarwady Division alone, an est imat ed 70 percent of houses has been rebuilt .
4 I n t he case of heavier brick and concret e sect ions, debris removal has been much slower.
* This does not refect any possible changes in the type of shelter after rebuilding. The two categories for % rebuilt of brick
and concret e shelt ers have been excluded as t oo few households live in t hese shelt er t ypes among t he sampled villages.
* * Based upon t he VTA household survey quest ion ‘Where are you st aying?’
An n e x 8 : Ho u s i n g
99
Fi gur e 2: Pr opor t i on of house t y pes i n t he Del t a bef or e and af t er cy cl one

Shift from wood to bamboo houses
46%
51%
2%
0%
65%
33%
2%
0%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
Bamboo Wood Brick Concret e
P
r
o
p
o
r
t
i
o
n

o
f

h
o
u
s
e
h
o
l
d
s
before
aft er
Source: VTA household survey
Following t he disast er, t hree t ypes of kit s have been assembled for dist ribut ion: a Household
Tarpaulin Kit ( 2 t arps and 30m rope) , a Communit y Tool Kit ( t he st andard t ool kit of t he I nt ernat ional
Federation of the Red Cross, one kit per fve households), and a Household Relief Kit (blankets,
mosquit o net s, j erry can and kit chen set ) . These kit s provide bot h short and longer- t erm assist ance
as benefciaries construct temporary and/or permanent shelter solutions as conditions permit.
To dat e
5
, agencies and NGOs have dist ribut ed over 434, 000 t arps, covering at least one-
t hird of households needing such. More t han 21, 000 communit y t ool kit s have also been dist ribut ed
reaching over 105,000 households. Of the household relief kits, 168,000 blankets, 578,000 mosquito
nets, 249,000 jerry cans and 60,000 kitchen sets have been distributed. These items have helped
many families who have lost all t heir belongings t o rebuild a simple shelt er and have enabled t hem
t o regain a minimum st andard of living.
REcOvERy nEEDs AnD stRAtEgy
Needs. About t hree- quart ers of t he housing unit s which were dest royed have been rebuilt
by their owners and communities, but in most cases using very fimsy structures which will require
replacement in a 1- 2 year t ime frame. There is st ill about one- quart er of houses where it is est imat ed
t hat rebuilding effort s have not yet st art ed. There is t hus a cont inued need t o provide emergency
shelt er mat erials and proper building mat erials t o needy households. I ndeed, result s from t he VTA
survey indicat e t hat t here is an urgent demand for assist ance t o rebuild homes. Depending on
location, 68-97 percent of respondents stated that such assistance for material such as thatch, wood
and bamboo was required.
Those who have already rebuilt t heir houses, have invest ed t heir labour and on occasion
have also t aken out loans ( for example, t o buy t hat ch from t raders) . However, a high percent age of
t hese houses, rebuilt wit h bamboo and salvaged mat erials may require furt her assist ance t o improve
qualit y. Consequent ly, in addit ion t o helping rebuild t he remaining replacement unit s, t here is need
for retroftting units which have not been built to adequate anti-cyclone standards. Such support
could include safer st ruct ural improvement s and weat her prot ect ion, as required.
St rat egy. The goal of an early recovery st rat egy for t he housing sect or is t o support all
affect ed households over an init ial 12- mont h period as t hey re- est ablish t heir livelihoods in safe and
secure locat ions, living in cyclone- resist ant improved dwellings meet ing affordabilit y, habit abilit y,
cult ural adequacy, and access t o pot able wat er supply and sanit at ion facilit ies. To t his end, t he
Myanmar Emergency Shelt er Clust er and t he PONJA t eam have developed guiding principles for
housing reconst ruct ion. Due considerat ion should be given t o t he poor, and t o equit y in t he provision
of assist ance.
5 July 7, 2008.
An n e x 8 : Ho u s i n g
100
The proposed shelt er support packages include a combinat ion of some, or all, of t he following
components: construction tools kits; essential building materials at community sites; hands-on
technical assistance; and grants/vouchers for the procurement of materials and/or construction
act ivit ies in order t o for t he foundat ions of reaching a durable shelt er solut ion. I ncome- generat ion
and livelihood act ivit ies should be incorporat ed in t ransit ional shelt er provision t o t he ext ent possible.
For instance, building materials and supplies would be sourced locally; skills of communities in
‘building back bet t er ’ pract ices would be developed, and art isans and builders would be t rained in
safer const ruct ion t echniques, including assessing damages and house locat ion.
The longer- t erm housing recovery st rat egy is t o begin under t he humanit arian phase t o
help owners t o st rengt hen t heir exist ing effort s t o rebuild on t heir own land, making t he t radit ional
rural house more disast er- resist ant , but preparing t he wooden st ruct ure wit h a t hat ched roof and
bamboo or thatch walling. The average size of the core house is 26 square meter. The owners
would need t o be made aware of disast er- resist ant const ruct ion t echniques. Similarly, local art isans
( carpent ers, masons, et c. ) would need t raining in disast er- resist ant const ruct ion. I t is proposed t hat
fnancial assistance should cover the building cost of the core unit. Using local prices, the cost of the
disaster-resistant core unit is around K 600,000, a fgure that has been triangulated against local
prices in affected areas during feld visits, and benchmarks for material and construction costs in
neighbouring count ries.
Within this broad framework of fnancial needs, support to owners’ own efforts to rebuild
may be provided t hrough a phased approach, wit h init ial support t o st rengt hen disast er resilience
provided as part of immediat e humanit arian act ivit ies and t hen supplement ed over t ime wit h great er
assist ance t o improve disast er- resist ance. I t should, however, be underlined t hat a furt her det ailed
housing assessment is needed to refne these costs. It is not known, for example, how many of the
damaged houses belonged t o adult s who died, where children or ot her dependent s will be housed
with other relatives in future. This may result in a further refnement of needs.
Based on t he above, t he t ot al need for around 450, 000 houses est imat ed as t he maximum
that need to be rebuilt is around K285,000 million (see Table 3), out of which the need for the frst
year is est imat ed t o be K47, 000 million t o provide basic support t o owners’ init ial effort s t o rebuild.
Houses t hat had lost part s of t heir roofs have by and large been repaired by t he owners and
are not included in recovery cost s.
Tabl e 3: Est i mat ed Needs f or Bui l di ng Gr eat er Di sast er - Resi l i ence
Annex 8: Housing 6

made aware of disast er- resist ant const ruct ion t echniques. Similarly, local art isans
( carpent ers, masons, et c. ) would need t raining in disast er- resist ant const ruct ion.
I t is proposed t hat financial assist ance should cover t he building cost of t he core
unit . Using local prices, t he cost of t he di sast er- resist ant core unit is around K
600, 000, a figure t hat has been t riangulat ed against local prices in affect ed areas
during field visit s, and benchmarks for mat erial and const ruct ion cost s in
neighbouring count ries.

Wit hin t his broad framework of financial needs, support t o owners’ own effort s t o
rebuild may be provided t hrough a phased approach, wit h init ial support t o
st rengt hen disast er resilience provided as part of immediat e humanit arian
act ivit ies and t hen supplement ed over t ime wit h great er assist ance t o improve
disast er- resist ance. I t should, however, be underlined t hat a furt her det ailed
housing assessment is needed t o refine t hese cost s. I t is not known, for example,
how many of t he damaged houses belonged t o adult s who died, where children or
ot her dependent s will be housed wit h ot her relat ives in fut ure. This may result in
a furt her refinement of needs.

Based on t he above, t he t ot al need for around 450, 000 houses est imat ed as t he
maximum t hat need t o be rebuilt is around K255, 000 million ( see Table 2) , out of
which t he need for t he first year is est imat ed t o be K44, 000 million t o provide
basic support t o owners’ init ial effort s t o rebuild.

Houses t hat had lost part s of t heir roofs have by and large been repaired by t he
owners and are not included in recovery cost s.

Tabl e 3: Est i mat ed Needs f or Bui l di ng Gr eat er Di sast er - Resi l i ence
I t ems t o be
r epl aced
Number of
uni t s
Cost est i mat e
( Kyat million)
Comment s
Core t radit ional
house
450, 000

243, 000

x Assumes a t radit ional rural house of
wooden st ruct ure wit h t hat ched roof
and wit h bamboo or t hat ch walling
x Assumes K 600, 000 for a core unit
of 26 square met er, including t he
support t o rebuilding provided under
t he humanit arian appeal
x Assumes 10 percent of salvageable
mat erial from t he debris
Training and
capacit y
development
1, 575


Program
management
10, 800
Tot al 282, 375
Source: Est imat es by UN Habit at and PONJA Team.

Risk reduction. Preparedness for recurring cyclones, and disast er risk reduct ion
plans at local and nat ional levels will be key t o achieving t he goal of long- t erm
sust ainabilit y. An assist ance program for communit y- based reconst ruct ion and
ret rofit t ing could be focused on t he following risk reduct ion measures: design of
cyclone- resist ant st andard housing unit s; provision of a roving ret ro- fit t ing
service which can provide advice t o individual home builders and home owners,
and supervise t he compliance wit h cyclone- resist ant building st andards; t raining
and capacit y building of local labour, cont ract ors and communit y members;
inst allat ion of an early warning syst ems; and const ruct ion of safe havens and
accessible cyclone shelt ers in all villages.

Resettlement. Nargis led t o widespread t emporary displacement . Those who left
t heir villages aft er t he cyclone t ended t o be from areas t hat were complet ely
Source: Est imat es by UN Habit at and PONJA Team.
Risk reduct ion. Preparedness for recurring cyclones, and disast er risk reduct ion plans at
local and nat ional levels will be key t o achieving t he goal of long- t erm sust ainabilit y. An assist ance
program for community-based reconstruction and retroftting could be focused on the following
risk reduction measures: design of cyclone-resistant standard housing units; provision of a roving
An n e x 8 : Ho u s i n g
101
retro-ftting service which can provide advice to individual home builders and home owners, and
supervise the compliance with cyclone-resistant building standards; training and capacity building
of local labour, contractors and community members; installation of an early warning systems; and
const ruct ion of safe havens and accessible cyclone shelt ers in all villages.
Reset t lement . Nargis led t o widespread t emporary displacement . Those who left t heir villages
aft er t he cyclone t ended t o be from areas t hat were complet ely devast at ed. I n t hose were some
houses remained st anding, villagers were more likely t o st ay wit h t heir neighbors t han leave t heir
villages. By May 20, there were an estimated 600 informal shelters and government-run temporary
settlements housing more than 260,000 people.
6
Since then, this fgure has declined dramatically.
7
Preliminary results from the feld assessments indicate that the majority of households who
remain displaced wish t o ret urn t o t heir own land, and t his would be consist ent wit h ot her nat ural
disast er event s in t he region. However, no syst emat ic dat a are available on t he number of households
who wish t o reset t le elsewhere, nor on land which is hazardous or on land where t he ent ire family or
t he regist ered user of t he land died.
8
Amongst t hose who are st ill living in camps or wit h relat ives/
friends may be families who: ( i) do not want t o go back t o t heir village of origin for fear of anot her
such disaster and/or because their economic base has been destroyed; (ii) cannot go back because
land was lost due to erosion; and/or (iii) they should not go back because their abodes were, or are
now, locat ed in hazardous areas or in areas t hat are no longer environment ally sust ainable. These
households would, t hus, need assist ance t o set t le in anot her locat ion on t heir own ( for inst ance,
close t o relat ives) , or need t o be relocat ed in groups t o safer ground.
9
Experience wit h nat ural disast ers and from development proj ect s from ASEAN count ries
and elsewhere indicat es several principles t hat should guide such reset t lement . First , t he relocat ing
communit ies ( as well as t he receiving ones, if applicable) should be consult ed t hroughout t he planning
and implement at ion process, including on why a ret urn t o t he villages of origin is no longer deemed
feasible. Second, invest ment s will be needed t o make t he new set t lement s economically, socially and
environmentally sustainable; this requires ex ante in-depth analysis with benefciary participation.
Third, t he relocat ing families should have access t o land for housing and cult ivat ion wit h plot s of
an equal value and size. This takes time to ensure a proper process, hence rapid identifcation and
equipping of new sit es should be avoided.
I n order t o avoid regressive impact s of t he cyclone, changes t o set t lement and land use
pat t erns should be minimized, avoiding t he t ransfer of land away from smaller farmers. I t will be
part icularly import ant t o ensure t hat due process is est ablished t o prot ect access of survivors t o t heir
families’ land and t o set t le any land claim issues t ransparent ly and expedit iously.
Next st eps. Given the enormous needs in the sector, it would be benefcial to quickly establish
guidance for t he t ype and st andard of housing assist ance t o be provided as part of relief and early
recovery operat ions. I n t his regard, it would be preferable t hat local and int ernat ional agencies
limit t heir geographical focus and assume responsibilit y for providing comprehensive assist ance t o
recipient villages so t hat no ot her housing- relat ed organizat ion may need t o ext end services t o t he
same locat ion. I n parallel, a det ailed housing assessment should be conduct ed at t he local level,
ideally t hrough a part icipat ory process drawing on t he capacit ies of communit y- based groups and
local NGOs. This would inform approaches t o supplement ing household at t empt s t o rebuild. Teams
of specialist s should also review t he safet y of t he reconst ruct ed buildings, especially where mat erials
and fttings are being reused in the repairs of such structures.
Even t hough a large share of t he damaged and dest royed houses is being recycled in t he
reconst ruct ion effort , t here will be great er demand on nat ural const ruct ion mat erials. Consequent ly,
t he sust ainable harvest ing of bamboo, palm fronds and relat ed mat erials, as well as t he implicat ions
6 Myanmar Information Management Unit (2008). “Summary of Assessment of Areas Affected by Cyclone Nargis Submitted
t o MI MU bet ween 3- 20 May, 2008.” Draft , 7 June, 2008.
7 By the frst week of June, numbers of internally displaced persons in camps were much smaller. In Labutta, the camp
populat ion declined from 40, 000 t o 10, 000. I n Bogale all camps were closed, alt hough some t ransit ional sit es were opened.
In Myaung Mya, the offcial camp population decreased to 3,700 from 13,000, with another 800 in informal settlements. All
camps in Pat hein and Mawlamyinegyun t ownships were closed, and camps in Pyapon ( housing 17, 000) were in t he process
of closure.
8 This is normal at t his st age aft er t he disast er – it is not generally possible t o est imat e reset t lement and land use/ land claim
implicat ions unt il a lat er st age.
9 Annex 12 ( Coast al Environment and Nat ural Resources Management ) provides lessons on appropriat e approaches t o
submerged coast al areas, prot ect ing land and usage right s.
An n e x 8 : Ho u s i n g
102
of using young leaves and fallen bet el nut t rees in t he reconst ruct ion process, should be analyzed.
I n parallel, t here is an urgent need t o consult on approaches t o coast al zoning, reset t lement
and land claims. These issues require ex-ante analysis with benefciary participation. Rapid action
should, therefore, be avoided; rather, an initial consultative process should be carried out to establish
guidelines which can be used t o ensure t he full involvement of affect ed communit ies in decision-
making. A survey of coast al zoning issues, support ed by int ernat ional t echnical assist ance, is an
import ant complement t o t he communit y- based consult at ive process.
An n e x 8 : Ho u s i n g
103
An n e x 9 : Wa t e r Su p p l y a n d Sa n i t a t i o n
AnnEx 9: WAtER supply AnD sAnitAtiOn
summARy
I n t he cyclone affect ed areas, t he drinking wat er supply before t he cyclone was most ly
provided t hrough self provision arrangement s, which included household level rainwat er harvest ing
t anks, communal rain wat er ponds, open wells, t ube wells and rivers. Government records show t hat
t here were at least 4, 540 ponds in t he affect ed area. While lat rine use was common, few lat rines
were sanitary latrines, with the use of straight drop or foating latrines widespread, which is as risky
as open defecat ion for t he spread of wat er borne diseases.
The dest ruct ion of housing during t he cyclone led t o t he loss of many household rainwat er
harvesting systems, while the storm surge and fooding that followed the cyclone led to the salination
of many communit y rainwat er ponds. This has led t o drast ic shift in primary sources of wat er from
ponds t o rain wat er t anks. Damage t o lat rines appears t o have been ext ensive, wit h t he assessment
indicat ing t hat 40- 45 percent of respondent s have swit ched from pit lat rines t o open defecat ion.
Tot al damage and losses amount t o c. 8, 500 million, of which almost 95 percent where incurred by
privat e owners and communit ies.
The immediat e humanit arian needs are rehabilit at ion of communal rain- wat er ponds,
rehabilit at ion and rest orat ion of household rain- wat er harvest ing syst ems and household lat rines,
rehabilit at ion of t ube wells/ hand- pumps and promot ion of bet t er hygiene pract ices. The st rat egy
for t he longer- t erm recovery phase should aim at a sust ained wat er qualit y monit oring program,
hygiene promot ion, and emergency preparedness t o address fut ure nat ural disast ers. Relief and
early recovery needs are estimated at K21,600 million whilst longer-term recovery needs amount to
c. K11, 700 million ( Table 3) , for a combined t ot al of about K33, 300 million.
pRE-DisAstER situAtiOn
Coverage of piped water supply system is low, with only 6 percent of households connected
t o piped wat er supply net works in t owns, and 2 percent of households in rural areas.
1
The piped
wat er supply net works dist ribut e non- pot able wat er most ly from rivers for domest ic uses. I n t he
affect ed areas, bet ween 2. 5 percent t o 15 percent of t he populat ion living in Ayeyarwady Division
and 13 percent t o 42 percent in Yangon Division were connect ed t o t he piped wat er net work, for
which consumers pay a fat rate of approximately K1,000 per month. In some locations, local vendors
supply wat er at t he rat e of about K1/ lit re.
I n t he cyclone affect ed areas, t he drinking wat er supply before t he cyclone was most ly
provided t hrough self provision arrangement s, which included household level rainwat er harvest ing
t anks, communal rain wat er ponds, open wells, t ube wells and rivers. There are no fees for wat er
supplied from communit y ponds, dug wells and rain wat er harvest ing.
Most households had a rainwat er harvest ing syst em t hat collect ed rainwat er t hrough a
gut t er ( made of met al, plast ic or bamboo) int o a number of large eart hen pot s. I n t he dry season,
t he communal ponds t hat collect ed rainwat er served as t he primary source of wat er, wit h most
communit ies having at least one or t wo such ponds. Government records show t hat t here were at least
4, 540 ponds in t he affect ed area ( 2, 972 in Ayeyarwady Division and 1, 578 in Yangon Division) .
I n most areas in t he region, t here is a basic awareness about household wat er t reat ment
using chlorine. The pract ice, however, is not common and generally household wat er t reat ment is
limited to holding water in large earthen containers for a few days before fltering it through a clean
clot h.
1 WHO/ UNI CEF Joint Monit oring Program for Wat er Supply and Sanit at ion Dat abase.
104
An n e x 9 : Wa t e r Su p p l y a n d Sa n i t a t i o n
Tabl e 1: Sour ces of w at er f or dr i nk i ng and w ashi ng bef or e and af t er t he Cy cl one
Annex 9: Wat er Supply and Sanit at ion 2


I n most areas in t he region, t here is a basic awareness about household wat er
t reat ment using chlorine. The pract ice, however, is not common and generally
household wat er t reat ment is limit ed t o holding wat er in large eart hen cont ainers
for a few days before filt ering it t hrough a clean clot h.

Tabl e 1: Sour ces of w at er f or dr i nk i ng and w ashi ng
bef or e and af t er t he Cy cl one
Percent of respondent s using various sources ( aver age) for
drinking washing
Yangon Ayeyarwady Yangon Ayeyarwady
Ty pe of sour ce
before aft er before aft er before aft er before aft er
Tube well 14 15 4 4 18 17 5 4
Hand pump 23 21 2 2 25 26 2 2
Open dug well 8 8 21 19 26 3 2 17
Pond 48 40 42 24 46 45 27 22
Rain wat er t ank 25 30 16 30 20 21 5 8
River 2 2 21 19 4 4 49 49
Wat er t rucking 6 5 1 2 1 1 0 0
Not e: The sum of t he percent of different users may not be 100 percent because some r espondent use
mult iple sour ces.
Source: Village Tract Assessment .

Sanitation facilities. Assessment result s show t hat open defecat ion is not common
in Yangon or Ayeyarwady Divisions. Only 11 percent of respondent s in
Ayeyarwady Division and 6 percent in Yangon Division report ed open defecat ion
before t he cyclone. However, while lat rine use was common, few lat rines were
sanit ary lat rines, wit h t he use of st raight drop or float ing lat rines widespread,
which is as risky as open defecat ion for t he spread of wat er borne diseases
2
.

Damage and Losses

Damage to primary sources of drinking water. The dest ruct ion of housing during
t he cyclone led t o t he loss of many household rainwat er harvest ing syst ems,
while t he st orm surge and flooding t hat followed t he cyclone led t o t he salinat ion
of many communit y rainwat er ponds, affect ing up t o 13 percent of t he ponds in
Yangon Division and up t o 43 percent of ponds in Ayeyarwady Division. This has
led t o drast ic shift in primary sources of wat er from ponds t o rain wat er t anks. Up
t o 26 percent respondent s have added rainwat er t anks in Yangon Division and up
t o 36 percent in Ayeyarwady Division as t heir drinking wat er sources. River wat er
and wat er t rucking also became maj or means for drinking wat er for some
affect ed t ownships.

Damage to defecation facilities. Damage t o lat rines appears t o have been
ext ensive, wit h t he assessment indicat ing t hat up t o 40 percent of respondent s
have swit ched from pit lat rines t o open defecat ion in Yangon Division aft er t he
cyclone, and up t o 45 percent in Ayeyarwady Division. Some of t he respondent s
also report ed using float ing and t rench lat rines.

Others. Damages were also report ed t o a less significant ext ent t o ot her sources
of wat er, including t he piped wat er supply syst em, t ube- wells and open wells.


2
A float ing lat rine is a lat rine built on st ilt s above a flowing river or a st ream. The excret a drops
st raight int o t he wat er and not in a pit as in t he case of a ‘sanit ary pit lat r ine’. I n a pit lat r ine, t he
wast e is held in a pit wher e t he pat hogens are killed due t o nat ural aerobic digest ion. The float ing
lat r ines are t herefore as risky as open defecat ion.

Not e: The sum of t he percent of different users may not be 100 percent because some respondent use mult iple sources.
Source: Village Tract Assessment .
Sanit at ion facilit ies. Assessment result s show t hat open defecat ion is not common in Yangon
or Ayeyarwady Divisions. Only 11 percent of respondents in Ayeyarwady Division and 6 percent in
Yangon Division report ed open defecat ion before t he cyclone. However, while lat rine use was common,
few latrines were sanitary latrines, with the use of straight drop or foating latrines widespread,
which is as risky as open defecat ion for t he spread of wat er borne diseases
2
.
DAmAgE AnD lOssEs
Damage t o primary sources of drinking wat er. The dest ruct ion of housing during t he cyclone
led to the loss of many household rainwater harvesting systems, while the storm surge and fooding
t hat followed t he cyclone led t o t he salinat ion of many communit y rainwat er ponds, affect ing up t o 13
percent of t he ponds in Yangon Division and up t o 43 percent of ponds in Ayeyarwady Division. This
has led to drastic shift in primary sources of water from ponds to rain water tanks. Up to 26 percent
respondents have added rainwater tanks in Yangon Division and up to 36 percent in Ayeyarwady
Division as t heir drinking wat er sources. River wat er and wat er t rucking also became maj or means
for drinking wat er for some affect ed t ownships.
Damage t o defecat ion facilit ies. Damage t o lat rines appears t o have been ext ensive, wit h t he
assessment indicat ing t hat up t o 40 percent of respondent s have swit ched from pit lat rines t o open
defecat ion in Yangon Division aft er t he cyclone, and up t o 45 percent in Ayeyarwady Division. Some
of the respondents also reported using foating and trench latrines.
Ot hers. Damages were also reported to a less signifcant extent to other sources of water,
including t he piped wat er supply syst em, t ube- wells and open wells.
Fi g 1: Sal i ni t y i n Communal Rai nw at er Ponds
3 Annex 9: Wat er Supply and Sanit at ion

Fi g 1: Sal i ni t y i n Communal Rai nw at er Ponds
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
%

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Source: Village Tract Assessment .

Macro-economic impact. The above ment ioned damages t o exist ing wat er supply
and sanit at ion infrast ruct ure and furt her losses because of t he damage is shown
in t he t able below.

Tabl e 2: Summar y of Damage and Losses i n t he Wat er Suppl y Sect or
( Kyat million)
Di sast er Ef f ect s Ow ner shi p
Sub- sect or component s
Damage Losses Tot al Public Privat e
Household rain wat er
harvest ing facilit ies

7, 900 . . 7, 900 . . 7, 900
Wat er t reat ment plant 1 - 1 1 -
Pipe net work - - - - -
Pump machine 4 - 4 4 -
Pump house 53 53 53 -
Dug well - - - - -
Manual pump 179 - 179 179 -
Cleaning of rain wat er pond - 270 270 270 -
Consumer purchase of
drinking wat er
- 110 110 - 110
Gr and Tot al 8,137 380 8, 517 507 8, 010
Not e: Exact dat a for damage t o dug wells and t ube- wells/ hand pumps is not available, rough est imat e
is given in t able 6. Damage t o household rain wat er facilit ies is based on a t ot al of fully damaged and
roof- damaged houses wit h a unit cost of K7,000 per house for collect ion syst em excluding st orage
pot s. Cost ing for ponds considered for r ehabilit at ion of 1, 352 est imat ed large sized saline ponds at
K200,000 per pond.
Source: PONJA t eam est imat es.

Socio-economic impact. The loss of access t o safe drinking wat er and sanit at ion
facilit ies has serious implicat ions for t he pot ent ial spread of disease ( see Figure 2
below) .


Source: Village Tract Assessment .
2 A foating latrine is a latrine built on stilts above a fowing river or a stream. The excreta drops straight into the water and
not in a pit as in t he case of a ‘sanit ary pit lat rine’. I n a pit lat rine, t he wast e is held in a pit where t he pat hogens are killed
due to natural aerobic digestion. The foating latrines are therefore as risky as open defecation.
105
Macro- economic impact . The above ment ioned damages t o exist ing wat er supply and
sanit at ion infrast ruct ure and furt her losses because of t he damage is shown in t he t able below.
Tabl e 2: Summar y of Damage and Losses i n t he Wat er Suppl y Sect or
( Kyat million)
3 Annex 9: Wat er Supply and Sanit at ion

Fi g 1: Sal i ni t y i n Communal Rai nw at er Ponds
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
%

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Source: Village Tract Assessment .

Macro-economic impact. The above ment ioned damages t o exist ing wat er supply
and sanit at ion infrast ruct ure and furt her losses because of t he damage is shown
in t he t able below.

Tabl e 2: Summar y of Damage and Losses i n t he Wat er Suppl y Sect or
( Kyat million)
Di sast er Ef f ect s Ow ner shi p
Sub- sect or component s
Damage Losses Tot al Public Privat e
Household rain wat er
harvest ing facilit ies

7, 900 . . 7, 900 . . 7, 900
Wat er t reat ment plant 1 - 1 1 -
Pipe net work - - - - -
Pump machine 4 - 4 4 -
Pump house 53 53 53 -
Dug well - - - - -
Manual pump 179 - 179 179 -
Cleaning of rain wat er pond - 270 270 270 -
Consumer purchase of
drinking wat er
- 110 110 - 110
Gr and Tot al 8,137 380 8, 517 507 8, 010
Not e: Exact dat a for damage t o dug wells and t ube- wells/ hand pumps is not available, rough est imat e
is given in t able 6. Damage t o household rain wat er facilit ies is based on a t ot al of fully damaged and
roof- damaged houses wit h a unit cost of K7,000 per house for collect ion syst em excluding st orage
pot s. Cost ing for ponds considered for r ehabilit at ion of 1, 352 est imat ed large sized saline ponds at
K200,000 per pond.
Source: PONJA t eam est imat es.

Socio-economic impact. The loss of access t o safe drinking wat er and sanit at ion
facilit ies has serious implicat ions for t he pot ent ial spread of disease ( see Figure 2
below) .


Note: Exact data for damage to dug wells and tube-wells/hand pumps is not available, rough estimate is given in table 6. Damage
t o household rain wat er facilit ies is based on a t ot al of fully damaged and roof- damaged houses wit h a unit cost of K7, 000 per
house for collect ion syst em excluding st orage pot s. Cost ing for ponds considered for rehabilit at ion of 1, 352 est imat ed large sized
saline ponds at K200, 000 per pond.
Source: PONJA t eam est imat es.
Socio- economic impact . The loss of access t o safe drinking wat er and sanit at ion facilit ies has
serious implicat ions for t he pot ent ial spread of disease ( see Figure 2 below) .
Fi g 2: Pr eval ence of Di seases post - Nar gi s
Annex 9: Wat er Supply and Sanit at ion 4

Fi g 2: Pr ev al ence of Di seases post - Nar gi s

0%
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diarrhoea jaundice skin rash

Source: Village Tract Assessment .

Increased stagnant water in the hamlets. Some of t he flood wat ers caused by t he
cyclone have remained in villages as st agnant wat er, creat ing difficult ies in
accessing village hamlet s and individual houses and in building lat rines. The
st agnant wat er is also providing a breeding ground for dengue fever and malaria
mosquit o. VTA result shows t hat 75 percent of respondent s report ed t he presence
of st agnant wat er in t heir vicinit y.

Pattern change in household and communal water treatment. Tradit ionally,
people t reat ed wat er by filt ering suspended solids from drinking wat er using a
piece of clean clot h. VTA dat a shows t hat chlorinat ion t reat ment s at t he
household and communit y levels have increased following t he cyclone, wit h
almost 20 percent of respondent s cit ing chlorinat ion as a means of t reat ing wat er.

Recov er y St r at egy and Needs

The immediat e humanit arian needs are rehabilit at ion of communal rain- wat er
ponds, rehabilit at ion and rest orat ion of household rain- wat er harvest ing syst ems
and household lat rines, rehabilit at ion of t ube wells/ hand- pumps and promot ion of
bet t er hygiene pract ices. The st rat egy for t he recovery phase should also consider
meet ing sphere st andards so t hat syst ems est ablished are more sust ainable. The
at t achment summarizes t he recommended st rat egy t o be adapt ed during t he first
12 mont hs of recovery.

The main st akeholders relat ed t o t he disast er response are t he communit ies, who
are in charge of leading recovery. Assist ance in t he cont ext of humanit arian and
recovery assist ance involves t he communit ies summarized as follows: ( i)
involvement of communit ies in t he planning and implement at ion of t he
programme wit h support from civil societ y organizat ions and NGOs t o define
appropriat e t echnical crit eria for wat er and sanit at ion; ( ii) building t rust among
communit ies and NGOs by organizing regular coordinat ion meet ings; and building
capacit y of communit y and communit y based organizat ions in communit y
management and providing t hem appropriat e t echnical responsibilit ies. I n order
t o ensure t his, assist ance should recognise appropriat e leadership roles for
communit ies and local agencies in developing and implement ing programmes in
t heir respect ive communit ies, including providing t raining t o t hem where
required.

Immediate needs. Based on t he analysis present ed in t he previous sub- sect ions,
maj or areas of urgent humanit arian need are: ( i) rehabilit at ing and sanit izing

Source: Village Tract Assessment .
I ncreased st agnant wat er in t he hamlet s. Some of the food waters caused by the cyclone
have remained in villages as stagnant water, creating diffculties in accessing village hamlets and
individual houses and in building lat rines. The st agnant wat er is also providing a breeding ground for
dengue fever and malaria mosquit o. VTA result shows t hat 75 percent of respondent s report ed t he
presence of st agnant wat er in t heir vicinit y.
Pat t ern change in household and communal wat er t reat ment . Tradit ionally, people t reat ed
water by fltering suspended solids from drinking water using a piece of clean cloth. VTA data shows
t hat chlorinat ion t reat ment s at t he household and communit y levels have increased following t he
cyclone, wit h almost 20 percent of respondent s cit ing chlorinat ion as a means of t reat ing wat er.
An n e x 9 : Wa t e r Su p p l y a n d Sa n i t a t i o n
106
REcOvERy stRAtEgy AnD nEEDs
The immediat e humanit arian needs are rehabilit at ion of communal rain- wat er ponds,
rehabilit at ion and rest orat ion of household rain- wat er harvest ing syst ems and household lat rines,
rehabilit at ion of t ube wells/ hand- pumps and promot ion of bet t er hygiene pract ices. The st rat egy for
t he recovery phase should also consider meet ing sphere st andards so t hat syst ems est ablished are
more sust ainable. The at t achment summarizes t he recommended st rat egy t o be adapt ed during t he
frst 12 months of recovery.
The main st akeholders relat ed t o t he disast er response are t he communit ies, who are in
charge of leading recovery. Assist ance in t he cont ext of humanit arian and recovery assist ance
involves t he communit ies summarized as follows: ( i) involvement of communit ies in t he planning
and implement at ion of t he programme wit h support from civil societ y organizat ions and NGOs t o
defne appropriate technical criteria for water and sanitation; (ii) building trust among communities
and NGOs by organizing regular coordination meetings; and building capacity of community and
communit y based organizat ions in communit y management and providing t hem appropriat e t echnical
responsibilit ies. I n order t o ensure t his, assist ance should recognise appropriat e leadership roles for
communit ies and local agencies in developing and implement ing programmes in t heir respect ive
communit ies, including providing t raining t o t hem where required.
I mmediat e needs. Based on t he analysis present ed in t he previous sub- sect ions, maj or areas
of urgent humanit arian need are: ( i) rehabilit at ing and sanit izing damaged rainwat er ponds and
household level rainwater harvesting systems; restoring damaged latrines and promoting further
construction; (iii) emergency hygiene promotion such as hygiene kit distribution and training and
mobilizing hygiene promoters; and (iv) water quality monitoring program.
The humanit arian operat ion can also st art t o address recovery needs, t hrough: furt her
provision and promotion of rainwater harvesting; (ii) improvement to ponds by providing additional
protection, fltration and facilities for safer collection of water; (iii) promotion of household sanitary
latrines and institutional water and sanitation facilities; and (iv) rehabilitation of dug wells and hand
pumps and t ube wells. These effort s will cont inue aft er t he second year t o sust ain wat er qualit y
monit oring, hygiene promot ion, and emergency preparedness.
Recovery needs. A more sust ainable recovery program is needed aft er t he init ial relief and
early recovery, which should be up t o t hree years at t he beginning and should consider t he following
initial strategies: (i) sustained water quality monitoring program; (ii) long-term hygiene promotion;
and ( iii) emergency preparedness t o address fut ure nat ural disast ers.
Cost est imat e. Relief and early recovery needs are est imat ed at K21, 500 million whilst
longer- t erm recovery needs amount t o c. K11, 700 million ( Table 3) .
Tabl e 3: Wat er Suppl y , Sani t at i on and Hy gi ene Needs Est i mat e
( Kyat million)
5 Annex 9: Wat er Supply and Sanit at ion


damaged rainwat er ponds and household level rainwat er harvest ing syst ems;
rest oring damaged lat rines and promot ing furt her const ruct ion; ( iii) emergency
hygiene promot ion such as hygiene kit dist ribut ion and t raining and mobilizing
hygiene promot ers; and ( iv) wat er qualit y monit oring program.

The humanit arian operat ion can also st art t o address recovery needs, t hrough:
furt her provision and promot ion of rainwat er harvest ing; ( ii) improvement t o
ponds by providing addit ional prot ect ion, filt rat ion and facilit ies for safer collect ion
of wat er; ( iii) promot ion of household sanit ary lat rines and inst it ut ional wat er and
sanit at ion facilit ies; and ( iv) rehabilit at ion of dug wells and hand pumps and t ube
wells. These effort s will cont inue aft er t he second year t o sust ain wat er qualit y
monit oring, hygiene promot ion, and emergency preparedness.

Recovery needs. A more sust ainable recovery program is needed aft er t he init ial
relief and early recovery, which should be up t o t hree years at t he beginning and
should consider t he following init ial st rat egies: ( i) sust ained wat er qualit y
monit oring program; ( ii) long- t erm hygiene promot ion; and ( iii) emergency
preparedness t o address fut ure nat ural disast ers.

Cost estimate. Relief and early recovery needs are est imat ed at K21, 500 million
whilst longer- t erm recovery needs amount t o c. K11, 700 million ( Table 3) .

Tabl e 3: Wat er Suppl y , Sani t at i on and Hy gi ene Needs Est i mat e
( Kyat million)
Subsect or
Rel i ef and Ear l y
Recov er y
Longer - t er m
Recov er y
Tot al
Wat er supply 13, 428 8, 519 21, 946
Sanit at ion 8, 090 1, 478 9, 568
Hygiene 1/ - 1, 740 1, 740
Tot al 21, 518 11, 737 33, 255
1/ Lat r ine const ruct ion for t he relief and early recovery phase amount ing t o c.
K14,000 million is included in t he housing needs.
Source: PONJA t eam est imat es.

1/ Lat rine const ruct ion for t he relief and early recovery phase amount ing t o c. K14, 000 million is included in t he housing needs.
Source: PONJA t eam est imat es.
An n e x 9 : Wa t e r Su p p l y a n d Sa n i t a t i o n
107
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An n e x 9 : Wa t e r Su p p l y a n d Sa n i t a t i o n
108
AnnEx 10: tRAnspORt AnD cOmmunicAtiOns
summARy
The t ransport and communicat ions sect ors include road, rail, wat er and air t ransport , and
post and t elecommunicat ions.
The t ot al damages are est imat ed t o be above K 120 billion and t he t ot al losses would amount
to close to K 65 billion. It should be noted that the public sector prices are generally low or subsidized
in Myanmar. As t hese sect ors are dominat ed by t he public sect or, t he damage and loss est imat es
may be lower t han t he act ual resource cost s.
Tabl e 1: Damage and Losses i n Tr anspor t and Communi cat i ons ( Ky at mi l l i on)
Annex 10: Tr anspor t and Communi cat i ons

Summar y
The t ransport and communicat ions sect ors include road, rail, wat er and air
t ransport , and post and t elecommunicat ions.

The t ot al damages are est imat ed t o be above K 120 billion and t he t ot al losses
would amount t o close t o K 65 billion. I t should be not ed t hat t he public sect or
prices are generally low or subsidized in Myanmar. As t hese sect ors are
dominat ed by t he public sect or, t he damage and loss est imat es may be lower
t han t he act ual resource cost s.

Tabl e 1: Damage and Losses i n Tr anspor t and Communi cat i ons ( Ky at mi l l i on)
Di sast er Ef f ect s
Ow ner shi p by
Sect or Ef f ect s on:
Sect or Damage Losses Tot al Publ i c Pr i vat e BOP*
Fi scal
Sect or * *
Road Tr anspor t 12, 609 28, 033 40, 642 18, 216 22, 426 19, 275 17, 216
Wat er Tr anspor t 99, 929 30, 887 130, 815 76, 186 54, 629 56, 113 76, 186
Rai l Tr anspor t 2, 357 140 2, 497 2, 497 0 707 2, 497
Ai r Tr anspor t * * * - 23 23 23 0 12 23
Post and Tel e-
communi cat i ons 7, 073 3, 621 10, 694 10, 694 - 6, 419 10, 694
Tot al 121, 968 62, 703 184, 671 107, 616 77, 056 82, 526 106, 616
* Lower export s; higher import s
* * Lower t ax revenues; unexpect ed expendit ures
* * * For Myanmar Air lines only
Source: PONJA Team est imat es

Tabl e 2. Quant i t at i ve Needs Assessment ( Ky at bi l l i on)
Transport and Communications
Yangon port 26.8
Road repair and maintenance 21.6
Telecoms* 5.1
Railways* 2.8
Not e : t hese needs est imat es include up t o 15% addit ional cost s for management and monit or ing of
t he const ruct ion programs in t he road and wat er t ranspor t sect ors.
* Rehabilit at ion work for rail t ransport and t elecommunicat ions has already been init iat ed by t he
respect ive Minist ries; aft er furt her assessment , may include passenger ferries ( init ial est imat e at K20
billion) .
Source: PONJA Team est imat es


I . Road Tr anspor t

Pr e- Di sast er Si t uat i on

The Minist ry of Public Works is responsible for t he nat ional highways ( for
example, primary roads from Yangon t o t he divisional capit als) , divisional roads
( for inst ance, secondary roads from a nat ional highway t o a t ownship capit al) ,
and t ownship roads ( for example, t hose from t ownship capit al t o ot her t owns or
villages wit hin t he t ownship) , as well as all bridges in t he net work. The Minist ry
for Progress of Border Areas and Nat ional Races and Development Affairs is
responsible for village t o village roads and bridges in t he coast al t ownships of t he
Ayeyarwady Delt a. The urban st reet s wit hin t he t ownship capit als are t he
responsibilit y of t he respect ive t ownship aut horit ies.

The primary and secondary road net work in t he cyclone affect ed areas mainly
links t he largest cit ies ( Yangon and Pat hein) and t ownship capit als, as well as
1
* Lower exports; higher imports
** Lower tax revenues; unexpected expenditures
* * * For Myanmar Airlines only
Source: PONJA Team est imat es
Tabl e 2. Quant i t at i v e Needs Assessment ( Ky at bi l l i on)
1
Annex 10: Tr anspor t and Communi cat i ons

Summar y
The t ransport and communicat ions sect ors include road, rail, wat er and air
t ransport , and post and t elecommunicat ions.

The t ot al damages are est imat ed t o be above K 120 billion and t he t ot al losses
would amount t o close t o K 65 billion. I t should be not ed t hat t he public sect or
prices are generally low or subsidized in Myanmar. As t hese sect ors are
dominat ed by t he public sect or, t he damage and loss est imat es may be lower
t han t he act ual resource cost s.

Tabl e 1: Damage and Losses i n Tr anspor t and Communi cat i ons ( Ky at mi l l i on)
Di sast er Ef f ect s
Ow ner shi p by
Sect or Ef f ect s on:
Sect or Damage Losses Tot al Publ i c Pr i vat e BOP*
Fi scal
Sect or * *
Road Tr anspor t 12, 609 28, 033 40, 642 18, 216 22, 426 19, 275 17, 216
Wat er Tr anspor t 99, 929 30, 887 130, 815 76, 186 54, 629 56, 113 76, 186
Rai l Tr anspor t 2, 357 140 2, 497 2, 497 0 707 2, 497
Ai r Tr anspor t * * * - 23 23 23 0 12 23
Post and Tel e-
communi cat i ons 7, 073 3, 621 10, 694 10, 694 - 6, 419 10, 694
Tot al 121,968 62,703 184,671 107,616 77,056 82,526 106,616
* Lower export s; higher import s
* * Lower t ax revenues; unexpect ed expendit ures
* * * For Myanmar Airlines only
Source: PONJA Team est imat es

Tabl e 2. Quant i t at i ve Needs Assessment ( Ky at bi l l i on)
Transport and Communications
Yangon port 26.8
Road repair and maintenance 21.6
Telecoms* 5.1
Railways* 2.8
Not e : t hese needs est imat es include up t o 15% addit ional cost s for management and monit oring of
t he const ruct ion programs in t he road and wat er t ranspor t sect ors.
* Rehabilit at ion work for rail t ransport and t elecommunicat ions has already been init iat ed by t he
respect ive Minist ries; aft er furt her assessment , may include passenger ferries ( init ial est imat e at K20
billion) .
Source: PONJA Team est imat es


I . Road Tr anspor t

Pr e- Di sast er Si t uat i on

The Minist ry of Public Works is responsible for t he nat ional highways ( for
example, primary roads from Yangon t o t he divisional capit als) , divisional roads
( for inst ance, secondary roads from a nat ional highway t o a t ownship capit al) ,
and t ownship roads ( for example, t hose from t ownship capit al t o ot her t owns or
villages wit hin t he t ownship) , as well as all bridges in t he net work. The Minist ry
for Progress of Border Areas and Nat ional Races and Development Affairs is
responsible for village t o village roads and bridges in t he coast al t ownships of t he
Ayeyarwady Delt a. The urban st reet s wit hin t he t ownship capit als are t he
responsibilit y of t he respect ive t ownship aut horit ies.

Formatted Table
Not e : t hese needs est imat es include up t o 15% addit ional cost s for management and monit oring of t he const ruct ion programs
in t he road and wat er t ransport sect ors.
* Rehabilitation work for rail transport and telecommunications has already been initiated by the respective Ministries; after
furt her assessment , may include passenger ferries ( init ial est imat e at K20 billion) .
Source: PONJA Team est imat es
i. ROAD tRAnspORt
pRE-DisAstER situAtiOn
The Minist ry of Public Works is responsible for t he nat ional highways ( for example, primary
roads from Yangon t o t he divisional capit als) , divisional roads ( for inst ance, secondary roads from
a nat ional highway t o a t ownship capit al) , and t ownship roads ( for example, t hose from t ownship
capit al t o ot her t owns or villages wit hin t he t ownship) , as well as all bridges in t he net work. The
Minist ry for Progress of Border Areas and Nat ional Races and Development Affairs is responsible for
village t o village roads and bridges in t he coast al t ownships of t he Ayeyarwady Delt a. The urban
st reet s wit hin t he t ownship capit als are t he responsibilit y of t he respect ive t ownship aut horit ies.
The primary and secondary road net work in t he cyclone affect ed areas mainly links t he largest
cit ies ( Yangon and Pat hein) and t ownship capit als, as well as larger t owns wit hin t he t ownship. The
road net work is cont iguous t o almost all t ownship capit als in t he Ayeyarwady Division, due t o maj or
An n e x 1 0 : Tr a n s p o r t a n d Co m m u n i ca t i o n s
109
bridges across t he large rivers in t he Delt a. Only t he capit als of Mawlamyinegyun and Ngapudaw
Townships are not connect ed t o t he road net work and are accessible by inland wat er t ransport .
The national highway from Yangon to Pathein is a 6-meter wide, bituminous sealed road.
Most of t he ot her main roads in t he Delt a are unsealed, t ypically wit h 3- 4 met er wide, wat er bound
macadam surface. They were only in fair condit ions before Cyclone Nargis. I n t he remot e rural areas
around t he t ownship capit als and in t he cost al areas, t here were few engineered roads and bridges.
Most of t he villages in t he areas were accessible eit her by informal vehicle t racks in t he dry season
or by boat s.
DAmAgE AnD lOssEs
The direct effect s of Nargis included maj or damages t o some lower st andard secondary and
t ert iary roads and bridges as well as t rails and bamboo foot bridges t hat were very close t o t he
coast line in Labut t a, Ngapudaw and Bogale t ownships. The cyclone also made some minor damages
to other roads (mainly because of fooding, fallen trees and telephone/electric power posts). Damage
t o roads and bridges in Yangon Division, part icularly in t he Yangon cit y areas, was minimal due t o
higher design st andards, more favorable ground condit ions and lower int ensit y of Nargis.
Subsequent t o Nargis, maj or damage has occurred t o t he main road net work and some minor
damage to bridges caused by the high traffc volumes and heavy loads of trucks bringing the relief
goods and supplies t o t he cyclone affect ed areas. Most of t he primary road net work ( part icularly t he
unsealed roads) and some key bridges were not designed t o handle t he kind of relief t rucks.
Losses are mainly incurred in t he form of higher vehicle operat ing cost s ( VOC) and longer
freight and passenger t ravel t ime associat ed wit h t he worsened road condit ions on t he key primary
and secondary road network. Losses are further increased due to the much higher volumes of traffc,
especially heavy vehicles, using t he main road net work for relief assist ance. The higher volumes of
traffc are expected to continue for an extended period of time during the recovery of the Delta area.
Losses in t ert iary roads and bridges are considered minimal, as eit her t ransport volumes are so low
t hat t he amount s are effect ively negligible or are handled by inland wat er t ransport services which
have been part ially resumed.
Loss of revenues t o t ransport freight and passenger operat ors caused by minor int errupt ion
of services immediat ely aft er Nargis have been offset by higher freight and passenger volumes once
services were fully rest ored. Revenue gains have not been calculat ed due t o lack of reliable dat a for
t he pre- and post - Nargis operat ing condit ions. The est imat ed damages and losses by t ownship are
shown in Table 3.
Tabl e 3. Road Tr anspor t : Damage and Loss by Tow nshi p ( Ky at mi l l i on)
3 Annex 10: Transport and Communicat ions

3



Tabl e 3. Road Tr anspor t : Damage and Loss by Tow nshi p ( Ky at mi l l i on )
Damage Losses Tot al
Py apon 3, 262 9, 063 12, 325
Maubi n 1, 226 7, 362 8, 587
Myaungmya 6, 291 1, 758 8, 049
Pat hei n 1, 105 4, 766 5, 870
Sout h Yangon 621 5, 084 5, 705
Nor t h Yangon 39 n. a. 39
East Yangon 35 n. a. 35
West Yangon 31 n. a. 31
Tot al 12,609 28,033 40,642
Source: PONJA Team est imat es

The effect s on t he balance of payment and fiscal sect or are also assessed ( see
Table 1) . The import cont ent for t he road and bridge civil works mainly includes
const ruct ion equipment , fuel, lubricant and st eel, and is est imat ed t o be
approximat ely 25 percent of t he civil work value. About 70 percent of t he VOC is
associat ed wit h import ed goods such as vehicle it self, part s and fuel. The
increases in VOC due t o poorer condit ion of roads result s in fast er depreciat ion of
vehicles and more consumpt ion of fuels, t hus more demand for import . For t he
fiscal aspect , addit ional public expendit ures are needed t o rest ore t he road
condit ions at least back t o t he pre- Nargis condit ions.

Ex i st i ng Recov er y Ef f or t s f or Roads

Load rest rict ions have been enforced on some roads and bridges aft er t he Nargis.
This should help minimize furt her bridge damage but road pavement damage is
likely t o cont inue due t o poor load limit enforcement and wet season rainfall
weakening of t he road subgrade st rengt h. Current maint enance effort s are
focused on repairing areas of significant damage, but t hese are considered only
as t emporary measures t o ensure t hat road connect ions remain open t o heavy
vehicles. Maint enance and rehabilit at ion of roads aiming t o rest ore t he pre- Nargis
condit ions is only pract ical aft er t he current wet season ends in Oct ober 2008.

Recover y St r at egy and Needs f or Roads

The recovery need includes increased road maint enance budget t o ensure t hat
exist ing and expect ed short - t erm damages t o road pavement s can be cont rolled,
and t he main road net work remains open. The part ially and fully damaged roads
and bridges need t o be repaired aft er t he end of t he wet season. The est imat ed
cost for t his is est imat ed at about K 21 billion, represent ing t he damage cost t o
which has been added a 20% inflat ion cost . The period in which t hese works can
be complet ed is from Sept ember/ Oct ober 2008 ( end of t he monsoon season) t o
June 2009 ( beginning of next monsoon season) , about 8 mont hs of t ime, wit h a
need for some cont inued except ional maint enance effort s in t he following year.


I I . Wat er Tr anspor t

Pr e- Di sast er Si t uat i on

The wat er t ransport sect or in Myanmar consist s of int ernat ional ocean shipping,
domest ic coast al shipping, and inland wat er t ransport . The Yangon Port is t he
count ry’s premier port t hat handles most of t he seaborne int ernat ional t rade
Source: PONJA Team est imat es
The effects on the balance of payment and fscal sector are also assessed (see Table 1).
The import cont ent for t he road and bridge civil works mainly includes const ruct ion equipment ,
fuel, lubricant and st eel, and is est imat ed t o be approximat ely 25 percent of t he civil work value.
About 70 percent of t he VOC is associat ed wit h import ed goods such as vehicle it self, part s and fuel.
The increases in VOC due t o poorer condit ion of roads result s in fast er depreciat ion of vehicles and
more consumption of fuels, thus more demand for import. For the fscal aspect, additional public
expendit ures are needed t o rest ore t he road condit ions at least back t o t he pre- Nargis condit ions.
An n e x 1 0 : Tr a n s p o r t a n d Co m m u n i ca t i o n s
110
Existing REcOvERy EFFORts FOR ROADs
Load rest rict ions have been enforced on some roads and bridges aft er t he Nargis. This
should help minimize furt her bridge damage but road pavement damage is likely t o cont inue due
t o poor load limit enforcement and wet season rainfall weakening of t he road subgrade st rengt h.
Current maintenance efforts are focused on repairing areas of signifcant damage, but these are
considered only as t emporary measures t o ensure t hat road connect ions remain open t o heavy
vehicles. Maint enance and rehabilit at ion of roads aiming t o rest ore t he pre- Nargis condit ions is only
pract ical aft er t he current wet season ends in Oct ober 2008.
REcOvERy stRAtEgy AnD nEEDs FOR ROADs
The recovery need includes increased road maint enance budget t o ensure t hat exist ing and
expect ed short - t erm damages t o road pavement s can be cont rolled, and t he main road net work
remains open. The part ially and fully damaged roads and bridges need t o be repaired aft er t he end
of t he wet season. The est imat ed cost for t his is est imat ed at about K 21 billion, represent ing t he
damage cost to which has been added a 20% infation cost. The period in which these works can be
complet ed is from Sept ember/ Oct ober 2008 ( end of t he monsoon season) t o June 2009 ( beginning
of next monsoon season) , about 8 mont hs of t ime, wit h a need for some cont inued except ional
maint enance effort s in t he following year.
ii. WAtER tRAnspORt
pRE-DisAstER situAtiOn
The wat er t ransport sect or in Myanmar consist s of int ernat ional ocean shipping, domest ic
coast al shipping, and inland wat er t ransport . The Yangon Port is t he count ry’s premier port t hat
handles most of t he seaborne int ernat ional t rade cargos. I t had an annual t urnover of 12 million
t onnages in 2007. The coast al shipping services are operat ed along t he count ry’s long coast al line by
t he I ndian Ocean and Andaman Sea. I nland wat er t ransport is highly developed in t he Ayeyarwady
Delt a which is crisscrossed by a dense river net work. Almost all t ownships and sub- t ownships in t he
Delt a rely heavily on inland wat er t ransport for freight and passenger t ransport .
The Minist ry of Transport is t he responsible agency for wat er t ransport . Bot h t he public and
privat e sect ors are involved t hrough ownership of asset s ( for example, j et t ies, pont oons, vessels and
boat s) and provision of freight and passenger t ransport services. The Myanma Port Aut horit y ( MPA)
is a maj or public ent it y responsible for providing t erminal facilit ies and services for shipping.
The size and qualit y of wat er t ransport infrast ruct ure vary subst ant ially bet ween Yangon
and t he Delt a region. Yangon has several public and privat e port s along t he Yangon River, bot h for
international and domestic traffc. The two main ones are the MPA and the Thilawa Port. The MPA
has 17 wharves wit h a maximum capacit y of 15, 000 DWT, and handles 85% of t he t ot al export and
import traffc of the country. The Thilawa International Terminal has 6 wharves, and a capacity of
20, 000 DWT. The port s in Yangon t oget her handle 80% of t he est imat ed 20 million gross t onnage of
freight , bot h domest ic and int ernat ional.
I n cont rast , t he inland wat er t ransport infrast ruct ure in t he Delt a t ownships is far more
rudimentary, basically consisting of wooden jetties and occasionally foating pontoons. However,
t hey are vit al t o t he local economy. There were a large number of boat s in t he Delt a before t he
Nargis; close to 15,000 private boats under 20-horsepower were registered. Total certifed private
boats over 20-horsepower amounted almost to 4,000 in 2006. As for the public sector, about 300
powered vessels were recorded in the 2006 Statistical Yearbook.
An n e x 1 0 : Tr a n s p o r t a n d Co m m u n i ca t i o n s
111
DAmAgE AnD lOssEs
The Nargis has caused subst ant ial damages t o t he j et t ies, vessels and boat s, and relevant
buildings. Many j et t ies and pont oons sank, broke, or collapsed. A large number of vessels and
boats sank, capsized, were blown/washed ashore, or lost at sea. The transport offce buildings and
handling equipment were also damaged t o varying degrees.
Yangon port s suffered t he heaviest damage in t erms of asset value: 24 st eel j et t ies and
pont oons out of 37 were sunken or heavily damaged. Each j et t y is evaluat ed bet ween K 130 and 250
million. Nearly one hundred sizable vessels were eit her grounded or sank in t he Yangon River and
traffc stopped completely for two weeks after the cyclone. The MPA expects a period of 1-2 years
before it s facilit ies fully recover.
Subst ant ial revenue losses have incurred due t o service int errupt ion, and furt her losses are
expect ed due t o lower level of services caused by short age of vessels and boat s. The int ernat ional
port s of Yangon suffer t he highest amount of revenue losses, including sizable amount of foreign
currency revenues.
I n t he Delt a region, t he publicly provided inland wat er t ransport services were resumed
j ust a few days aft er t he cyclone, but t he service supply has fallen short of demand due t o t he
heavy losses of vessels and boat s. On t he ot her hand, inland wat er t ransport demand is expect ed
t o increase due t o t he delivery of mat erial supplies relat ed t o t he recovery program. As a result , t he
privat e sect or freight t ariffs and passenger fares have increased. This sit uat ion will cont inue for an
ext ended period of t ime, as a year of t ime would normally be required t o build a medium- t o large-
sized vessel. Building a small boat t akes at least 2 mont hs but it t his is likely t o t ake considerably
longer over t he nest t hree years due t o t he deat h of boat - builders and t he except ional demand on
t he t ime of surviving boat - builders.
On average, approximat ely 50 percent of t he vessel value is associat ed wit h import ed
it ems ( especially t he engines) . The replacement cost s of relevant damaged buildings and st ruct ures
would have 25 percent import ed cont ent . The loss of revenues in foreign currencies in Yangon port s
further affects the balance of payment. The main effects on the fscal sector result from the needed
replacement cost s for t he damaged public sect or asset s and t he revenue losses of t he Yangon Port
( which normally receives sizable revenues from int ernat ional and coast al shipping and inland wat er
t ransport ) .
For t he delivery of humanit arian assist ance in t he immediat e aft ermat h of t he cyclone,
t he damage t o infrast ruct ure necessit at ed a large- scale logist ics operat ion t o reach t he 2. 4 million
people most severely affect ed, including t he est ablishment of an air bridge from Bangkok t o Yangon,
wit h onward t ransport t o t he delt a by t rucks, river barges, and t en helicopt ers, at a t ot al cost of
around US$50 million.
REcOvERy stRAtEgy AnD nEEDs
Repairs t o t he maj or infrast ruct ure needed t o deliver t he humanit arian and recovery program
have already been complet ed in most sect ors and are not included as recovery needs, due bot h
t o t he fast act ion t aken t o repair damaged elect ricit y t ransmission lines and t elecommunicat ions
infrast ruct ure, and t he relat ively low damage done t o t he primary road and rail net work and ot her
large- scale infrast ruct ure. Using t he basic principle of rest oring essent ial infrast ruct ure t o pre- cyclone
levels ( but not beyond) , probable recovery act ivit ies would include: ( i) in wat er t ransport , provision
of small boats for household transport (these will also be used for fshing); (ii) replacement of ferries
(based on further assessment); (iii) repairs to Yangon port. Aside from this, infrastructure needs
are all at communit y level, including feeder roads, small j et t ies, wat er and sanit at ion point s, and
religious buildings such as churches, t emples and mosques. These needs are addressed t hrough t he
recovery act ivit ies out lined in t he livelihoods annex.
For t he Yangon port s, clearing t he channel of sunken ships and replacing t he 27 dest royed
pont oons and j et t ies are t he immediat e priorit ies. To clear t he channel, a bat hymet ric survey is
needed along t he Yangon River Channel and as an opt ion in t he neighboring areas, in order t o
ident ify t he wrecks. Full repair t o t he port will occur over a longer period and should be preceded by
An n e x 1 0 : Tr a n s p o r t a n d Co m m u n i ca t i o n s
112
a more det ailed assessment .
I n t he Delt a area, t imber j et t ies have t o be rebuilt wit h premium qualit y t imber and more
resilient engineering so as t o be more resilient t o disast er. The new boat s are expect ed t o be built
locally, but t here will be a maj or need for t imber supplies and import ed mot ors.
iii. pOst AnD tElEcOmmunicAtiOns
pRE-DisAstER situAtiOn
Post s and t elecommunicat ions services are ent irely government - owned and operat ed by
t he public sect or. The Minist ry of Communicat ions, Post s and Telegraphs ( MCPT) is t he responsible
agency. Postal services are provided by a network of post offces located in each of the townships
and sub-townships. The telecommunication services are carried by both fxed-line telephone system
and mobile phone syst em. The cit y of Yangon is t he t elecommunicat ion cent er of t he count ry. I t
possesses a signifcant portion of the telecommunication assets, and accounts for 50 percent of the
count ry’s subscribers.
The phone net work coverage used t o be quit e limit ed in t he Delt a area and concent rat ed
in cit ies and t owns. However, by t he t ime t he cyclone happened, mobile phone syst ems – t he GSM
and t he Code Division Mult iple Access ( CDMA) syst ems – were being expanded t o a great part of t he
Delta through micro-wave towers and optical fber routes. According to the MCPT, the mobile phone
syst ems covered roughly 70 percent of Delt a area. However, most of t he remot e rural communit ies
did not have access t o t elephone services, due mainly t o t he high cost s of acquiring mobile phone
sets. Most cities and towns had fxed-line telephone services carried by the digital auto telephone
syst ems. The old rot ary t elephone syst ems ( i. e. magnet o phones) were phasing out but st ill exist ed
in a few small t owns.
Overall, most of t ownships in t he Delt a had low levels of t elephone usage. A combinat ion of
low level of usage and very low level of charges result ed in low level of t elephone service revenues
in t he Delt a t ownships, which ranged from less t han K 1 million t o K 15 million per mont h. As a
comparison, while t he average Delt a mont hly revenue ( including t he division capit al cit y Pat hein)
st ands at K 240 million, t he cit y of Yangon recorded mont hly revenues of K 4, 850 million in April
2008.
DAmAgE AnD lOssEs
Cyclone Nargis caused major damages to the post offces, fxed-line telephone systems and
a few microwave t owers. Telephone post s, overhead cables and drop wires were dest royed. Several
microwave t owers fell. Many t elephone set s were damaged t oget her wit h t he buildings and houses.
A number of communication offce buildings (including post offces) collapsed or had their roof blown
off. As a result , services were int errupt ed. Fort unat ely, t he CDMA mobile phone syst ems were largely
unaffect ed.
Most t owns were able t o rest ore services wit hin 1 t o 3 weeks while a few ot hers had not
yet fully been rest ored at t he t ime of t he assessment . For example, about 90 percent of t he digit al
aut o t elephone service t o subscribers in t he cit y of Yangon was rest ored. The int errupt ion of services
result s in revenue losses. Furt her revenue losses are expect ed unt il t he full recovery of t he syst ems
and t he acquisit ion of new phones by t he users who lost t heir old ones. The est imat ed damages and
losses by t ownship and division are present ed in Table 5. Only division level dat a are provided.
All equipment in t he sect or is import ed. Replacement of t he damaged t elephone equipment
requires more import . The damaged buildings have an est imat ed 30% of import ed cont ent ( such
as construction machinery, fuel, and steel). The effects on the fscal sector are the full extent of
t he damages and losses in t his sect or as it is ent irely publicly owned and operat ed t hrough t he
government budget ary process.
An n e x 1 0 : Tr a n s p o r t a n d Co m m u n i ca t i o n s
113
Tabl e 5. Post and Tel ecommuni cat i ons: Damages and Losses by Di v i si on ( Ky at mi l l i on)
Annex 10: Transport and Communicat ions 6

syst ems – were being expanded t o a great part of t he Delt a t hrough micro- wave
t owers and opt ical fiber rout es. According t o t he MCPT, t he mobile phone syst ems
covered roughly 70 percent of Delt a area. However, most of t he remot e rural
communit ies did not have access t o t elephone services, due mainly t o t he high
cost s of acquiring mobile phone set s. Most cit ies and t owns had fixed- line
t elephone services carried by t he digit al aut o t elephone syst ems. The old rot ary
t elephone syst ems ( i. e. magnet o phones) were phasing out but st ill exist ed in a
few small t owns.

Overall, most of t ownships in t he Delt a had low levels of t elephone usage. A
combinat ion of low level of usage and very low level of charges result ed in low
level of t elephone service revenues in t he Delt a t ownships, which ranged from
less t han K 1 million t o K 15 million per mont h. As a comparison, while t he
average Delt a mont hly revenue ( including t he division capit al cit y Pat hein) st ands
at K 240 million, t he cit y of Yangon recorded mont hly revenues of K 4, 850 million
in April 2008.

Damage and Losses

Cyclone Nargis caused maj or damages t o t he post offices, fixed- line t elephone
syst ems and a few microwave t owers. Telephone post s, overhead cables and drop
wires were dest royed. Several microwave t owers fell. Many t elephone set s were
damaged t oget her wit h t he buildings and houses. A number of communicat ion
office buildings ( including post offices) collapsed or had t heir roof blown off. As a
result , services were int errupt ed. Fort unat ely, t he CDMA mobile phone syst ems
were largely unaffect ed.

Most t owns were able t o rest ore services wit hin 1 t o 3 weeks while a few ot hers
had not yet fully been rest ored at t he t ime of t he assessment . For example, about
90 percent of t he digit al aut o t elephone service t o subscribers in t he cit y of
Yangon was rest ored. The int errupt ion of services result s in revenue losses.
Furt her revenue losses are expect ed unt il t he full recovery of t he syst ems and t he
acquisit ion of new phones by t he users who lost t heir old ones. The est imat ed
damages and losses by t ownship and division are present ed in Table 5. Only
division level dat a are provided.

All equipment in t he sect or is import ed. Replacement of t he damaged t elephone
equipment requires more import . The damaged buildings have an est imat ed 30%
of import ed cont ent ( such as const ruct ion machinery, fuel, and st eel) . The effect s
on t he fiscal sect or are t he full ext ent of t he damages and losses in t his sect or as
it is ent irely publicly owned and operat ed t hrough t he government budget ary
process.

Tabl e 5. Post and Tel ecommuni cat i ons: Damages and Losses by Di v i si on ( Ky at
mi l l i on)
Damage Losses Tot al
Yangon* 5, 461 3, 569 9, 030
Ay ey ar w ady 1, 472 52 1, 524
Mon 126 126
Bago 12 12
Kay i n 3 3
Tot al 7, 073 3, 621 10, 694
Source: PONJA Team est imat es

Ex i st i ng Recov er y Ef f or t s i n Tel ecommuni cat i ons
6
Source: PONJA Team est imat es
Existing REcOvERy EFFORts in tElEcOmmunicAtiOns
Reconst ruct ion is already underway for all Nargis- affect ed t ownships. At t he t ime of
assessment , about 40% of t he damages have been repaired and recovered. Most t owns were able t o
rest ore services wit hin 1 t o 3 weeks. For example, about 90% of t he digit al aut o t elephone service
t o subscribers in t he cit y of Yangon had been rest ored. A few t owns had not yet fully been rest ored
at t he t ime of t he assessment but t he process is not expect ed t o t ake more t han a few mont hs.
REcOvERy nEEDs AnD stRAtEgy
The remaining 60% damage replacement cost plus 20% cost increase would be the recovery
need, which amount s t o K 5 billion. As t he sect or is ent irely under t he public ownership and public
sect or pricing regime, t he mat erial and equipment supply may not be a severe const raint . However,
skilled labor for system installation may be in shortage and the Ministry may need to fnd a quick
way t o mobilize skilled labor elsewhere.
iv. RAil AnD AiR tRAnspORt
The infrast ruct ure asset s of bot h rail and air t ransport in t he cyclone affect ed areas are
mainly concent rat ed in t he cit y of Yangon. Much of t he railway net work is locat ed beyond of cyclone
affect ed areas. While bot h air and rail t ransport infrast ruct ure largely managed t o weat her t he st orm,
some buildings suffered damages. A few days int errupt ion caused moderat e losses in bot h sect ors.
Yangon International Airport declared minor damage. However, the traffc was interrupted
for 2 days after the cyclone hit. There were around 20 national and international fights per day. The
only loss estimate available amounts to USD 20,691 of net revenues for the public air companies.
As for rail t ransport , damage was declared neit her on rail t racks nor on rolling st ocks and
locomot ives. However, damages were report ed on Minist ry- owned buildings, mills, workshops,
warehouses, machinery, and elect ric lines, wit h an est imat ed t ot al damage of about K 2 billion, for
which repair are already under way. Revenue losses of K 140 million were report ed from 4 days of
t ot al int errupt ion and 2 weeks of part ial int errupt ion of rail services especially t he Yangon urban
commuter rail services. Reconstruction of damaged buildings and facilities could take 6 months with
cost spreading evenly.
An n e x 1 0 : Tr a n s p o r t a n d Co m m u n i ca t i o n s
114
Annex 11: electricity
SummAry
As of April 2007, t he t ot al inst alled capacit y in Myanmar was 1, 750 MW, of which 1, 645
MW was connect ed t o t he Nat ional Grid Syst em ( t he Grid) , and 106 MW was off- grid generat ion.
Nat ionally, t he t ransmission facilit ies exceed 1, 352 km ( 845 miles) at 230 kV volt age level, 1, 692
km ( 1, 056 miles) at 132 kV, and 2, 173 km ( 1, 358 miles) at 66 kV.
Tot al damage and loss has been est imat ed at K15, 718 million. Damages of K15, 429 million
great ly exceeded losses ( K289 million) . Short ly aft er t he passing of Cyclone Nargis, when many
administ rat ive cent res were left wit hout elect ricit y, t he Minist ry of Energy and Power- 2 ( MOEP2)
t ook special measures t o provide emergency diesel- fuelled generat ion facilit ies t o t he t ownships’
administ rat ive cent res for provision of basic services. Reconst ruct ion of damaged t ransmission lines
also st art ed early.
Tabl e 1: Est i mat ed Damage and Losses – El ect r i ci t y Sect or
( Ky at mi l l i on)
Annex 11: El ect r i ci t y
Summar y
As of April 2007, t he t ot al inst alled capacit y in Myanmar was 1, 750 MW, of which
1, 645 MW was connect ed t o t he Nat ional Grid Syst em ( t he Grid) , and 106 MW
was off- grid generat ion. Nat ionally, t he t ransmission facilit ies exceed 1, 352 km
( 845 miles) at 230 kV volt age level, 1,692 km ( 1, 056 miles) at 132 kV, and 2, 173
km ( 1, 358 miles) at 66 kV.
Tot al damage and loss has been est imat ed at K15, 718 million. Damages of
K15, 429 million great ly exceeded losses ( K289 million) . Short ly aft er t he passing
of Cyclone Nargis, when many administ rat ive cent res were left wit hout elect ricit y,
t he Minist ry of Energy and Power- 2 ( MOEP2) t ook special measures t o provide
emergency diesel- fuelled generat ion facilit ies t o t he t ownships’ administ rat ive
cent res for provision of basic services. Reconst ruct ion of damaged t ransmission
lines also st art ed early.
Tabl e 1: Est i mat ed Damage and Losses – El ect r i ci t y Sect or
( Kyat million)
Di sast er Ef f ect s
Sub- sect or , Component Damage Losses Tot al
Ay ey ar w ady 6, 455 - 4 6, 451
Sales - - 4 - 4
Generat ion 731 - 731
Transmission and Dist ribut ion 5, 724 - 5, 724
Yangon 6, 814 332 7, 147
Sales - 332 332
Generat ion - - -
Transmission and Dist ribut ion 6, 814 - 6, 814
Ot her Di vi si ons 2, 160 - 39 2, 120
Sales - - 39 - 39
Generat ion, - - -
Transmission and Dist ribut ion 2, 160 - 2, 160
Tot al 15, 429 289 15, 718
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.
PRE- DI SASTER SI TUATI ON
As of April 2007, t he t ot al inst alled capacit y in Myanmar was 1, 750 MW, of which
1, 645 MW was connect ed t o t he Nat ional Grid Syst em ( t he Grid) , and 106 MW
was off- grid generat ion. Nat ionally, t he t ransmission facilit ies exceed 1, 352 km
( 845 miles) at 230 kV volt age level, 1,692 km ( 1, 056 miles) at 132 kV, and 2, 173
km ( 1, 358 miles) at 66 kV.
Ay eyar w ady Di v i si on I mpact Ar eas
Table 2 shows t hat t he off- grid inst alled capacit y ( 1, 491 kVA) in t he Nargis
impact area in Ayeyarwady Division is a small fract ion ( 0.07 percent ) of t he t ot al
nat ional inst alled capacit y. Annual sales in t he Nargis impact area at about 45
GWh/ year account for only about 1 percent of nat ional annual sales of elect ricit y.
Table 2 also shows t he lengt h of t he t ransmission and dist ribut ion line, which is
again only a fract ion of t he nat ional Grid and Off- grid net work.
Grid load shedding of about six t o eight hours a day was common in t he Nargis
impact area before t he disast er. I n Labut t a Township, t he power plant was
operat ed for about one hour daily bet ween 20: 00 and 21: 00 hours; likewise in
1
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.
PRE- DI SASTER SI TUATI ON
As of April 2007, t he t ot al inst alled capacit y in Myanmar was 1, 750 MW, of which 1, 645
MW was connect ed t o t he Nat ional Grid Syst em ( t he Grid) , and 106 MW was off- grid generat ion.
Nat ionally, t he t ransmission facilit ies exceed 1, 352 km ( 845 miles) at 230 kV volt age level, 1, 692
km ( 1, 056 miles) at 132 kV, and 2, 173 km ( 1, 358 miles) at 66 kV.
Ay ey ar w ady Di vi si on I mpact Ar eas
Table 2 shows t hat t he off- grid inst alled capacit y ( 1, 491 kVA) in t he Nargis impact area in
Ayeyarwady Division is a small fract ion ( 0. 07 percent ) of t he t ot al nat ional inst alled capacit y. Annual
sales in t he Nargis impact area at about 45 GWh/ year account for only about 1 percent of nat ional
annual sales of elect ricit y. Table 2 also shows t he lengt h of t he t ransmission and dist ribut ion line,
which is again only a fract ion of t he nat ional Grid and Off- grid net work.
Grid load shedding of about six t o eight hours a day was common in t he Nargis impact area
before t he disast er. I n Labut t a Township, t he power plant was operat ed for about one hour daily
bet ween 20: 00 and 21: 00 hours; likewise in ot her off- grid syst ems. Therefore, some consumers
( wealt hier consumers, hot els, rest aurant s, shops, small indust ries) opt ed t o procure t heir own
generat ing set s ( t ypical size 5- 10 kVA) . No syst emat ic dat a was available on t hese set s. Furt hermore,
some villages not connect ed t o t he grid have formed cooperat ives t o procure and operat e small
generat ing unit s. Typically for light ing only, t hese consist of pet rol fuelled generat ing set s or st eam
t urbines using rice husk and veget able oils as fuel, and are also excluded in t he analysis.
An n e x 1 1 : El e ct r i ci t y
115
Tabl e 2 – Gener at i on, Tr ansmi ssi on and Di st r i but i on Faci l i t i es i n
Ay ey ar w ady Di v i si on I mpact Ar eas – MOEP21
Tow nshi p Gener at i ng
Capaci t y ,1 k VA
Tr ansmi ssi on and Di st r i but i on Li nes, k m ( mi l es) 2
66 k V 33 k V 11/ 6.6 k V
Pat hein 160 16 ( 10) - 8 ( 5)
Ngapudaw 264 - - 26 ( 16)
Myaungmya - 10 ( 6) - 22 ( 14)
Labut t a 939 - - -
Wakema 100 - - 8 ( 5)
Mawlamyinegyun - - - 21 ( 13)
Bogale 28 - 12 ( 8) 20 ( 13)
Maubin - - 22 ( 14) -
Kyaiklat - - 27 ( 17) -
Pyapon - - 31 ( 19) -
Dedaye - - 23 ( 14) -
Tot al 1, 491 26 ( 16) 115 ( 72) 105 ( 66)
1 Source: Government of Myanmar, MOEP2
2 List ed only t hose diesel generat ing unit s owned by MOEP2
3 Lengt hs wit hin Township are approximat e
With 48,038 consumers in the impact area, the household electrifcation ratio is only about 7
percent . Sales in April amount ed t o 3, 542 MWh. The urban areas of Pat hein and Myaungmya account
for 76 percent of t ot al sales in t he impact area. Demand is however, suppressed because of 6- 8
hours of daily load shedding in t he grid.
Tabl e 3 –Consumer s and Apr i l 2008 Sal es i n Ay ey ar w addy Di vi si on I mpact Ar eas
Township Consumers1
Electrifcation
rat io, 2, 3
percent HH
Sales in April
1, 4 ( MWh)
Proport ion of
t ot al Sales
Unit Sales
( kWh) / Consr
Grid/ Off- Grid
Pat hein 18, 045 26 % 2, 200 62. 1 % 122 Grid and
Off- Grid
Ngapudaw 1, 054 2 % 23 0. 6 % 22 Grid and
Off- Grid
Myaungmya 5, 899 9 % 494 13. 9 % 84 Grid
Labut t a 1, 320 2 % 12 0. 3 % 9 Off- Grid
Wakema 2, 230 3 % 34 1. 0 % 15 Grid
Mawlamyine
gyun
2, 010 4 % 20 0. 6 % 10 Grid
Bogale 2, 926 4 % 44 1. 2 % 15 Grid and
Off- Grid
Maubin 4, 967 8 % 273 7. 7 % 55 Grid
Kyaiklat 2, 648 6 % 69 1. 9 % 26 Grid
Pyapon 5, 480 10 % 332 9. 4 % 61 Grid
Dedaye 1, 458 3 % 41 1. 2 % 28 Grid
Tot al 48, 038 7 % 3, 542 100 % 74
1 Source: Minist ry of Elect ric Power 2 ( MOEP2)
2 Rat io bet ween number of consumers and number of households in t he whole t ownship based on 2008 populat ion est imat es
by UNI CEF
3 Household assumed t o consist of 5 people.
4 Typically, due t o load shedding elect ricit y is only available 16- 18 hours per day for grid- connect ed consumers, while off- grid
load cent ers only have from 1 hour ( Labut t a) t o 3 hours/ day of elect ricit y.
yAngon DiviSion impAct AreAS
The inst alled capacit y in t he Yangon Division impact areas amount s t o 470. 7 MW at four gas-
fred power plants in and around Yangon. The transmission and distribution lines comprise lengths of
An n e x 1 1 : El e ct r i ci t y
116
102 km of 66 kV, 1731 km of 33 kV, 2731 km of 11 kV and 4288 km of 0. 4 kV ( det ailed t ownship-
level dat a were unavailable) . Wit h about 768, 000 consumers, t he Yangon Division represent s 60
% of the consumers in Myanmar. The household electrifcation ratio outside Yangon Division varies
bet ween 3 % and 57 %, wit h an average of 49 %. Yangon Cit y also consumed t he bulk of t he sales
( 97 %) in t he Yangon Division impact area.
Tabl e 4 –Consumer s and Apr i l 2008 Sal es i n Yangon Di v i si on I mpact Ar eas
Annex 11: Elect ricit y 4
Tabl e 4 –Consumer s and Apr i l 2008 Sal es i n Yangon Di vi si on I mpact Ar eas
Tow nshi p Consumer s
1
El ect r i f i cat i on
r at i o,
2
% Househol ds
Sal es i n
Apr i l
1 ,3
( MWh)
Pr opor t i on of
t ot al Sal es
Uni t Sal es
( k Wh) / Consumer
Gr i d/ Of f -
Gr i d
Ht ant abin 1,032 3 % 137 0.1 % 133 Grid
Twant ay 4,385 8 % 323 0.2 % 74 Grid
Kawhmu 2,716 9 % 48 0.0 % 18 Grid
Kungyangon 2,880 13 % 119 0.1 % 41 Grid
Yangon 729,852 57 % 133,926 97.3 % 183 Grid
Thanlyin 13,881 37 % 2,265 1.6 % 163 Grid
Kyaukt uan 4,507 15 % 433 0.3 % 96 Grid
Kayan 4,023 10 % 186 0.1 % 46 Grid
Thongwa 4,509 11 % 164 0.1 % 36 Grid
Tot al 767, 785 49 % 137, 601 100 % 179
1
Source: Gover nment of Myanmar, MOEP2
2
Rat io bet ween number of consumers and number of households in t he whole t ownship based
on 2008 populat ion est imat es by UNI CEF and five per sons per household
3
Power is gener ally available bet ween 18 and 12 hours a day t hroughout t he Division.
DAMAGE AND LOSSES
Damage Assessment f or t he Ay ey ar w ady Di v i si on
Of t he 1, 490 kVA of diesel- fuelled off- gr id power plant s in t he affect ed area,
about 1, 075 kVA were damaged, or lost . On Hainggyi I sland, t hree generat ing
set s t ot aling 136 kVA providing power t o 139 consumers, were part ly damaged
by salt wat er during t he st orm; t hey were repaired and are back in operat ion. The
860 kVA genset at Labut t a Township providing power t o 1, 320 consumers was
also part ly damaged, but is now in operat ion. On Pyin Sa Lu, however, t he 79
kVA genset providing elect ricit y t o 192 consumers was washed out t o sea by t he
t idal surge. The village was dest royed, and t he unit has not yet been replaced, as
t here is no surviving st aff and very few or no consumers left in t he village.
Damages were est imat ed at Ks 731 million ( Table 5) .
There is no dat a on damages, and subsequent repairs, t o privat e sect or
generat ing unit s. I t is expect ed, however, t hat t hose generat ing unit s in villages
t hat were close t o t he coast , and t hat were affect ed by t he t idal surge, may have
suffered ext ensive salt damages.
As t o t ransmission and dist ribut ion facilit ies, most of t he damage ( 82 % of 33 kV
lines and 30 % of 11/ 6. 6 kV lines) occurred in Mawlamyinegyun, Bogale, Kyaiklat ,
Pyapon and Dedaye t ownships ( Table 5) . I n t he affect ed areas, t ransmission and
dist ribut ion lines have poles made of reinforced concret e ( rect angular and
cylindrical) as per Myanmar t echnical st andards, or railway rails. The railway rails
cannot be considered as being a permanent solut ion for any medium volt age line.
The init ial cost est imat es provided by t he Government included only mat erials,
and have been adj ust ed t o also include labour, inst allat ion and t ransport cost s. I t
has been assumed t hat mat erials account for 70 % of t ot al cost s. The t ot al
t ransmission line damages in Ayeyarwady Division are est imat ed at Ks 5, 724
million.
DAmAge AnD loSSeS
DAmAge ASSeSSment for the AyeyArwADy DiviSion
Of t he 1, 490 kVA of diesel- fuelled off- grid power plant s in t he affect ed area, about 1, 075 kVA
were damaged, or lost . On Hainggyi I sland, t hree generat ing set s t ot aling 136 kVA providing power
t o 139 consumers, were part ly damaged by salt wat er during t he st orm; t hey were repaired and are
back in operat ion. The 860 kVA genset at Labut t a Township providing power t o 1, 320 consumers was
also part ly damaged, but is now in operat ion. On Pyin Sa Lu, however, t he 79 kVA genset providing
elect ricit y t o 192 consumers was washed out t o sea by t he t idal surge. The village was dest royed,
and t he unit has not yet been replaced, as t here is no surviving st aff and very few or no consumers
left in t he village. Damages were est imat ed at Ks 731 million ( Table 5) .
There is no dat a on damages, and subsequent repairs, t o privat e sect or generat ing unit s. I t
is expect ed, however, t hat t hose generat ing unit s in villages t hat were close t o t he coast , and t hat
were affect ed by t he t idal surge, may have suffered ext ensive salt damages.
As t o t ransmission and dist ribut ion facilit ies, most of t he damage ( 82 % of 33 kV lines
and 30 % of 11/ 6. 6 kV lines) occurred in Mawlamyinegyun, Bogale, Kyaiklat , Pyapon and Dedaye
t ownships ( Table 5) . I n t he affect ed areas, t ransmission and dist ribut ion lines have poles made of
reinforced concret e ( rect angular and cylindrical) as per Myanmar t echnical st andards, or railway
rails. The railway rails cannot be considered as being a permanent solut ion for any medium volt age
line. The init ial cost est imat es provided by t he Government included only mat erials, and have been
adj ust ed t o also include labour, inst allat ion and t ransport cost s. I t has been assumed t hat mat erials
account for 70 % of t ot al cost s. The t ot al t ransmission line damages in Ayeyarwady Division are
est imat ed at Ks 5, 724 million.
An n e x 1 1 : El e ct r i ci t y
117
Tabl e 5 – Gener at i on, Tr ansmi ssi on and Di st r i but i on Faci l i t i es Damage i n Ay ey ar w ady Di v i si on
I mpact Ar eas – MOEP21

5 Annex 11: Elect ricit y
Tabl e 5 – Gener at i on, Tr ansmi ssi on and Di st r i but i on Faci l i t i es Damage i n
Ay ey ar w ady Di v i si on I mpact Ar eas – MOEP2
1
Tr ansmi ssi on and Di st r i but i on Li nes, k m ( mi l es)
Tow nshi p
I nst al l ed
Capaci t y ,
2
k VA
66 k V 33 k V 11/ 6. 6 k V 0. 4 k V
Pat hein - 24 ( 15) - 0 ( 0. 3) NA
Ngapudaw P: 136 - - 1 ( 0. 5) 3 ( 2. 0)
Myaungmya - - - 4 ( 2. 5) 1 ( 0. 5)
Labut t a P: 860; T:
74
- - - 7 ( 4. 2)
Wakema - - - 4 ( 2. 6) 1 ( 0. 9)
Mawlamyinegyun - - - 11 ( 6. 7) 2 ( 1. 5)
Bogale - - - 1 ( 0. 6) 5 ( 3. 4)
Maubin - - 10 ( 6. 0) 1 ( 0. 5) 2 ( 1. 5)
Kyaiklat - - 9 ( 5. 3) 1 ( 0. 4) 8 ( 4. 7)
Pyapon - - 57 ( 35. 8) 4 ( 2. 3) 30 ( 19. 0)
Dedaye - - 18 ( 11. 6) 6 ( 3. 8) 5 ( 3. 4)
Sum 24 ( 15) 94 ( 58. 7) 32 ( 20. 3) 67 ( 41. 7)
%age damage
( by lengt h)
NA 82 % 30 % NA
Replacement
Cost s,
3
1, 000 Ks/ km
- 40, 600 30, 900 15, 300 20, 300
Tot al , Ks mn 731 974 2, 900 496 1, 354
1
Source: Gover nment of Myanmar, MOEP2.
2
T = Tot al damage – needs replacement ; P = Needs repair s only.
3
Mat er ials ( t owers, conduct or s, insulat ors) as per MOEP2 + 30 % for labour, inst allat ion
and t ransport .
Loss Assessment f or t he Ay ey ar w ady Di vi si on
The est imat ion of losses is based on comparing t he sales in April wit h est imat es
of post - disast er sales. Sales in May are available, and have been considered as
t he st art ing point for t he comput at ion of losses. I t is assumed t hat previous
consumers will be reconnect ed; t he same elect rificat ion rat io in each t ownship as
in April has also been assumed. Alt hough t here was high loss of life in Labut t a
( 23 %) , most of it occurred in t he rural areas, where elect ricit y was not available.
Loss of human life in t he urban areas and t ownships was much less. Assuming
t he same number of consumers is t hus deemed reasonable considering all ot her
uncert aint ies. The analysis also assumes a linear growt h in sales from May t o an
expect ed dat e for complet e reconnect ion ( end July 2008 according t o MOEP2
plans) , when previous consumpt ion pat t ern is resumed.
Of int erest , is t he increase in sales from April t o May in Pat hein ( increase of 12
%) and Myaungmya ( + 49 %) . This may be at t ribut ed t o t he increased act ivit ies
for reconst ruct ion assist ance in Labut t a. I n Wakema and Maubin t here was a
reduct ion of 59 % and 34 % respect ively, and t his reflect s t hat connect ion t o t he
grid was only achieved in t he middle of t he mont h. The figure for Maubin may
also reflect increased economic act ivit y, possibly, as it may be a hub for
assist ance t o t he t ownship t o t he sout h. I t has been assumed t hat by end
Sept ember, sales will be t he same as in April in all t ownships.
loSS ASSeSSment for the AyeyArwADy DiviSion
The est imat ion of losses is based on comparing t he sales in April wit h est imat es of post -
disast er sales. Sales in May are available, and have been considered as t he st art ing point for t he
comput at ion of losses. I t is assumed t hat previous consumers will be reconnect ed; t he same
electrifcation ratio in each township as in April has also been assumed. Although there was high loss
of life in Labut t a ( 23 %) , most of it occurred in t he rural areas, where elect ricit y was not available.
Loss of human life in t he urban areas and t ownships was much less. Assuming t he same number of
consumers is t hus deemed reasonable considering all ot her uncert aint ies. The analysis also assumes
a linear growt h in sales from May t o an expect ed dat e for complet e reconnect ion ( end July 2008
according t o MOEP2 plans) , when previous consumpt ion pat t ern is resumed.
Of int erest , is t he increase in sales from April t o May in Pat hein ( increase of 12 %) and
Myaungmya ( + 49 %) . This may be at t ribut ed t o t he increased act ivit ies for reconst ruct ion assist ance
in Labut t a. I n Wakema and Maubin t here was a reduct ion of 59 % and 34 % respect ively, and t his
refects that connection to the grid was only achieved in the middle of the month. The fgure for
Maubin may also refect increased economic activity, possibly, as it may be a hub for assistance to
t he t ownship t o t he sout h. I t has been assumed t hat by end Sept ember, sales will be t he same as
in April in all t ownships.
An n e x 1 1 : El e ct r i ci t y
118
Tabl e 6 – May 2008 Sal es and Recov er y i n Ay ey ar w ady Di v i si on I mpact Ar eas
Annex 11: Elect ricit y 6
Tabl e 6 – May 2008 Sal es and Recover y i n Ay ey ar w ady Di vi si on I mpact Ar eas
Tow nshi p
Sur vi vi ng
popul at i on
i n
Tow nshi p
1
Sal es i n
May ,
1,2
MWh
Fr act i on
of Apr i l
sal es,
%
Dat e
emer gency
genset
became
oper at i onal
1
Ex pect ed
dat e
di st r i but i on
sy st em w i l l
be
oper at i onal
1
Pat hein 100 % 2, 464 112 % - 5 May
Ngapudaw 98 % 23 100 % - 11 May
Myaungmya 100 % 736 149 % - 5 May
Labut t a 77 % - - 12 May 15 May
Wakema 100 % 14 41 % - 22 May
Mawlamyinegyun 97 % - - 100 kVA, 8 May 30 June
Bogale 85 % - - 100 kVA, 9 May 30 June
Maubin 100 % 179 66 % - 16 May
Kyaiklat 100 % - - 100 kVA, 11
May
2 June
Pyapon 100 % - - 100 kVA, 11
May
3 June
Dedaye 98 % - - 100 kVA, 11
May
30 June
Tot al 3, 417 96 %
1
Source: Gover nment of Myanmar, MOEP2
2
Generat ion by emergency genset s not recorded and billed.
To comput e losses for t he period April t o Sept ember 2008, sales have been
est imat ed for t he condit ion wit h and wit hout Nargis yielding t he net loss in
revenues t o MOEP2 ( Table 7) . Wit hout Nargis, est imat ed sales bet ween April and
Sept ember would have reached 21. 3 MWh, while in t he present sit uat ion sales
are expect ed t o reach about 21. 5 MWh ( 1 % higher t han t he wit hout Nargis) , or
an increase of 0. 26 MWh. The increase, rat her t han an expect ed decrease, could
be at t ribut ed t o t he increased sales in Pat hein and Myaungmya, which dominat e
t he sales figures ( 76 % of t ot al sales in t he affect ed area) . Comput at ion of
revenue assumes a t ariff of Ks 25/ kWh for domest ic and agricult ural consumers,
and Ks 50/ kWh for indust rial consumers. The increased sales result in a net loss
of revenue t o MOEP2 t hat is negat ive, i. e. t here is an increase in revenue of Ks 10
million.
Tabl e 7 – Est i mat es of Apr i l – Sept ember 2008 Rev enues ( Ks mi l l i on) i n
Ay ey ar w ady Di vi si on I mpact Ar eas w i t h and w i t hout Nar gi s Cy cl one
Tow nshi p
Tot al Sal es
w i t hout
Nar gi s
( GWh)
Tot al Sal es
w i t h Nar gi s
( GWh)
%
domest i c
sal es
%
I ndust r i al
sal es
Rev enues
w i t hout
Nar gi s
Revenues
w i t h
Nar gi s
Net Loss
i n
Rev enue
Pat hein 13. 20 13. 79 59 41 465 486 - 21
Ngapudaw 0. 14 0. 14 100 - 4 4 -
Myaungmya 2. 96 3. 50 54 46 108 128 - 20
Labut t a 0. 07 0. 05 100 - 2 1 1
Wakema 0. 20 0. 18 95 5 5 5 1
Mawlamyinegyun 0. 12 0. 07 99 1 3 2 1
Bogale 0. 26 0. 15 75 25 8 5 3
Maubin 1. 64 1. 54 57 43 59 55 4
Kyaiklat 0. 41 0. 33 52 48 15 12 3
Pyapon 1. 99 1. 59 50 50 75 60 15
Dedaye 0. 25 0. 14 87 13 7 4 3
Tot al 21. 25 21. 51 83 17 750 761 - 11
To comput e losses for t he period April t o Sept ember 2008, sales have been est imat ed for
t he condit ion wit h and wit hout Nargis yielding t he net loss in revenues t o MOEP2 ( Table 7) . Wit hout
Nargis, est imat ed sales bet ween April and Sept ember would have reached 21. 3 MWh, while in t he
present sit uat ion sales are expect ed t o reach about 21. 5 MWh ( 1 % higher t han t he wit hout Nargis) ,
or an increase of 0. 26 MWh. The increase, rat her t han an expect ed decrease, could be at t ribut ed
to the increased sales in Pathein and Myaungmya, which dominate the sales fgures (76 % of total
sales in t he affect ed area) . Comput at ion of revenue assumes a t ariff of Ks 25/ kWh for domest ic and
agricult ural consumers, and Ks 50/ kWh for indust rial consumers. The increased sales result in a net
loss of revenue t o MOEP2 t hat is negat ive, i. e. t here is an increase in revenue of Ks 10 million.
Tabl e 7 – Est i mat es of Apr i l – Sept ember 2008 Revenues ( Ks mi l l i on) i n Ay ey ar w ady Di v i si on
I mpact Ar eas w i t h and w i t hout Nar gi s Cy cl one
Annex 11: Elect ricit y 6
Tabl e 6 – May 2008 Sal es and Recover y i n Ay ey ar w ady Di vi si on I mpact Ar eas
Tow nshi p
Sur vi vi ng
popul at i on
i n
Tow nshi p
1
Sal es i n
May ,
1,2
MWh
Fr act i on
of Apr i l
sal es,
%
Dat e
emer gency
genset
became
oper at i onal
1
Ex pect ed
dat e
di st r i but i on
sy st em w i l l
be
oper at i onal
1
Pat hein 100 % 2, 464 112 % - 5 May
Ngapudaw 98 % 23 100 % - 11 May
Myaungmya 100 % 736 149 % - 5 May
Labut t a 77 % - - 12 May 15 May
Wakema 100 % 14 41 % - 22 May
Mawlamyinegyun 97 % - - 100 kVA, 8 May 30 June
Bogale 85 % - - 100 kVA, 9 May 30 June
Maubin 100 % 179 66 % - 16 May
Kyaiklat 100 % - - 100 kVA, 11
May
2 June
Pyapon 100 % - - 100 kVA, 11
May
3 June
Dedaye 98 % - - 100 kVA, 11
May
30 June
Tot al 3, 417 96 %
1
Source: Gover nment of Myanmar, MOEP2
2
Generat ion by emergency genset s not recorded and billed.
To comput e losses for t he period April t o Sept ember 2008, sales have been
est imat ed for t he condit ion wit h and wit hout Nargis yielding t he net loss in
revenues t o MOEP2 ( Table 7) . Wit hout Nargis, est imat ed sales bet ween April and
Sept ember would have reached 21. 3 MWh, while in t he present sit uat ion sales
are expect ed t o reach about 21. 5 MWh ( 1 % higher t han t he wit hout Nargis) , or
an increase of 0. 26 MWh. The increase, rat her t han an expect ed decrease, could
be at t ribut ed t o t he increased sales in Pat hein and Myaungmya, which dominat e
t he sales figures ( 76 % of t ot al sales in t he affect ed area) . Comput at ion of
revenue assumes a t ariff of Ks 25/ kWh for domest ic and agricult ural consumers,
and Ks 50/ kWh for indust rial consumers. The increased sales result in a net loss
of revenue t o MOEP2 t hat is negat ive, i. e. t here is an increase in revenue of Ks 10
million.
Tabl e 7 – Est i mat es of Apr i l – Sept ember 2008 Revenues ( Ks mi l l i on) i n
Ay ey ar w ady Di vi si on I mpact Ar eas w i t h and w i t hout Nar gi s Cy cl one
Tow nshi p
Tot al Sal es
w i t hout
Nar gi s
( GWh)
Tot al Sal es
w i t h Nar gi s
( GWh)
%
domest i c
sal es
%
I ndust r i al
sal es
Revenues
w i t hout
Nar gi s
Revenues
w i t h
Nar gi s
Net Loss
i n
Rev enue
Pat hein 13. 20 13. 79 59 41 465 486 - 21
Ngapudaw 0. 14 0. 14 100 - 4 4 -
Myaungmya 2. 96 3. 50 54 46 108 128 - 20
Labut t a 0. 07 0. 05 100 - 2 1 1
Wakema 0. 20 0. 18 95 5 5 5 1
Mawlamyinegyun 0. 12 0. 07 99 1 3 2 1
Bogale 0. 26 0. 15 75 25 8 5 3
Maubin 1. 64 1. 54 57 43 59 55 4
Kyaiklat 0. 41 0. 33 52 48 15 12 3
Pyapon 1. 99 1. 59 50 50 75 60 15
Dedaye 0. 25 0. 14 87 13 7 4 3
Tot al 21. 25 21. 51 83 17 750 761 - 11
DAmAge ASSeSSment in yAngon DiviSion
There was no major damage to any of the four gas-fred power plants in the Yangon area.
No dat a was available on damages t o privat e sect or genset s, normally used for backup during load
shedding periods. However, damages were incurred in dist ribut ion and t ransmission syst em wort h
an est imat ed Ks 6, 816 million using t he same unit cost s as in Ayeyarwady since t he t errain is similar
(generally fat).
An n e x 1 1 : El e ct r i ci t y
119
Tabl e 8 – Gener at i on, Tr ansmi ssi on and Di st r i but i on Faci l i t i es Damage i n Yangon Di vi si on I mpact
Ar eas – MOEP2
7 Annex 11: Elect ricit y
Damage Assessment i n Yangon Di vi si on
There was no maj or damage t o any of t he four gas- fired power plant s in t he
Yangon area. No dat a was available on damages t o privat e sect or genset s,
normally used for backup during load shedding periods. However, damages were
incurred in dist ribut ion and t ransmission syst em wort h an est imat ed Ks 6, 816
million using t he same unit cost s as in Ayeyarwady since t he t errain is similar
( generally flat ) .
Tabl e 8 – Gener at i on, Tr ansmi ssi on and Di st r i but i on Faci l i t i es Damage i n Yangon
Di v i si on I mpact Ar eas – MOEP2
Tr ansmi ssi on and Di st r i but i on Li nes
Tow nshi p
Gener at i ng
Capaci t y ,
k VA
66 k V 33 k V 11/ 6. 6 k V 0. 4 k V
Ht ant abin - - - 6 ( 2( 1. 0)
Twant ay - - 8 ( 5. 0) 3 ( 2 ( 1. 5)
Kawhmu - - 7 ( 4. 4) 7 ( 2 ( 1. 4)
Kungyangon - - 13 ( 8. 0) 3 ( 1 ( 0. 8)
Yangon - 24 ( 51 ( 31. 8) 75 ( 53 ( 33. 4)
Thanlyin - - 1 ( 0. 7) 1 ( 6 ( 3. 7)
Kyaukt uan - - 6 ( 4. 0) 3 ( 4 ( 2. 8)
Kayan - - - 1 ( 4 ( 2. 5)
Thongwa - - - 1 ( 4 ( 2. 8)
Sum - 24 ( 86 ( 53. 9) 102 ( 80 ( 49. 9)
%age damage ( by
lengt h)
- 24 % 5 % 4 % 2 %
Replacement Cost ,
1
1, 000 Ks/ km
- 40, 600 30, 900 15, 300 20, 300
Tot al - 974 2, 665 1, 554 1, 621
1
Source: Gover nment of Myanmar, MOEP2
2
Mat er ials ( t owers, conduct or s, insulat ors) as per MOEP2 + 30 % for labour, inst allat ion and
t ranspor t
Loss Assessment i n Yangon Di vi si on
The comput at ion of losses for t he impact ed areas in Yangon Division follows t he
same met hodology as for Ayeyarwady Division. For t he mont h of May, elect ricit y
sold in t he affect ed Yangon Division t ownships ranged bet ween 0 % ( Kawhmu) t o
72 % ( Yangon) of t he April sales. Overall, sales amount ed t o 71 % of t he sales in
April.
loSS ASSeSSment in yAngon DiviSion
The comput at ion of losses for t he impact ed areas in Yangon Division follows t he same
met hodology as for Ayeyarwady Division. For t he mont h of May, elect ricit y sold in t he affect ed
Yangon Division t ownships ranged bet ween 0 % ( Kawhmu) t o 72 % ( Yangon) of t he April sales.
Overall, sales amount ed t o 71 % of t he sales in April.
Tabl e 9 – May 2008 Sal es and Recover y i n Yangon Di vi si on I mpact Ar eas1
Annex 11: Elect ricit y 8
Tabl e 9 – May 2008 Sal es and Recover y i n Yangon Di vi si on I mpact Ar eas
1
Tow nshi p
Sal es i n
May
( MWh)
Fr act i on of
Apr i l Sal es,
%
Dat e emer gency genset
became oper at i onal
Ex pect ed
dat e
di st r i but i on
sy st em w i l l
be
oper at i onal
Ht ant abin 6 4 % 7 May, 140 kVA 13 June
Twant ay 14 4 % 17 May, 365 kVA 30 May
Kawhmu - 0 % 6 May – 33 kVA mobile
t ransformer & 22 May 200
kVA genset
2 June
Kungyangon 2 2 % 18 May, 340 kVA 3 June
Yangon 97, 202 72 % - 3 May – 8
June
Thanlyin 638 28 % 30 May 17 June
Kyaukt uan 15 3 % 7 May 28 May
Kayan 50 27 % 17 May 16 June
Thongwa 59 36 % 17 May 16 June
Tot al 97, 986 71 %
1
Source: Gover nment of Myanmar
Wit hout Nargis, est imat ed sales from April t o Sept ember are 825. 6 GWh, while in
t he present sit uat ion sales are expect ed t o reach 772. 3 GWh ( 94 % of t he
wit hout Nargis condit ion) , or a reduct ion of 53. 4 GWh. I n t erms of losses of
revenue t o MOEP2, t his amount s t o Ks 1, 431 million. ( Table 10)
Tabl e 10 – Est i mat es of Apr i l – Sept ember 2008 Rev enues ( Ks mi l l i on) i n Yangon
Di v i si on I mpact Ar eas w i t h and w i t hout Nar gi s Cy cl one
Tow nshi p
Tot al Sal es,
GWh
w i t hout
Nar gi s
Tot al Sal es,
GWh w i t h
Nar gi s
%
domest i c
sal es
%
I ndust r i al
sal es
Revenues
w i t hout
Nar gi s
Revenues
w i t h
Nar gi s
Net Loss
i n
Revenue
Ht ant abin 0. 82 0. 69 61 39 29 24 5
Twant ay 1. 94 1. 63 44 56 76 64 12
Kawhmu 0. 29 0. 24 96 4 8 6 1
Kungyangon 0. 71 0. 62 80 20 21 19 3
Yangon 803. 56 766. 83 55 45 29, 103 27, 773 1, 330
Thanlyin 13. 59 11. 96 62 38 468 412 56
Kyaukt uan 2. 60 2. 18 41 59 103 87 17
Kayan 1. 12 0. 98 65 35 38 33 5
Thongwa 0. 98 0. 88 97 3 25 23 3
Tot al 825. 61 772. 25 55 45 29, 871 28, 440 1, 431
Ot her Di v i si ons I mpact Ar eas
The ot her divisions experiencing damages t o t heir t ransmission syst em were
Bago, Mon and Kayin t o t he East of Yangon.
Damage Assessment
There was no damage t o generat ing facilit ies, except some minor damage t o
roofing. Transmission lines however, suffered some damage t ot aling Ks 2, 167
million.
Wit hout Nargis, est imat ed sales from April t o Sept ember are 825. 6 GWh, while in t he
present sit uat ion sales are expect ed t o reach 772. 3 GWh ( 94 % of t he wit hout Nargis condit ion) , or
a reduct ion of 53. 4 GWh. I n t erms of losses of revenue t o MOEP2, t his amount s t o Ks 1, 431 million.
( Table 10)
An n e x 1 1 : El e ct r i ci t y
120
Tabl e 10 – Est i mat es of Apr i l – Sept ember 2008 Rev enues ( Ks mi l l i on) i n Yangon Di vi si on I mpact
Ar eas w i t h and w i t hout Nar gi s Cy cl one
Annex 11: Elect ricit y 8
Tabl e 9 – May 2008 Sal es and Recover y i n Yangon Di vi si on I mpact Ar eas
1
Tow nshi p
Sal es i n
May
( MWh)
Fr act i on of
Apr i l Sal es,
%
Dat e emer gency genset
became oper at i onal
Ex pect ed
dat e
di st r i but i on
sy st em w i l l
be
oper at i onal
Ht ant abin 6 4 % 7 May, 140 kVA 13 June
Twant ay 14 4 % 17 May, 365 kVA 30 May
Kawhmu - 0 % 6 May – 33 kVA mobile
t ransformer & 22 May 200
kVA genset
2 June
Kungyangon 2 2 % 18 May, 340 kVA 3 June
Yangon 97, 202 72 % - 3 May – 8
June
Thanlyin 638 28 % 30 May 17 June
Kyaukt uan 15 3 % 7 May 28 May
Kayan 50 27 % 17 May 16 June
Thongwa 59 36 % 17 May 16 June
Tot al 97, 986 71 %
1
Source: Gover nment of Myanmar
Wit hout Nargis, est imat ed sales from April t o Sept ember are 825. 6 GWh, while in
t he present sit uat ion sales are expect ed t o reach 772. 3 GWh ( 94 % of t he
wit hout Nargis condit ion) , or a reduct ion of 53. 4 GWh. I n t erms of losses of
revenue t o MOEP2, t his amount s t o Ks 1, 431 million. ( Table 10)
Tabl e 10 – Est i mat es of Apr i l – Sept ember 2008 Revenues ( Ks mi l l i on) i n Yangon
Di v i si on I mpact Ar eas w i t h and w i t hout Nar gi s Cy cl one
Tow nshi p
Tot al Sal es,
GWh
w i t hout
Nar gi s
Tot al Sal es,
GWh w i t h
Nar gi s
%
domest i c
sal es
%
I ndust r i al
sal es
Rev enues
w i t hout
Nar gi s
Revenues
w i t h
Nar gi s
Net Loss
i n
Revenue
Ht ant abin 0. 82 0. 69 61 39 29 24 5
Twant ay 1. 94 1. 63 44 56 76 64 12
Kawhmu 0. 29 0. 24 96 4 8 6 1
Kungyangon 0. 71 0. 62 80 20 21 19 3
Yangon 803. 56 766. 83 55 45 29, 103 27, 773 1, 330
Thanlyin 13. 59 11. 96 62 38 468 412 56
Kyaukt uan 2. 60 2. 18 41 59 103 87 17
Kayan 1. 12 0. 98 65 35 38 33 5
Thongwa 0. 98 0. 88 97 3 25 23 3
Tot al 825. 61 772. 25 55 45 29, 871 28, 440 1, 431
Ot her Di vi si ons I mpact Ar eas
The ot her divisions experiencing damages t o t heir t ransmission syst em were
Bago, Mon and Kayin t o t he East of Yangon.
Damage Assessment
There was no damage t o generat ing facilit ies, except some minor damage t o
roofing. Transmission lines however, suffered some damage t ot aling Ks 2, 167
million.
other DiviSionS impAct AreAS
The ot her divisions experiencing damages t o t heir t ransmission syst em were Bago, Mon and
Kayin t o t he East of Yangon.
DAmAge ASSeSSment
There was no damage to generating facilities, except some minor damage to roofng.
Transmission lines however, suffered some damage t ot aling Ks 2, 167 million.
Tabl e 11 – Gener at i on, Tr ansmi ssi on and Di st r i but i on Faci l i t i es Damage i n Bago, Mon and Kay i n
Di vi si on I mpact Ar eas – MOEP21

I nst alled
Capacit y,
MVA
Damaged
Capacit y,
MVA
Transmission and Dist ribut ion Lines
Division 66 kV 33 kV 11/ 6. 6 kV 0. 4 kV
Bago 166 - - 11 ( 7) 14 ( 9) 13 ( 8)
Mon 120 - - 10 ( 6) 13 ( 8) 11 ( 7)
Kayin 38 - - 8 ( 5) 11 ( 7) 10 ( 6)
Sum - - 29 ( 18) 38 ( 24) 34 ( 21)
Replacement Cost s, 2
1, 000 Ks/ km
40, 600 30, 900 15, 300 20, 300
Tot al - 890 588 682
1 Source: Government of Myanmar, MOEP2
2 Mat erials ( t owers, conduct ors, insulat ors) as per MOEP2 + 30 % for labour, inst allat ion and t ransport
loSS ASSeSSment
Tabl e 12 – May 2008 Sal es and Recover y i n Bago, Mon and Kay i n Di v i si on I mpact Ar eas1
9 Annex 11: Elect ricit y
Tabl e 11 – Gener at i on, Tr ansmi ssi on and Di st r i but i on Faci l i t i es Damage i n Bago,
Mon and Kay i n Di v i si on I mpact Ar eas – MOEP2
1
I nst al l ed
Capaci t y ,
MVA Tr ansmi ssi on and Di st r i but i on Li nes
Di vi si on
Damaged
Capaci t y ,
MVA
66 k V 33 k V
11/ 6. 6
k V
0. 4 k V
Bago 166 - - 11 ( 14 ( 9) 13 (
Mon 120 - - 10 ( 13 ( 8) 11 (
Kayin 38 - - 8 ( 11 ( 7) 10 (
Sum - - 29 ( 38 ( 24) 34 (
Replacement Cost s,
2
1, 000 Ks/ km
40, 60 30, 9 15, 300 20, 300
Tot al - 890 588 682
1
Source: Government of Myanmar, MOEP2
2
Mat erials ( t owers, conduct ors, insulat ors) as per MOEP2 + 30 % for
labour, inst allat ion and t ransport
Loss Assessment
Tabl e 12 – May 2008 Sal es and Recover y i n Bago,
Mon and Kay i n Di v i si on I mpact Ar eas
1
Di vi si on
Sal es i n
Apr i l
( MWh)
Sal es i n
May
( MWh)
Fr act i on of
Apr i l Sal es,
%
Dat e
di st r i but i on
sy st em
oper at i onal
Bago 811 935 115 % 5- 10 May
Mon 594 616 104 % 4- 15 May
Kayin 807 1, 171 145 % 10- 11 May
Tot al 2, 212 2, 722 123 %
1
Source: Gover nment of Myanmar, MOEP2
Sales in May were about 23 % higher t han before t he disast er. Assuming all
consumers will be reconnect ed by June, sales bet ween April and Sept ember
wit hout Nargis are est imat ed at 13. 3 GWh, while in t he present sit uat ion sales are
expect ed t o reach 15. 8 GWh ( 119 % of wit hout Nargis condit ion) , or an increase
of 2. 5 GWh. The losses of revenue t o MOEP2 are t herefore negat ive at Ks 110
million ( Table 13) .
Tabl e 13 – Est i mat es of Apr i l – Sept ember 2008 Rev enues ( Ks mi l l i on) i n Bago,
Mon and Kay i n Di vi si on I mpact Ar eas w i t h and w i t hout Nar gi s Cy cl one
Di vi si on
Tot al Sal es
w i t hout
Nar gi s,
GWh
Tot al Sal es
w i t h
Nar gi s,
GWh
%
domest i c
sal es
%
I ndust r i al
sal es
Revenues
w i t hout
Nar gi s
Rev enues
w i t h
Nar gi s
Net Loss
i n
Rev enue
Bago 4. 9 5. 5 64 36 165 186 - 21
Mon 3. 6 3. 7 63 37 122 126 - 4
Kayin
1
4. 9 6. 7 12 88 228 313 - 85
Tot al 13. 3 15. 8 45 55 516 626 - 110
1
The high indust rial sales are at t r ibut ed t o a cement fact ory in t his Division.
Net Loss
When comput ing losses because of lower sales, it is necessary t o consider bot h
loss of revenue and reduct ion in generat ion cost s. Average cost of generat ion of
Ks 20/ kWh was provided by MOEP2, and represent s t he cost of buying elect ricit y
from MOEP1 from hydropower plant s. Generat ing cost s of gas and st eam t urbines
were not available, but are likely t o be higher t han Ks 20/ kWh. The figure
provided has been used as an approximat ion in t hese calculat ions, and may be on
Sales in May were about 23 % higher t han before t he disast er. Assuming all consumers will
be reconnect ed by June, sales bet ween April and Sept ember wit hout Nargis are est imat ed at 13. 3
An n e x 1 1 : El e ct r i ci t y
121
GWh, while in t he present sit uat ion sales are expect ed t o reach 15. 8 GWh ( 119 % of wit hout Nargis
condit ion) , or an increase of 2. 5 GWh. The losses of revenue t o MOEP2 are t herefore negat ive at Ks
110 million ( Table 13) .
Tabl e 13 – Est i mat es of Apr i l – Sept ember 2008 Rev enues ( Ks mi l l i on) i n Bago, Mon and Kay i n
Di vi si on I mpact Ar eas w i t h and w i t hout Nar gi s Cy cl one
9 Annex 11: Elect ricit y
Tabl e 11 – Gener at i on, Tr ansmi ssi on and Di st r i but i on Faci l i t i es Damage i n Bago,
Mon and Kay i n Di v i si on I mpact Ar eas – MOEP2
1
I nst al l ed
Capaci t y ,
MVA Tr ansmi ssi on and Di st r i but i on Li nes
Di vi si on
Damaged
Capaci t y ,
MVA
66 k V 33 k V
11/ 6. 6
k V
0. 4 k V
Bago 166 - - 11 ( 14 ( 9) 13 (
Mon 120 - - 10 ( 13 ( 8) 11 (
Kayin 38 - - 8 ( 11 ( 7) 10 (
Sum - - 29 ( 38 ( 24) 34 (
Replacement Cost s,
2
1, 000 Ks/ km
40, 60 30, 9 15, 300 20, 300
Tot al - 890 588 682
1
Source: Government of Myanmar, MOEP2
2
Mat erials ( t owers, conduct ors, insulat ors) as per MOEP2 + 30 % for
labour, inst allat ion and t ransport
Loss Assessment
Tabl e 12 – May 2008 Sal es and Recover y i n Bago,
Mon and Kay i n Di vi si on I mpact Ar eas
1
Di vi si on
Sal es i n
Apr i l
( MWh)
Sal es i n
May
( MWh)
Fr act i on of
Apr i l Sal es,
%
Dat e
di st r i but i on
sy st em
oper at i onal
Bago 811 935 115 % 5- 10 May
Mon 594 616 104 % 4- 15 May
Kayin 807 1, 171 145 % 10- 11 May
Tot al 2, 212 2, 722 123 %
1
Source: Gover nment of Myanmar, MOEP2
Sales in May were about 23 % higher t han before t he disast er. Assuming all
consumers will be reconnect ed by June, sales bet ween April and Sept ember
wit hout Nargis are est imat ed at 13. 3 GWh, while in t he present sit uat ion sales are
expect ed t o reach 15. 8 GWh ( 119 % of wit hout Nargis condit ion) , or an increase
of 2. 5 GWh. The losses of revenue t o MOEP2 are t herefore negat ive at Ks 110
million ( Table 13) .
Tabl e 13 – Est i mat es of Apr i l – Sept ember 2008 Rev enues ( Ks mi l l i on) i n Bago,
Mon and Kay i n Di vi si on I mpact Ar eas w i t h and w i t hout Nar gi s Cy cl one
Di vi si on
Tot al Sal es
w i t hout
Nar gi s,
GWh
Tot al Sal es
w i t h
Nar gi s,
GWh
%
domest i c
sal es
%
I ndust r i al
sal es
Rev enues
w i t hout
Nar gi s
Rev enues
w i t h
Nar gi s
Net Loss
i n
Rev enue
Bago 4. 9 5. 5 64 36 165 186 - 21
Mon 3. 6 3. 7 63 37 122 126 - 4
Kayin
1
4. 9 6. 7 12 88 228 313 - 85
Tot al 13. 3 15. 8 45 55 516 626 - 110
1
The high indust rial sales are at t r ibut ed t o a cement fact ory in t his Division.
Net Loss
When comput ing losses because of lower sales, it is necessary t o consider bot h
loss of revenue and reduct ion in generat ion cost s. Average cost of generat ion of
Ks 20/ kWh was provided by MOEP2, and represent s t he cost of buying elect ricit y
from MOEP1 from hydropower plant s. Generat ing cost s of gas and st eam t urbines
were not available, but are likely t o be higher t han Ks 20/ kWh. The figure
provided has been used as an approximat ion in t hese calculat ions, and may be on
net loSS
When comput ing losses because of lower sales, it is necessary t o consider bot h loss of
revenue and reduct ion in generat ion cost s. Average cost of generat ion of Ks 20/ kWh was provided by
MOEP2, and represent s t he cost of buying elect ricit y from MOEP1 from hydropower plant s. Generat ing
cost s of gas and st eam t urbines were not available, but are likely t o be higher t han Ks 20/ kWh. The
fgure provided has been used as an approximation in these calculations, and may be on the lower
side. Syst ems losses were assumed at 28 % and include t echnical and administ rat ive losses. The
net loss considering generat ion savings and lower sales is found t o be negat ive, i. e. a net gain can
be expect ed in all divisions except Yangon. Using higher generat ion cost s would have result ed in a
higher gain, and t his is at t ribut able t o t he low t ariff and high syst em losses.
Tabl e 14 – Net Loss Comput at i on Apr i l t o Sept ember 2008
Annex 11: Elect ricit y 10
t he lower side. Syst ems losses were assumed at 28 % and include t echnical and
administ rat ive losses. The net loss considering generat ion savings and lower sales
is found t o be negat ive, i. e. a net gain can be expect ed in all divisions except
Yangon. Using higher generat ion cost s would have result ed in a higher gain, and
t his is at t ribut able t o t he low t ariff and high syst em losses.
Tabl e 14 – Net Loss Comput at i on Apr i l t o Sept ember 2008
Di vi si on
Gener at i on
w i t hout
Nar gi s,
GWh
Gener at i on
w i t h
Nar gi s,
GWh
Net
Gener at i on,
GWh
Net
Gener at i on
Cost , Ks
mi l l i on
Net
Rev enues,
Ks
mi l l i on
1
Net
Loss
Ayeyarwady 29. 5 29. 9 0. 40 7 11 - 4
Yangon 1, 146. 7 1, 072. 6 - 74. 10 - 1, 100 - 1, 432 332
Ot her
Divisions
18. 5 22. 0 3. 40 61 110 - 39
Tot al 1, 194. 8 1, 124. 5 - 70. 30 - 1, 406 - 1, 311 289
1
From Tables 7, 10 and 13
Summar y of t he Damage and Loss
Table 15 summarizes t he damages and losses comput ed in Tables 5 t hrough 14.
Tot al damage and loss has been est imat ed at Ks 15, 718 million. Damages of Ks
15, 429 million great ly exceeded losses ( Ks 289 million) .
Tabl e 15 – Est i mat ed Damage and l osses – El ect r i ci t y Sect or ( Ks mn)
Di sast er Ef f ect s
Subsect or , Component Damage Losses Tot al
Ay ey ar w ady 6, 455 - 4 6, 451
Sales – Table 14 - - 4 - 4
Generat ion – Table 5 731 - 731
Transmission and Dist ribut ion – Table 5 5, 724 - 5, 724
Yangon 6, 814 332 7, 147
Sales – Table 14 - 332 332
Generat ion - - -
Transmission and Dist ribut ion – Table 8 6, 814 - 6, 814
Ot her Di v i si ons 2, 160 - 39 2, 120
Sales – Table 14 - - 39 - 39
Generat ion, - - -
Transmission and Dist ribut ion – Table 11 2, 160 - 2, 160
Sum 15, 429 289 15, 718
RECOVERY NEEDS
Short ly aft er t he passing of Cyclone Nargis, when many administ rat ive cent ers
were left wit hout elect ricit y, MOEP2 t ook special measures t o provide emergency
diesel- fuelled generat ion facilit ies t o t he t ownships’ administ rat ive cent ers for
provision of basic services. Only t wo- t hree days aft er t he disast er, t he first 100
kVA emergency genset s st art ed arriving at t hese cent ers.
Reconst ruct ion of damaged t ransmission lines also st art ed early. MOEP2 had
concret e poles in st ock, but not enough t o supply t he 381 km ( 238 mi) of
damaged 33 kV and 11/ 6. 6 kV lines, and was t herefore forced t o borrow from
ot her proj ect s, and t o obt ain st eel railway rails from Minist ry of Railways. Using
st eel rails can only be considered as a short - t erm emergency measure as such
rails do not meet t he requisit e st andards of t ransmission line t owers/ poles. Part
of t he 33 kV t ransmission line bet ween Pyapon and Bogale were built wit h such
rails, and during Nargis t he wind had along sect ions of line bent t he poles t o t he
SummAry of the DAmAge AnD loSS
Table 15 summarizes t he damages and losses comput ed in Tables 5 t hrough 14. Tot al damage
and loss has been est imat ed at Ks 15, 718 million. Damages of Ks 15, 429 million great ly exceeded
losses ( Ks 289 million) .
An n e x 1 1 : El e ct r i ci t y
122
Tabl e 15 – Est i mat ed Damage and l osses – El ect r i ci t y Sect or ( Ks mn)
Annex 11: Elect ricit y 10
t he lower side. Syst ems losses were assumed at 28 % and include t echnical and
administ rat ive losses. The net loss considering generat ion savings and lower sales
is found t o be negat ive, i. e. a net gain can be expect ed in all divisions except
Yangon. Using higher generat ion cost s would have result ed in a higher gain, and
t his is at t ribut able t o t he low t ariff and high syst em losses.
Tabl e 14 – Net Loss Comput at i on Apr i l t o Sept ember 2008
Di vi si on
Gener at i on
w i t hout
Nar gi s,
GWh
Gener at i on
w i t h
Nar gi s,
GWh
Net
Gener at i on,
GWh
Net
Gener at i on
Cost , Ks
mi l l i on
Net
Revenues,
Ks
mi l l i on
1
Net
Loss
Ayeyarwady 29. 5 29. 9 0. 40 7 11 - 4
Yangon 1, 146. 7 1, 072. 6 - 74. 10 - 1, 100 - 1, 432 332
Ot her
Divisions
18. 5 22. 0 3. 40 61 110 - 39
Tot al 1, 194. 8 1, 124. 5 - 70. 30 - 1, 406 - 1, 311 289
1
From Tables 7, 10 and 13
Summar y of t he Damage and Loss
Table 15 summarizes t he damages and losses comput ed in Tables 5 t hrough 14.
Tot al damage and loss has been est imat ed at Ks 15, 718 million. Damages of Ks
15, 429 million great ly exceeded losses ( Ks 289 million) .
Tabl e 15 – Est i mat ed Damage and l osses – El ect r i ci t y Sect or ( Ks mn)
Di sast er Ef f ect s
Subsect or , Component Damage Losses Tot al
Ay ey ar w ady 6, 455 - 4 6, 451
Sales – Table 14 - - 4 - 4
Generat ion – Table 5 731 - 731
Transmission and Dist ribut ion – Table 5 5, 724 - 5, 724
Yangon 6, 814 332 7, 147
Sales – Table 14 - 332 332
Generat ion - - -
Transmission and Dist ribut ion – Table 8 6, 814 - 6, 814
Ot her Di vi si ons 2, 160 - 39 2, 120
Sales – Table 14 - - 39 - 39
Generat ion, - - -
Transmission and Dist ribut ion – Table 11 2, 160 - 2, 160
Sum 15, 429 289 15, 718
RECOVERY NEEDS
Short ly aft er t he passing of Cyclone Nargis, when many administ rat ive cent ers
were left wit hout elect ricit y, MOEP2 t ook special measures t o provide emergency
diesel- fuelled generat ion facilit ies t o t he t ownships’ administ rat ive cent ers for
provision of basic services. Only t wo- t hree days aft er t he disast er, t he first 100
kVA emergency genset s st art ed arriving at t hese cent ers.
Reconst ruct ion of damaged t ransmission lines also st art ed early. MOEP2 had
concret e poles in st ock, but not enough t o supply t he 381 km ( 238 mi) of
damaged 33 kV and 11/ 6. 6 kV lines, and was t herefore forced t o borrow from
ot her proj ect s, and t o obt ain st eel railway rails from Minist ry of Railways. Using
st eel rails can only be considered as a short - t erm emergency measure as such
rails do not meet t he requisit e st andards of t ransmission line t owers/ poles. Part
of t he 33 kV t ransmission line bet ween Pyapon and Bogale were built wit h such
rails, and during Nargis t he wind had along sect ions of line bent t he poles t o t he
recovery neeDS
Short ly aft er t he passing of Cyclone Nargis, when many administ rat ive cent ers were left
wit hout elect ricit y, MOEP2 t ook special measures t o provide emergency diesel- fuelled generat ion
facilit ies t o t he t ownships’ administ rat ive cent ers for provision of basic services. Only t wo- t hree days
after the disaster, the frst 100 kVA emergency gensets started arriving at these centers.
Reconst ruct ion of damaged t ransmission lines also st art ed early. MOEP2 had concret e poles
in st ock, but not enough t o supply t he 381 km ( 238 mi) of damaged 33 kV and 11/ 6. 6 kV lines, and
was t herefore forced t o borrow from ot her proj ect s, and t o obt ain st eel railway rails from Minist ry of
Railways. Using st eel rails can only be considered as a short - t erm emergency measure as such rails
do not meet t he requisit e st andards of t ransmission line t owers/ poles. Part of t he 33 kV t ransmission
line bet ween Pyapon and Bogale were built wit h such rails, and during Nargis t he wind had along
sect ions of line bent t he poles t o t he ground. The scheduled complet ion for reconst ruct ing t he
damaged t ransmission and dist ribut ion syst em is 30 June 2008 in all affect ed areas. Therefore t he
short t erm reconst ruct ion of t he medium volt age can be said t o be pract ically complet e by end June,
or lat est middle of July. Low volt age connect ion t o consumers is ongoing and has been assumed t o
be complet ed in July.
For st ruct ural reasons, t here is also a need t o replace t he railway rails used as poles t o
st eel or concret e poles t hat meet t he requisit e engineering st andards. I t was not clear how many
kilometers of lines have been built with these poles, but during the feld visit to Kawhmu, Kungyangon
and Dedaye, the feld team saw a signifcant length being provided with these railway rails as poles
while in some sect ions, proper concret e poles were being provided.
An n e x 1 1 : El e ct r i ci t y
123
Annex 12 : coAStAl environment AnD nAturAl reSourceS mAnAgement
SummAry
The Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions of t he I rrawaddy Delt a are among t he most exposed
areas along Myanmar ’s sout hwest coast . These low- lying areas, int erspersed wit h many t idal
wat erways are nat urally exposed t o st orms and monsoon winds blowing from t he sout hwest . Their
vulnerability to natural hazards, like Cyclone Nargis, however, was signifcantly enhanced by losses
of nat ural forest cover and coast al veget at ion t hat have accompanied t ransformat ion of t he land for
paddy cult ivat ion.
The damage assessment for t he environment is conservat ively est imat ed only on t he basis
of replacing t he damage t o exist ing mangrove forest s, bot h nat ural forest s and plant at ions, and t he
loss is based on t he loss of environment al services in t he nat ural forest s. Some 16, 800ha of nat ural
forest and 21, 000ha of forest plant at ions were damaged, wit h an est imat ed cost of K 14 billion. Loss
of environment al services of t he nat ural mangrove forest s is est imat ed at K 46 billion.
The loss of mangrove forest s and associat ed ecosyst em goods and services will have a
signifcant impact on those segments of the rural population that are heavily or partially dependent
on forest ry for t heir livelihood. Precise socio- economic informat ion on how t his would impact t he
most dependent and vulnerable groups is not available at t his writ ing but it can be assumed t hat
marginal farmers and landless will be part icularly affect ed. The mangrove forest s have been apt ly
described as the poor man’s overcoat in that a large number of artisanal fshermen, landless poor,
and marginal farmers are dependent on t hem for t heir direct and indirect incomes.
1
Besides cash
employment from t he forest ry sect or ( in woodcut t ing, charcoal product ion, casual labour in forest ry
operat ions, minor forest produce collect ion and processing, et c. ) , villagers also obt ain lot s of
construction material and food (fsh especially) from the mangrove forests. This loss, which usually
does not ent er t he cash economy, can be subst ant ial for many forest - dependent people.
2
pre-DiSASter SituAtion
mAngroveS
Mangrove forest s provide a number of import ant ecosyst em services: They can dissipat e t he
force of st orm surges and heavy winds by virt ue of t heir st ilt root s, and broad branches and t runk
st ruct ure. Their abilit y t o serve as windbreaks when t hey occur in dense st ands of t all- canopied
trees makes them particularly benefcial during cyclones
3
, and t heir capacit y t o t rap sediment s in
their prop roots and accelerate the accretion of coastline seaward makes them a frst line of defense
against sea level rise and adapt at ion t o climat e change. An import ant supplement al dividend is t heir
abilit y t o st ore carbon from t he at mosphere, creat ing t he opport unit y for carbon emission credit s t o
communit ies who rest ore and prot ect t hem.
As import ant as healt hy mangrove forest s are in prot ect ing human set t lement s and
agricult ural lands est ablished landward of t his living barrier, mangroves play an equally import ant role
on the seaward side for fsheries—both capture and farmed. The stilt roots of mangroves form fertile
nursery grounds and safe havens for countless juvenile fsh and shellfsh, particularly important for
the prawn industry and for ground fsh which later migrate to deeper water to feed and reproduce.
Although the value of this service in terms of fsheries productivity has yet to be monetized, it is
considered t o be subst ant ial.
4
Mangroves also flter out excess nutrients (P and N) from agricultural
runoff and human sewage, absorb pollut ant s including heavy met als, and reduce sediment at ion in
nearby waters, improving the quality of coastal waters for aquaculture and capture fsheries. With
populat ion densit y in t he delt a exceeding 150/ km2 and more t han half of t he populat ion landless,
fsheries have become a signifcant source of employment in the delta and of export earnings for
the country. Thus, the welfare of the fshing industry is directly linked to the health and biological
1FAO Assessment
2 Eg: 2007/08 Figures for non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in affected area: 7000 cubic tons of frewood, 32000 cubic tons
charcoal, 26200000 bamboo, 66440000 t hat ch, 285000 phoenix spp.
3 The Sunderbans played a key role in prot ect ing vulnerable communit ies and propert y in Bangladesh during Cyclone Sidr in
November 2007. Similarly, mangroves can provide prot ect ion against t he increment al effect s of sea level rise, part icularly
if alluvial sediments continue to fow down from rivers that are not heavily regulated.
4 Barbier, E. E. Koch, B. Silliman, S. Hacker, E, Wolanski, J. Primavera, E. Granek, S. Polasky, S. Aswani, L. Cramer, D. St oms,
C. Kennedy, D. Bael, C. Kappel, G. Perillo, D. Reed. ( 2008) Coast al ecosyst em- based management wit h nonlinear ecological
funct ions and values. Science 319( 18) 321- 323
An n e x 1 2 : Co a s t a l En v i r o n m e n t a n d Na t u r a l Re s o u r ce s Ma n a g e m e n t
124
product ivit y of t he mangrove forest s.
Map 1: Mangr ove For est s i n t he Ay ey ar w ady Del t a
Annex 12: Coast al Environment and Nat ural Resources Management 2
As import ant as healt hy mangrove forest s are in prot ect ing human set t lement s
and agricult ural lands est ablished landward of t his living barrier, mangroves play
an equally import ant role on t he seaward side for fisheries—both capture and
farmed. The st ilt root s of mangroves form fert ile nursery grounds and safe
havens for count less j uvenile fish and shellfish, part icularly import ant for t he
prawn indust ry and for ground fish which lat er migrat e t o deeper wat er t o feed
and reproduce. Alt hough t he value of t his service in t erms of fisheries product ivit y
has yet t o be monet ized, it is considered t o be subst ant ial.
4
Mangroves also filt er
out excess nut rient s ( P and N) from agricult ural runoff and human sewage,
absorb pollut ant s including heavy met als, and reduce sediment at ion in nearby
wat ers, improving t he qualit y of coast al wat ers for aquacult ure and capt ure
fisheries. Wit h populat ion densit y in t he delt a exceeding 150/ km
2
and more t han
half of t he populat ion landless, fisheries have become a significant source of
employment in t he delt a and of export earnings for t he count ry. Thus, t he welfare
of t he fishing indust ry is direct ly linked t o t he healt h and biological product ivit y of
t he mangrove forest s.
Map 1: Mangr ov e For est s i n t he Ay ey ar w ady Del t a
However, t here was subst ant ial loss t o t he forest area due t o human
encroachment prior t o t he cyclone ( see Figure 1) . Even t hose areas not fully
encroached for paddy farming or shrimp cult ivat ion have been degraded t hrough
felling of t rees for t imber and charcoal.
5
This has furt her diminished t he amount
of remaining healt hy mangrove forest , now est imat ed at about 100, 000 ha.
6

4
Barbier , E. E. Koch, B. Silliman, S. Hacker, E, Wolanski, J. Pr imaver a, E. Granek, S. Polasky, S.
Aswani, L. Cramer , D. St oms, C. Kennedy, D. Bael, C. Kappel, G. Perillo, D. Reed. ( 2008) Coast al
ecosyst em- based management wit h nonlinear ecological funct ions and values. Science 319( 18)
321- 323
5
M. Than 2000.
6
Myanmar Forest ry St at ist ics 2006.
However, t here was subst ant ial loss t o t he forest area due t o human encroachment prior
t o t he cyclone ( see Figure 1) . Even t hose areas not fully encroached for paddy farming or shrimp
cult ivat ion have been degraded t hrough felling of t rees for t imber and charcoal.
5
This has furt her
diminished t he amount of remaining healt hy mangrove forest , now est imat ed at about 100, 000
ha.
6
Fi gur e 1: Mangr ove Def or est at i on i n t he Ay ey ar w ady Del t a
Source: FAO World At las of Mangroves 2002
5 M. Than 2000.
6 Myanmar Forest ry St at ist ics 2006.
An n e x 1 2 : Co a s t a l En v i r o n m e n t a n d Na t u r a l Re s o u r ce s Ma n a g e m e n t
125
To t ry t o count eract t his t rend in loss of crit ical forest cover, t he government and NGOs have
embarked on a number of mangrove rest orat ion init iat ives t hrough plant at ion forest s. A t ot al of
65, 108 ha plant at ion forest s, including mangrove and ot her species have been est ablished in bot h
t he Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions t o increase forest cover. Communit y forest ry is being promot ed
by t he government t o manage remaining st ands of reserve forest s on a sust ainable basis.
environmentAl impAct
Cyclone Nargis combined t he devast at ion of st rong winds wit h t hat of a massive t idal surge
and fooding, entailing a number of environmental impacts as listed in Table 1.
Tabl e 1: Envi r onment al I mpact of Cy cl ones and Ti dal Sur ges
3 Annex 12: Coast al Environment and Nat ural Resources Management
Fi gur e 1: Mangr ov e Def or est at i on i n t he Ay ey ar w ady Del t a
Source: FAO World At las of Mangroves 2002
To t ry t o count eract t his t rend in loss of crit ical forest cover, t he government and
NGOs have embarked on a number of mangrove rest orat ion init iat ives t hrough
plant at ion forest s. A t ot al of 65, 108 ha plant at ion forest s, including mangrove
and ot her species have been est ablished in bot h t he Ayeyarwady and Yangon
Divisions t o increase forest cover. Communit y forest ry is being promot ed by t he
government t o manage remaining st ands of reserve forest s on a sust ainable
basis.
Envi r onment al I mpact
Cyclone Nargis combined t he devast at ion of st rong winds wit h t hat of a massive
t idal surge and flooding, ent ailing a number of environment al impact s as list ed in
Table 1.
Tabl e 1: Env i r onment al I mpact of Cy cl ones and Ti dal Sur ges
Ty pe of Di sast er Associ at ed Env i r onment al I mpact
Hurricane/ Cyclone/
Typhoon
• Loss of vegetation cover and wildlife habitat
• Short-term heavy rains and flooding inland
• Mud slides and soil erosion
• Saltwater intrusion to underground fresh water reservoirs
• Soil contamination from saline water
• Damage to offshore coral reefs and natural coastal
defence mechanisms
• Waste (some of which may be hazardous) and debris
accumulat ion
• Secondary impacts by temporarily displaced people
• Impacts associated with reconst ruct ion and repair t o
damaged infrast ruct ure ( e. g. deforest at ion, quarrying,
wast e pollut ion)
Annex 12: Coast al Environment and Nat ural Resources Management 4
Ty pe of Di sast er Associ at ed Envi r onment al I mpact
Tsunami/ Tidal Surge • Ground water pollution through sewage overflow
• Saline incursion and sewage contamination of
groundwat er reservoirs
• Loss of productive fisheries and coastal
forest / plant at ions
• Destruction of coral reefs
• Coastal erosion and/or beneficial deposit ion of sediment
on beaches/ small islands
• Marine pollution from back flow of wave surge
• Soil contamination
• Loss of crops and seed banks
• Waste accumulation – additional wast e disposal sit es
required
• Secondary impacts by temporarily displaced people
• Impacts associated with reconst ruct ion and repair t o
damaged infrast ruct ure ( e. g. deforest at ion, quarrying,
wast e pollut ion)
Source: UNEP, Environment al Needs Assessment in Post - Disast er Sit uat ion
Due t o dat a const raint s, t he damage and loss assessment focuses on t he impact
on t he mangrove ecosyst em, wit h addit ional impressions on
salinizat ion/ sediment at ion. The lat t er phenomena, as t hey relat e t o wat er supply
and wat er qualit y are also dealt wit h in t he wat er and sanit at ion clust er.
Er osi on and sedi ment at i on
Sat ellit e imagery indicat es t hat t here was considerable riverbank and coast al
erosion wit hin t he delt a, along t he maj or rivers and wat erways, as a result of t he
cyclone—both as a result of t he high river flows and wave act ion. While no
comprehensive est imat es of erosion damage have yet been made, t he FAO
Agricult ural Assessment
7
indicat es t hat some 130, 000 ha of paddy land is in need
of rehabilit at ion as a result of Cyclone Nargis, much t hrough bund erosion and
debris deposit ion. Alt hough erosion is a nat ural process, river bank st abilit y can
be improved t hrough t he maint enance of healt hy marginal veget at ion such as
mangrove forest s.
Mangr ove For est
According t o sat ellit e and ground surveys of forest cover pre- and post - Nargis,
some 16, 800ha ( 30%) of nat ural forest were lost as a result of t he cyclone. I n
addit ion, an est imat ed 21, 000ha of forest plant at ions were damaged. The t ot al
damaged forest area is t hus est imat ed at 37, 800 ha in t he Ayeyarwady and
Yangon Divisions. The t ot al value of damages t o mangrove forest are est imat ed
on t he basis of replant ing cost s of $400/ ha ( Kyat 440, 000/ ha) for reserved and
prot ect ed area forest s and $300/ ha ( Kyat 330, 000/ ha) for plant at ion forest s.
Sal i ni zat i on/ Sedi ment at i on
I t was originally t hought t hat salt wat er int rusion and debris, such as st ones,
sand, t ree t runks and housing mat erials, would be a seriously limit ing fact or in
t he rest orat ion of paddy rice product ion. Based on preliminary observat ions, it
can be assumed t hat salinit y levels have been significant ly reduced, as t he floods
drained away wit hin a few days, and subsequent heavy rains furt her washed out
saline wat er. These observat ions must be reconciled, however, wit h findings from
t he VTA and DALA, which do report salinizat ion of ponds and wells used for wat er

7
FAO, 2008 Myammar Emergency & Rehabilit at ion Programme, Needs Assessment for t he Cyclone
Nargis Affect ed Areas: Agricult ure ( crops, livest ock, fisheries, forest ry) ( June) .
Due t o dat a const raint s, t he damage and loss assessment focuses on t he impact on t he
mangrove ecosyst em, wit h addit ional impressions on salinizat ion/ sediment at ion. The lat t er
phenomena, as t hey relat e t o wat er supply and wat er qualit y are also dealt wit h in t he wat er and
sanit at ion clust er.
eroSion AnD SeDimentAtion
Sat ellit e imagery indicat es t hat t here was considerable riverbank and coast al erosion wit hin
the delta, along the major rivers and waterways, as a result of the cyclone—both as a result of
the high river fows and wave action. While no comprehensive estimates of erosion damage have
126
An n e x 1 2 : Co a s t a l En v i r o n m e n t a n d Na t u r a l Re s o u r ce s Ma n a g e m e n t
yet been made, t he FAO Agricult ural Assessment
7
indicat es t hat some 130, 000 ha of paddy land
is in need of rehabilit at ion as a result of Cyclone Nargis, much t hrough bund erosion and debris
deposit ion. Alt hough erosion is a nat ural process, river bank st abilit y can be improved t hrough t he
maint enance of healt hy marginal veget at ion such as mangrove forest s.
mAngrove foreSt
According t o sat ellit e and ground surveys of forest cover pre- and post - Nargis, some 16, 800ha
( 30%) of nat ural forest were lost as a result of t he cyclone. I n addit ion, an est imat ed 21, 000ha of
forest plant at ions were damaged. The t ot al damaged forest area is t hus est imat ed at 37, 800 ha in
t he Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions. The t ot al value of damages t o mangrove forest are est imat ed
on t he basis of replant ing cost s of $400/ ha ( Kyat 440, 000/ ha) for reserved and prot ect ed area
forest s and $300/ ha ( Kyat 330, 000/ ha) for plant at ion forest s.
SAlinizAtion/SeDimentAtion
I t was originally t hought t hat salt wat er int rusion and debris, such as st ones, sand, t ree
t runks and housing mat erials, would be a seriously limit ing fact or in t he rest orat ion of paddy rice
product ion. Based on preliminary observat ions, it can be assumed t hat salinit y levels have been
signifcantly reduced, as the foods drained away within a few days, and subsequent heavy rains
further washed out saline water. These observations must be reconciled, however, with fndings
from t he VTA and DALA, which do report salinizat ion of ponds and wells used for wat er supply.
8
To
obt ain a bet t er pict ure of soil damage and wat er pollut ion, proper sampling needs t o t ake place. The
same holds t rue for an assessment of sediment at ion and silt at ion, which have proved t o be more
delet erious in t he 2004 Tsunami t han t he effect s from salt wat er int rusion.
9

overAll ASSeSSment of DAmAge AnD loSSeS
The damage assessment for t he environment is conservat ively est imat ed only on t he basis
of replacing t he damage t o exist ing mangrove forest s, bot h nat ural forest s and plant at ions, and t he
loss is based on t he loss of environment al services in t he nat ural forest s.
The assessment also includes t he damage t hat occurred t o t he embankment s. During t he
st orm surge, most embankment s overt opped and breached at numerous places, and 14 sluices were
damaged. Embankment s were damaged over a t ot al lengt h of 265 km in t he Ayeyarwady Division
and over a lengt h of 1. 4 km in Yangon Division. The volume of eart hwork repairs is est imat ed at
about 1. 0 million cubic met ers.
Tabl e 2: Est i mat es of Env i r onment al Damage and Loss ( Ky at mi l l i on)
Di sast er Ef f ect s
Damage Losses Tot al
Coast al Forest s 14, 264 46, 112 60, 376
Embankment s 2, 588 2, 588
Tot al 16,852 46,112 62,694

Source: PONJA Team est imat es
riSk mAnAgement iSSueS
While Cyclone Nargis is an ext reme event , t he Delt a has suffered from a number of lesser
st orms and inundat ions, including t he 2004 Asian Tsunami. Global climat e change models
downscaled for different regions of t he world indicat e t hat ext reme weat her event s, including
heavier downpours and more int ense hurricanes in areas of high seasonal rainfall, are predict ed
to increase as atmospheric CO2 increases. This has signifcant implications for people living in
t he Ayeyarwady Delt a. The cont inuing populat ion expansion and encroachment on coast al margins
and river embankment s have gradually increased t he exposure and vulnerabilit y t o t he coast al
populat ion. This is t he direct result from environment al damage t o t he nat ural resource base such as
7 FAO, 2008 Myammar Emergency & Rehabilit at ion Programme, Needs Assessment for t he Cyclone Nargis Affect ed Areas:
Agriculture (crops, livestock, fsheries, forestry) (June).
8 VTA Survey.
9 FAO Salt Wat er St udy Aceh
127
An n e x 1 2 : Co a s t a l En v i r o n m e n t a n d Na t u r a l Re s o u r ce s Ma n a g e m e n t
t he alt erat ion of t he landscape, loss of forest cover, erosion of coast lines and embankment s. Taken
t oget her wit h predict ions of more ext reme weat her event s, t he vulnerabilit y of t hese communit ies
increases several fold.
Therefore, any recovery and rehabilit at ion effort s have t o t ake place in t he broader cont ext
of a more det ailed vulnerabilit y assessment and disast er reduct ion framework.
10
I n addit ion capacit y
and inst it ut ional const raint s will have t o be t aken int o account as part of risk management act ivit ies.
This includes:
Land availabilit y for reforest at ion on a larger scale; •
Technical capacit y building for scaling up replant ing act ivit ies at t he communit y level; •
The need t o consult fully wit h communit ies over any change in land use; and, •
Lack of a policy framework for coast al resources use, governing access t o resources, zoning •
of coastal areas for different use and resolving conficts between user groups, regulating
indust ry and conversion of habit at , and est ablishing and enforcing prot ect ed areas, wit h t he
full part icipat ion of communit ies on prot ect ed lands.
longer-term recovery neeDS
While PONJA and ot her assessment s have provided some insight s int o t he environment al
dimensions of Cyclone Nargis, furt her work is needed t o det ermine evidence- based recovery and
needs for t he maj or ecosyst ems and t heir services in t he affect ed areas. Based on t hese preliminary
fndings, three major components of an environmental recovery strategy have been identifed:
Envi r onment al Assessment ( Shor t t er m) : While PONJA and ot her assessment s have
provided a rough sket ch of environment al damages and associat ed losses, recovery and reconst ruct ion
work must be guided by a more t horough and dedicat ed analysis, which focus on four dist inct but
relat ed issues:
Direct environment al damage of Nargis: This component would expand and ground- t rut h t he •
preliminary fndings on mangrove damage and supplement them with more detailed reviews
of surface and groundwat er pollut ion, salinizat ion, sediment at ion and wast e generat ion;
Environment al foot print of recovery: Relief and recovery act ivit ies should be conduct ed in an •
environment ally friendly manner, and any addit ional damages t o nat ural asset s need t o be
identifed, and, where possible, mitigated;
I nst it ut ional assessment : Policy const raint s and capacit y gaps t o manage environment al •
rehabilitation in the short to medium term need to be identifed; and
Vulnerabilit y Assessment : Undert ake long- t erm disast er, risk- reduct ion st rat egic planning. •
Mangr ove Rehabi l i t at i on ( Medi um t er m) : A reforest at ion programme would be needed
t o replace and rehabilit at e t he damaged mangroves and ensure t hat fut ure product ivit y is not lost .
Such a programme could include t he following component s and act ivit ies:
11

Reforest at ion cum regenerat ion of accessible mangrove reserves in t he delt a; •
I mprove t he capacit y of all relevant st akeholders in reforest at ion of mangroves t hat is based •
on scientifcally-proven approaches, with particular emphasis on active participation of
forest - dependent communit ies in t he reforest at ion work;
Assist ance t o t he Forest Depart ment t o recover basic facilit ies for it t o cont inue it s operat ions •
in t he cyclone- affect ed area;
Det erminat ion of t he area t hat needs t o be rehabilit at ed; and, •
Pilot coast al land- use planning and zoning t o rat ionalize compet ing nat ural resource use •
opt ions.
10 See chapt er on disast er risk management .
11 See FAO Assessment .
128
An n e x 1 2 : Co a s t a l En v i r o n m e n t a n d Na t u r a l Re s o u r ce s Ma n a g e m e n t
Long- t er m vul ner abi l i t y r educt i on and di sast er pr epar edness Reduce vulnerabilit y of
communit ies and product ion syst ems t o fut ure cyclone and ant icipat ed impact s of climat e change
( e. g., sea level rise, changes in monsoon pat t erns) t hrough, int er alia:
Changes in house const ruct ion pract ices which provides increased prot ect ion against •
winds;
Const ruct ion set backs and mangrove buffer zones ranging from 200 m landward from t he •
mean low t ide mark along exposed coast s t o 100 m along maj or river embankment s;
Rehabilit at ing and upgrading coast al embankment s and polders t o improved design •
st andards;
I mproving quant it y and qualit y of forest cover in reserve lands where much of t he area is •
under cult ivat ion and at risk from st orm surge and salt wat er int rusion;
allocat ion of land ( preferably) on higher ground for const ruct ion of safe houses/ havens from •
st orms; and
early warning syst em t hat would give people enough t ime t o evacuat e or seek shelt er in safe •
houses.
129
An n e x 1 2 : Co a s t a l En v i r o n m e n t a n d Na t u r a l Re s o u r ce s Ma n a g e m e n t
Annex 13: mAcroeconomic impAct
This sect ion present s est imat es of t he economic impact s of Cyclone Nargis relat ed damage
and losses, measured at t he macroeconomic level, namely:
Gross Domest ic Product •
Balance of payment s •
Fiscal defcit, and •
Infation. •
To est imat e t he macroeconomic impact s, t he baseline dat a were comprised of t he performance
of the Myanmar economy in fscal years 2002 – 2007 using both offcial and independent sources.
1

This analysis shows how t he forecast will be affect ed by Nargis- relat ed losses.
SummAry
The overall macroeconomic impact is likely to be moderately signifcant in terms of GDP and
high in relat ion t o ot her large- scale disast ers. The impact is largely spat ial, wit h a more pronounced
decline in GDP in t he affect ed divisions of Yangon and Ayeyarwady. The impact on t he balance of
payment s is likely t o be manageable, given t he large current account surplus, est imat ed at 10 percent
of GDP in 2007. The fscal defcit, already large at around 3 percent of GDP before Nargis, is likely
to increase. Previous monetization of the fscal defcit has led to high infation since the beginning
of the decade. Infation, already high before the cyclone, is likely to grow because of the disruption
of distribution channels as well as increased demand from the recovery effort. An increasing fscal
defcit could further accelerate infation, particularly in the areas affected by the cyclone.
the economy pre-nArgiS
Myanmar ’s economy since 2002 has been charact erized by modest growt h and relat ively
high infation. Projections of GDP growth rates using offcial statistics show growth rates above 11
percent per annum for 2008 and 2009, consist ent wit h equally high double- digit growt h rat es since
2000. These st at ist ics however are const rained by weaknesses in t he underlying dat a in t erms, for
example, of complet eness and t imeliness. Dat a for ot her variables t ypically closely correlat ed wit h
GDP such as energy use, use of fert ilizers, import s of capit al goods and expansion of agricult ural
acreage are also not fully consist ent wit h double- digit GDP growt h. Ot her est imat es from publicly
available independent sources show growt h rat es t o be 3. 9 percent and 3. 3 percent in 2006 and
2007 respect ively, wit h comparable proj ect ions for t he near fut ure. GDP growt h in t he past t wo years
has been driven primarily by high export s, part icularly nat ural gas, good agricult ural performance
and high capit al expendit ures.
1 I ndependent sources include publicly available dat a from t he I FS and EI U.
An n e x 1 3 : Ma cr o e co n o m i c I m p a ct
130
GDP St ruct ure and GDP Growt h
-
2. 000, 0
4. 000, 0
6. 000, 0
8. 000, 0
10. 000, 0
12. 000, 0
14. 000, 0
16. 000, 0
18. 000, 0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
b
i
l
l
i
o
n

K
t
0%
2%
4%
6%
8%
10%
12%
14%
16%
Agricult ure I ndust ry Services GDP Growt h
Source: Minist ry of Nat ional Planning and Economic Development ; PONJA Team est imat es.
Myanmar ’s est imat ed GDP per capit a is USD 234 and populat ion is almost 58 million people
in 2007 ( World Economic Out look Dat abase, I nt ernat ional Monet ary Fund, April 2008) . A snapshot of
t he economy in FY07 shows a dominant agricult ure sect or account ing for 43. 7 percent of GDP, wit h
an indust ry share of 19. 8 percent , and services comprising 36. 5 percent of t he economy.
St ruct ure Myanmar Economy 2007
I ndust ry; 19,8%
Agri cul t ure; 43,7%
Servi ces; 36,5%
Agri cul t ure I ndust ry Servi ces
Agricult ure includes:
- Agricult ure
- Livest ock and Fisheries
- Forest ry
I ndust ry includes:
- Energy
- Mining
- Elect ric Power
- Manufact uring
- Const ruct ion
Services includes:
- Transport
- Communicat ions
- Financial I nst it ut ions
- Social/ Administ rat ive Services
- Rent al
- Trade
Source: Minist ry of Nat ional Planning and Economic Development
An n e x 1 3 : Ma cr o e co n o m i c I m p a ct
131
The external balance has improved signifcantly in the last 5 years, largely the result of
buoyant nat ural gas export s. Tot al export growt h in 2007 was 37 percent and t he t rade balance
was est imat ed at USD3. 3 billion. The current account has been in surplus, wit h improvement s in
the capital account as well, which has benefted from increased foreign direct investments related
to the oil and gas sector. Offcial reserves have thus grown rapidly and were estimated at USD2.3
billion before t he cyclone, enough t o cover 8 mont hs of import s.
2
The st rong balance of payment s
has result ed in t he parallel market exchange rat e for t he Kyat st aying relat ively st able in t he past 2
years in the range of K 1,100-1,300 per US dollar despite high infation and monetary growth. The
offcial exchange rate has remained at an immense disparity from the market rate, at an average of
K 6. 08 per USD in 2007.
Tr ade and I nt er nat ional Reser ves, Myanmar
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
0%
2%
4%
6%
8%
10%
12%
14%
16%
18%
20%
I nt ernat i onal Reserves ( US$ mi l l i on) Trade Bal ance/ GDP
Source: Economist I nt elligence Unit
Tax revenues have been rising as percent age of GDP since reforms undert aken st art ing
in 2003 t o improve t ax administ rat ion, reduce evasion, increase t ariff revenues from use of more
depreciated (than offcial) exchange rate, and price reforms enabling state-owned frms to increase
revenues and t heir result ing cont ribut ion t o t he st at e t reasury.
Tax GDP rat io
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
0%
1%
1%
2%
2%
3%
3%
4%
4%
5%
Tax
GDP
Rat io
Source: Central Statistical Offce and Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development
2 Economist I nt elligence Unit , ‘Count ry Risk Service Myanmar ’, June 2008
132
An n e x 1 3 : Ma cr o e co n o m i c I m p a ct
However cont inuing high expendit ures have offset revenue gains, driven primarily by large
increases in civil servants’ salaries in 2006 and ongoing large capital expenditures. The fscal defcit
has remained between 3 and 4 percent of GDP for most of the last decade. Fiscal defcits have
been largely fnanced through borrowing from the Central Bank, putting upward pressure on prices.
The ext ent t o which t he Government can reallocat e capit al expendit ures t oward t hose needed for
recovery efforts, together with availability of external fnancing, will be a key determinant of the
fscal – and monetary – impact of Cyclone Nargis.
Broad money grew 27 percent in FY2007, on t op of 27 percent in FY2006 and over 30 percent
growth in the year preceding. Infation rates – both offcial and from other sources – have been in
double digits, with infation rates in 2006 and 2007 of 25.7 percent and 34.4 percent respectively
( I nt ernat ional Monet ary Fund, World Economic Out look Dat abase, April 2008) . The price of rice, a
st aple crop, had increased nearly 40 percent at t he t ime t he government increased fuel prices in
mid-August 2007. The price of diesel oil was doubled in August 2007 from K 1, 500 t o K 3, 000 per
gallon, gasoline price increased from K 1, 500 t o K 2, 500 per gallon, and t he price of nat ural gas was
increased by 500 percent. Higher prices for food and fuel have added to the infationary pressures
from monetized fscal defcits.
Inflation Rate
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Inflation Rate
Source: Central Statistical Offce and International Financial Statistics
I mpact of Nar gi s on Gr oss Domest i c Pr oduct

5 Annex 13: Macroeconomic I mpact
Inflation Rate
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Inflation Rate
Source: Cent ral St at ist ical Office and I nt ernat ional Financial St at ist ics
I mpact of Nar gi s on Gr oss Domest i c Pr oduct
Nominal
GDP 2008
( Kyat
billion)
Gross
Losses
( Kyat
billion)
Value
Added
Coefficient s
Value
Added
Losses
( Kyat
billion)
I mpact
on
Sect or/
Tot al
GDP ( %)
Agricult ure 10, 631. 7 225. 1 0. 8 185. 3 1. 7
Livest ock and Fisheries 2, 329. 7 160. 1 0. 6 98. 3 4. 2
I ndust ry 5, 130. 0 1, 362. 4 0. 2 238. 7 4. 6
Commerce 6, 707. 5 461. 0 0. 7 333. 8 5. 0
Tot al GDP 31, 671. 7 856. 1 2. 7
Source: Minist ry of Nat ional Planning and Economic Development ; PONJA Team est imat es.
Based on t his report ’s est imat e, t he aggregat e est imat ed loss in value added in
t he current fiscal year ( FY08) from t he cyclone amount s t o K856 billion or
approximat ely USD 780 million at t he current exchange rat e. The economic losses
are est imat ed t o be around 2. 7 percent of t he proj ect ed nat ional GDP in 2008
using official st at ist ics
3
. The choice of official vs. non- official GDP dat a does not
alt er t his est imat e dramat ically, since t he negat ive impact of t he cyclone on GDP
using independent est imat es of GDP would be 3. 1 percent of GDP inst ead of 2. 7
percent . Economic losses are relat ively high, part icularly when compared t o ot her
disast ers of similar magnit ude which result ed in a lower impact on nat ional
product ion, such as t he cyclone Sidr in Bangladesh, which result ed in a loss t o
GDP of 0. 5 percent . This relat ively high impact on economic losses is t he result of
t he disast er affect ing t he largest cit y in t he count ry ( Yangon) as well as a main
agricult ure producing region ( Ayeyarwady Delt a) .
Economic losses were concent rat ed in t he Yangon and Ayeyarwady Divisions and
est imat ed t o be almost 11. 3 percent of t he region’s economy. This concent rat ion
has also happened in ot her disast ers. Damage and losses of t he I ndian Ocean
Tsunami affect ed only 2 percent of t he I ndonesian GDP, but it was over 100
3
Excluding t he informal sect or , economic losses ar e est imat ed at 1.8 percent of GDP.
133
An n e x 1 3 : Ma cr o e co n o m i c I m p a ct
Based on t his report ’s est imat e, t he aggregat e est imat ed loss in value added in t he current
fscal year (FY08) from the cyclone amounts to K856 billion or approximately USD 780 million at the
current exchange rat e. The economic losses are est imat ed t o be around 2. 7 percent of t he proj ect ed
national GDP in 2008 using offcial statistics.
3
The choice of offcial vs. non-offcial GDP data does not
alt er t his est imat e dramat ically, since t he negat ive impact of t he cyclone on GDP using independent
est imat es of GDP would be 3. 1 percent of GDP inst ead of 2. 7 percent . Economic losses are relat ively
high, part icularly when compared t o ot her disast ers of similar magnit ude which result ed in a lower
impact on nat ional product ion, such as t he cyclone Sidr in Bangladesh, which result ed in a loss
t o GDP of 0. 5 percent . This relat ively high impact on economic losses is t he result of t he disast er
affect ing t he largest cit y in t he count ry ( Yangon) as well as a main agricult ure producing region
( Ayeyarwady Delt a) .
Economic losses were concent rat ed in t he Yangon and Ayeyarwady Divisions and est imat ed
t o be almost 11. 3 percent of t he region’s economy. This concent rat ion has also happened in ot her
disast ers. Damage and losses of t he I ndian Ocean Tsunami affect ed only 2 percent of t he I ndonesian
GDP, but it was over 100 percent of Aceh’s GDP, t he province t hat suffered t he brunt of t he disast er.
These t wo divisions t oget her account for over 30 percent of Myanmar ’s economy, wit h part icular
relevance for the agricultural and fsheries sectors in the Ayeyarwady Division, and manufacturing,
where Yangon account s for 40 percent of all manufact uring in t he count ry.
I n t erms of subsect ors, t he impact of t he cyclone on GDP is by far t he most severe in t he
indust ry and commerce sect ors, at more t han K235 billion ( USD 215 million) and K335 billion ( USD
300 million) respectively. Particularly hit was the small informal retail sector in commerce, larger frms
in t he indust rial parks in Yangon as well as rice crops in agricult ure. The Government of Myanmar
has in place a program t o avoid large losses in rice product ion – a key st aple in t he Ayeyarwady
area. As such, t he Government est imat es t hat only 0. 84 MT of rice product ion will be lost because
of t he cyclone. A more conservat ive est imat e of product ion losses of 1. 52MT, would result in higher
economic losses in the feld crops sector, worth almost K 300 billion, which would increase the impact
of t he cyclone on GDP t o 2. 9 percent , up from 2. 7 percent . A large share of all damage and losses
are in t he privat e sect or – account ing for over 92 percent of all damage and losses. I n t hat sense,
t he Government of Myanmar may not have t o bear all cost s relat ed t o reconst ruct ion and recovery.
I mpact of Nar gi s by Subsect or s
Annex 13: Macroeconomic I mpact 6
percent of Aceh’s GDP, t he province t hat suffered t he brunt of t he disast er. These
t wo divisions t oget her account for over 30 percent of Myanmar’s economy, wit h
part icular relevance for t he agricult ural and fisheries sect ors in t he Ayeyarwady
Division, and manufact uring, where Yangon account s for 40 percent of all
manufact uring in t he count ry.
I n t erms of subsect ors, t he impact of t he cyclone on GDP is by far t he most
severe in t he indust ry and commerce sect ors, at more t han K235 billion ( USD 215
million) and K335 billion ( USD 300 million) respect ively. Part icularly hit was t he
small informal ret ail sect or in commerce, larger firms in t he indust rial parks in
Yangon as well as rice crops in agricult ure. The Government of Myanmar has in
place a program t o avoid large losses in rice product ion – a key st aple in t he
Ayeyarwady area. As such, t he Government est imat es t hat only 0. 84 MT of rice
product ion will be lost because of t he cyclone. A more conservat ive est imat e of
product ion losses of 1. 52MT, would result in higher economic losses in t he field
crops sect or, wort h almost K 300 billion, which would increase t he impact of t he
cyclone on GDP t o 2. 9 percent , up from 2. 7 percent . A large share of all damage
and losses are in t he privat e sect or – account ing for over 92 percent of all
damage and losses. I n t hat sense, t he Government of Myanmar may not have t o
bear all cost s relat ed t o reconst ruct ion and recovery.
I mpact of Nar gi s by Subsect or s
Sect or Value Added Losses
( Kyat billion)
I ndust ry 238, 7
Firms in indust rial parks ( Yangon) 117, 1
Rice mill indust ry 26, 1
Fish processing indust ry 6, 3
Salt mining and processing 2, 7
Ot her indust ries 50, 5
Micro- indust ry 35, 9
Commerce 333, 8
Wholesale market s 9, 7
Ret ail Market s 89, 5
Small Ret ail Sect or 234, 5
Agricult ure 185, 3
Field crops 131, 6
Permanent plant at ions 53, 7
Livest ock and Fisheries 98, 3
Livest ock 18, 9
Fisheries 79, 4
Source: PONJA Team est imat es.
The negat ive impact of t he cyclone on GDP and t he deficit might be compensat ed
by increased economic act ivit y, part icularly in sect ors relat ed t o t he recovery
effort , in t he next couple of years. I t is t oo early t o est imat e t he pace of recovery,
which will be a funct ion of resources available, and t he likely posit ive impact on
t he economy. Aggregat e invest ment has been on average 11 percent of GDP
since 2001
4
. The yearly invest ment s necessary t o rebuild damaged asset s will be
around 20 percent of current aggregat e invest ment ( bot h privat e and public) .
Alt hough reallocat ion of resources will be necessary, bot h for t he public and t he
privat e sect or, invest ment as a share of GDP is likely t o increase in t he coming
years, fost ering economic growt h.
4
Economist I nt elligence Unit , 2008.
6
3 Excluding t he informal sect or, economic losses are est imat ed at 1. 8 percent of GDP.
134
An n e x 1 3 : Ma cr o e co n o m i c I m p a ct
The negative impact of the cyclone on GDP and the defcit might be compensated by increased
economic act ivit y, part icularly in sect ors relat ed t o t he recovery effort , in t he next couple of years. I t
is t oo early t o est imat e t he pace of recovery, which will be a funct ion of resources available, and t he
likely posit ive impact on t he economy. Aggregat e invest ment has been on average 11 percent of GDP
since 2001.
4
The yearly invest ment s necessary t o rebuild damaged asset s will be around 20 percent
of current aggregat e invest ment ( bot h privat e and public) . Alt hough reallocat ion of resources will
be necessary, bot h for t he public and t he privat e sect or, invest ment as a share of GDP is likely t o
increase in t he coming years, fost ering economic growt h.
impAct of nArgiS on BAlAnce on pAymentS
The cyclone may increase t he count ry’s import bill by USD 385 million, including fuel,
construction materials and machinery, and it may also hurt exports in specifc sectors, particularly
rice and shrimps. Exports in the fsheries sector are projected to decrease by over USD 145 million.
An area of concern is an increase in domest ic demand for fuel as t he recovery effort st art s. Myanmar
depends on import s of oil and fuel t o meet domest ic demand. A combinat ion of increasing demand
wit h higher fuel prices could increase import s of fuel but given t he relat ively large current account
surplus t his should be manageable. An increase in t he consumpt ion of fuel could however result in
an increasing budget defcit given fuel subsidies. The impact of the cyclone on the production of rice
in t he Ayeyarwady division is likely t o be limit ed. As such, t he count ry should have enough rice for
it s own consumpt ion wit hout needing import s.
The t rade t o GDP rat io is proj ect ed t o fall by less t han a percent age point . Higher import s
are likely t o be offset by st able/ increasing revenues from t he export of nat ural gas at record high
prices. High revenues from energy export s have support ed rising current account surplus, which
in 2007 was est imat ed at over USD1. 5 billion or 10 percent of GDP. To t he ext ent t he current
account balance is t he sum of t he privat e invest ment and savings gap and t he government budget
defcit, the large current account surplus is a manifestation of low private investment relative to
savings in the economy. The current account surplus is thus, likely to be suffcient to absorb the
increase in aggregat e economic invest ment , bot h privat e and public, arising from t he recovery effort .
Equivalent ly, t he current account is expect ed t o cont inue t o st ay in surplus, albeit lower t han current
levels. As such, int ernat ional reserves will cont inue t o increase and t he local currency is unlikely t o
depreciat e due t o t he recovery effort .
impAct of nArgiS on fiScAl Deficit
On t he expendit ure side, est imat es by t he Government have indicat ed t hat t he Government
of Myanmar had already spent over K27 billion in the frst two months after the cyclone on relief and
early recovery operat ions. Assuming a similar rat e of spending for t he remainder of t he year and
t he st art of t he recovery period, expendit ure could increase by almost K400 billion or 23 percent
as a result of t he cyclone. The upcoming I MF Art icle I V mission will provide a furt her opport unit y t o
discuss the fscal impact of the cyclone with Government.
On t he revenue side, t he cyclone is unlikely t o have a discernible adverse impact . Tax
revenues are expect ed t o decline slight ly, as many businesses in Yangon and t he Ayeyarwady division
will suffer losses. But t ax revenues represent around 25 percent of all public revenue, limit ing t he
ext ent of t he impact of t he cyclone.
The impact of the cyclone on expenditures has intensifed the fscal pressures already created
by other shocks such as high oil and food prices. The budget defcit, estimated to be relatively high
at over 3 percent of GDP in 2007, might increase t o approximat ely 4 percent of GDP in FY08 as a
result of increased expendit ures for rehabilit at ion act ivit ies ( see above) as well as reduced revenues.
Monetization of budget defcits has in the past led to an acceleration of infation. It is important
for t he Government of Myanmar t o avoid monet izat ion of t his addit ional expendit ure and inst ead
reallocat e expendit ure from ot her capit al invest ment proj ect s t oward recovery act ivit ies.
As ment ioned above, a large share of all damage and losses will be borne by t he privat e
sect or, part icularly larger indust ries t hat will have access t o capit al t hrough insurance claims, own
resources or access t o credit market s.
4 Economist I nt elligence Unit , 2008.
135
An n e x 1 3 : Ma cr o e co n o m i c I m p a ct
impAct of nArgiS on inflAtion
Press reports in the immediate aftermath of the cyclone showed signifcant increases in
prices of several commodit ies, t oget her wit h a spike in fuel and t ransport prices. However, anecdot al
evidence as well as interviews during feld visits have shown that those price hikes were for the most
part temporary and with the restoration of supply networks infation has eased again.
Infation was and is likely to remain a concern in Myanmar, estimated at 34 percent in
2007. The damage t o infrast ruct ure, market s, food st ocks and t he loss of life caused by t he cyclone
may intensify existing infationary pressures by affecting the supply of commodities. Once recovery
efforts in the cyclone-affected areas get underway, there is the possibility of infationary pressures
intensifying due to increasing demand for labor and rising demand for specifc items like construction
mat erials. There is ample evidence from previous disast er recovery effort s t hat recovery periods are
accompanied by a period of infation acceleration, such as in Aceh, where infation went up from 7
percent in December 2004 t o over 40 percent in December 2005, one year aft er t he t sunami. Rising
infation can in turn both drive up the cost of recovery and slow its pace.
Depending on the recovery plan, pace and how needs are met, infation could accelerate.
Previous increases in government spending were largely fnanced through credit from the central
bank, adding to the budget defcit and upward pressure on prices. Recent projections put infation at
over 40 percent in 2008 and over 30 percent for 2009.
Containing infation would require a prudent monetary and fscal policy stance. The
Government of Myanmar could fnance recovery and rehabilitation in the affected divisions through
a reallocat ion of resources, reducing spending in ot her capit al invest ment s. I n addit ion, t here will
need t o be a concert ed effort by t he Government of Myanmar and t he int ernat ional communit y t o
t ake upward pressure on prices int o account in t he design of t he recovery phase, t o avoid put t ing
additional pressure on infation. The Government of Myanmar could also consider the issuing of
domestic bonds to partly sterilize the infow of funds.
other impActS
It is very diffcult at this stage to estimate the negative impact of losses in some sectors,
such as t he environment , on economic growt h. First ly, given t hat t he environment is most ly a public
good, it is diffcult to assign a value to the benefts lost or the costs of rehabilitating it. Similarly,
given its public good character, it is diffcult to measure to what extent individuals, private frms and
t he societ y as a whole will incur higher expendit ures t o cope wit h t he worsened environment as a
result of t he cyclone. Nevert heless, t here is lit t le doubt t hat changes in t he nat ural environment in
the delta will force individuals and frms to incur extra costs to adapt to the new environment, costs
t hat are not capt ured in t he est imat es above.
The macroeconomic impact est imat ed t hrough t his exercise deals wit h t he short t o medium
t erm impact t hat losses in t he product ive and ot her sect ors will have on some key macroeconomic
variables, such as growth, the balance of payments, the budget defcit and infation. However, there
are ot her likely impact s t hat are not necessarily capt ured in t his report . The t ypical response t o
the fnancial burden of a disaster to a government is reallocation of resources, which could affect
spending in t he provision of public services such as healt h and educat ion as well as t he share of t he
budget allocat ed t o invest ment programs and development plans. The cyclone may also have an
impact on t he dist ribut ion of income as well as povert y levels independent of t he impact it may have
on growt h, an area beyond t he scope of t his report , but t hat nonet heless merit s at t ent ion.
Similarly, large disast ers such as cyclone Nargis will affect t he provision of public services
in t he affect ed areas, such as t he provision of healt h and educat ion services. To t he ext ent t hat
t his int errupt ion in t he provision of public services has an impact on product ivit y of t he affect ed
populat ion, say by reducing t he educat ion of children for a prolonged period of t ime or leaving
behind chronic illnesses and disabilit ies t hat impair t he capacit y of people t o work, t here will be
longer t erm impact s on t he product ivit y and t he livelihoods of affect ed populat ions, which might not
necessarily be capt ured by t his assessment .
136
An n e x 1 3 : Ma cr o e co n o m i c I m p a ct
Annex 14: employment AnD livelihooDS
SummAry
I n t erms of livelihoods, t he area affect ed by t he cyclone can be broadly divided int o t hree
different livelihood zones. The coast al area of t he Delt a region ( wit h 24 percent of t he populat ion) is
a fragile eco-system. Most of households were in one way or the other engaged in fsheries activities.
The agricult urally product ive area ( 29 percent ) is dominat ed by rice farming. A number of people in
the peri-urban zone are still dependent on agriculture, livestock and fsheries. By contrast, the bulk
of t he economy in urban areas is dependent most ly on t he indust ry and service sect ors. The peri-
urban and urban areas account for 47 percent of t he populat ion.
The t ot al loss in employment due t o Nargis is est imat ed at 200 million working days, leading
t o a loss of earnings of K663, 600 million. Result s from t he Village Tract Assessment ( VTA) survey
indicate that employment in fsheries and agriculture has decreased and there has been an increase
in people depending on casual labour and ot her income generat ing act ivit ies. The VTA indicat es t hat
half of all village leaders ( 49 percent ) perceive t he recovery of t heir livelihoods t o be t heir most
diffcult challenge.
The assessment t eam proposes an int egrat ed st rat egy based on t wo set s of int ert wined
actions: immediate measures (coping measures) to address the impact of cyclone Nargis in the frst
year; and longer- t erm measures t hat aim t o reduce t he probabilit y t hat livelihood risks mat erialise
( prevent ion measures) as well as at decreasing t he pot ent ial impact of fut ure shocks ( mit igat ion
measures) . I f designed and implement ed in an int egrat ed manner, t hese measures will cont ribut e t o
orient t he overall recovery effort in a way t hat it not only achieves t he reconst ruct ion of t he physical
capit al lost in t he cyclone but also creat es a virt uous cycle of j ob creat ion, income generat ion and
st imulat ion of local market s. The t ot al cost s of t his st rat egy are est imat ed at K159, 800 million.
pre-DiSASter SituAtion
I n t erms of livelihoods, t he area affect ed by t he cyclone can be broadly divided int o t hree
different livelihood zones.
1
These zones are t he coast al area ( wit h 24 percent of t he populat ion) , t he
agricult urally product ive area ( 29 percent ) , and t he peri- urban and urban area ( 47 percent ) .
Coast al zone. As discussed in Annex 12, t he coast al area of t he Delt a region is a fragile
eco-system comprising of thick mangrove forests, paddy lands, fsheries and estuaries. The area
is charact erised by saline soils on which low yields are experienced. Fresh drinking wat er is scarce.
Families living closer t o t he rivers and sea had marginal and complex livelihoods, supplement ing
incomes with casual labour, fshing, livestock, salt farming (Labutta), fsh and sea food processing
using simple traditional techniques and small trade in rice and fsh products. Most of households
living in this area were in one way or the other engaged in fsheries activities. The coast and offshore
trawler fshing employed a large amount of people. The township centres produced fsh products,
such as fsh paste and dried fsh/shrimps that were sold all over the country. Landless and very poor
households relied on casual labour in agriculture, fshing and other activities such as wood cutting
( Labut t a) , charcoal making ( Ngapudaw) , and nipa- t hat ch making.
2

Agricult ural zone.
3
The agricult urally product ive area is locat ed approximat ely 10 kilomet res
away from t he coast al area. This is a richer zone, charact erised by a fairly fert ile plain wit h sandy
soils wat ered by t he numerous branches of t he Ayeyarwady River ( st reams and creeks) . The area
has higher crop yields from fresh wat er and brackish wat er environment . The region is prone t o
foods. This area is dominated by rice farming. There is a high percentage of casual labourers.
4

Est imat es from some affect ed t ownships show bet ween one- half and almost t hree- quart ers of t he
populat ion as being landless.
5
They were t he poorest and relied on seasonal labour during peak
1 Livelihood zone is defned by geography, agro-ecological areas, and an area where people broadly share the similar
product ion and t rade pat t erns.
2 Morris, Heat her and Kyaw Ngwe ( 2003) . Report on Rural Rapid Appraisal in Bogalay, Mawlamyingegyun and Laput t a
Townships of Ayeryarwady Division in Myanmar. Main Report . 6 February 2003.
3 Myanmar I nformat ion Management Unit ( MI MU) ( 2008) , Summary of Preliminary Assessment s of Areas Affect ed by Cyclone
Nargis, 11 June 2008.
4 MI MU ( 2008) ; Save t he Children in Myanmar ( 2007) , Household Economy of Kangyidaunt Township, Ayeyarwady Division,
Myanmar, February 2007; UNDP I CDP Proj ect ( 2007) , I mpact Assessment Baseline Survey Report - of t he I nt egrat ed
Communit y Development Proj ect , April 2007.
5 For inst ance, 51 percent in Mawlamyinegyun, 62 percent in Bogale, and 71 percent in Labut t a. UNDP et al. ( 2007) , op. cit .
137
An n e x 1 4 : Em p l o y m e n t a n d Li v e l i h o o d s
periods in agriculture and fsheries, and a combination of other livelihood strategies to survive. They
were also self- employed as masons, builders and carpent ers. Poorer households migrat ed t o t he
coast al area from Oct ober t o March for salt and charcoal making. The landless are oft en t rapped in a
cycle of debt from t aking loans and advance payment s from informal sources such as relat ives and
friends, employers and money lenders.
Peri- urban and urban zones. A number of people in t he peri- urban zone are st ill dependent
on agriculture, livestock and fsheries. By contrast, the bulk of the economy in urban areas is
dependent most ly on t he indust ry and service sect ors. The commerce sect or, including a myriad of
informal micro- commerce act ivit ies, provides subst ant ial employment t o a large part of poor urban
families. Professional and government administ rat ion services, public services, hot els, rest aurant s
and t ourism relat ed services also provide employment opport unit ies t o t he educat ed and skilled
work force in Yangon.
Household income, povert y and coping st rat egies. Agricult ure ( including hunt ing and forest ry)
was t he main source of income, employing over 50 percent in Ayeyarwady and 13 percent in Yangon
Divisions. Although many farmers also fsh, in particular in the off-season, less than 5 percent lived
exclusively off fsheries in Ayeyarwady Division, and 1 percent in Yangon Division.
6
The most ly rural
household income in t hese areas derives from a complex combinat ion of farming and non- farming
act ivit ies, involving different forms of informal and low skilled labour. Wage rat es for casual labour
in agricult ure prior t o t he cyclone were on average bet ween 1, 000 kyat / day in Bogale t o 2, 000 kyat /
day in Labut t a, while t he cost of feeding an average sized family was never less t han 1, 800kyat /
day. While the Ayeyarwady Division as a whole was considered one of the most affuent parts of the
count ry, given relat ively high rat es of rice product ion,
7
t he sout hern coast al zone was t he poorest
part of t he Delt a. The average consumpt ion expendit ure ( excluding healt h expendit ure) is very close
t o t he povert y line calculat ed at 162, 136 kyat s/ year in 2005.
8
This means that a signifcant number
of people were already at risk of falling close t o or below t he povert y line before t he disast er.
Access t o credit . Due t o credit rest rict ions since 2003, loans for farmers and SMEs were
no longer easily available. Only larger farmers and ent repreneurs have access t o t he limit ed credit
available from t he st at e owned banks in t he affect ed areas. Smaller farmers had only access t o loans
at subsidized int erest rat es at 2- 4 percent per annum from t he Myanmar Agricult ural Development
Bank. But t he size of t hese loans was in general t oo small, inadequat e t o cover t he working capit al
for paddy product ion.
9
Loans were not available for summer paddy which pushed t he farmers t o
t ake subst ant ial loans from privat e moneylenders at int erest rat es of over 10 percent per mont h.
Somet imes borrowers ( farmers) had t o repay loans t o moneylenders in kind at double t he quant it y
at t he t ime of harvest . Poorer farmers and household- based micro and small ent erprises only have
access to micro-credit from the UNDP Microfnance project, which is operational since 1997.
Market s. The market s in t he Ayeyarwady are supplied from Yangon wit h t he except ion of
upper Ngapudaw which also receives supplies from Pat hein. All primary market s were normally
accessible by road wit h t he except ion of Mawgyun in Mawlamyinegyun which was serviced by a
st eamer ( ferry) . Most secondary market s were most ly accessible eit her by t ert iary roads and pat hs
or by canals and rivers, using boat or canoe as a means of t ransport at ion.
10

DAmAgeS, loSSeS AnD impAct
Cyclone Nargis caused ext ensive damage and loss of livelihoods, employment and income of
an est imat ed 2. 4 million people living in t he most affect ed areas of t he coast al zone, t he agricult urally
product ive zone, and t he urban and peri- urban area. Smallholder farmers, communit ies dependent
on small-scale inshore and offshore fshing, landless poor dependent on wage-labour in agriculture,
and skilled workers previously employed in a wide range of small and medium manufact uring and
processing ent erprises have lost income earning opport unit y for a subst ant ial period of t ime.
Results from the Village Tract Assessment (VTA) survey indicate that employment in fsheries
and agricult ure has decreased and t here has been an increase in people depending on casual labour
6 UNDP, Minist ry of Planning and Economic Development Government and I DEA I nt ernat ional ( 2007) , I nt egrat ed Household
Living Conditions Survey in Myanmar – Poverty Profle. June 2007.
7 UNDP et al. ( 2007) , op. cit .
8 UNDP et al. ( 2007) , op. cit .
9 Morris, Heat her and Kyaw Ngwe, op. cit .
10 I DE Myanmar ( 2008) , Rapid Market Assessment of Affect ed Areas, 28 May 2008.
An n e x 1 4 : Em p l o y m e n t a n d Li v e l i h o o d s
138
and ot her income generat ing act ivit ies ( see Figure 1) . This implies t hat t he cyclone which severely
affected agriculture and fsheries has reduced income earning opportunities for the local people who
were previously dependent on t hese resource- based income sources. I t is likely t hat households
are selling off product ive asset s t o meet t heir immediat e needs and employing risky/ irreversible
coping mechanisms. There has also been an increase in subsistence fshing activities and collection
of crabs. Recent NGO assessment s report ed t hat some current labour opport unit ies are found in
loading and offoading boats, repairing of roofs, agricultural labour and wood cutting.
I mpact on t he coast al zone. Saline int rusion has furt her degraded t he soil. Marginal farmers
may not be able t o plant t heir monsoon paddy even if seeds are available as t hey have lost t heir
draught animals.
11
The prot ect ive mangrove forest s have been furt her dest royed rendering t he
coastal area more vulnerable to further foods and storms.
12
Fish st ock in t he mangrove has also
been deplet ed. Fish ponds and aquacult ure areas have been damaged. The coast al and communit y
fshing is even further affected by the destruction of small boats and fshing nets. As boats are used
for t ransport at ion of goods and people, t his has considerably reduced t he general access t o t he
area. I ncome earned from salt product ion, charcoal making and wood cut t ing has been seriously
impact ed. This is likely t o affect also t he landless poor in t he agricult ural zone who normally move
to the coastal zone in search of additional income in salt production, fshing and other causal labour
during the dry season. The poor and poorest in this zone have few possibilities to fnd suffcient
income sources unt il March 2009 when t hey may be able t o have some income from cash crops
(October season) and coastal and off-shore fshing.
Fi gur e 1: Mai n sour ces of i ncome, as r epor t ed by househol ds l i vi ng i n t he Del t a,
bef or e and af t er cy cl one

0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
agriculture fishery livestock casual work small trade other
Main sources of income before and after Nargis
before
after
Source: VTA Survey.
I mpact on t he agricult ural zone. Farmers who are dependent on cult ivat ion in t he brackish
wat er are likely t o sust ain considerable loss if t hey are unable t o have access t o adequat e agricult ural
inputs on time to plant the monsoon paddy. Small and medium scale farmers will not have suffcient
power t illers and draught animals t o prepare land for cult ivat ion due t o damage incurred by t he
cyclone. Addit ionally, landless poor and poorest who have previously relied on casual labour in
medium and large farms are likely t o have fewer j ob opport unit ies. Some small and medium- size
enterprises in the fshing and fsh processing industry will be unable to undertake replacement
11 See Annex 6 ( Agricult ure) .
12 See Annex 12 ( Coast al Zone Management and Environment ) .
An n e x 1 4 : Em p l o y m e n t a n d Li v e l i h o o d s
139
invest ment for re- st ocking t heir asset s. Therefore, j ob opport unit ies for many casual labourers will
not occur unt il t he early part of 2009.
I mpact on peri- urban and urban areas. The bulk of t he physical dest ruct ion in t hese zones
was caused by cyclonic winds. Businesses and enterprises such as fsh and food processing and
cold st orage have sust ained damage t o infrast ruct ure ( buildings) , equipment and t ransport means
(vehicles, boats) and inventories. A number of fsh processing plants are being repaired and restored
by t he ent repreneurs. Current ly t hese ent erprises are operat ing at 30 percent t o 50 percent of t heir
capacity because of shortage in fsh.
Affect ed livelihood out put s. The losses t o livelihood will cert ainly have an impact on t he
capacit y of poor families t o sust ain healt h and educat ion expendit ure. Households incur relat ed
cost s, for inst ance, for school fees, uniforms and books as well as for drugs and privat e healt h care
and services.
13
Wit h t he loss of household earnings due t o t he damage of t he cyclone, a number of
school- age children will not be able t o at t end school.
14

Coping st rat egies. Half of t he VTA household respondent s indicat ed t hat t hey have access
t o food including relief supplies. Food is generally available in secondary market s. Coping st rat egies
include using up savings ( t o t he ext ent t hat any are left ) , selling any remaining asset s, borrowing
money from money lenders, or mort gaging cat t le t o bet t er off farmers, wit h t he consequence of
furt her de- capit alizat ion and impoverishment .
15

Among the greatest needs for support the VTA has identifed, access to grants and credits to
rest art small businesses comes on t op of t he list . Only 27 percent of villages report having access t o
credit , but , besides many villages in Shwepyit har, Thongwa and Pat hein, most of ot her villages have
very lit t le, if at all, access t o credit . The most affect ed villages are sit uat ed in Labut t a and Bogale;
to a lesser, but still signifcant extent, Dedaye, Mawlamyinegyun and Pyapon. These areas will need
strong support to restart their economic activities and grant them self suffciency.
Market s. Field observat ions
16
indicat e t hat market s are quickly responding t o t he pat t ern
of demand t hat is evolving in t he affect ed area. Goods and services for market s in t he delt a are
st ill supplied from maj or urban cent res and Yangon. Primary market s are accessible by road or
st eamer ( ferry) . Many secondary market s can only be accessed by canals and rivers. Access roads
and pat hs leading t o market s need urgent rest orat ion and upgrading. Smaller market s ( secondary
and t ert iary) sust ained syst emat ic dest ruct ion and damage due in part t o t heir semi- permanent
st ruct ures. Small ret ail st ores and groceries have spont aneously emerged in t hose villages t hat
have received different t ypes of cash programme support . This has facilit at ed access for village
populat ions t o basic commodit ies and product s brought from secondary and primary market t o t he
villages. I mmediat ely aft er t he cyclone prices of food it ems, household goods and building mat erials
rose sharply. But t raders and suppliers quickly moved t o t he affect ed areas – dist rict and t ownship
capit als – t o respond t o t he market demand and gaps in invent ories.
Employment . The t ot al loss in employment is est imat ed t o be about 200 million working
days result ing in a loss of earnings of K663, 600 million. This impact on livelihoods will creat e a
surge of addit ional demand in t he already limit ed local labour market , in t he affect ed t ownships and
surrounding villages. I f t he local economies do not fully recover wit hin t he next 12 mont hs, a large
number of j ob seekers may be obliged t o permanent ly migrat e, seeking economic opport unit ies in
ot her regions or abroad.
13 See Annex 5 ( Educat ion) and Annex 4 ( Healt h) .
14 See Annex 16 ( Vulnerable Groups) .
15 MI MU ( 2008) , op. cit .
16 I DE ( 2008) , op. cit .
An n e x 1 4 : Em p l o y m e n t a n d Li v e l i h o o d s
140
Tabl e 1: Est i mat ed Losses i n Empl oy ment
5 Annex 14: Employment and Livelihoods
as well as for drugs and privat e healt h care and services.
13
Wit h t he loss of
household earnings due t o t he damage of t he cyclone, a number of school- age
children will not be able t o at t end school.
14
Coping st rat egies. Half of t he VTA household respondent s indicat ed t hat t hey
have access t o food including relief supplies. Food is generally available in
secondary market s. Coping st rat egies include using up savings ( t o t he ext ent t hat
any are left ) , selling any remaining asset s, borrowing money from money
lenders, or mort gaging cat t le t o bet t er off farmers, wit h t he consequence of
furt her de- capit alizat ion and impoverishment .
15
Among t he great est needs for support t he VTA has ident ified, access t o grant s
and credit s t o rest art small businesses comes on t op of t he list . Only 27 percent
of villages report having access t o credit , but , besides many villages in
Shwepyit har, Thongwa and Pat hein, most of ot her villages have very lit t le, if at
all, access t o credit . The most affect ed villages are sit uat ed in Labut t a and
Bogale; t o a lesser, but st ill significant ext ent , Dedaye, Mawlamyinegyun and
Pyapon. These areas will need st rong support t o rest art t heir economic act ivit ies
and grant t hem self sufficiency.
Market s. Field observat ions
16
indicat e t hat market s are quickly responding t o t he
pat t ern of demand t hat is evolving in t he affect ed area. Goods and services for
market s in t he delt a are st ill supplied from maj or urban cent res and Yangon.
Primary market s are accessible by road or st eamer ( ferry) . Many secondary
market s can only be accessed by canals and rivers. Access roads and pat hs
leading t o market s need urgent rest orat ion and upgrading. Smaller market s
( secondary and t ert iary) sust ained syst emat ic dest ruct ion and damage due in
part t o t heir semi- permanent st ruct ures. Small ret ail st ores and groceries have
spont aneously emerged in t hose villages t hat have received different t ypes of
cash programme support . This has facilit at ed access for village populat ions t o
basic commodit ies and product s brought from secondary and primary market t o
t he villages. I mmediat ely aft er t he cyclone prices of food it ems, household goods
and building mat erials rose sharply. But t raders and suppliers quickly moved t o
t he affect ed areas – dist rict and t ownship capit als – t o respond t o t he market
demand and gaps in invent ories.
Employment . The t ot al loss in employment is est imat ed t o be about 200 million
working days result ing in a loss of earnings of K663, 600 million. This impact on
livelihoods will creat e a surge of addit ional demand in t he already limit ed local
labour market , in t he affect ed t ownships and surrounding villages. I f t he local
economies do not fully recover wit hin t he next 12 mont hs, a large number of j ob
seekers may be obliged t o permanent ly migrat e, seeking economic opport unit ies
in ot her regions or abroad.
Tabl e 1: Est i mat ed Losses i n Empl oy ment
Sect or Number of
w or k i ng day s l ost
( mi l l i on)
Loss of Ear ni ngs
( Ky at mi l l i on)
Agricult ure 76.0 415,600
Fisher ies 10.2 25,600
I ndust ry 23.3 45,200
Commerce 88.6 177,200
Tot al 199. 8 663, 600
Source: PONJA t eam est imat es.
13
See Annex 5 ( Educat ion) and Annex 4 ( Healt h) .
14
See Annex 16 ( Vulnerable Groups) .
15
MI MU ( 2008) , op. cit .
16
I DE ( 2008) , op. cit .
Agricult ure. The damage caused a t ot al loss of 76 million working days for a t ot al loss of
earnings of K415, 600 million. Ayeyarwady division sust ained t he worst loss, and t he most affect ed
t ownships were Dedaye ( 7. 4 million days) , Pyapon ( 19. 0 million working days) and Labut t a ( 17. 0
million working days) . I n Yangon Division t he most affect ed t ownship was Kyaukt an ( 7. 6 million
working days). The loss in employment in the fsheries sector is estimated at 10.2 million working
days for a t ot al loss of K25, 600 million in earnings.
I ndust ry. Many est ablishment s sust ained part ial or t ot al dest ruct ion t o business premises,
equipment and invent ories. Many had t o suspend or reduce t heir product ion for periods expect ed
t o range from 2 t o 5 mont hs. An est imat ed 23. 3 million working days have been lost result ing in a
loss of K45, 200 million. The most affect ed t ownships in t he Ayeyarwady division are Ngaput aw ( 1. 9
million working days lost , most ly casual labour) and Labut t a ( 1. 6 million working days) . I n Yangon
Division t he most affect ed t ownships are Dagon Myo Thit Sout h ( 9. 0 million working days) and
Thanlyin ( 2. 0 million working days) .
Commerce. This sect or has been t he most affect ed wit h a loss of 88 million working days.
The t ot al loss is est imat ed at K177, 200 million. An est imat ed 20, 000 est ablishment s, self- employed
t radesmen and craft smen and micro and small ret ail shops in t he informal market places ( such as
grain shops, seamst resses, food shops, small rest aurant s, handicraft shops) had t heir business
premises ( largely locat ed wit hin t he house) damaged or dest royed. These micro/ small businesses
also lost raw mat erials, equipment and t ools. Most of t he ent repreneurs are report ed having re-
est ablished t heir operat ions, but many micro- businessmen are not likely t o recover unless t hey have
access to fnancial support or credit.
recovery neeDS AnD StrAtegy
recovery neeDS
Assistance for reconstruction and food aid has been constantly fowing into the delta.
Necessit y, however, is st ill larger t han t he st ream of support . While Labut t a, Bogale and Dedaye have
greatly benefted from both types of assistance (green areas), there are still many villages that have
not received eit her food or support t o reconst ruct t heir houses. The delt a area is nat urally t he most
affect ed one, for which assist ance should be focused t o t hat geographical area. Nevert heless, t here
are many ot her villages in bot h t he Ayeyarwady and Yangon divisions which need furt her backing.
There is a need for immediat e recovery plans t hat will support affect ed people t o ret urn
t o t heir occupat ion. People who are present ly in need of food assist ance have lost everyt hing do
not have t he means t o recover t hemselves. Half of t he VTA respondent s perceive t he recovery of
their livelihoods to be their most diffcult challenge (Figure 2 below). They also indicated the need
for clearing up fooded and contaminated farmland and fshing areas as well as transportation and
infrast ruct ure needing revival. Durable shelt er is indicat ed as crit ical for households t o support t hem
to restart their normal activities. These same individuals will need to fnd an income opportunity
t o escape from t he dependence on relief assist ance. I n t erms of livelihood recovery, t he following
immediate and medium-term needs have been identifed.
An n e x 1 4 : Em p l o y m e n t a n d Li v e l i h o o d s
141
Fi gur e 2: Most i mpor t ant chal l enges as r epor t ed by househol ds l i v i ng i n t he Del t a
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%
debris in roads or community
transportation inf rastructure
markets don't work anymore
transportation insuf f icent
f arm land or f ishing areas are unusable
others
village f acilities are destroyed
livelihoods were damaged
What are the most important challenges to recover from the
cyclone?
Source: VTA survey
I mmediat e income recovery opport unit ies need t o be creat ed. To compensat e for t he j ob loss
26.3 million working days would need to be created in the frst year after Nargis. Labour-intensive
schemes should be creat ed for immediat e communit y infrast ruct ure recovery and public works. This
inj ect ion of cash t hrough wages will help st imulat e local demand and cont ribut e t o kick- st art ing t he
local economy. Cash for work schemes need t o be complement ed by short - cycle skills t raining for
communit y members, local cont ract ors, and local labourers. ( see Figure 3 below)
Fi gur e 3: What do househol ds t hi nk t hei r communi t i es need suppor t f or ?
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40%
assistance for transportation
restore farm land / fishing ponds
restocking of livestock and
assistance for heath care
grants or credit for small
assistance for immediate repair
What support do you think people in your community most
need right now for?
Source: VTA Survey.
I n order t o help t he local populat ion t o quickly recover from t he losses of j obs in t he
agricult ure sect or, an est imat ed 13. 2 million working days would need t o be creat ed. Due t o t he
t ime needed for t he recovery of dest royed plant at ions, it is assumed t hat an addit ional 2. 5 million
days would need t o be creat ed in each of t he subsequent 2 years.
17
To compensat e t he j ob losses
in the fsheries sector, 10,2 million working days need to be created, assuming that the off-shore
and in-land fshing capacity will be progressively re-established in one year. An additional 2.9 million
working days should be created in the frst year to absorb labour lost mainly by micro-enterprises in
t he indust ry sect or. The commerce sect or should be able t o recover it s capacit y and compensat e t he
j ob losses wit hin 3 t o 6 mont hs.
Tabl e 2: Est i mat ed Needs f or Empl oy ment Cr eat i on ( Mi l l i on w or k i ng day s)
17 Anot her est imat ed 6 million working days would be required for an addit ional 3 years unt il plant at ion capacit y has fully
recovered.
An n e x 1 4 : Em p l o y m e n t a n d Li v e l i h o o d s
142
Annex 14: Employment and Livelihoods 8
Source: VTA Survey.
I n order t o help t he local populat ion t o quickly recover from t he losses of j obs in
t he agricult ure sect or, an est imat ed 13. 2 million working days would need t o be
creat ed. Due t o t he t ime needed for t he recovery of dest royed plant at ions, it is
assumed t hat an addit ional 2. 5 million days would need t o be creat ed in each of
t he subsequent 2 years.
17
To compensat e t he j ob losses in t he fisheries sect or,
10, 2 million working days need t o be creat ed, assuming t hat t he off- shore and in-
land fishing capacit y will be progressively re- est ablished in one year. An
addit ional 2. 9 million working days should be creat ed in t he first year t o absorb
labour lost mainly by micro- ent erprises in t he indust ry sect or. The commerce
sect or should be able t o recover it s capacit y and compensat e t he j ob losses wit hin
3 t o 6 mont hs.
Tabl e 2: Est i mat ed Needs f or Empl oyment Cr eat i on
( Mi l l i on w or k i ng day s)
Sect or 2008/ 09 2009/ 10 2010/ 2011
Agricult ure 13.2 2.6 2.3
Rice 10.0
Plant at ions 3.2 2.6 2.3
Fisher ies 10,2 1.5
I ndust ry 2.9
Commerce 0
Tot al 26. 3 4. 1 2. 3
Source: PONJA t eam est imat es.
There is an urgent need t o est ablish an effect ive local labour supply and demand
mat ching mechanism. Experiences from various disast er affect ed count ries
demonst rat es t hat difficult ies in mat ching demand and supply of skilled and
unskilled labour for relief and recovery work result in an inflat ion of t he cost of
labour and in an influx of ext ernal workers from out side t he affect ed area. A
simple mechanism t hat facilit at es t he exchange and disseminat ion of informat ion
on employment opport unit ies needs t o be put in place.
Poor and vulnerable households who depend on relief schemes and do not have
any ot her income source need immediat e livelihood support t hrough:
- livelihood st abilizat ion cash- grant s. Many vulnerable households in t he coast al
and agricult ural zones will be unable t o meet t heir immediat e needs and
revive t heir livelihoods. They also need cash t o cover immediat e healt h care
and educat ion expenses. A sound mechanism is required t o provide cash
grant s such t hat t hey support exist ing household coping st rat egies, rat her
t han creat e dependence on relief aid dist ribut ion.
- micro- credit for livelihood act ivit ies. Prior t o Nargis a number of development
agencies have support ed communit y based savings and credit operat ions.
Microfinance programmes are confront ed by bot h t he demand by members for
t he wit hdrawal of t heir savings and t he fact t hat members wit h out st anding
loans are unable t o repay t hem because t heir asset base has been dest royed
or damaged. The micro- credit schemes, t hus, require immediat e funds for
asset replenishment t o enable t hem t o re- st art credit operat ions.
Fragile micro ent erprises need t o be enabled t o invest in t he recovery of t heir
product ive asset s. Affect ed micro and small ent repreneurs oft en do not have t he
financial capacit y t o face t he invest ment needed t o rest ore t heir product ion
capacit y. Formal credit is scarce and most of t hese ent repreneurs already have
out st anding loans t o repay. Their inabilit y t o operat e is obviously affect ing t he
17
Anot her est imat ed 6 million working days would be requir ed for an addit ional 3 years unt il
plant at ion capacit y has fully recovered.
There is an urgent need t o est ablish an effect ive local labour supply and demand mat ching
mechanism. Experiences from various disaster affected countries demonstrates that diffculties in
mat ching demand and supply of skilled and unskilled labour for relief and recovery work result in an
infation of the cost of labour and in an infux of external workers from outside the affected area. A
simple mechanism t hat facilit at es t he exchange and disseminat ion of informat ion on employment
opport unit ies needs t o be put in place.
Poor and vulnerable households who depend on relief schemes and do not have any ot her
income source need immediat e livelihood support t hrough:
livelihood st abilizat ion cash- grant s. Many vulnerable households in t he coast al and agricult ural •
zones will be unable t o meet t heir immediat e needs and revive t heir livelihoods. They also
need cash t o cover immediat e healt h care and educat ion expenses. A sound mechanism is
required t o provide cash grant s such t hat t hey support exist ing household coping st rat egies,
rat her t han creat e dependence on relief aid dist ribut ion.
micro- credit for livelihood act ivit ies. Prior t o Nargis a number of development agencies have •
supported community based savings and credit operations. Microfnance programmes are
confront ed by bot h t he demand by members for t he wit hdrawal of t heir savings and t he fact
t hat members wit h out st anding loans are unable t o repay t hem because t heir asset base has
been dest royed or damaged. The micro- credit schemes, t hus, require immediat e funds for
asset replenishment t o enable t hem t o re- st art credit operat ions.
Fragile micro ent erprises need t o be enabled t o invest in t he recovery of t heir product ive
asset s. Affected micro and small entrepreneurs often do not have the fnancial capacity to face
t he invest ment needed t o rest ore t heir product ion capacit y. Formal credit is scarce and most of
t hese ent repreneurs already have out st anding loans t o repay. Their inabilit y t o operat e is obviously
affect ing t he workers t hat used t o have j obs wit h t hose ent repreneurs. Support schemes need t o
be provided focusing on wage support. Furthermore, micro enterprises routinely face diffculties
from t he scarcit y and cost of working space, and from t he lack of any adapt ed business advice on
economies of scale, qualit y improvement and market linkages. There is a need t o progressively
support t hose micro ent erprises t hrough expanding t he provision of micro- credit .
Local yout h do not have access t o public or privat e vocat ional t raining. Vocat ional t raining
opportunities in the area are limited or non existent. Young people who want to acquire specifc
skills would normally have t o migrat e t o t owns, incurring cost s t hat are not affordable for t he poor.
Availabilit y of skilled labour can be achieved by providing accessible vocat ional t raining, addressing
female and male yout h. The t raining should respond t o t he following needs: ( i) increased demand
for skilled labour generat ed by recovery works; ( ii) t he demand of t he ent repreneurs willing t o ( re- )
st art a micro- business; and ( iii) t he demand of t he unemployed in search of employment or self-
employment .
StrAtegy
The assessment t eam proposes a comprehensive st rat egy wit h t wo obj ect ives: ( i) t o help
t he affect ed populat ion cope wit h t he effect s of Nargis; and ( ii) t o help t he populat ion at - risk build
resilience for fut ure disast ers. Such an approach should be based on t wo set s of int ert wined act ions:
immediate measures (coping measures) to address the impact of cyclone Nargis in the frst year; and
longer- t erm measures t hat aim t o reduce t he probabilit y t hat livelihood risks mat erialise ( prevent ion
measures) as well as at decreasing t he pot ent ial impact of fut ure shocks ( mit igat ion measures) . I f
designed and implement ed in an int egrat ed manner, t hese measures will cont ribut e t o orient t he
overall recovery effort in a way t hat it not only achieves t he reconst ruct ion of t he physical capit al lost
An n e x 1 4 : Em p l o y m e n t a n d Li v e l i h o o d s
143
in t he cyclone but also creat es a virt uous cycle of j ob creat ion, income generat ion and st imulat ion
of local market s.
I mmediat e labour- int ensive works for social prot ect ion and income recovery. A minimum of
15 million working days of employment ought to be created in the frst year to support the recovery
process. Depending on t he speed of local economic revival, t he durat ion of cash for work schemes
should vary bet ween 3- 6 mont hs.
Support ing labour market mechanism. Simple employment informat ion services should be
set up t o facilit at e t he mat ching of supply and demand in t he labour market and gat her informat ion
on t he charact erist ics and skills of j ob seekers including micro- ent repreneurs, in order t o design and
plan t ailored demand- driven t raining programmes.
Communit y- driven livelihood support . At t he village level, t he following act ivit ies could be
envisaged, wit h ext ensive part icipat ion of villagers t hroughout t he proj ect cycle: ( i) communit y level
labour int ensive works schemes t o rebuild or rehabilit at e communit y infrast ruct ure, including t he
rehabilit at ion of t ert iary roads, ponds, j et t ies and pont oons and ot her communit y infrast ruct ure. ; ( ii)
cash grant s for a period of 3- 6 mont hs t o t he most vulnerable household asset s.
Micro- credit . Micro- credit and revolving funds mechanisms are an excellent way t o provide
resources direct ly t o affect ed households t o help t hem recover livelihoods, and in addit ion st rengt hen
social cohesion and t he recovery of local market s. Recommended micro- credit act ivit ies could
include: ( i) capit al grant s t o self reliance groups t o help t hem re- est ablish t heir common funds; ( ii)
support to microfnance groups to help them reschedule or write off outstanding loans; (iii) extension
of micro-fnance activities to communities where these are not yet in operation.
I mproving t he access of local yout h t o vocat ional t raining.
18
Training programs should be
implement ed t o provide local yout h wit h opport unit ies t o acquire skills and/ or management capacit y.
This will enhance t heir employabilit y by preparing t hem eit her for ent ry int o t he labour market or
t o est ablish t hemselves in self- employment . Training act ivit ies should be complement ed by t he
provision of grant s and t ool- kit s, assist ance for t he st art - up process, facilit at ion for access t o micro-
credit , and t echnical support and coaching for a limit ed period of t ime, unt il t he new act ivit y will be
able t o t ake- off. Effort s should also be made t o expand t he capacit y of t rainers. I n addit ion, non-
formal vocat ional t raining opport unit ies t hrough on- t he- j ob t raining and int ernships wit h exist ing
businesses and ent erprises should be explored.
Developing micro- business services. The est ablishment of business services ( such as one-
st op- shop schemes) would, among ot hers, help small- scale ent repreneurs ident ify and access
opport unit ies arising from recovery effort s and market revival, st rengt hen t heir relat ions wit h
t he suppliers and buyers on input and out put market s, and facilit at e t he regist rat ion of t he new
businesses. The ( phased) est ablishment of local business services cent res in t ownships as well as
their frst year of operation should be supported during the longer-term recovery phase.
I mplement at ion arrangement s for livelihood programs. The maj orit y of programs in t he
livelihood area ( wit h t he except ion of vocat ional t raining and micro- business services) would be
communit y- based. While t he use of communit y- driven approaches is not as large- scale in Myanmar
as it is in ot her count ries, t here are successful experiences in delivering assist ance in t he Delt a
t hrough t hese approaches. The t wo pre- requisit es for t he successful use of communit y- driven
approaches are: (i) the ability to support village groups who can genuinely solicit and refect the
priorit ies of t he communit y and avoid elit e capt ure; ( ii) t he abilit y t o est ablish and operat e basic
fnancial management processes.
Several programs already operat ing in t he Delt a, which were evaluat ed by t he assessment
t eam, possess a sat isfact ory t rack record of performance against t hese aspect s: village leaders
appoint ed are from a variet y of backgrounds, including women and yout h groups; t hey int eract
freely with the community; satisfactory simple fnancial management and record-keeping systems
are used; and good pract ice ant i- corrupt ion measures, such as t he post ing of all recipient s and
expendit ure publicly in t he communit y, are followed. Care should however be t aken not t o scale up
t hese act ivit ies t oo fast , and t o combine t hem wit h st rong capacit y- building for communit y groups
in planning, prioritisation and simple fnancial management.
18 Some act ivit ies should st art during t he immediat e recovery phase.
An n e x 1 4 : Em p l o y m e n t a n d Li v e l i h o o d s
144
eStimAteD coStS
The total costs for the frst year (immediate recovery) amount to K43.9 billion, the cost
of t he subsequent longer- t erm measures is est imat ed at K58. 6 billion. Tot al needs for recovery of
employment and livelihoods are est imat ed at K102. 5 billion.
Tabl e 3: Est i mat ed Cost s f or Recover y
( Kyat Billion)
Needs Year 1 Year 2 and 3
- Cash for work programs, livelihood programs, and grant s for
poorest households
29. 1 13. 3
- Communit y driven recovery programs 5. 0 19. 8
- Micro- credit 7. 6 22. 8
-Vocat ional t raining TBD TBD
- Developing micro- business services 2. 2 2. 7
Tot al 43. 9 58. 6
TOTAL NEEDS 102. 5
1/ I ncluding cost s for demand- driven skills t raining.
Source: PONJA t eam est imat es.
An n e x 1 4 : Em p l o y m e n t a n d Li v e l i h o o d s
145
Annex 15: SociAl impAct of cyclone nArgiS
I n addit ion t o t heir humanit arian and economic consequences, disast ers impact t he social
fabric of affect ed communit ies. Analyzing how Cylone Nargis has affect ed local pat t erns of life,
social st ruct ures and inst it ut ions is import ant in order t o holist ically underst and it s impact s. Such
underst anding is vit al for developing plans for effect ively delivering post - disast er assist ance. The
success of t he early- and longer- t erm recovery effort will depend on t he ext ent t o which programs
ft with the needs and institutions that exist in affected areas. “Doing no harm” must be a minimum
st andard of t he aid effort . Well designed programs t hat draw on local capacit ies and t hat are built
on an underst anding of local realit ies can not only address key needs but also st rengt hen local
inst it ut ions and pract ices in ways t hat enhance development and social cohesion.
This analysis examines t he social impact s of Nargis at t he communit y level
1
in t wo areas:
t he direct social impact s of t he cyclone, of early relief effort s, and of how communit ies responded
t o t he disast er; and t he longer- run social impact t hat ext ernal longer- t erm recovery responses t o
t he cyclone may have. I t does so by comparing village life in t he Delt a before and aft er Nargis. This
section frst outlines key areas of life in rural Delta villages and their social structures and informal
inst it ut ions. I t t hen shows how Nargis, and t he immediat e response, is affect ing social relat ions and
cohesion. I t concludes by looking forward t o see how longer- t erm recovery responses may furt her
impact on social life in villages in t he Delt a, and draws out some pot ent ial lessons. Figure 1 shows
t he sect ion’s analyt ical framework.
Fi gur e 1: I mpact s of Nar gi s and Responses on Vi l l age Li f e
SOCI AL RELATI ONS
• Soci al Capi t al
• Soci al Di vi si ons
and Rel at i onshi ps
I NSTI TUTI ONS &
LEADERSHI P
• Gover nment
• I nf or mal l eader s
and or gani zat i ons
AREAS OF
VI LLAGE LI FE
• Li vel i hoods
• Land and w at er
r i ght s
• Debt
• Mi gr at i on
CYCLONE NARGI S &
EARLY RECOVERY
LONGER- TERM
RECOVERY
PROGRAMMI NG
The analysis is necessarily preliminary and t ent at ive at t his point .
2
Furt hermore, t he social
impact s of Nargis and t he recovery effort will be dynamic, changing in response t o a range of fact ors
including levels, t ypes and sources of aid provided, government policies and act ions, and t he choices
of affect ed communit ies and individuals. As such, in order t o ensure recovery programs are effect ive,
and t o avoid negat ive impact s, it will be necessary t o t rack social impact s over t ime.
1 Undoubt edly Nargis ( and t he response t o it ) will also shape social dynamics at t he nat ional level, but such analysis is not
t he focus of t his sect ion.
2 The analysis draws primarily on feldwork conducted in ten villages in fve townships in Ayeyarwady Division and two peri-
urban areas of Yangon Division. Furt her, int erviews were conduct ed wit h key st akeholders ( government , NGOs, int ernat ional
agencies, and local leaders) at t he t ownship and nat ional levels, and pre- exist ing survey evidence and insight s from t he
lit erat ure were ut ilized.
An n e x 1 5 : So ci a l I m p a ct o f Cy cl o n e Na r g i s
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key AreAS of life in rurAl DeltA villAgeS
3

Livelihoods. The people of the Delta area are primarily farmers, fshermen and labourers,
wit h a smaller proport ion engaged in service indust ries and as t raders. Approximat ely 50- 60 percent
of families in t he Delt a are engaged in agricult ure. Fishing is generally done by landless households
as well as farmers in t he off- season. Est imat es from some affect ed t ownships show bet ween one-
half and almost t hree- quart ers of t he populat ion as being landless.
4
While t he Delt a was not one of
t he poorer part s of t he count ry ( 29 percent of t he populat ion was poor in 2004- 05, compared wit h 32
percent nat ionally)
5
development was relat ively limit ed, and life could be harsh, in part icular when
crops failed. However, t here were many opport unit ies for making at least a subsist ence living.
Land right s. Even for t hose wit h land, t he right t o use it is insecure. While land is owned by
t he st at e, farmers are given user right s t hrough applicat ion t o t he Minist ry of Agricult ure. Farmers
must apply on a yearly basis for such a right . The primary crit erion for user right s being renewed
is past history of productive use of land, although a certain yield is not specifed. If land is judged
t o have not been used product ively, it can be t aken and reallocat ed by t he Peace and Development
Councils ( PDCs) . Where land is not in use, people can apply for permission t o farm it . I t appears,
however, t hat common areas, for inst ance, for cat t le grazing, are being enclosed progressively,
limit ing t he space available for villagers.
Wat er right s. Each year fshing concessions must be obtained from the Department of
Fisheries. Large-scale operators obtain licenses and lease fshing rights to local fshermen who in
t urn are obliged t o sell t he cat ch t o t he concessionaires, report edly at below- market prices. Lakes
in the area provide fshing grounds during the monsoon season and provide planting ground or a
source of wat er for irrigat ion during t he dry season. The Depart ment of Fisheries and cust omary
rules govern the use of fshing grounds that cover net size, fshing prohibition during spawning
t ime, and showing t he sign of net locat ion t o prevent damage from passing boat s. Fishing for own
consumpt ion is report edly not formally allowed.
Debt . I ndebt edness is a big problem for many villagers in t he Delt a. Farmers borrow for
agricultural inputs and home consumption. Fishing households borrow boats and fshing supplies
from t raders. The landless poor oft en sell t heir labour in advance, at roughly half t he going wage
rate, in order to meet consumption requirements during the “hungry season” of June-October. In
t he 2005 rainy season, 43 percent of households in t he Delt a were in debt , compared t o a nat ional
average of 33 percent .
Migrat ion. Opport unit ies t o make a good living, and st rong demand for labor, result ed in
an infow of people after the Delta was opened for development in the mid-nineteenth century.
More recent ly, t he opening of t he wet lands of t he upper part s of t he Delt a creat ed opport unit ies
for casual labourers in t hese areas, and some have moved from t he lowland Delt a for work. There
are few opport unit ies for high school graduat es in t heir villages and t hey must look for employment
elsewhere in t he count ry and beyond. Wit hin Myanmar, however, t he Delt a is not considered a maj or
labour sending area.
the SociAl Structure of DeltA villAgeS
Despit e, or perhaps because of, t he many challenges of Delt a life, communit ies are relat ively
socially cohesive and have st rong capacit ies for collect ive problem solving and decision- making.
Limit ed int eract ion wit h t he st at e at higher levels has led t o t he development of indigenous syst ems
for solving problems and managing village life. While t he usual int er- group cleavages exist ( including
bet ween t hose of different et hnicit y and religion, bet ween genders, bet ween t he young and old,
and bet ween different income and livelihoods t ype groups) , village act ivit ies t end t o cut across such
boundaries. Tradit ions of marriage wit hin villages have st rengt hened kinship relat ions. While t here
is relat ively lit t le t rade bet ween villages, forms of social int eract ion ( weddings, t he init iat ion of boys
int o monkhood, and ot her ceremonies) lead t o close relat ions.
3 Sources: Mya Than ( 2001) . Changing Faces of t he Ayeyarwaddy ( I rrawaddy) Delt a ( 1850- 2000) . Singapore: I nst it ut e of
Sout heast Asian St udies, Singapore; UNDP, Minist ry of Nat ional Planning and Economic Development , and UNOPS ( 2007) .
Integrated Household Living Conditions Survey in Myanmar, Poverty Profle. Unpublished; key informant interviews.
4 UNDP et al, op. cit .
5 The 2004- 05 household survey est ablished t he povert y line at c. 450 Kyat per day ( November 2004) . I t is based on
minimum food expendit ures t o sat isfy caloric requirement s plus reasonable non- food expendit ures t o meet basic needs.
UNDP et al., op. cit .
An n e x 1 5 : So ci a l I m p a ct o f Cy cl o n e Na r g i s
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SociAl DiviSionS AnD relAtionShipS
Et hnic and religious relat ions. Unsurprising for such a diverse count ry, t he Delt a region is
home t o people of a number of different et hnicit ies.
6
There are t hree primary et hnic groups: t he
Bamar make up t he maj orit y of t he populat ion wit h smaller numbers of et hnic Karen
7
and Rakhaing.
The lat t er live on t he largely unaffect ed west coast . There are t wo maj or Karen groupings, t he Pwo
and t he Segaw, speaking dist inct dialect s. I n addit ion t o t he Karen, t here are small numbers of Mon
and Indians. The Bamar and Karen are distributed throughout the Delta. Villages can be classifed
int o t hose segregat ed by et hnicit y, and t hose wit h an et hnic mix depending on set t lement hist ory.
Generally, Delt a villages handle et hnic and religious differences wit h t olerance. Religious
buildings play an import ant role as places for social gat herings in t he village. The main religion is
Buddhism pract iced by most Bamar, some Karen, and I ndians; t he Karen are mainly Christ ian Bapt ist ,
and I ndians may be Buddhist , Hindu or Muslim. I nt er- marriage bet ween I ndians and Burmese et hic
groups is common and int er- marriage bet ween Bamar and Karen also occurs.
Gender relat ions. There are dist inct roles for men and women in t he village; t hese roles
tend to defne the scope and nature of relations between genders. Typically, while the husband is
expect ed t o play t he maj or role in income generat ion and t he wife is expect ed t o be t he household
manager, t he wife assist s in her husband’s act ivit ies, and oft en has her own product ive act ivit ies,
t oo. Decision- making in t he household is divided by sphere. Joint decisions are made about children’s
schooling, off-farm work and borrowing. Often, women will have control over household fnance
while men have cont rol over farm expendit ures.
8

I nt er- generat ional relat ions. Age is an import ant marker of st at us in villages. The elderly are
respect ed and prot ect ed, and village elders play an import ant role in t he communit y. Accession t o
eldership is det ermined primarily by wisdom, but wisdom is seen as a by- product of lived experience.
Elders tend to be male; it is diffcult, but not impossible, for women to join the elders group.
Nonet heless, avenues of power, such as becoming Village Head, are very much open t o younger
people. ( By law, Village Heads are t o be less t han 45 years old. ) This social order is reinforced by t he
occupat ional syst em, where most youngst ers upon leaving school work wit h ( or for) t heir parent s.
Class. Class appears to be defned largely by either occupation (those with land versus
t hose wit hout ) or polit ical power. There does not appear t o be a st rong heredit ary ent it lement
t o membership of a cert ain class, alt hough generat ional access t o resources clearly enhances
opport unit ies for wealt h- making for some. That said, life in villages does not seem t o have creat ed a
rigid class syst em. Large landholders and businessmen oft en live out side of villages in t he t ownship
or dist rict capit al or even in Yangon. This creat es a cert ain degree of solidarit y amongst t hose in t he
villages.
I nt er- village relat ions. I n general, relat ions bet ween villages seem st rong. Relat ionships
bet ween villages are st rengt hened by t he cross- village kinship syst em, built t hrough int er- marriage,
but interaction is limited by the Delta’s watery geography. Due to the relative diffculty of accessing
t ownship capit als, villagers oft en get expert ise ( skilled workers such as carpent ers and mechanics) ,
and buy product s not available wit hin t he village, from neighbouring villages rat her t han urban
centres. Inter-village cooperation is needed to prevent confict over the use of communally managed
resources such as wat er ponds and t he dist ribut ion of irrigat ion wat er in t he dry season when wat er
for all purposes can be scarce.
SociAl cApitAl AnD mAnAging DiverSity
Social capit al in t he Delt a is st rong. The abilit y t o manage problems st emming from t he
cleavages discussed above is st rengt hened by a wide- ranging sense of social cohesion and common
purpose wit hin villages, and by t radit ions of reciprocit y and collect ive act ion.
Myanmar ’s polit ical, economic and social cult ure is usually charact erized as being very
hierarchical. Yet at t he village level such power different ials are less pronounced. While Village Heads
6 There are 170 et hno- linguist ic groups in Myanmar.
7 The 1984 populat ion census ( lat est ) records 69 percent of t he t ot al Myanmar populat ion as Bamar, and 6. 8 percent as
Karen. No breakdown by division or st at e is given. As t he low- land or Delt a Karen are t he second largest Karen populat ion
out side of Karen st at e, t hey are likely t o comprise a larger proport ion of t he Delt a populat ion.
8 See Annex 17 ( Gender) for a more det ailed discussion of gender relat ions.
An n e x 1 5 : So ci a l I m p a ct o f Cy cl o n e Na r g i s
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have obvious power as represent at ives of t he st at e, t heir cont rol over village life is checked by a
number of sources of informal aut horit y, including t hat of t he monks and village elders. This makes
for a relatively “fat” social order. While community input into higher-level decision-making is rather
small, problem solving and village level decision- making is done collect ively amongst a number of
different local elit es.
There are a number of reasons for t he st rengt h of such social capit al. First , development
resources from higher levels are scarce. This accent uat es t he import ance of pooling resources and
carefully priorit izing expendit ures for public goods. St rong social norms on t he dut y t o cont ribut e
t o t he communit y prevent shirking. Second, in t he absence of st at e or employer support ed social
securit y, families are t he primary safet y net , wit h children t aking care of t heir parent s in old age.
I n t he same vein, communit y members support each ot her in t imes of need, somet hing part icularly
evident in t heir response t o Nargis. Tradit ions of reciprocit y, evident across Myanmar as in many ot her
Sout heast Asian cult ures, encourage acquiescence from t hose providing help. Third, as discussed
above, kinship t ies are st rong and are reinforced t hrough marriage wit hin t he villages. I n t he words
of one community member, “We are all family here.”
I n addit ion t o sharing resources for common proj ect s and helping each ot her in t ime of need,
community cohesiveness also helps in the management of problems and local conficts. It does so
by providing st rong social cont rols and accept ed norms t hat discourage individuals from part aking
in behaviour deemed inappropriat e by t he communit y. Moreover, because legit imacy t o manage
different areas of life is largely uncont est ed ( t here appear t o be a relat ively clear realms of aut horit y
for which leaders should address which t ypes of problems) disput es are more easily managed when
t hey do occur.
community inStitutionS AnD informAl leADerShip
Village life in t he Delt a is governed by a range of formal and informal inst it ut ions. I nformal
inst it ut ions t hat play an import ant role in cont rol, decision- making ( including over resource allocat ion) ,
and problem solving include village elders, religious net works, and local cust oms and t radit ions. I n
most villages, a st anding commit t ee, usually of village elders, is consult ed for key decisions. Village
elders tend to play a larger role in problem solving and local confict resolution than in resource
allocat ion.
Monks play a very important role too, in particular in solving problems and conficts that the
village elders fnd diffcult to manage. Where they issue advice, others tend to listen and follow. Monks
are also net worked vert ically t hrough monast eries at t he village t ract , t ownship level, and above.
There exist ot her village commit t ees in t he affect ed areas, somet imes ut ilized on an ad- hoc basis,
in part icular when t here is an ext ernally- funded development proj ect in t he village. These include
self–reliant groups, a range of user groups as well as Village Forums and ot her ad- hoc or permanent
mechanisms for part icipat ory planning and management of communit y- based development . Many of
t hese groups are creat ed t o support women in income generat ing act ivit ies.
the SociAl impActS of nArgiS AnD initiAl relief
That Nargis will have massive impacts on local ways of life is clear. The specifc impacts are
at t his point less cert ain. This sect ion present s a range of hypot heses on how Nargis, and early relief
effort s, might change social and economic life wit hin villages. These are necessarily speculat ive. The
short period of time between the cyclone and this writing means that signifcant social changes have
st ill t o play out ; besides, it is t he durat ion of such changes t hat will be key in underst anding whet her
t he impact s of Nargis will be short - t erm or enduring. Such dynamics will need t o be monit ored over
time. However, early analysis of phenomena in the feld, combined with an understanding of the past
ways t hat social life in Delt a villages has evolved, and t he impact s of ot her disast ers such as t he
2004 I ndian Ocean t sunami, do point t o pot ent ial social impact s.
An n e x 1 5 : So ci a l I m p a ct o f Cy cl o n e Na r g i s
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impActS on AreAS of villAge life
Livelihoods
Hypot hesis 1: Nargis will have regressive impact s wit h t hose in support ing occupat ions suffering more t han
t hose wit h land. Likely in t he short - t erm, possibly balanced by increasing labour demand once recovery get s
underway.
Those in support ing occupat ions ( casual labourers, t hose doing odd j obs, t hose in local
micro- indust ries) will likely suffer t he most from Nargis, at least in t he short - t erm. First , t heir
employment is dependant on t he wealt h and decisions of t hose t hey work for such as landed farmers.
For t he current crop season, landholders are likely t o employ fewer causal labourers because of a
lack of seeds and implement s. I n areas where land has been more heavily affect ed ( for example,
where it was extensively fooded with salt water) or where farmers lost their lives, the impacts on
employment opport unit ies for farm hands will be even great er.
The immediat e response t o Nargis appears t o be missing t hose in support ing roles. Whereas
effort s are being made t o replace draught cat t le, provide agricult ural input s, and give new boat s t o
fshermen, there has been much less assistance given to replace the basic household assets that
casual labourers and t hose in micro- indust ries ( food sellers, seamst resses, et c. ) need. Few are
providing cash or in- kind assist ance t o t hese groups. Village economies have been almost complet ely
decapit alized, and access t o credit on non- ext ort ive t erms is limit ed. Wit hout a basic asset base
or cash, opport unit ies t o make money are few. One implicat ion is t hat Cyclone Nargis may have
regressive impacts at least in the short run, with the relatively richer (those holding land) benefting
more, or losing less, t han poorer households.
I n t he medium- t erm, casual workers st and t o gain from a resumpt ion of agricult ural act ivit y
once farmers and fshermen have acquired the necessary implements. In the same vein, support to
small and medium enterprises, especially those with a local supply chain such as the fshing industry,
would help not only t o revit alize t he economy but also t o creat e j obs.
Land
Hypot hesis 2: There will be a redist ribut ion of land away from small- scale farmers t o t hose
wit h larger holdings. A risk, but probably on a small scale.
Farmers ( and t heir families) are worried about losing t heir right t o use land in t he aft ermat h
of Nargis. Renewal of land user right s is cont ingent on product ive use of land in t he past year. This,
along wit h a desperat e need t o ensure food securit y, appears t o be a cent ral reason why farmers
were disproport ionat ely likely t o ret urn t o t heir villages soon aft er Nargis, even t o t he most affect ed
areas close t o t he coast .
Where farmers died, t heir families believe t hat t hey will st ill enj oy t he right t o farm land
for at least t he current crop season. However, it is less clear whet her such right s will be renewed
once t hey are reviewed aft er t he current plant ing and harvest ing cycle. The loss of document at ion
recording land use hist ory is also problemat ic, especially for t hose kept at t he village level ( see
Annex 16, Vulnerable Groups) .
I nt erviews in Yangon and t he t ownships suggest t hat some pot ent ial does exist for smaller-
scale redist ribut ion of land t o elit es or ot her small- scale farmers who produce more, in part icular
where previous land users have died. Some have worried t hat t here is also pot ent ial for some t o
use t he disast er as a means t o consolidat e land in t he hands of larger landholding companies. The
government ’s focus on ensuring agricult ural self- sust ainabilit y ( part icularly in an era of sharply rising
global food prices) has led t o some effort s t o provide land t o larger businesses and ent repreneurs.
I n order t o avoid regressive impact s of t he cyclone, changes t o set t lement and land use
pat t erns should, t herefore, be minimized, avoiding t he t ransfer of land away from smaller farmers.
I t will part icularly be import ant t o ensure t hat due process is est ablished t o prot ect t he access of
survivors t o t heir families’ land and t o set t le any land claim issues t ransparent ly and expedit iously.
An n e x 1 5 : So ci a l I m p a ct o f Cy cl o n e Na r g i s
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Ot her asset s and debt
Hypot hesis 3: The relief response furt her indebt s affect ed villagers, increasing povert y in
t he medium t o long run. A real risk.
Besides providing relief, t he government response t o Nargis has focused on asset replacement ,
in part icular for farmers. Draught cat t le, power t illers, seeds and fert ilizer are being provided t o
affect ed communit ies in an effort t o ensure t hat t he current monsoon plant ing season, which runs
t hrough July, can proceed. The above input s are being provided in t he form of loans: loans for seeds
have t o be repaid aft er t he harvest wit h minimal int erest , for power t illers aft er t hree years wit hout
int erest .
Such a st rat egy has it s pluses. I t works against t he aid dependency, and escalat ion of
ent it lement claims, t hat has become a feat ure of so many post - disast er sit uat ions. I f agricult ural
product ion is able t o resume smoot hly, farmers should be able t o pay off t heir loans. While loan
repayment s may decrease consumpt ion in t he short t erm, over t ime communit ies can recover as
t hey build up t heir asset base and receive income from selling t heir product s. The int roduct ion of
newer t echnologies such as power t illers could increase product ivit y and incomes.
Yet such a scenario assumes a relat ively smoot h ret urn t o land cult ivat ion. There are a
number of fact ors working against t his. First , harvest s may be less bount iful t han in t he past due,
for example, t o t he increased salinit y of t he soil ( at least for t he current plant ing season) or land
having been washed away. Second, there may be insuffcient local labour to cultivate land to its
maximum pot ent ial. Third, farmers who used draught animals may not know how t o operat e power
t illers. Fourt h, t rauma and/ or physical inj ury may reduce product ivit y rat es. Furt her, t he fact t hat
many of t he input s provided are not useable ( for example, t illers wit h wrong wheels, or wit hout fuel,
or inappropriat e seeds) increases t he risk t hat agricult ural product ion will not be speedily resumed.
I f t his scenario played out , t he policy of provision of loans rat her t han grant s may lock
communit y members int o a cycle of povert y and debt t hat could be hard t o break. Already, communit y
members are highly indebt ed, perhaps unsust ainably so given t he fragile, disast er prone, eco-
economy of t he Delt a region.
impActS on SociAl coheSion AnD relAtionShipS
I nt er- group relat ions
Nargis will likely alt er t he relat ionships bet ween different groups in t he village. Some shift s
are already apparent . The degree t o which such changes persist is dependant on a range of fact ors,
including government policies, t he nat ure of aid programs, and t he resilience of local cult ural and
social systems forged over centuries to external shocks. It is diffcult at this point to forecast exactly
how t he cyclone will change relat ionships bet ween groups.
9

Hypot hesis 4: I nt er- village relat ions – Relat ionships bet ween villages will improve aft er
Nargis. Likely in t he short - t erm, but t here will be different impact s in different places over t ime.
Village economies in t he Delt a were already linked before t he cyclone. Nargis appears t o
have provided some opport unit ies for a st rengt hening of t ies bet ween villages. Less affect ed villages
provided shelt er t o t he displaced in t he immediat e aft ermat h of t he disast er and shared t heir meagre
resources. A spont aneous out pouring of care occurred t hroughout t he count ry. Such alt ruism is likely
t o st rengt hen relat ionships bet ween villages.
I n t he medium- t erm, int er- village t ies could st rengt hen furt her or weaken. As discussed
earlier, many skilled workers died, and villagers may now need t o source mat erials and expert ise
from other villages which they previously had “in-house”. As long as relationships between villages
are not ext ort ive ( for inst ance, boat - makers keeping t he prices t hey charge at reasonable levels) ,
increased t rade will likely st rengt hen t he social relat ionships bet ween villagers.
On t he ot her hand, relat ionships bet ween neighbouring villages may worsen due t o compet it ion
over common nat ural resources, such as use of wat er ponds as many have been cont aminat ed and
damaged, fuel wood, and grazing lands as most cat t le fodder was washed away. These t ensions may
9 See Annex 17 ( Gender) for a discussion of possible impact s on gender relat ions.
An n e x 1 5 : So ci a l I m p a ct o f Cy cl o n e Na r g i s
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be exacerbat ed by perceived differences in access t o relief and recovery support . As such, it is of
vit al import ance t hat aid is bet t er harmonized, coordinat ed and monit ored
Hypot hesis 5: Religion and et hnicit y – Relat ionships bet ween et hnic and religious groups
will worsen due t o inequit ies in aid provision. Pot ent ially, but depends on t he nat ure of t he relief
and recovery effort .
No visible int er- group t ensions have so far arisen. However, aid could pot ent ially st rengt hen
or worsen relat ionships bet ween different et hnic and religious groups. There has no indicat ion of a
bias bet ween et hnic groups in t he provision of relief aid. However, t here is a risk of assist ance being
channelled, or being perceived t o be channelled, disproport ionat ely t o part icular et hnic groups.
Equit y, and t ransparency in dist ribut ion, t herefore, needs t o be an overarching principle for t he
provision of aid.
The prominence of religious inst it ut ions ( monast eries, churches and mosques) in providing
early aid does creat e a risk t hat religious differences will be accent uat ed. Monast eries have somet imes
channelled aid t o Buddhist s, and churches t o Christ ians. However, religious leaders have emphasized
t he non- sect arian nat ure of t heir assist ance, and monks, priest s and imams are aware of t he pot ent ial
negat ive effect s of excluding some from aid.
Conversely, t here is t he pot ent ial for Nargis, and t he response t o it , t o improve relat ionships
bet ween religious and et hnic groups. The cyclone did not discriminat e by religion or et hnicit y: people
from all groups were equally affect ed. The out pouring of assist ance from all fait hs t o all fait hs may
be a unifying force, along wit h t he shared experience of t he disast er, and a shared goal t o rebuild
t heir lives.
Social capit al and managing diversit y
Hypothesis 6: Nargis will weaken social capital, making it more diffcult for communities to
recover. Unlikely. Pot ent ial for social capit al t o be st rengt hened.
Early communit y responses t o Nargis seem t o show t hat social capit al has been enhanced by
t he disast er. The rebuilding effort has necessit at ed collect ive act ion. Few villagers have t he resources
or skills t o rebuild t heir houses by t hemselves, access ext ernal aid, or rest art t heir livelihoods. As
such, t hey are relying on t heir neighbours’ help. Because many villagers are equally affect ed, and
because t heir sit uat ion is so severe, communit y members are pooling labour and resources. The
speed at which shelt ers have been const ruct ed is t est ament t o t he power of such collect ive act ion.
I n t he longer- run, t here will likely be challenges t o such social cohesion. As more aid arrives,
including possibly larger resources for rebuilding houses and infrast ruct ure, risks of capt ure by cert ain
groups or individuals increase. Resent ment over ( perceived) inequit ies in assist ance could lead t o
problems ( see also above) . Furt her, it is likely t hat t he economic sit uat ions of households will diverge
over t ime, wit h some able t o recover t o t heir previous posit ion, or even increase wealt h, while ot hers
are left behind ( see earlier hypot heses) . Again, t his may lead t o social t ensions, especially if t hose
who are “getting ahead” start to limit the amount of support those still in need receive. There does
not seem t o be evidence of t his yet , but experiences from elsewhere indicat e t hat such problems
could arise and would need t o be managed.
leSSonS for poSt-nArgiS progrAmming
Cyclone Nargis exert ed a massive shock on t he social fabric of life in t he Delt a. The recovery
effort , if it is sizeable, will const it ut e anot her great shock. Villages in affect ed regions received
relat ively lit t le aid from out side before Nargis. I nt eract ion wit h t he st at e and civil bodies at higher
levels was limit ed. Wit h some except ions, local cult ures and pract ices changed relat ively slowly in
response to outside infuences and pressures.
The response t o Nargis is likely t o alt er t his. While it has t he pot ent ial t o change life
in Delt a villages for t he bet t er, t here exist s also a risk of negat ive consequences. I f a recovery
program proceeded, with resources signifcantly beyond past amounts of assistance, resources
fowing to villages would increase sharply. Existing forms of social capital and problem solving may
be st rengt hened or weakened, depending on t he ways in which assist ance is given. The role of t he
different inst it ut ions t hat collect ively govern village life and manage problems could change.
An n e x 1 5 : So ci a l I m p a ct o f Cy cl o n e Na r g i s
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This sect ion builds on t he previous analysis by ident ifying a number of fact ors relat ed t o t he
cont ent of a possible longer- t erm recovery program t hat will help det ermine whet her it will have
posit ive social impact s. I f longer- run, most ly ext ernally funded, recovery support was more limit ed,
scarcit y of domest ic resources would likely accent uat e negat ive social impact s.
policy DimenSionS
Many of the critical areas identifed, which require attention if recovery is to be sustainable,
cannot be addressed t hrough proj ect s alone. Policy decisions, including reforms, will be necessary.
Key issues where policy at t ent ion might be needed include livelihoods, land use, and reset t lement .
Lack of access t o land is correlat ed st rongly wit h povert y. There is a risk t hat Nargis could
lead t o a loss of land for t he families of some vict ims. Est ablishing due process t o prot ect t he access
of survivors t o t heir families’ land and t o set t le any land claim issues, as well as minimizing t he
t ransfer of land away from smaller farmers, would go a long way t oward avoiding a regressive impact
on t he poor. Developing a policy framework t o prot ect exist ing land right s, and t o expand land use
right s where possible, for inst ance, t o allow land t o be used as collat eral, would do much t o speed
recovery.
Last ly, t hose who cannot , or do not want t o, ret urn t o t heir villages need t o be reset t led
in a manner t hat promot es t heir economic independence and is socially and environment ally
sust ainable.
10
An open consult at ive process should be put in place t o est ablish t he wishes of affect ed
families and communit ies wit h regard t o ret urn and reset t lement , wit h a view t o providing families
wit h appropriat e assist ance depending on t heir aspirat ions.
Strengthening SociAl coheSion AnD SociAl cApitAl
BuilDing tieS through project formAtion AnD implementAtion
The processes by which recovery programs are implement ed creat e opport unit ies t o
st rengt hen int er- group and int er- village t ies. I f people from different groups wit hin villages work
t oget her in select ing, formulat ing and implement ing proj ect s, int er- group social relat ions can be
enhanced. Experience from elsewhere shows t hat where such arrangement s exist , new posit ive
social t ies can be creat ed, improving int er- group percept ions and t he abilit y of different groups t o
work collect ively.
11
These processes also operat e at t he int er- village level. Programs t hat involve
different villages working t oget her ( for example, on rehabilit at ing a shared pond bet ween villages, or
a school t o be at t ended by children from mult iple villages) can lead t o st ronger int er- village bonds.
uSing inDigenouS inStitutionS
As not ed above, a range of informal inst it ut ions help govern village life. There are a number
of reasons why recovery effort s should work wit h such local inst it ut ions. First , if t hey do not , t heir
programs are likely t o be less effect ive. Local leaders, as represent at ives of t heir communit ies,
know more about local needs and cult ural norms t han any out sider. The analysis suggest s t hat , in
most villages, mechanisms of social cont rol rest rain local leaders from exploit ing t heir powers and
position. This reduces the intrinsic risk of “elite capture” of recovery resources.
Second, failure t o work wit h local informal leaders risks undermining t heir legit imacy, which
may have a number of unplanned impact s. I nformal leaders play a vit al role in maint aining social
cohesion, managing relat ionships bet ween groups and solving problems in villages. Their legit imacy
is, in part , a funct ion of t he resources t hey cont rol, as well as t he ext ent t o which t hey perform t heir
t asks well in t he eyes of communit ies. Channeling recovery resources t hrough ot her mechanisms,
wit hout associat ing t hem one way or anot her, may undermine t he powers t hey have, and t he roles
they play. This could lead to a backlash, which may prevent the effective and effcient use of aid.
Third, using informal leaders can help ensure communit y cont ribut ions t o t he recovery
effort . Those wit h st rong local legit imacy, such as religious leaders and village elders, can mobilize
people wit hin t he village in areas such as rehabilit at ing communit y asset s and helping vulnerable
households. Where communit y members make such cont ribut ions, t he result s of aid t end t o be more
10 See also Annex 8 ( Housing) .
11 See, e.g., Barron, Patrick, Rachael Diprose and Michael Woolcock (2006). “Local Confict and Community Development in
Indonesia: Assessing the Impact of the Kecamatan Development Program.” Indonesian Social Development Paper No. 10.
Jakart a: World Bank.
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sust ainable.
Using local leaders t o help implement recovery aid may also improve t he ways t hey govern.
Evidence suggest s t hat st rong pressures do exist from communit ies for aid t o be used well. Carefully
designed programs t hat st rengt hen communit y demand and t he abilit y of local informal inst it ut ions
t o deliver can do much t o enhance relat ions bet ween t hose in leadership posit ions and t hose not .
An n e x 1 5 : So ci a l I m p a ct o f Cy cl o n e Na r g i s
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Annex 16: vulnerABle groupS
SummAry
The social welfare syst em in Myanmar has limit at ions in t he provision of services, due among
ot hers, t o a short age of t rained social workers. I n t his cont ext , communit y based mechanisms
provide an important avenue for social welfare activities benefting women, children, the elderly,
disabled, and ot her vulnerable groups.
The maj orit y of t he populat ion affect ed by Nargis has suffered gravely. As a result , most
have become vulnerable, at least t emporarily. For children, init ial evidence suggest s t hat t hey may
have t o drop out of school in some areas if t heir workloads wit hin t he household remain as t hey are
post - Nargis. For women, t he disproport ionat ely high female deat h t oll – t he maj orit y of t hose dead
(61 percent) is female, with a signifcantly higher proportion in several severely affected villages –
may creat e special vulnerabilit ies. Finally, an est imat ed 700, 000 people were displaced by Nargis.
While most of t hem have ret urned home, t hose who are st ill displaced require special at t ent ion.
The assessment t eam recommends a t wo- pronged recovery st rat egy addressing t he needs
of vulnerable groups. First , part icipat ory processes t hat involve communit y members in decision-
making t hroughout t he proj ect cycle should be expanded t o include assist ance t o vulnerable groups.
Second, a complement ary syst em should be reinforced, wit h skilled social workers, communit y
child prot ect ion and development workers, as well as funct ioning referral mechanisms. A priorit y
int ervent ion responding t o bot h obj ect ives would be t o increase t he number of professionally t rained
social workers and conduct furt her t raining for NGO social workers.
pre-DiSASter SituAtion
For t he purposes of t his report , vulnerable groups include children ( separat ed, unaccompanied
or orphaned) , women ( including women- headed households) , t he elderly, chronically sick and disabled,
and t he displaced.
1
Those who lost document at ion may also be in need of special assist ance.
Social welfare mechanisms. The social welfare syst em in Myanmar has limit at ions in t he
provision of services, due among ot hers, t o a short age of t rained social workers. The Minist ry of
Social Welfare, Relief and Reset t lement includes t he Depart ment of Social Welfare ( DSW) which is
mandat ed t o carry out various programmes and services for children, young people, women, disabled
people, ex- drug addict s, and older people who are socially and economically disadvant aged. There
are DSW represent at ives at t he nat ional and st at e/ divisional levels but not at t he dist rict , t ownship
or village level, due t o a lack of resources. I n t his cont ext , communit y based mechanisms provide an
important avenue for social welfare activities benefting women, children, the elderly and disabled.
Children’s right s. The Child Law mandat es t he creat ion of t he Nat ional Commit t ee on t he
Right s of t he Child ( NCRC) t o effect ively implement t he provisions of t he law and t he Convent ion on
t he Right s of t he Child.
2
I t also provides for t he est ablishment of local Commit t ees on t he Right s of
the Child at the state or division, district and township levels to provide services for the beneft of
children. The work of t hese Commit t ees is const rained, in part due t o a lack of resources.
The sit uat ion of women. Prior t o t he cyclone, female headed households in rural areas ( including
t hose affect ed by Cyclone Nargis) comprised nearly 17 percent of t he t ot al.
3
The government ’s report
submit t ed under t he Convent ion on t he Eliminat ion of All Forms of Discriminat ion against Women in
1999 assert s t hat in Myanmar, women and men are seen t o enj oy equal right s.
4
The report lays out
the responsibilities and duties that women are expected to perform, stating “in Myanmar society,
t radit ions and cust oms expect a woman t o cont rol t he purse, t o prepare food, make clot hing and
look after the children”.
5
Such cent rally recognized norms and belief syst ems are import ant t o t ake
int o considerat ion when assessing t he impact of Nargis on women in Myanmar societ y.
1 The sit uat ion of t he landless and t hose indebt ed is reviewed in Annex 15 ( Social I mpact s) .
2 See Government of Myanmar. The Child Law of 1993.
3 UNDP ( 2006) . Household Povert y Assessment .
4 Considerat ions of report s submit t ed by St at es part ies under art icle 18 of t he Convent ion on t he Eliminat ion of All Forms of
Discriminat ion against Women, I nit ial report of St at es part ies, Myanmar, 25 June 1999.
5 I bid, p. 9.
An n e x 1 6 : Vu l n e r a b l e Gr o u p s
155
impAct
The maj orit y of t he populat ion affect ed by Nargis has suffered gravely, especially in rural
areas. As a result , many have become vulnerable. For some households, t his will be a t ransient st at e
as they re-establish their livelihoods in farming or fshing or as casual labourers over time. Other
households have a height ened vulnerabilit y and require t arget ed, possibly longer- t erm assist ance t o
overcome t he cyclone’s impact s.
Many cyclone survivors are in a fragile psychosocial st at e. Result s from t he Village Tract
Assessment ( VTA) survey indicat e t hat approximat ely 23 percent of t hose surveyed report having
experienced and/ or observed psychological problems as a result of t he cyclone, 10 percent report
having lost at least one family member, and only 8 percent report having access t o st ruct ures
and mechanisms support ing a capacit y t o cope wit h t he dist ress associat ed wit h Cyclone Nargis.
Fact ors such as t hese demonst rat e t he need for holist ic and cult urally relevant relief and recovery
approaches t arget ing vulnerable groups.
chilDren
Post Nargis, as wit h many post - disast er sit uat ions, t he vulnerabilit y of children increases,
as does t he risk of abuse, violence, exploit at ion and neglect . Children may have t o help cont ribut e
to fnancially supporting the family. With insuffcient funds to pay for the costs associated with
schooling, they may have to withdraw from schools due to fnancial constraints and to care for
younger siblings while t heir parent s t ry t o earn a living. I n a recent survey, 30 percent of children
in Dallah are predict ing t hat t hey will soon have t o drop out of school if t heir workloads wit hin t he
household remain as t hey are post - Nargis.
6

Unaccompanied or separat ed children
7
are part icularly vulnerable groups. Secondary
separat ion is st art ing t o emerge as an issue as caregivers and parent s who are st ruggling t o provide
for children post - Nargis, are sending t heir children t o t he Depart ment of Social Welfare and fait h-
based inst it ut ions for educat ion and shelt er.
8
I n Dallah, t here are cases of parent s migrat ing aft er t he
cyclone, leaving children as heads of households and t hus increasingly vulnerable.
9

Children also become vulnerable t o exploit at ive or dangerous forms of labour including
becoming live-in child domestic servants, working in the fshing industry, or in some cases being
traffcked for labour and sexual exploitation.
women
10

The VTA survey found t hat t he maj orit y of t he dead are female. According t o assessment
dat a, 61 percent of t hose dead are female. I n some severely affect ed villages, t wice as many women
aged 18- 60 died as men. I t is not yet possible t o gauge how t his mort alit y pat t ern will impact on
t he vulnerabilit y of women and children in t he cyclone- affect ed areas. I f mot hers have passed away
t here will be an addit ional burden on fat hers t o care for t he emot ional needs of t he children, and t he
boys and girls in t he household will likely t ake on increased care responsibilit ies of t heir siblings.
Women’s vulnerabilit ies can pot ent ially be exacerbat ed by several t rends we see post - Nargis.
The traditional burden of reproductive labour is maintained by women, while they fll the newer
“productive” labour gaps left by those men and women who were killed. The burden of care may
lead fewer women than men to migrate to fnd alternate sources of employment, which could lead
t o a slower economic recovery.
As a predominant group in performing cert ain t asks ( such as t ransplant ing paddy) in t he
agricult ural and non- formal income sect ors, women are part icularly affect ed by much reduced j ob
opportunities in the short run, especially in farming and fshing. Desperation for income can lead
women t o make risky employment decisions, including commercial sex work.
6 Save t he Children ( 2008) . Child Prot ect ion in Emergency Report , 3 May – 28 June 2008.
7 A separat ed child is one who is separat ed from bot h parent s or from his or her previous legal or cust omary caregiver but
not necessarily from ot her relat ives, and may be accompanied by anot her adult family member. An unaccompanied child is
separat ed from bot h parent s and ot her relat ives and is not being cared for by an adult who, by law or cust om, is responsible
for him or her.
8 Save t he Children ( 2008) , op. cit .
9 ibid
10 See Annex 17 ( Gender) for a more t horough analysis of t he impact s of Nargis on women.
An n e x 1 6 : Vu l n e r a b l e Gr o u p s
156
the elDerly, chronicAlly Sick AnD DiSABleD
Vulnerabilit ies of t he elderly st em from t he fact t hat t hey have oft en spent t heir lives working
and accumulat ing asset s and savings t o a point where t hey can live wit hout working once t heir
physical capacit y t o do so has diminished. I f t hey have t o use t heir savings t o replace housing and
ot her asset s, t hey will have less money for food and ot her necessary it ems.
Many families in t he most - affect ed areas lost all t heir belongings, and any money t hey may
have kept in t he house. This loss of savings has a proport ionally bigger impact on t he prospect s for
t he personal recovery of t he elderly. Furt hermore, t hey, as well as t he chronically sick and disabled,
have greater diffculty accessing aid that is being distributed, and carrying relief items that have
been dist ribut ed, even if t hey can access t hem.
I n t he absence of a st at e or employer support ed social securit y, families have been t he
primary safet y net , wit h children commonly t aking care of t heir parent s in old age. The assessment
t eam observed t hat t he social fabric remains st rong aft er Nargis, and t he elderly cont inue t o play an
import ant role in village life, much as t hey have in t he past .
11
At t he same t ime, t hey need t o t ake
on t he addit ional responsibilit y of caring for t heir grandchildren if t hey have been orphaned, or if t he
children’s parent s move t o t ake up work in anot her area.
The source of vulnerabilit y for t he chronically sick or disabled is similar t o t he pre- cyclone
scenario; they lack the ability, or have only a reduced ability, to contribute to family fnances. In the
st ressed economic sit uat ion many families are now experiencing, t he sick and disabled become an
addit ional burden. Furt hermore, t he elderly, chronically sick and disabled have special nut rit ional
and or medical needs t hat oft en go unrecognized in an post - crisis emergency cont ext .
the DiSplAceD
The devast at ion caused by cyclone Nargis displaced hundreds of t housands of people from
t heir communit ies and forced t hem t o seek shelt er and securit y elsewhere. During t he t hird week of
May, it was est imat ed t hat at least 260, 000 people were living in camps and informal set t lement s in
schools, monast eries and churches t hroughout Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions. I n addit ion, many
people sought shelt er wit h ext ended family or friends in neighbouring villages or t owns, bringing t he
t ot al number of t he displaced at it s height t o an est imat ed 700, 000 ( equivalent t o c. 30 percent of
t he est imat ed 2. 4 million people affect ed by Nargis) .
12

While most people affect ed by t he cyclone require some kind of assist ance, t hose displaced
are among t he most vulnerable. Finding t hemselves in new locat ions and separat ed from t he social
support t hey are accust omed t o in t heir communit ies, t hey may experience such problems as
unequal access t o assist ance, discriminat ion in aid provision, increased sexual and gender- based
violence, loss of documentation and diffculty in replacing it, and issues related to property rights in
t he rebuilding of t heir homes.
There are t hree broad cat egories of vulnerable persons displaced by t he cyclone: ( i) people
whose displacement is ongoing because t hey are st ill in camps or t emporary set t lement s or who are
no longer in camps or set t lement s but cannot ret urn t o t heir communit ies of origin; ( ii) people who
cannot ret urn t o t heir communit ies of origin and have already been relocat ed; and ( iii) people who
have successfully ret urned t o t heir communit ies of origin.
As of the frst week of June, many camps and settlements had been dismantled and
people st art ed t o ret urn t o t heir communit ies of origin on a large scale. I n Labut t a t ownship t he
camp populat ion had declined from 40, 000 t o 10, 000; in Bogale t ownship all camps were closed.
Throughout t he t ownship, four t ransit sit es had been est ablished by t he government from which
people were being encouraged t o ret urn t o t heir communit ies of origin. I n Myaung Mya, t wo sit es
offcially recognized by the government were down from 13,000 to 3,700 people. An estimated 800
people remained in informal set t lement s. All camps in Pat hein t ownship were closed. About 3, 000
people had ret urned t o t heir communit ies of origin in ot her t ownships ( most ly Labut t a) as Pat hein
11 See Annex 15 ( Social I mpact s) for a more det ailed discussion.
12 Myanmar I nformat ion Management Unit ( 2008) . One of t he main challenges in assist ing t his populat ion group following
cyclone Nargis, has been t hat det ailed informat ion about t he ext ent of t he displacement , t he locat ion of t he populat ions
and disaggregated data providing information on gender, age, morbidity profle, ethnic composition and needs of persons
displaced by t he cyclone are not available.
An n e x 1 6 : Vu l n e r a b l e Gr o u p s
157
was not affect ed by t he cyclone. I n Mawlamyinegyun t ownship all camps had been closed. I n Pyapon
t ownship, 37 camps host ing about 17, 000 people were being closed. As of t he end of June, few
camps remain.
13

The assessment t eam not ed a number of reasons why people left t he monast eries, schools and
camps t o ret urn home. First , t he government encouraged such ret urn ( see below) . Second, villagers
appeared t o want t o ret urn t o t heir homes t o rest art t heir livelihoods. This seemed part icularly t rue
for farmers, who want ed t o be able t o rest art plant ing in order t o ensure a harvest , and hence food
securit y, in t he near fut ure. The insecurit y of land use right s, where land can be t aken if it is not
used product ively, also appeared t o be a st rong driving force behind t his. Third, t hose who remained
in villages made t remendous effort s t o rebuild houses, meaning t hat t hose ret urning may have
somewhere t o st ay.
14

For people displaced by t he cyclone whose displacement is st ill ongoing, pot ent ial loss of user
right s may be a concern and may become an obst acle t o recovery ( see also above) . I n some cases
t he dest ruct ion is so severe, or t he environment so fragile, t hat ret urning t o t he place of habit ual
residence may no longer be possible. In these instances, other solutions need to be identifed before
t he ret urn process begins.
15

loSS of DocumentAtion
The loss of document at ion during a nat ural disast er is common and can creat e considerable
problems for individuals and families who depend on support . The loss of birt h, marriage and deat h
certifcates, personal identifcation, and education and health certifcates which are often necessary
to access basic social and health service and for children to attend school, can make it very diffcult
for people t o receive t he assist ance t hey are ent it led t o and need.
Large amount s of document s, oft en st ored in t he privat e residence of t he head of t he village
or village t ract Peace and Development Commit t ee ( PDC) , have been lost during t he cyclone. This will
affect many villages for a prolonged period of t ime, unt il records have been re- est ablished. There is a
possibilit y t hat t he formal fees charged for issuing document s and providing administ rat ive services
will increase in order to fnance local expenditures related to the post-disaster recovery. There is also
a risk t hat informal fees in cash or in kind may be levied on, for inst ance, t hose requiring t he urgent
re- issuing of document s. Such fees may become a burden on resident s and, in part icular, make it
more diffcult for the poor and vulnerable to maintain their rights and access services.
Land and land use regist rat ion are especially import ant for village life. The main responsibilit y
for land allocat ion and use lies wit h t he village PDC. Where PDC members lost t heir life and records
were dest royed, village elders and oral t est imonies can play a vit al role in ident ifying and endorsing
claims. Women t oo can cont ribut e t o t his process, as in many cases it is t hey who are t he memory
banks of a communit y, as well as import ant t ransmit t ers of cult ural values t o t he next generat ion.
recovery effortS to DAte
A range of act ivit ies is being carried out by t he government , UN agencies, and non-
government al organizat ions. I n t he aft ermat h of Cyclone Nargis t he Depart ment of Social Welfare
( DSW) developed a Nat ional Plan of Act ion for Child Prot ect ion in Emergencies wit h t echnical support
from child protection agencies; it is currently being fnalized. The DSW has also expressed an interest
in developing a similar plan focused specifcally on the protection of women.
VTA survey dat a indicat e t hat approximat ely 8 percent of t he populat ion sampled report ed
the presence of “special programs,” identifed by the respondents as schools, day care facilities,
and orphanages. As of early July, DSW and t he humanit arian communit y have est ablished 132 child
friendly spaces in Ayeyarwady and Yangon Divisions; over 200 more child friendly spaces are planned
over t he next mont h and a half. Thirt y t housand dignit y kit s, which comprise under- garment s and
feminine hygiene product s, have been dist ribut ed. Communit y support mechanisms, which focus on
psycho- social support , among ot hers, have been developed and are being expanded in t he affect ed
13 Information and statistics collected by the Temporary Settlements Group based on feld data submitted by UN agencies and
NGOs, May-June 2008; and Myanmar Cyclone Nargis Information Center (2008). “Rapid Assessment of Cyclone Affected
Areas in Myanmar”. Myanmar Survey Research, 15 May 2008.
14 See Annex 15 ( Social I mpact s) for an analysis of t he impact on land and land use right s.
15 See Annex 8 ( Housing) for a discussion of guiding principles for reset t lement based on experience wit h nat ural disast ers and
from development proj ect s elsewhere.
An n e x 1 6 : Vu l n e r a b l e Gr o u p s
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areas. Initial feedback from those providing cash benefts to vulnerable groups indicates that such
assist ance is t remendously useful; t he cash is used largely for food, livelihoods, and ot her immediat e
needs. These act ivit ies have helped encourage a ret urn t o normalcy.
The government has provided incent ives t o t hose who choose t o ret urn t o t heir villages,
including free t ransport at ion, basic supplies, and promises of fut ure rat ions. Field work by t he
assessment t eam indicat es, however, t hat government aid policies in some areas may be rest rict ing
t he abilit y of affect ed villagers t o move t o new communit ies, since t hey would not receive such
assist ance if t hey want ed t o set t le in anot her village.
recovery neeDS AnD StrAtegy
Needs. Pat t erns and degrees of vulnerabilit y will change cont inuously during t he recovery
period; some families will re- est ablish t heir livelihoods while ot hers will relapse int o crisis. At t he
same t ime, formal social services and safet y net s are t oo weak t o cat er t o t he st ill enormous needs of
the vulnerable population groups identifed above. Continued support to these groups is, therefore,
essent ial for an ext ended period of t ime.
St rat egy. The assessment t eam recommends a t wo- pronged recovery st rat egy addressing
t he needs of vulnerable groups.
16
First , experience in Myanmar, as in ot her post - crisis sit uat ions,
demonst rat es t hat communit y based mechanisms provide t remendous support at t he local level.
Part icipat ory processes t hat involve communit y members in decision- making t hroughout t he proj ect
cycle should be expanded t o include assist ance t o vulnerable groups. Second, a complement ary
syst em should be reinforced, wit h skilled social workers, communit y child prot ect ion and development
workers, as well as funct ioning referral mechanisms.
17

A priorit y int ervent ion responding t o bot h obj ect ives would be t o increase t he number
of professionally t rained social workers and conduct furt her t raining for NGO social workers, t o
ensure meaningful communit y part icipat ion, capacit y building and awareness raising act ivit ies at
a communit y level of social services. This could be achieved t hrough an expansion of t he recent ly
opened Universit y Post - Graduat e Diploma in Social Work t hat DSW and Yangon Universit y ( Psychology
and Law Depart ment s) have developed wit h UNI CEF support .
Next st eps. There is a need t o improve t he knowledge base about vulnerable groups. Two
act ivit ies are part icularly urgent : an analysis on t he feasibilit y of scaling up exist ing small- scale
cash grant schemes for vulnerable groups; and t he design of a dat a collect ion inst rument t o capt ure
t he evolut ion of vulnerabilit y during t he recovery period, t o allow for bet t er program design and
t arget ing. Furt hermore, t here is a need t o st rengt hen t echnical st andards and implement at ion
guidelines for social work.
16 See Annex 14 ( Livelihoods) and Sect ion 4 ( The Way Forward) for a more det ailed discussion on opt ions for communit y-
driven recovery.
17 I n a t hird st ep, st rat egic approaches t o t he social welfare sect or should focus on policy development , management and
oversight capacit y, t he qualit y and quant it y of human resources, and bet t er monit oring and informat ion syst ems.
An n e x 1 6 : Vu l n e r a b l e Gr o u p s
159
Annex 17: genDer
SummAry
Distinct gender roles for men and women exist at village level, which tend to defne the
scope and nat ure of relat ions bet ween genders. Communal life is also divided by gender, wit h
formal and informal leadership primarily a domain of men. The pat t erns of dist inct gender roles are
const ant across villages. However, gender roles are dynamic rat her t han st at ic, and can evolve in
response t o need and abilit y.
According t o dat a from t he Village Tract Assessment survey, 61 percent of t hose dead are
female, with signifcantly higher fgures in individual villages. This type of demographic change
will have signifcant impacts on the roles of, and relationships between, different genders in many
villages and is also likely t o have an effect on migrat ion pat t erns.
Women and men, girls and boys experienced t he impact s of Cyclone Nargis different ly. As such,
t he relief and recovery st rat egy requires recognit ion t hat t he st art ing point s for women’s and men’s
recovery are not the same, and that specifc strategies to enable women’s meaningful participation
in activities and benefts must be incorporated. The major strategic thrust is to incorporate women’s
protection issues into all sectors. Women must not be viewed simply as “passive” victims, but rather
as a specifc group with its own needs, interests, vulnerabilities, capacities, and coping strategies.
trADitionAl genDer roleS in AffecteD AreAS
1
Distinct gender roles for men and women exist at village level, which tend to defne the
scope and nat ure of relat ions bet ween genders. The husband is expect ed t o play t he maj or role in
income generat ion and t he wife is expect ed t o be t he household manager. Even so, women assist
in t heir husband’s act ivit ies, and oft en have t heir own income generat ing act ivit ies, t oo, while men
will t ake on t asks generally considered as t he responsibilit y of females, but only for a limit ed t ime
if women are sick or heavily pregnant . Male and female children have equal access t o educat ion,
alt hough men t end t o be bet t er educat ed. Boys and girls who st ay on t he farm inherit land user
right s equally.
In farming and fshing households, men and women work together by carrying out distinct
yet complement ary t asks. For inst ance, men repair boat s and net s and cast out and haul in net s while
women sort, weigh and dry the fsh and sell the catch on the market. Women travel independently by
boat around t he delt a area t o sell and t rade local produce in ot her villages and t owns. Men and boys
are t ypically responsible for looking aft er livest ock. At t he same t ime, it is common for women t o
manage product ion of poult ry including ducks, geese and chickens, as well as t end home veget able
gardens which produce much of t he family’s st aple food.
Decision- making in t he household is divided by sphere. Joint decisions are made about
children’s schooling, off- farm work and borrowing. Men make most decisions about farming and
fshing activities, while women are responsible for marketing. Women generally control household
fnances while men control farm expenditures.
Communal life is also divided by gender. Farm- based communit y act ivit ies such as repair and
maint enance of irrigat ion canals and const ruct ion of small dams are dominat ed by men wit h women
participating in fshing-related community activities such as community fsh harvesting, seeding
fngerlings, and clearing waterweeds from ponds. Men and women share maintenance of village
infrast ruct ure such as pagodas, monast eries, and schools. Women handle social act ivit ies during
religious festivals such as pagoda beautifcation and cleaning and cooking communal meals.
Formal and informal leadership is primarily a domain of men. The Peace and Development
Councils, t he primary government body at t he t ownship, village t ract and village levels, are generally
composed of males. It is diffcult, but not impossible, for women to join the elders group.
Village Tract Assessment dat a indicat e t he presence of self reliance groups in almost half
of t he sampled villages. These groups have commonly been est ablished for ext ernally- funded
development proj ect s. A gender impact st udy
2
showed t hat self reliance groups have enabled
1 Baseline dat a disaggregat ed along gender lines were limit ed. Much of t he analysis present ed here is t herefore based on
secondary information taken from agency reports, and on feld work by the assessment team.
2 Smit h, R. ( 2006) . A Hen is Crowing, Unit ed Nat ions Development Programme.
An n e x 1 7 : Ge n d e r
160
village women t o net work and share t heir skills and experiences, play a great er part in household
decision making, better understand how to reduce household confict surrounding the provision of
income by establishing their own income earning activities, and build self esteem, self confdence
and increased st at us bot h in t heir families and t heir communit ies. The wort h of t hese groups has
also been increasingly accepted by men, since they see the benefts of good management of these
groups in posit ive economic out comes and village- orient ed proj ect s.
While t he pat t erns of dist inct gender roles described above are const ant across villages, t he
experience of, for example, self reliance groups shows t hat gender roles are dynamic rat her t han
st at ic, and can evolve in response t o need and abilit y. Cyclone response effort s, t herefore, would be
able t o challenge gender norms in order t o fost er equal part icipat ion of women and men, girls and
boys.
nArgiS’ impAct on genDer relAtionS
3
According t o dat a from t he Village Tract Assessment ( VTA) , 61 percent of t hose dead are
female. However, this fgure can be signifcantly higher in individual villages.
Figure 1 in the report shows mortality fgures among the households in a sample of 10
severely affect ed villages and illust rat es t he gender balance of mort alit y. I n t he key product ive and
reproduct ive age group of 18- 60 years old, more t han t wice as many women died as men in t hose
t en severely affect ed villages.
Fi gur e 1: Pr opor t i on of deat hs by age and gender i n 10 sever el y af f ect ed vi l l ages
Proportion of deaths by age and gender
10%
12%
11%
15%
3%
3%
12%
26%
4%
5%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
m f m f m f m f m f
<5 <5 5-12 5-12 12-18 12-18 18-60 18-60 >60 >60
P
r
o
p
o
r
t
i
o
n

o
f

d
e
a
t
h
s
Source: Village Tract Assessment
This type of demographic change will have signifcant impacts on the roles of, and
relat ionships bet ween, different genders in many villages and is also likely t o have an effect on
migrat ion pat t erns.
First , men will need t o t ake over some of t he roles previously played by women. Second,
t hose women who survived may t ake on addit ional t asks. Third, t he loss of many women may lead
t o a spat e of remarriages, or early marriages, alt hough t his will likely be delayed unt il villages have
recovered enough t o be able t o expend scarce resources on such celebrat ions. There may be a need
for men to go to other villages or towns to fnd a wife, which could increase out-migration from
severely affect ed areas or lead t o more int er- village marriages. Poor and uncert ain condit ions make
it less likely t hat men will bring in new wives from out side t he Delt a region. This will likely affect t he
social fabric of villages and kinship syst ems.
3 See Annex 16 ( Vulnerable Groups) for addit ional informat ion.
An n e x 1 7 : Ge n d e r
161
Experience from elsewhere indicat es t hat violence, including violence against women,
accompanies nat ural disast ers. Prevailing social norms emphasizing cont rol of anger, fairness, and
acceptance, will help mitigate this but may not be suffcient. During the VTA survey 23 percent of
respondent s report ed having experienced and/ or observed psychological and problems as a result of
t he cyclone. Psychological dist ress brings depression and anger. Consequent ly, psychological support
and prot ect ion syst ems for bot h women and children will be essent ial component s of t he relief and
recovery effort .
After the disaster, what were previously the main sources of income – agriculture, fshing
and small businesses – have been damaged and have left many people wit hout a st able j ob. There
are reported cases of traffcking and recruitment for work in Yangon.
4

recovery neeDS AnD interventionS
Needs. Women and men, girls and boys experienced t he impact s of Cyclone Nargis different ly.
This is a result bot h of social norms and cult ural values which rest rict t he choices, behaviour and
opport unit ies of women and girls, and limit ed self- rescue or rehabilit at ion abilit ies due t o differences
in learned skills. As such, t he relief and recovery st rat egy requires recognit ion t hat t he st art ing
points for women’s and men’s recovery are not the same, and that specifc strategies to enable
women’s meaningful participation in activities and benefts must be incorporated. A rapid gender
analysis of t he Nargis assessment dat a highlight s t he following gendered impact s and implicat ions
for recovery st rat egies ( see At t achment ) .
St rat egy. The maj or st rat egic t hrust is t o incorporat e women’s prot ect ion issues int o all
sectors. Women must not be viewed simply as “passive” victims, but rather as a specifc group with
it s own needs, int erest s, vulnerabilit ies, capacit ies, and coping st rat egies.
5
The Nargis response
should cont inue t o fost er an environment promot ing non- discriminat ory humanit arian assist ance,
t hrough comprehensive and represent at ive consult at ion wit h t he affect ed populat ion. Not only is t his
good humanit arian pract ice, it allows for a cat hart ic, syst emic approach t o ensuring t he communit y
t akes ownership of it s healing and recovery process.
6
I nt ervent ions. I n t he short - t erm, t he dist ribut ion of dignit y kit s, which cont ain, among ot her
t hings, women’s sarongs, T- shirt s, underwear, soaps, sanit ary clot hs and mult ivit amins, should
be cont inued. I n t he medium- t erm, a sit uat ion analysis of t he vulnerabilit y of women and girls
should be conduct ed. Furt hermore, it will import ant t o provide psychosocial counselling and socio-
economic programmes for vulnerable women and girls and t o conduct t raining for service providers
and communit y- based workers on psychosocial counselling. Possible longer- t erm opt ions include
improving coordinat ion of prot ect ion programmes for women by different agencies and cont inuing t o
support and creat e communit y- based mechanisms for referral t o social services.
4 Save t he Children, Child Prot ect ion in Emergency Report , 3 May – 28 June 2008.
5 “Integrating Gender into Emergency Responses,” Bridge Briefngs 4.
6 “Protecting Persons Affected by Natural Disasters,” IASC Operational Guidelines on Human Rights and Natural Disasters,
June 2006.
An n e x 1 7 : Ge n d e r
162
At t achment
Gender Anal y si s of Cy cl one I mpact s
and I mpl i cat i ons f or Recov er y St r at egi es
5 Annex 17: Gender
At t achment
Gender Anal y si s of Cy cl one I mpact s
and I mpl i cat i ons f or Recover y St r at egi es
GenderImpactsof
Nargis
PossibleSocialOutcomes ImplicationsforRecoveryStrategies
Womenandgirls
numbermore
amongstthedeadand
missing
x Menlosetheirdomesticsupport
systemtocareforchildren,perform
householdwork.
x Decreaseinavailablemarriage
partners,possibleincreasein
incidenceofchildͲmarriageor
survivinggirlsbeingrequiredto
takeonresponsibilityforhousehold
duties.
x Participationmechanismstoassistwith
childcaretoenablesingleparent
familiestotakeuprecoveryworkand
reͲestablishtheirlivelihoods
x Protectionsystemsforwomenand
oldergirlstopreventpossibleabuse
x Incorporatingcopingstrategiesinto
capacitybuildingforcommunity
groups.
x Addressingthecausesoftheimbalance
ofdeathsindisasterriskrecovery
programmes.
Increasedfoodprices
anddecreasein
casuallabour
opportunities

Increaseinpower
differentialbetween
menandwomen
x Increasedriskofdomesticviolence
x Increasedcompetitionforthepaid
workthatisavailable
x Womenandmenpushedinto
increasinglyriskyoccupations
includingunsafemigration,child
labourandsexwork.
x Participationmechanismstoensure
womenandmenhaveequalaccessto
paidwork
x Protection,supportandadvocacy
aboutgenderͲbasedviolence,antiͲ
trafficking,otherformsofexploitation
orabuseofthoseinextremepoverty.
Lossofadequate
shelterandbasic
householdequipment
forcooking,needto
gofurtherawayfor
acquirebasicfood
items
x Basichouseholdtaskstakelonger,
involveharderwork.
x Householdsarephysicallyless
secureinordertoprotecttheirfew
remainingpossessions.

x Rehabilitationoflocalmarkets;the
supplyofgoodsandbasichousehold
equipmentwillpositivelyimpacton
timeofwomenandmenavailablefor
otherrecoveryinitiatives,aswillreturn
to‘normalcy’inlivingconditions.
x Vigilanceinmaintaininglawandorder
duringthisphase.
Thetitledusersof
landhaveperishedin
thecyclone
x Landredistribution;possibilityof
losinglanduserightsiflandisnot
cultivated.
x ProtectionoftheinterestsanduserͲ
rightsofdependents(wivesand
widows,children).
Contaminatedwater
supplies,inadequate
orbrokensanitation
systems
x Possibleoutbreakofdisease,
leadingtoreducedworking
capacityofadults.
x Increasedburdenofcareforthe
sick;needtotravelfurtherawayto
getcleanwaterhastimeand
energyimplications.
x Rehabilitationofthebasicwaster
supplysystemswillpositivelyimpact
onthetimeavailability,particularly
womenbutalsomen,forrecoveryand
incomeearninginitiatives.
Lossofalarge
proportionofthe
populationinsome
villages
x Previousleadersmayhavedied.
Possibleopportunityforwomento
becomemoreactivelyinvolvedand
challengemaleͲdominated
structures.
x Localskillsbase(smallartisans,
teachers,traders,etc.)severely
depleted;opportunityfortraining
survivorsinlocallyrequiredskills,
includingchallengingprevailing
genderroles.
x Donorscanencouragecapacity
buildingactivitiesforwomenandfocus
onworkingwithgenderbalanced
communityorganizationssothat
recoveryreflectstheneedsand
experiencesofbothmenandwomen.
x Provisionofskillstrainingshould
considertradesandcraftsforwomen
andmen.
x Equalpayformenandwomen.
An n e x 1 7 : Ge n d e r
163
Annex 17: Gender 6
GenderImpactsof
Nargis
PossibleSocialOutcomes ImplicationsforRecoveryStrategies
Foodisscarceor
unaffordable
x Experienceelsewhereindicatesthat
itismostoftenthewomenwhogo
withoutfoodinordertoensure
othermembersofthefamily,
particularlychildren,meettheir
nutritionalneeds.
x Whenforcedtochoosefamilies
mayprioritizenutritional(and
educational)needsofboysover
girls.
x Continuewithfoodaid(incashorin
kind)tothepoorestofthepoorto
enablerehabilitationoflivelihoods.
x Ensurethosedistributingfood,cash
andservicesarefemaleandmale.
x Vigilanceforsignsoffemale
malnutritionwhichwillimpacton
reproductivehealthbutalsofurther
limitwomen’sabilitytorecover
throughpoorhealth.
Healthinfrastructure
isdamagedand
servicesarelimited
x Thosewithaneedforongoing
medicalcaresuchasthechronically
ill,butalsowomentaking
contraceptionandthoserequiring
antenatalcareareatriskofrapid
deteriorationinhealth,unplanned
pregnancyandbirthcomplications,
respectively.
x Increasedriskofmaternaland
neonatalmortalityintheabsence
ofemergencyobstetriccare.
x PostͲcrisishealthresponsestoinclude
servicepackagessuchasMinimum
InitialServicesPackages(MISP)
designedtopreventexcessmaternal
andneonatalmorbidityandmortality,
topreventandmanagethe
consequencesofsexualviolence,
reduceHIVtransmissionandplanfor
comprehensivereproductivehealth
services.
Changestopatterns
ofsettlementand
migration
x Reorganisationoffamiliestoaccess
careandsupport;potentialfor
womenandorphanstohavetheir
rightsabusedoutofneedfor
shelterorfinancialsupport.
x Movementofmenandsingle
womentocitiestoaccessincome
generatingwork;vulnerabilityto
trafficking,increaseinrisky
occupations.
x Newlyconstructedorreconstructed
villagesortemporarysettlements.
x Ensuresupportandprotectionservices
formembersofreͲformedhouseholds.
x Vigilanceandadvocacyregarding
trafficking,riskyoccupations,and
reducedvulnerabilitytoHIVandAIDS
orothersexuallytransmitteddiseases;
trainingandsupportforsafe
migration/mobility.
x Invillages/settlements,minimiseareas
wherewomenorchildrenmaybe
unsafe,i.e.darkorsecludedareas.
x Ensuresafeaccesstosharedresources
i.e.latrines,water,fuelandfood;
privateandsafebathingspacesfor
womenandgirls.
An n e x 1 7 : Ge n d e r
164
Annex 18: eArly recovery
eArly recovery StrAtegic frAmework
context
This document represent s one part of a larger early recovery st rat egic planning process,
which is at t his point in t ime a work in progress. Toget her wit h t he early recovery st rat egies of ot her
clust ers, t his paper will form a comprehensive Early Recovery St rat egic Framework. This document
describes a common obj ect ive and approach t o early recovery relevant for all clust ers in Myanmar
and includes a section called Early Recovery Outputs and Indicators which is specifc to the work of
t he Early Recovery Clust er and Early Recovery sect ion of t he revised Humanit arian Appeal. Based on
the relevant fndings of the PONJA assessment, the early recovery response includes the strategies
and priorit ies developed by ot her clust ers. These priorit ies are discussed at some lengt h in earlier
sect ions of t he PONJA report and are summarized in t he mat rix provided below.
whAt iS eArly recovery?
Early Recovery is int ended t o creat e great er linkage bet ween humanit arian int ervent ions and
longer t erm development in order t o provide mut ual advant ages bet ween relief and development
by augment ing humanit arian effort s and addressing t he gaps in coverage bet ween humanit arian
relief and long- t erm recovery t o enable a smoot her t ransit ion t o long- t erm development . I t aims at
addressing needs, gaps and t he delivery of relief and recovery assist ance t o mit igat e t he loss of lives
and livelihoods and t o revit alize t he capacit y of communit ies t o recover from nat ural disast ers such
as one like cyclone Nargis. I t is mult i- dimensional, mult i- sect oral and communit y- based.
Early recovery begins concurrent ly wit h t he delivery of direct relief assist ance focusing on
helping people re- est ablish t heir lives and t o begin ‘building back bet t er ’. I t present s an opport unit y
t o int roduce disast er risk reduct ion in all aspect s of recovery, diversifying livelihoods, st rengt hening
communit y- based organizat ions and rehabilit at ing eco- syst ems.
Early recovery effort s support ongoing spont aneous communit y init iat ives, st rengt hening
t he capacit y of communit ies t o cope early on in t he relief st age and harnesses opport unit ies t o
reducing disast er risks. Key obj ect ives t hat underpin t his st rat egy include:
i. Moving beyond and foreshort ening dependencies on direct relief assist ance;
ii. Providing support t o self- help;
iii. Re- est ablishing t he foundat ion for longer- t erm recovery and development ;
iv. Building back bet t er.
componentS of eArly recovery
Following a common approach, each of t he clust ers in Myanmar is in t he process of developing
t heir own early recovery st rat egy as it relat es t o t heir part icular sect or or t hemat ic area e. g. Healt h,
Educat ion, Shelt er, et c. I n so doing, early recovery coordinat ion mechanisms seek t o ensure t hat
early recovery int ervent ions are coherent , st rive t owards common goals, avoid gaps and minimize
overlap. Wit hin t his process, t he Early Recovery Clust er focuses on t he areas of early recovery not
covered by ot her clust ers, and considered a priorit y for t he collect ive success of t he early recovery
effort . This is discussed under t he Early Recovery St rat egy sect ion below.
eArly recovery reSponSe plAn
I n many part s of t he cyclone affect ed areas in t he delt a region, humanit arian relief and
response effort s are underway. This is likely t o remain a priorit y t hroughout t he monsoon season. At
t he same t ime, affect ed communit ies are looking for ways t o rebuild t heir lives. Farming communit ies
have begun t o resume t heir agricult ural act ivit ies during t his plant ing season and t hose engaged
in small and micro ent erprises have garnered t heir resources t o rest art businesses. Many families
have already begun t o put t oget her t emporary shelt ers using t arpaulin sheet s and local mat erials.
Wit h t he assist ance of privat e companies, new houses are being reconst ruct ed. Support from t he
Government , local civil societ y organizat ions, t he privat e sect or and int ernat ional organizat ions such
An n e x 1 8 : Ea r l y Re co v e r y
165
as t he Unit ed Nat ions and int ernat ional NGOs have also begun t o reach t he affect ed areas and are
already having an impact . However, t he needs of many have yet t o be met .
Wit hin t he cont ext of t he humanit arian phase, it is int ended t hat early recovery act ivit ies
will focus on delivering assist ance, t raining and developing risk reduct ion st rat egies t o generat e self-
sust aining, locally and nat ionally owned st rat egies for recovery over a 12 mont h period. I n response
to the fndings of the PONJA, priorities in early recovery have been developed across sectoral and
t hemat ic clust ers t o address t he needs of communit ies. These priorit ies have been discussed in
earlier sect ions of t he PONJA Report and are summarized in t he t able below. They cross- cut and
complement t he priorit ies set by t he Early Recovery Clust er.
SUMMARY OF POST- NARGI S EARLY RECOVERY CROSS SECTORAL PRI ORI TI ES
CLUSTERS &
THEMATI C GROUPS
PROPOSED EARLY RECOVERY PRI ORI TI ES
Food Secur i t y &
Agr i cul t ur e
Target ing vulnerable groups:
• Food security and food self-reliance, re-establishment of household livelihoods’
economic security for small-scale farming and fshing communities and landless
households;
• Resumption of rice cultivation, plantation crops, vegetable cropping and alternative
crops such as root crops, pulses, peanut s and ot her oil crops;
• Provision of small ruminant, pigs and poultry rearing as income generation
act ivit ies, part icularly for poor, landless and disadvant aged families ( including
women- and single- parent household’s) ;
• Resumption of fshing and other non-agricultural livelihood activities;
• Improved coordination and monitoring.
Li v el i hoods
As part of a sust ainable and int egrat ed livelihoods approach:
• Restoration of livelihoods through cash, grants and cash for work;
• Improved/safer community social infrastructure and housing;
• Provision of micro-credit;
• Small/medium enterprise development introduced;
• Provision of skills training.
Shel t er / Housi ng
• Equity in distribution of available resources;
• Safer structural improvements and weather protection;
• Temporary shelter solutions for vulnerable families who lack skills or resources to
rebuild homes;
• Shelter support packages to include: construction tools kits; essential building
mat erials at communit y sit es; hands on t echnical assist ance; grant s/ vouchers for
procurement of mat erials and/ or const ruct ion act ivit ies;
• Building back solutions and practices to be developed;
• Artisans and builders to be trained in safer construction techniques, including
assessment of damages and house locat ion;
• Preparedness training for recurring disasters and risk reduction plans at local/
nat ional levels ( i. e. volunt ary shift ing of villages from low- lying t o elevat ed/ safer
areas; const ruct ing safer/ more permanent housing; providing safe havens/ escape
hills, high mult ipurpose building such as schools, t emples, et c) ;
• Provision of food protection walls and concrete canal lining to water bodies.
Wat er , Sani t at i on
and Hy gi ene
( WASH)
Wat er Suppl y :
- Treat ment and dist ribut ion of clean wat er;
- Dist ribut ion of wat er st orage cont ainers’;
- Dist ribut ion of chlorine and household t reat ment chemicals;
- Rehabilit at ion of exist ing wat er supply syst ems;
Sani t at i on:
- Gender segregat ed shared t emporary sanit at ion;
- Gender segregat ed lat rines in schools, healt h and religious inst it ut ions;
- Awareness raising on safe disposal of human wast e;
- Rehabilit at ion of damaged t oilet s, sewage syst ems and ot her sanit at ion syst ems.
Hy gi ene Pr omot i on:
- Post ing key hygiene message in public places;
- Training and mobilizing hygiene promot ers;
- Running cleaning campaigns;
- Preparing communit y act ion plans;
- Monit oring hygiene behaviours.
An n e x 1 8 : Ea r l y Re co v e r y
166
Vul ner abl e Gr oups
Focusing on women, children, t he elderly, single- headed and landless household’s,
t he inj ured and disabled:
• Decreased family income has meant women often go without food. Meeting the
nut rit ional needs of women is a priorit y;
• Ensuring protection of women and young girls separated from their families leaving
t hem vulnerable t o exploit at ion;
• Protecting women from domestic abuse and other forms of violence;
• Protecting vulnerable groups, particularly women from taking on risky
employment, exposing them to traffcking, and exposure to STI/HIV-AIDS;
• Protecting the savings/interests of the elderly who may have lost control over
resources or have diffculty in accessing services.
Heal t h
• Adopting appropriate measures to prevent the outbreak and spread of diseases;
• Basic disease surveillance system to be put into place (MoH/WHO);
• Provision/restoration of basic health-care services;
• Organize mobile teams to provide medical care and support to public health
services.
Env i r onment
• Expand and substantiate preliminary fndings on mangrove damage and
supplement t hem wit h more det ailed reviews of surface and groundwat er pollut ion,
salinizat ion and wast e generat ion;
• Promoting reforestation to replace and rehabilitate the damaged mangroves and
ensure t hat fut ure product ivit y is not lost , including following component s: ( i)
reforest at ion cum regenerat ion of accessible mangrove reserves in t he delt a, ( ii)
improve t he capacit y of all relevant st akeholders in reforest at ion of mangroves
based on scientifcally proven approaches, (iii) emphasis on active participation of
forest - dependent communit ies in t he reforest at ion work;
• Assistance to the Forest Department to recover basic facilities for it to continue its
operat ions in t he cyclone- affect ed area;
• Construction setbacks and mangrove buffer zones ranging from 200 m landward
from t he mean low t ide mark along exposed coast s t o 100 m along maj or river
embankment s;
• Allocation of land (preferably) on higher ground for construction of safe houses/
havens from st orms;
• Early warning system that would give people enough time to evacuate or seek
shelt er in safe houses.
eArly recovery StrAtegy
I n t he aft ermat h of Cyclone Nargis, t he I ASC Count ry Team adopt ed t he clust er approach
in order t o st rengt hen it s coordinat ed humanit arian response t o t he emergency. Eleven clust ers
were est ablished, including an early recovery coordinat ion mechanism, led by UNDP. Early recovery
is coordinat ed by an Early Recovery Clust er consist ing of working groups for t hemat ic areas not
covered by ot her clust ers, and at t he same t ime an Early Recovery Net work was set up t o ensure
int er- clust er coordinat ion of early recovery.
While it is vit al t o provide humanit arian relief t o t hose affect ed by t he cyclone, it is also
imperat ive t o sust ain t he lives t hat are being saved. Early recovery effort s aim t o help people t o
re- est ablish t heir lives and build t owards a bet t er fut ure.
Following are t he key element s of t he Early Recovery St rat egy:
- I nt egrat ed delivery of assist ance at t he communit y level;
- Different iat ed package of support for t he most vulnerable;
- Combining quick impact act ivit ies and long- t erm sust ainable livelihood act ivit ies;
- Reducing fut ure disast er risks.
All t he humanit arian clust ers are planning early recovery act ivit ies and at t he same t ime t he
early recovery clust er is programming for act ivit ies not covered by ot her clust ers. I t is imperat ive
t hat various packages of support come t oget her at t he communit y level. For example, t raining of
art isans for t he const ruct ion of safer houses should address not only risk reduct ion concerns, but
also generat e j obs in t he const ruct ion indust ry and revit alize micro- ent erprises t hat produce building
mat erials. At t he same, t his could help improve healt h and hygiene condit ions at t he communit y
level.
The impact of t he cyclone has been felt different ly across various socio- economic groups.
Consequent ly, t he capacit y t o recover is also uneven. Therefore, it is import ant t hat recovery
An n e x 1 8 : Ea r l y Re co v e r y
167
programming at t he communit y level t akes int o account different ial vulnerabilit ies and capacit ies.
Some of t he vulnerable groups ( female headed households, orphaned children, single male parent
headed households, permanent ly disabled, t he elderly) will require addit ional assist ance not only in
t he short t erm, but also communit y based social safet y net s in t he longer run. The early recovery
assist ance at t he communit y level must focus on fost ering such social safet y net s.
One of t he main obj ect ives of early recovery effort s in t he Delt a region should be revit alizing
t he village economy t hrough quick impact proj ect s t hat creat e j obs and at t he same t ime rest ore
crit ical communit y infrast ruct ure and communit y capacit ies t o creat e a foundat ion for longer t erm
development . This is also an opport unit y t o diversify livelihoods at t he local level leading t o more
resilient local economies.
The Delt a region is a high disast er risk region charact erized by frequent small and medium-
scale nat ural hazard event s. Reducing disast er risk is a cornerst one of t he early recovery st rat egy. This
includes not only reducing t he risk of mort alit y or loss of capit al asset s ( shelt er and infrast ruct ure) ,
but also minimizing t he risk of losses in product ive act ivit ies at t he communit y level.
A coorDinAteD ApproAch to eArly recovery
The delivery and coordinat ion capacit y of assist ance providers and implement ing agencies
is key t o t he success of delivering early recovery support . Agencies must be able t o demonst rat e
t heir presence in t he affect ed areas, and t heir capacit y t o deliver against agreed obj ect ives. Delivery
capacit y will cont inue t o be heavily dependent on access t o t he affect ed areas and communit ies.
Early recovery act ivit ies should be closely coordinat ed wit hin and bet ween agencies and
clust ers, t o maximize t heir effect iveness, avoid gaps, minimize overlap, and reduce any burden t hat
agency presence may place on communit ies. I deally, early recovery init iat ives should work t o fost er
cooperat ion among local aut horit ies and civil societ y groups, in order t o increase t he effect iveness
and sust ainabilit y of local programmes and t o increase local part icipat ion in t he recovery effort . A
pragmat ic approach must be adopt ed, however, depending on t he operat ional cont ext .
eArly recovery cluSter outputS AnD inDicAtorS
As a mult i- dimensional process ( as opposed t o a sect or) , early recovery needs t o be organized
different ly from ot her sect or- based groupings. As a common concern it cannot be limit ed t o t he
work of one clust er. The t imeline adopt ed for t he early recovery is in keeping wit h t he Humanit arian
Appeal over t he period of t he next 12 mont hs. The Early Recovery Clust er focuses on t he areas of
early recovery not covered by ot her clust ers ( t he Early Recovery Net work) , and considered a priorit y
for t he collect ive success of t he early recovery effort . I n Myanmar, t hose key areas are as follows:
1. non-AgriculturAl livelihooDS
45 t o 55% of rural households are engaged in t he agricult ure sect or; wit h 90% of t hose in
farming and the remaining 10% in fshing and livestock rearing/raising. Most rural households have
homest ead gardens, and a subst ant ial number of households are also engaged in t rading of agricult ural
produce. More t han 80% of rural households have lost livelihood asset s. Rest oring t heir lives requires
urgent support t hrough t he provision of agricult ural input s, farm t ools and implement s, poult ry st ock
with feed and vaccination, and small fshing boats and nets. These assistance requirements are spelt
out by t he Agricult ure Clust er.
Households engaged in non- agricult ural act ivit ies and ot her off- farm act ivit ies - as well
as t hose landless poor relying on wage labour on agricult ural lands - require early access t o cash
income- generat ing opport unit ies. I mmediat e support needs t o be provided for int egrat ed livelihood
proj ect s t o enhance t he capacit y of cyclone- affect ed communit ies t o improve t heir economic st at us
and st imulat e local market and economies. Livelihoods support during t he early recovery effort
will focus on providing quick access t o public work schemes and t raining. Special at t ent ion will be
paid t o vulnerable cat egories of t he cyclone- affect ed populat ion, such as single- headed households
( eit her widows, widowers or t hose wit h absent men who are likely seeking work) , t hose living wit h
HI V, and t he disabled.
Proposed int ervent ions:
An n e x 1 8 : Ea r l y Re co v e r y
168
I mplement at ion of emergency public work schemes ( debris clearance, rehabilit at ion of •
communit y infrast ruct ure) ;
Provision of capit al funds t o self- reliance and livelihood groups t o meet t he urgent need for •
cash of members who have lost savings.
Delivery of communit y- based t raining programmes t o help develop skills and creat e •
employment opport unit ies for t he most socially and economically disadvant aged groups, in
part icular rural women, t hose living wit h HI V and people wit h disabilit ies;
Revival and recapitalization of micro-fnance schemes and self-reliance groups to support •
small- scale business opport unit ies;
Support for new invest ment opport unit ies, by diversifying income, possibly t hrough public- •
privat e part nerships ( subj ect t o feasibilit y assessment s) ; or
Rapid assessment of market s at t ownship level t o det ermine areas of support . •
Proposed indicat ors:
Livelihoods of x number of households in x number of villages rest ored and st rengt hened; •
X number of business management t rainings conduct ed; or •
Cash for work act ivit ies implement ed in x number of villages providing x person days of •
labour.
2. SociAl recovery
Capacit y building, t arget ing social recovery at t he communit y level, is key t o t he achievement
of recovery in t his area. Social recovery will be promot ed t hrough working t o revit alize and
empower local communit ies by encouraging and support ing civil societ y organizat ions - including
nat ional NGOs, communit y- based organizat ions, women’s groups and ot her self- help groups - and
st rengt hening t he links bet ween t hese groups and local aut horit ies. Recognizing t hat in many
cases, exist ing communit y- based organizat ions have led t he recovery effort so far, a concert ed effort
will be made t o support t hese exist ing st ruct ures, and/ or creat e a conducive environment for new
communit y- based organizat ions t o emerge as needed.
Communit y involvement in t he rest orat ion effort , t hrough t he repair or reconst ruct ion of
homes, schools, and ot her social st ruct ures, may help people t o ret urn t o a sense of normalcy; as
well as ensuring t hat t he rest ored infrast ruct ure meet s t heir act ual needs. Psycho- social support will
be provided t o help communit ies, part icularly t he most vulnerable groups, t o recover from t he loss
of family members and t he breakdown of social net works.
Proposed int ervent ions:
Assess t he capacit y and represent at iveness of exist ing communit y- based organizat ions and •
provide support for t hem as required;
Where t hose organizat ions don’ t exist , or are inappropriat e for ext ernal support , mobilize •
communit ies t o develop t heir own self- help groups;
St rengt hen womens’ net works t o encourage and facilit at e t heir involvement in decision- •
making processes relat ed t o post - cyclone recovery, including proj ect management guidance,
sector-specifc technical training, and advice and support on developing accountable
st ruct ures;
Organize village- level disast er recovery commit t ees; •
Provide advice and support t o households who will not be able t o ret urn t o t heir places of •
origin, as well as t o agencies working wit h t hose populat ions in t arget areas;
Provide psycho- social support , wit hin exist ing or new communit y- based organizat ions, for •
t hose dist ressed by t he cyclone and it s aft er- effect s;
Est ablish communit y feed- back mechanisms t hat allow communit ies t o voice t heir concerns, •
and link t hem wit h t hose organizat ions responsible for responding t o complaint s.
Proposed indicat ors:
An n e x 1 8 : Ea r l y Re co v e r y
169
I nformat ion and dat a available t o x number of communit ies on fort hcoming and ongoing •
early recovery int ervent ions;
Training of x number of civil societ y groups in preparedness and early warning; or •
Percent age or number of communit y- based organizat ions int egrat ed int o t ownship or village- •
based recovery plans.
3. community infrAStructure
Communit y infrast ruct ure will be repaired in order t o increase access for communit y mobilit y,
facilit at e t he movement of goods and people t o market s, and t o allow for improved access for
humanit arian and recovery part ners t o deliver assist ance. Cash for work act ivit ies will provide
immediat e labour for urgent repairs and facilit at e rapid income generat ion. Using small- scale
cont ract ors t o work on minor roads and associat ed st ruct ures ( bridges, culvert s, drainage- channels,
small link roads, and dirt t racks) is int ended t o generat e a mult iplier effect for t he local communit y
- linking employment - int ensive t echniques wit h local resources.
Proposed int ervent ions:
Clearance of debris; •
Rapid assessment of damage t o communit y buildings and spaces; •
Repair of minor village infrast ruct ure such as j et t ies and foot pat hs; or •
Repair of link roads t hrough local cont ract ors t o rest ore int er- village access. •
Proposed indicat ors:
Communit y buildings rest ored and st rengt hened in x number of villages; •
Volunt eers in x number of villages t rained in maint aining village wat er supply syst ems; or •
Est ablish or re- est ablish safer social infrast ruct ures, such as communit y resource cent res, •
in x number of villages.
4. environment
Environment al resources direct ly underpin t he livelihoods of poor people in Myanmar. Pre-
exist ing environment al damage has been exacerbat ed by t he cyclone, while ot her challenges have
appeared as a result of the disaster. A unifed effort is needed to improve assist the environment
t o recover so as t o become a sust ainable basis for communit y livelihoods.
A comprehensive post-cyclone environmental assessment would be a valuable frst step in
det ermining t he ext ent of environment al damage caused by t he cyclone. Of part icular int erest is
t he damage t o mangrove veget at ion, salinit y int rusion int o freshwat er resources, changes in delt a
hydrology caused by the fooding, and impact on soil quality due to salt water intrusion. It is also
ant icipat ed t hat communit y recovery effort s will have t heir own ecological impact on t he region and
beyond. For example, t imber needed for reconst ruct ion may come from t he mangrove veget at ion
and/ or from forest ry inland, and may be harvest ed in an unsust ainable manner. I mmediat e support
is required t o help communit ies and agencies minimize t he environment al foot print of t heir early
recovery act ions.
Proposed int ervent ions:
Assist local communit ies in sust ainable early recovery t o minimize ecological damage; •
Creat e an ‘environment al help- desk’ for agencies implement ing large- scale proj ect s in t he •
Delt a which may have un- int ended environment al consequences;
Scientifc assessment of the eco-system services provided by the mangroves, including •
disast er risk reduct ion, t o provide an evidence base for fut ure advocacy effort s; or
Comprehensive post - disast er environment al assessment of cyclone Nargis. •
Proposed indicat ors:
Number of communit ies t rained in sust ainable early recovery int ervent ions; •
Number of early recovery proj ect s screened for t heir environment al impact s; or •
An n e x 1 8 : Ea r l y Re co v e r y
170
Number of communit ies provided wit h on t he spot advice on disast er wast e management . •
5. DiSASter riSk reDuction (Drr)
Disast er risk reduct ion ( DRR) measures need t o be incorporat ed int o t he work of all clust ers/
sectors. Specifc DRR measures within the context of this strategy are also needed to strengthen
t he capacit y of communit ies t o wit hst and and deal wit h t he aft er- effect s of fut ure nat ural disast ers.
A frst step will involve identifying and targeting community groups and civil society organizations
in at - risk communit ies in order t o init iat e communit y- level capacit y- building act ivit ies. Measures
will also be int roduced t o incorporat e disast er risk reduct ion in early recovery effort s, promot ing t he
not ion of ‘build back bet t er ’ for t he housing sect or, set t lement planning, infrast ruct ure, healt h and
educat ion facilit ies, wat er and sanit at ion, and livelihoods.
Proposed int ervent ions:
Est ablishment of village disast er preparedness commit t ees; •
Identifcation of community resources for disaster response such as emergency shelters and •
equipment ;
Training of masons on hazard resist ant const ruct ions; •
Development and disseminat ion of guidelines for DRR across all sect ors; or •
Training for school t eachers t o raise awareness of children about disast er risks and disast er •
preparedness;
Proposed indicat ors:
Number of communit ies represent at ives t rained in disast er response and early- warning •
syst ems; or
Community resources for disaster response identifed in x number of villages. •
eArly recovery proceSSeS
croSS-cutting iSSueS
Key cross- cut t ing issues for early recovery include gender, HI V/ AI DS, environment , disabilit y
and Disast er Risk Reduct ion ( DRR) . Early recovery present s a unique possibilit y t o shape t he agenda
for longer- t erm recovery and development . Effect ively addressing cross- cut t ing issues from t he
st art t hereby present s an opport unit y t o promot e and st rengt hen equit y and equalit y for all, avoiding
marginalizat ion of cert ain groups or creat ion of new sources of risk. I t also provides an opport unit y
t o forge links bet ween programmes and agencies.
linkAgeS with other cluSterS
This st rat egy, t oget her wit h t he early recovery int ervent ions of ot her clust ers ment ioned
in earlier sect ions of t he PONJA, is one part of an overall package of early recovery assist ance for
t he cyclone- affect ed populat ion. I t represent s part of an int egrat ed and mult i- sect oral approach
t o early recovery. As a next st ep, an Early Recovery Act ion Plan will be developed, which will map
out t he implement at ion of early recovery t hrough a series of concret e, int er- linked programmes
and act ivit ies. The Act ion Plan will be cost ed and priorit ized, ident ifying t he agency responsible for
implement at ion, and providing t arget s and indicat ors for monit oring and follow- up.
monitoring
The Early Recovery Clust er and Net work will put in place a syst em t o monit or and evaluat e
performance against agreed early recovery obj ect ives. The Monit oring and Evaluat ion ( M&E) syst em
will be communit y- based, involving inclusive local- level consult at ions, t o allow communit ies t o feed
back on t he support t hat is being provided and adj ust priorit ies according t o t heir act ual needs.
An n e x 1 8 : Ea r l y Re co v e r y
171
Annex 19: DAtA Annex to the nAtionAl reSponSe
Dat a provided by t he Myanmar Government in conj unct ion wit h sect ion 5. 1. ‘The Nat ional
Response’.
tABle Showing DeAD AnD miSSing perSonS
By DiviSion AnD townShip (Annex 1)
1640 8
84537 53836 Grand Total
Table Showing Dead and Missing Persons
by Division and Township (Annex 1)
Sr.No Township Dead Missing
Ayeyarwady Division
1 Napudaw 4178 10
2 Labutta 33344 48464
3 Mawgyun 5250 2127
4 Phyarpone 1258 10
5 Bogale 34744 3198
6 Kyeik Latt 12 -
7 Dadeye` 4111 19
Sub-total 82897 53828
Yangon Division
8 Thanlynn 3 7
9 Kyauktan 13 -
10 Kayan 1 -
11 Thone Kwa 6 -
12 Twantay 25 -
13 Kawhmu 130 -
14 Kungyangon 1446 -
15 Dala 14 1
16 Seikkyi Kanaungto 2 -
Sub-total
Human toll
An n e x 1 9 : Da t a An n e x t o t h e Na t i o n a l Re s p o n s e
172
Annex (2A) proviSion of inputS(crop SuB-Sector) to the AffActeD AreAS
Annex (2a) Provision of inputs(crop sub-sector) to the affacted areas
(28,6,08)
Sr.No Particular Division Distributed Qty. Cost (US$ million) % Distributed Remark
1 Paddy seeds Ayeyarwady 23205 MT. 5.8 71% 7 townships
2 Paddy seeds Yangon 4024 MT. 1 88% 6 townships
3 Vegetable seeds Ayeyarwady 2094 kg 0.0008 100% -
4 Vegetable seeds Yangon 306 kg 0.0001 100% -
5 Power Tiller
Ayeyarwad
Yangon
y +
6708 nos. 2.08 67% -
Total 8.8809
Agri-crop
Annex (2B ) progreSS of lAnD prepArAtion in the AffecteD AreAS
Annex (2b ) Progress of Land Preparation in the affected areas
(28,6,08)
Sr.No Division Township
Completed
Area (ha.)
1 Ayeyarwady Ngapudaw 24611
2 Ayeyarwady Labutta 30524
3 Ayeyarwady Mawlamyaing Kyun 39952
4 Ayeyarwady Bogalay 32155
5 Ayeyarwady Phyarpone 20045
6 Ayeyarwady Kyaik Latt 30235
7 Ayeyarwady Dadeye` 41998
8 Yangon Kungyangon 22016
9 Yangon Kawhmu 19931
10 Yangon Kyauktan 61227
Total 322694
Note : Land Prepration : Planned area 764675 ha. ,
Completed Area 322694 ha. ,
Completed Percentage 42.20%
Agri-land & embankment
Not e : Land Preprat ion : Planned area 764675 ha. Complet ed Area 322694 ha. Complet ed Percent age 42. 20%
An n e x 1 9 : Da t a An n e x t o t h e Na t i o n a l Re s p o n s e
173
Annex (3A)
DAily heAlth cAre ActivitieS for the victimS of cyclone nArgiS in
yAngon DiviSion By miniStry of heAlth
g
Annex (3a)
Daily Health Care Activities for the victims of Cyclone Nargis in
Yangon Division by Ministry of Health
Date OPD Hosp OPD Camp
OPD
Total
Inpatient Diarrhea Referral
6-5-08 to
30-6-08
36,413 80,686 117,099 9,468 4,590 139
Daily Health Care Activities for the victims of Cyclone Nargis in
Ayeyawaddy Division by Ministry of Health
Date OPD Hosp OPD Camp
OPD
Total
Inpatient Diarrhea Referral
6-5-08 to
30-6-08
56,448 143,920 201,467 35,431 6,284 231
Number of persons treated by Traditional Medicine professionals
Date Date
Yangon
Division
Ayeyawady y y y
Division
20-5-08 to
30-6-08
85,163 40,684
Floating hospitals for victims of cyclone Nargis living along the sea
coast, streams and creeks in the Ayeyawady division
Date OPD Diarrhoea Referral
20-5-08 to
30-6-08
44,988 767 45
An n e x 1 9 : Da t a An n e x t o t h e Na t i o n a l Re s p o n s e
174
Annex (3B)miniStry of heAlth

activities by public health teams
"
" 18.6
5
Strore Depot
- Transportation fees "
100.28
Labour charges/ over time fees "
Traditional
edicines and Supplies
Annex (3b)Ministry of Health
Sr.No
(1) Finan
Responsible
Section
cial Support for T
Response Activities
ransportation
Date
Kyats in
Million
Administration
- Transportation cost for hiring motor
vehicles for field trips of specialist
(3-5-2008)
to 23.6
1
section, teams
(30-6-2008)
Department of
Health
- Fuel cost for traveling local and
outside Yangon
" 3.3
Public Health - Fuel cost for Nargis emergency relief
2
Teams
49.07
3
Traditional
Medicine
- Transportation cost for hiring motor
vehicles and ship
4
Department of
Medical - Hiring motor boats and fuel cost " 1.8
5
Research(LM)
University of
Public Public
Health
- Hiring of car and fuel Hiring of car and fuel " 0 81 0.81
6
Central Medical
3.1
Total
Sr.No
(2) Finan
Responsible
Section
cial Support for H
Response Activities Date
Per-diem for health personnel (1523) (3-5-2008)
uman Resource
Kyats in
Million
1 Ministry of Health persons from medical teams and public
health teams
to
(30-6-2008)
115.1
2 CMSD 2.5
3
Medicine
Per-diem for 88 health personnel " 11.9
4
National Malaria
Daily allowance for field officers " 4
5
Programme
DMR Daily allowance for health professional " 0.9
6 UOPH Daily allowance for health professional " 1.02
Total 135.42
(3) Financial Support for M
Health
An n e x 1 9 : Da t a An n e x t o t h e Na t i o n a l Re s p o n s e
175
Annex (4A) miniStry of foreStry’S itemizeD contriBution for the reconStruction
ActivitieS of cyclone DAmAgeD AreAS
ti iti f C l D dA
1 0 f
Annex (4b) Ministry of Forestry's Itemized Contribution for the
reconstruction
Sr.
Rehabilitation
Activities
Sawn Timber
(Cu. Ton)
Price Govt.
Subsidization
(Ks)
Actual Value
(Ks)
Offered
Price (Ks)
1
Yangon Division
special sale of sawn
timber for
reconstruction of
towns / villages
1318.7 292751400 52748000 240003400
2
construction of
Economy Housing
5708.7 1267176000 228320000 1038856000
3
reconstruction of
schools, hospitals and
religious buildings
2784.5 618159000 111380000 506779000
4
reconstruction of Govt.
Buildings
3650.1 810322200 146004000 664318200
1
Ayeyawady Division
special sale of sawn
i b f timber or
reconstruction of
towns / villages
3547 0 3547. 787434000 787434000 141880000 141880000 645554000 645554000
2
construction of
Economy Housing
83845.0 18613590000 3353800000 15259790000
3
reconstruction of
schools, hospitals and
religious buildings
1050.0 233100000 42000000 191100000
Total 101904.0 22622532600 4076132000 18546400600
Note. Actual production cost for 1 ton of sawn timber is 222,000 Ks., but Govt. of Myanmar sale in special
price of 40,000 Ks.
Forestry
Annex (4B) miniStry of foreStry’S itemizeD contriBution for the reconStruction
ActivitieS of cyclone DAmAgeDAreAS
(DiStriBution of logS)
Annex (5b) Ministry of Forestry's Itemized Contribution for the reconstruction
activities of Cyclone DamagedAreas
(Distribution of Logs)
(Kyats)
Sr. State/Division
Reconstruction
Activities
Distribution
(Cu. Ton)
Price/Cu.To
n
Amount
Govt.
Subsidizatio
n
1 Yangon
School/Hospital/
Religious
buildings
2500 97000 242500000 -
2 Ayeyawady
School/ Hospital/
Religious
Buildings
6500 97000 630500000 -
3 Ayeyawady Fishing Boats 8200 97000 795400000 -
Total 17200 1668400000
Forestry
An n e x 1 9 : Da t a An n e x t o t h e Na t i o n a l Re s p o n s e
176
Annex (5) DAmAgeS in eDucAtion Sector By School type AnD locAtion
Number of
School
Damaged/
Destroyed
Public Education
Totally or partially damaged schools 39,214
Roof damaged schools 10,859
Furniture, equipment and learning materials 13,766
Monastic Education
Partially damaged schools 308 1,331
Furniture and learning materials 345
Early childhood, Youth and Adult Literacy Centers
Partially or totally damaged public Institutions 310 828
Furniture and learning materials 132
Partially or totally damaged private Institutions 1,415
Furniture and learning materials 734
Higher Education
Roof damaged universities/offices 537 4 431
Annex (6) Damages in education sector by school type and location
(kyat million)
Roof damaged universities/offices 537 4,431
Furniture, equipment and learning materials 277
Administrative Offices 31 544
Primary schools
Totally or partially damaged schools 1778 33,663
Roof damaged schools 1685 9,007
Furniture, equipment and learning materials 11,216
Middle school
Totally or partially damaged schools 166 3,117
Roof damaged schools 167 886
Furniture, equipment and learning materials 1,332
High schools
Totally or partially damaged schools 129 2,433
Roof damaged schools 181 967
Furniture, equipment and learning materials 1,218
Grand Total 137,715
Education
An n e x 1 9 : Da t a An n e x t o t h e Na t i o n a l Re s p o n s e
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Annex 20: tripArtite core group
1St preSS releASe of tripArtite core group
yAngon, myAnmAr, 24 june 2008
1. The Tripart it e Core Group ( TCG) was formed aft er t he 19 May 2008 Special Associat ion of
Sout heast Asian Nat ions ( ASEAN) Foreign Minist erial Meet ing in Singapore, and t he 25 May 2008
ASEAN- Unit ed Nat ions I nt ernat ional Pledging Conference in Yangon, Union of Myanmar. The aim of
the TCG is to act as an ASEAN-led mechanism to facilitate trust, confdence and cooperation between
Myanmar and t he int ernat ional communit y in t he urgent humanit arian relief and recovery work aft er
Cyclone Nargis hit Myanmar ( 2 t o 3 May 2008) .
2. The TCG comprises 3 members from t he Myanmar Government : ( Deput y Foreign Minist er U
Kyaw Thu who is t he Chairman, Act ing Direct or- General, Minist ry of Social Welfare and Reset t lement
U Aung Tun Khaing, and Deput y Direct or- General, Minist ry of Agricult ure and I rrigat ion U Than Aye) ,
3 members from ASEAN ( Singapore’s Ambassador t o Myanmar Mr Robert H K Chua, Dr Puj i Puj iono,
a senior UNDP offcer seconded to the ASEAN Secretariat, and Ms Adelina Kamal, Assistant Director
of t he ASEAN Secret ariat ) and 3 from t he UN ( UN Humanit arian Coordinat or Mr Daniel Baker, UN
Resident Coordinat or Mr Bishow Paraj uli and a rot at ing UN agency Represent at ive) . The TCG st art ed
it s work on 31 May 2008 and has been meet ing at least once a week and somet imes more oft en, in a
spirit of mut ual underst anding, t rust and cooperat ion. I t has been working closely wit h t he Nat ional
Disast er Preparedness Cent ral Commit t ee chaired by His Excellency Prime Minist er General Thein
Sein, Union of Myanmar. The TCG has successfully complet ed t he following operat ional t asks:
i. Fulflling the commitment of His Excellency Senior General Than Shwe, Chairman of State
Peace and Development Council t o His Excellency Ban Ki- Moon, Secret ary- General of t he
Unit ed Nat ions, t hat visas for UN and foreign aid workers would be given and t heir access t o
cyclone- affect ed areas would be allowed. Request s for visas, visa ext ensions and permit s t o
t ravel are now channeled t hrough t he TCG for rapid facilit at ion.
ii. Since 2 June 2008, t he ent ry and deployment in Yangon and Ayeyarwady Divisions of t he 10
commercial helicopt ers cont ract ed by t he World Food Programme. These helicopt ers played
a key role in t he deployment of t he Post - Nargis Joint Assessment Teams in t he Ayeyawardy
Division (Delta) from 11 to 20 June 2008. They are now fying daily fights to provide
humanit arian relief supplies in t he cyclone- affect ed areas.
iii. The successful complet ion of t he Post - Nargis Joint Assessment ( PONJA) Teams in Ayeyarwady
Division (Delta) and Yangon Division from 11 June to 20 June 2008. 350 offcials and
volunt eers from t he Myanmar Government , ASEAN and UN support ed by t he World Bank,
Asian Development Bank, and bot h local and int ernat ional NGOs were t rained from 2 t o 3 June
2008 in t he est ablished dat a gat hering t emplat es of t he Village Tract Assessment ( VTA) used
by t he UN, and t he Damage and Loss Assessment ( DaLA) used by t he World Bank and Asian
Development Bank. 85 DaLA members, and 245 VTA members, support ed by 20 members
in the coordinating offce in Yangon were subsequently deployed. Advance teams were sent
t o Labut t a and Pyapon, t wo severely affect ed t ownships in t he Ayeyawardy Division ( Delt a)
t o t est t he assessment quest ionnaires from 4 June t o 7 June 2008. The dat a collect ed
by t he PONJA t eams from 380 villages will lead t o a credible and independent damage
assessment report , as mandat ed by t he 25 May 2008 ASEAN- Unit ed Nat ions I nt ernat ional
Pledging Conference in Yangon. This will allow donors to fulfll their pledge commitments
t o t he cyclone vict ims and help in t he recovery and reconst ruct ion. The PONJA report will
be published in Yangon and submit t ed t o t he ASEAN Foreign Minist erial Meet ing ( 20- 21
July 2008) in Singapore. I t will also provide input s t o t he UN’s revised Humanit arian Flash
Appeal in July 2008 in New York for post - Nargis emergency and early recovery effort s.
3. The TCG, represent ing t he Myanmar Government , ASEAN and t he UN, cont inues t o work
in a spirit of mut ual underst anding, t rust and cooperat ion t o address pressing issues such as t he
implement at ion of t he new Guiding Principles on t he work of t he UN and I NGOs, and t he cont inuing
work of post - Nargis relief, recovery and reconst ruct ion.
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2nD preSS releASe of the tripArtite core group
“further inroAD to relief AnD eArly recovery for victimS of cyclone nArgiS”
yAngon, 2 july 2008
The Tripart it e Core Group ( TCG) of ASEAN, Government of t he Union of Myanmar, and
the United Nations has been meeting regularly to monitor, coordinate and facilitate the fow of
int ernat ional relief aid int o t he cyclone- hit areas.
On 25 June 2008 in Yangon, t he TCG present ed t o t he 3rd Meet ing of t he ASEAN Humanit arian
Task Force the frst stage of the Post-Nargis Joint Assessment (PONJA). “The PONJA was conducted
j oint ly by TCG component s and part ners t o assess comprehensively all sect ors t hrough unimpeded
access t o more t han 300 villages t hroughout t he Delt a. Rigorous prot ocols and met hodologies
were implemented to ascertain that the assessment stands up to both scientifc and international
standards”, explained Dr. Puji Pujiono in his report to the Task Force. More than 300 people from
international aid agencies, government offcials, Red Cross Movement, INGO and NGO members of
t he I nt er-Agency St anding Commit t ee, and volunt eers t ook part in t he exercise.
I n his opening remarks, Dr. Surin Pit suwan, Chairman of t he Task Force and Secret ary- General
of ASEAN stated that the exercise will be the basis for further cooperation and collaboration. “We
want t o ensure t hat t he condit ions and reservat ions expressed by t he represent at ives of 51 count ries,
t he int ernat ional inst it ut ions, int ernat ional NGOs who at t ended t he ASEAN- UN I nt ernat ional Pledging
Conference on 25 May 2008 in Yangon – issues relat ed t o t ransparency, accessibilit y and t he issue
of reaching the affected people – are addressed through this community-based assessment”, Dr.
Surin said.
UN Humanitarian Coordinator, Mr. Daniel Baker said,”The preliminary fndings provide us
with the impetus to intensify our ongoing relief and early recovery efforts. The fndings will provide
crit ical input s t o t he Appeal Revision scheduled t o be released bot h in t he UN in New York and
Geneva on 10 July”. The full report is to be released by the ASEAN Foreign Ministers in Singapore on
20 – 21 July 2008.
I n t he past week, t he TCG learnt t hat swift act ion t aken by t he Minist ry of Healt h of Myanmar
wit h t he support of t he Unit ed Nat ions, ASEAN, t he Red Cross, and int ernat ional/ nat ional NGOs has
prevent ed mass out break of disease t hat was feared aft er t he cyclone. Ten medical t eams from
ASEAN and ot her count ries part icipat ed in a Medical Missions Feedback Workshop, held in Yangon on
23 June 2008, t o provide feedback t o t he Myanmar Minist er of Healt h, ASEAN and t he WHO/ Healt h
Clust er.
Subsequent ly, in t he ASEAN Roundt able, also held in Yangon on 24 June 2008, t he TCG
members not ed experiences of ASEAN and neighbouring count ries in post - disast er response and
recovery as present ed by expert s. Heru Praset yo of Tsunami Rehabilit at ion and Reconst ruct ion for
Aceh and Nias, Indonesia, was optimistic. ”Judging the progress at the eights week so far, the TCG
effort s in managing response and preparing t he recovery has placed Myanmar Nargis in much more
advanced st age compared t o Aceh Tsunami t hen. No doubt , t he j ourney t o recovery will be uphill
and arduous”, he said. Other experts from Thailand, Bangladesh and Pakistan also shared their
experiences and lessons learnt . Views and ways forward for t he relief and early recovery effort s and
fut ure programme were also discussed.
ASEAN Secret ary- General Dr. Surin Pit suwan and UN Under Secret ary- General/ UNESCAP
Execut ive Secret ary Noelleen Heyzer, accompanied by t he TCG Chairman and members from ASEAN
and t he UN, visit ed t he Ayeyarwady ( I rrawaddy) Delt a on 26 June 2008 t o wit ness t he relief and
early recovery efforts. For the frst time, media community from ASEAN countries were invited to
see for t hemselves t he cont inuing relief work from t he Government , privat e individuals, and t he
int ernat ional communit y. Deput y Foreign Minist er and TCG Chairman U Kyaw Thu explained t o t he
media,” The Government is currently focusing on quickly providing low-cost housing and temporary
school buildings for t he cyclone- affect ed communit ies. Business communit y, religious inst it ut ions
and private donors have been extending generous support to this effort”.
From 9 t o 30 June 2008, t he TCG has aut horised ent ry visas and ext ension of st ay permit s t o
294 offcials and individuals coming to Myanmar for extending assistance to Cyclone Nargis. With the
An n e x 2 0 : Tr i p a r t i t e Co r e Gr o u p
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support of t he TCG, t he humanit arian communit y has been able t o expand assist ance t o t he vict ims
of t he cyclone. Wit h t he addit ional capacit y t hat has been deployed t o t he Delt a facilit at ed by t he
TCG, as well as t he support provided for t he t ransit of relief it ems int o Myanmar and down int o t he
Delt a, assist ance effort s have reached over 1. 3 million people.
The TCG welcomed Singapore’s donat ion of Ground Handling Equipment on 26 June 2008.
“The equipment will enable the ground handling of larger planes and speed up the unloading and
delivery of international relief supplies from the donor community at Yangon International Airport”,
said Singapore’s Ambassador t o Myanmar, Mr. Robert H K Chua.
iSSueD in yAngon, myAnmAr
2 july 2008
An n e x 2 0 : Tr i p a r t i t e Co r e Gr o u p
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Annex 21: DiSASter riSk mAnAgement
myAnmAr’S vulnerABility to nAturAl hAzArDS AnD climAte chAnge
hiStoricAl hAzArD riSk profile
Myanmar is exposed t o a range of frequent ly occurring hydro- met eorological and less
frequent geophysical hazards. I t s coast al regions are exposed t o cyclones, t ropical st orms/ st orm
surges, and tsunamis. Rainfall-induced fooding is a recurring phenomenon across the country. The
whole country is at risk from earthquakes, droughts, and fres, while the country’s hilly regions are
also exposed t o landslide risks. Less frequent event s include t ornadoes, t hunderst orms and heat
waves. Historical data indicates that between 1996 and 2005, urban fres constituted about 70% of
disaster events, followed by foods (11%), storms (10%) and others (9%) including earthquakes,
t sunami and landslides. I n t he 1910- 2000 period, t here were at least 14 maj or windst orms, 6
earthquakes, and 12 major foods.
hAzArD expoSure in the DeltA region
Cy cl ones: There are t wo t ropical st orm seasons in t he Bay of Bengal and t he Andaman Sea t hat
affect Myanmar – April t o May and Oct ober t o December. Tropical st orms are oft en accompanied by
st orm surges. Alt hough t he Rakhine coast and t he Ayeyarwady coast s are most t hreat ened by st orm
surges, t he coast of t he Delt a and of Mon St at e are also exposed . Over t he last sixt y years, 11
severe t ropical cyclones have made landfall in Myanmar, of which only t wo have made landfall in t he
Delta region. Cyclone Nargis, rated as one of the deadliest cyclones of all time, was the frst tropical
cyclone t o st rike t he count ry since Cyclone Mala made landfall in 2006.
Fl oods: The cyclone-affected region of Myanmar is also highly exposed to fooding. Most of the
region receives more t han 400 cm rainfall annually. Concent rat ed spells of rain during t he monsoon
season cause foods in the Chindwin, Ayeyarwady, Thanlwin and Sittaung river basins. In the Delta
region, when high rainfall is accompanied by high tide in the seas, extended periods of fooding are
experienced in many set t lement s.
Fi r es: Although not an entirely “natural” hazard, fre incidents very frequently occur in the region,
at t ribut able mainly t o prevalent housing pat t erns ( dry t hat ch roofed houses) and local pract ices of
in-door cooking on wood fred stoves.
Tsunami s: There is a recorded hist ory of 11 t sunami event s affect ing t he nort heast ern shores
of t he I ndian Ocean ( Bay of Bengal and t he Andaman Sea) over t he last 250 years. The I ndian
Ocean t sunami of December 2004 left more t han 60 people dead and more t han 2, 500 homeless in
Myanmar ’s coast al areas.
projecteD impActS of climAte chAnge
Current lit erat ure on t he impact s of climat e change on Myanmar is quit e limit ed. The count ry
has not yet complet ed t he preparat ion of it s Nat ional Adapt at ion Plan of Act ion t o respond t o climat e
change t hreat s. However, t here appear t o be some emerging climat e change t rends t hat were
recently presented in the form of initial (unpublished) research fndings by DMH at the recent ADPC-
DMH Monsoon Forum. These include, frstly, a gradual warming, over the last 40 years, in the Bay
of Bengal region close t o Ayeyarwady delt a. Secondly, over t he last 40 years, t he monsoon t rough
t hat forms around t he onset of t he monsoon in t he Bay of Bengal has gradually moved sout hwards,
from 20 degree N t o 10 degree N near t he Ayeyarwady Delt a coast .
These oceanic and at mospheric processes need t o be st udied in a comprehensive manner t o
ascert ain whet her t hey represent a long- range cyclical process or a permanent shift in t he climat e
syst em. Wit hin t he cont ext of a broader analysis of climat e relat ed hazards out lined above, t here is
a need to undertake a scientifc diagnostic of cyclone Nargis as well. Seen against the backdrop of
hist orical cyclone t racks in t he Bay of Bengal, t his was an unusual event . The t ropical depressions
t hat formed in t he Bay of Bengal in t he last week of April 2008 appeared t o be headed t owards t he
Rakhine coast . However, t wo days before it made landfall, t he syst em met wit h west erly dist urbances
and moved eastwards, making landfall in the Delta region. Further scientifc investigation is needed
t o det ermine whet her t his represent s a syst emic shift in t he nat ure of cyclones originat ing in t he Bay
An n e x 2 1 : Di s a s t e r Ri s k Ma n a g e m e n t
181
of Bengal or whet her it was a rare event .
Such fndings would have signifcant implications for disaster risk management and adaptation
t o climat e change in Myanmar. I n addit ion, it is import ant t o highlight t hat delt a regions all over
t he world face special vulnerabilit ies t o t he impact s of climat e change. I t is an opport une t ime for
dialogue bet ween Myanmar and ot her count ries t hat are cont ending wit h possible impact s of climat e
change in t heir delt a regions.
current inStitutionAl ArrAngementS, initiAtiveS AnD cApAcitieS for DiSASter
mAnAgement in myAnmAr
centrAl AnD locAl inStitutionAl ArrAngementS
The Government of Myanmar has est ablished inst it ut ional arrangement s for dealing wit h
disast ers and has syst ems and pract ices for disast er prevent ion and preparedness. While t here are
a number of ongoing public sector initiatives on disaster prevention, there currently is no specifc
long- t erm nat ional st rat egy or plan for disast er risk reduct ion ( DRR) . At t he nat ional level, t he
nat ional Nat ural Disast er Preparedness Cent ral Commit t ee ( NDPCC) chaired by t he Prime Minist er
is t he apex body on disast er issues. At t he lower administ rat ive levels, t he Chairmen of t he St at e/
Division/ Township Peace and Development Councils head t he Disast er Prevent ion and Preparedness
Commit t ees at various levels.
Emergency response funct ions are primarily assigned t o t he Fire Services depart ment under
t he Minist ry of Social Welfare. I n addit ion, t he Depart ment for Met eorology and Hydrology ( DMH) is
responsible for disast er forecast ing and early warning disseminat ion, and is current ly leading a few
new initiatives in the area of disaster risk identifcation, assessment and monitoring. Other major
part ners for disast er risk management include t he Myanmar Red Cross Societ y, t he Depart ment s of
Heat h, I rrigat ion and General Administ rat ion, as well as t he police and armed forces.
current DiSASter prevention AnD prepAreDneSS initiAtiveS
The Government of Myanmar has indicat ed t hat it has undert aken a number of init iat ives
for disast er prevent ion and preparedness in recent years. These encompass a range of act ivit ies,
including advanced River Forecast ing and Flood warning syst ems; Empirical St orm Surge Modeling
by t he DMH; development of a long t erm prevent ion and preparedness for cyclone and st orm
surges; const ruct ion of risk mit igat ion infrast ruct ure such as eart hen embankment s consist ing of
shelters and drinking water ponds in parts of the coastal zone; and reinforcement of food protection
infrast ruct ure such as dykes and wat er barriers by t he I rrigat ion Depart ment .
The Government has furt her indicat ed t hat at t he local/ t ownship level, t he respect ive disast er
relief and preparedness commit t ees lead a range of prevent ive measures and post - disast er relief
act ivit ies, including evacuat ion, emergency t ransport at ion and communicat ions, shelt er provision,
and healt hcare. Localized disast er preparedness and prevent ion measures mainly include disast er
awareness raising and salt - wat er prot ect ion for infrast ruct ure in t he Delt a region.
key leSSonS leArnt from the poSt-nArgiS DiSASter reSponSe
Some of t he key lessons learnt from t he post - Nargis emergency response, in t he cont ext of
disast er risk reduct ion and prevent ion, include t he following:
The nat ional forecast ing and early warning syst ems. . The post - Nargis j oint assessment by
DMH and ADPC concluded t hat t he DMH’s syst em for cyclone det ect ion, predict ion and forecast ing
funct ioned well. I t was able t o det ect t he cyclone at an early st age. The syst em was found well linked
wit h ot her informat ion sources, such as t he Joint Typhoon Warning Cent er, t he I ndia Met eorological
Depart ment , t he Thai Met eorological Depart ment and t he ADPC. However, lack of risk communicat ion
infrast ruct ure beyond t he t ownship level result ed in a devast at ing impact on t hose communit ies who
did not recvie advance warning of t he crisis.
Communit y response. Communit ies t ended t o underest imat e t he int ensit y of t he impending
cyclone, and were slow t o react wit h most believing t hat st aying indoors would offer enough
protection from the winds, fooding and surge. This is understandable in a region which has not
been frequent ed by cyclones of such magnit ude.
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Lack of evacuat ion facilit ies and prot ocols. I n t he absence of prot ect ive shelt ers and
evacuat ion prot ocols and procedures, t he communit ies had nowhere t o t ake refuge or reach safet y.
The sheer scale of dest ruct ion also meant t hat local search and rescue equipment , and in some cases
t he physical means and t ransport infrast ruct ure were short of what was urgent ly required.
Lack of disast er resist ant privat e and communit y infrast ruct ure. Most housing st ock and
communit y buildings in t he coast al areas were not designed or const ruct ed t o disast er resist ant
standards. Even the religious buildings to which people focked in some cases proved inadequate to
wit hst and t he severit y of t he cyclone.
Lack of preparedness & poor coping mechanisms. Alt hough some of t he communit ies had
undertaken disaster preparedness planning in the context of other hazards (such as fres and foods),
most communit ies were complet ely unprepared. There is a need for communit y based disast er
preparedness, which builds on communit y init iat ive, and maximizes t he use of communit y resources,
capacit ies and local knowledge.
regionAl AgreementS, pArtnerShipS AnD inStitutionS for DiSASter riSk
mAnAgement
The Government of Myanmar t akes part in a number of regional and int ernat ional collaborat ive
act ivit ies on disast er risk management . I t is commit t ed t owards achieving progress on t he key
priorities for action identifed under the Hyogo Framework for Action (2005-15). At the regional level,
t he ASEAN Agreement on Disast er Management and Emergency Response ( AADMER) and t he ASEAN
Regional Programme on Disast er Management ( ARPDM) provide opport unit ies for promot ing regional
cooperation. Myanmar can beneft from these existing regional frameworks and programmes for
act ion. Myanmar has ongoing cooperat ion wit h t he Asian Disast er Preparedness Cent re ( ADPC) on
early warning issues t hat can be furt her st rengt hened. There has also been a broader dialogue wit h
t he WMO, UNESCO, I OC and ESCAP on st rengt hening early warning syst ems in t he count ry.
mAnAging DiSASter riSk – A frAmework of key iSSueS, neeDS AnD prioritieS for
Drm
Cyclone Nargis highlight ed Myanmar ’s ext reme vulnerabilit y t o high impact , low frequency
nat ural hazards, and also t he need for t he count ry t o undert ake a range of act ions for reducing
disast er risks. There is st rat egic guidance available in t he form of t he Hyogo Framework for Act ion
t hat can be cont ext ualized t o Myanmar.
Disast er risk reduct ion work in Myanmar is in it s nascent phase. Therefore, a phased approach
is recommended, which initially focuses on “quick wins” in terms of enhancing disaster preparedness
in t he affect ed areas. A gradual move can t hen be made t owards a more comprehensive disast er
risk reduction effort frst in the affected areas and then extended to the other vulnerable parts of
t he count ry.
Based on discussions wit h a range of local and nat ional st akeholders, t his sect ion suggest s
priorit ies for disast er risk management over t he immediat e, short , medium and long t erms, building
upon t he DRR relat ed init iat ives incorporat ed in t he UN’s Early Recovery St rat egy. The suggest ed
activities could be aligned along fve main pillars: (a) risk identifcation and assessment; (b)
st rengt hening and enhancing emergency preparedness; ( c) inst it ut ional capacit y building; ( d) risk
mitigation investments, and; (e) risk fnancing and transfer mechanisms. These activities are in
consonance with the priorities identifed under Hyogo Framework for Action.
immeDiAte AnD Short term neeDS
Communit y- based disast er preparedness and enhancing risk awareness
A lot of t he humanit arian and early recovery assist ance is being delivered t hrough communit y
level organizat ions set up at t he village level. There is an opport unit y t o use t he same communit y-
based organizat ions t o enhance disast er preparedness. This could include following main element s:
format ion of village disast er preparedness commit t ees; format ion of specialized disast er management
teams (search and rescue, frst aid, early warning, evacuation, emergency food supplies etc.);
community based risk assessments including mapping of past disaster impacts, and identifcation of
priorit y int ervent ions at t he communit y level; provision of some basic disast er response resources;
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and provision of communit y buildings t hat can be used as cyclone shelt ers. Wit h relat ively small
amount of resources, t hese act ions will enhance communit y preparedness t o respond t o disast ers and
t hus minimize t he loss of lives and livelihoods. Over t ime, as part of a comprehensive inst it ut ional
syst em, t he same communit y- based st ruct ures can be used for ant icipat ory ( reducing fut ure risks)
risk management at t he local level.
St rengt hening local level element s of early warning syst ems
Cyclone Nargis exposed weaknesses in t he local level element s of early warning syst ems in t he
count ry. Under t he leadership of t he government , and in cooperat ion wit h regional and int ernat ional
agencies, an end- t o- end review of t he early warning syst ems is current ly underway. Effort s t o
generat e improved forecast s and warning need t o be mat ched wit h equal ( if not great er) emphasis on
effect ive communicat ion syst ems, public awareness and social infrast ruct ure at t he communit y level.
This includes improving the communication of offcial early warning to the vulnerable communities by
using mult iple channels of communicat ion – radio ( more frequent bullet ins, more air t ime compared
t o exist ing 12 hours) , local peace and development council communicat ion syst ems and monast ery
loudspeakers. There is a need for developing locally appropriat e prot ocols for communicat ing early
warning t hat link wit h communit y based disast er preparedness effort s. For example, it is not enough
t o issue an early warning t hat st at es t he expect ed wind speed, but it is import ant t o st at e t he
expect ed severit y ( in cat egories) of an approaching cyclone, t he damage it can cause and t he act ions
t hat need t o be undert aken t o minimize losses.
I nt roducing disast er risk reduct ion in recovery effort s
The affect ed communit ies have begun t o rebuild shelt ers using mat erials salvaged from t he
damaged houses and relief it ems provided t o t hem. Rebuilding of permanent shelt ers is likely t o
begin only aft er t he current monsoon season. This present s an opport unit y t o undert ake preparat ory
work in the interim period to support the notion of “build back better” when full-scale long-term
recovery begins. I n t his int erim period, a range of locally appropriat e const ruct ion t echnologies
can be identifed that can be introduced in the cyclone-affected areas. Over the coming months,
manuals and guidelines on t hese const ruct ion t echnologies can be prepared and a crit ical mass of
building art isans can be t rained. There is a need t o init iat e t he process of set t ing design and safet y
guidelines for housing, set t lement planning, infrast ruct ure, healt h and educat ion facilit ies, wat er and
sanit at ion, and livelihoods.
Short AnD meDium term neeDS
Comprehensive mult i- hazard risk assessment
There is a need to undertake a scientifc multi-hazard risk assessment of the affected area
as a frst step towards better defning the risk environment in the area. There is signifcant scientifc
and t echnical capacit y wit hin t he count ry t hat can be brought t oget her t o undert ake t his exercise.
Experiences from ot her count ries can inform t his process. A sound mult i- hazard risk assessment can
guide t he recovery process as well as fut ure invest ment in development processes. I t is import ant ,
however, t o highlight t hat disast er risk management decisions will have t o be looked at wit hin t he
cont ext of ot her risks t hat t he communit ies are exposed t o. For example, sit ing of set t lement s at
a dist ance of 500m or more from t he high t ide line would reduce risk from cyclones, st orm surges
and tsunamis. However, this may increase livelihood risk for fsher folk and therefore prove to be
unsust ainable ( in ot her words people would ret urn t o t heir coast al locat ions over t ime) . So, t he
management of disaster risk – based on an objective scientifcally based assessment – will have to
be weighed against ot her risks.
I n t he medium t erm, a more det ailed, nat ional level disast er risk assessment could be
carried out t hat could: ( a) t ake int o account t he charact erist ics of hist orical hazard event s; ( b)
est imat e t he exposed asset base for each locat ion/ hazard and calculat e t he damage t o different asset
t ypes, and; ( c) calculat e est imat ed monet ary losses for each region. Such underst anding of pot ent ial
economic losses could help the country in reviewing the physical, human and fnancial exposures
and det ermining levels of risks t hat might be accept able and t hose t hat should be mit igat ed. This
could also form a basis for updat ing emergency plans and procedures and undert aking t raining and
capacit y building programs.
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St rengt hening inst it ut ional and legislat ive arrangement s for disast er risk management syst ems in
t he affect ed areas
The recovery effort provides an opport unit y t o st rengt hen exist ing or est ablishing new
institutional, legislative and fnancial arrangements for comprehensive disaster risk management.
Disast er risk reduct ion has t o be made part of t he invest ment programs of various sect oral minist ries
and depart ment s. This will require support ing and building t he capacit y of t he various nat ional
and sub- nat ional disast er prevent ion management commit t ees t o develop and implement disast er
management plans at various levels, and mobilize adequat e response resources.
Mainst reaming disast er risk reduct ion and mit igat ion across sect ors
This will include advocacy for mainst reaming disast er risk reduct ion wit h t he obj ect ive
of ensuring t hat DRR will gradually become a formal inst it ut ional priorit y across sect ors and in
development al programming across t hese sect ors. This will include est ablishing measures t o
incorporat e DRR in urban and land use planning, est ablishing mechanisms t o increasing t he resilience
of t he poor and t he most vulnerable, and t he st imulat ion of DRR act ivit ies in t he product ion and
service sect ors.
Fost ering Nat ional- level Public- Privat e Part nership Forums
I n order t o achieve sust ainable disast er risk reduct ion, it is import ant t o est ablish/ st rengt hen
nat ional level mechanisms t hat bring t oget her a range of st akeholders including all development
sect ors, privat e sect or, academia and t he civil societ y. I n line wit h t he Hyogo Framework for Act ion,
t his will help ensure t hat disast er risk reduct ion becomes a nat ional priorit y across t he board and
holist ic approaches are adopt ed t owards disast er risk reduct ion. Such a mechanism already exist s in
t he form of Cent ral Commit t ee, which needs t o be st rengt hened and made broad- based.
Explore t he development of micro- insurance mechanisms
A number of nat ional and int ernat ional NGOs and UN agencies have been working on
community-based micro-fnance programmes in the affected area. Over a period of time, these
programmes have cont ribut ed t o human development gains in t he affect ed area. The recent
disaster has eroded some of these development gains. As these micro-fnance programmes are
refnanced, there is an opportunity to introduce – in selected communities on an experimental
basis – micro- insurance programmes t o guard against nat ural hazards. A series of insurance and
derivat ive product s could be developed t o meet t he needs of groups of small farmers and micro-
ent erprises. For some of t he small ent erprises – such as rice mills – insurance product s are already
available although the coverage is limited only to fres. Efforts to develop new products could build
on t his experience.
St rengt hen local level disast er preparedness and response syst ems
I n t he affect ed areas, some basic disast er response capacit ies exist at t he sub- t ownship
level in t he form of Fire Services. The scope of responsibilit ies of t he Fire Services can be expanded
t o include emergency response more broadly. There is a need for invest ment in improving t he basic
emergency infrast ruct ure, response equipment , and skills of personnel. The post - Nargis recovery
and reconst ruct ion effort provides an opport unit y t o syst emat ically assess t he current capacit ies
of emergency services, est ablish minimum st andards based on local hazard risks, and upgrade
accordingly. The village disast er preparedness commit t ees, t o be set up under communit y- based
disast er preparedness init iat ives, can receive t raining on different aspect s of emergency response
from the local emergency services. Such “peace time” interaction would ensure that in times of
disast ers, bot h communit y based organizat ions and local emergency services work in t andem and
maximize t he use of t heir combined capacit ies and resources.
“ End- t o- End” Mult i Hazard Early Warning and Disseminat ion Syst ems
I n t he medium t erm, t here is a need t o undert ake an end- t o- end assessment of t he exist ing
early warning syst em in Myanmar. This would cover an analysis of exist ing forecast ing and warning
capabilit ies, mechanisms for t ranslat ing forecast s int o easily underst andable and usable warning
messages, and prot ocols for communicat ing t he warnings and syst ems at t he local level t o act
upon early warning. On the basis of such audits, “end-to-end” multi hazard early warning and
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disseminat ion syst ems could be designed and implement ed for t he count ry, along wit h st andard
operat ing procedures at different administ rat ive levels.
Const ruct ion of Mult i- Purpose Evacuat ion Shelt ers
There is great need for disast er shelt ers t o be const ruct ed along t he coast al belt for prot ect ion
against cyclones and tsunamis, and also possibly in frequently fooded areas, and for other natural
calamit ies. I n areas wit h high populat ion densit y and high value economic asset s t he shelt ers
should be designed t o accommodat e 1 in 100 year event s. Where appropriat e, shelt ers should be
mult ipurpose buildings ( e. g. educat ion facilit ies) , connect ed t o livest ock shelt ers, wit h adequat e
wat er supply, sanit at ion facilit ies and st orage for food and supplies needed for survival immediat ely
aft er t he disast ers. These shelt ers should be connect ed wit h t he communicat ion net work for speedy
evacuat ion and delivery of relief supplies during disast ers. As a mat t er of policy, all public buildings
const ruct ed in t he high risk zones should be mult i- purpose and of shelt er grade.
I nt egrat ing Disast er Risk Reduct ion in Educat ion and Training I nst it ut ions:
There is a clear need for int egrat ing disast er risk reduct ion concerns in development planning
across all development sect ors and across all administ rat ive levels. An effect ive way of achieving t his
over t he long run would be t hrough int egrat ing disast er risk reduct ion int o t he course curricula of
relevant educat ion and administ rat ive t raining inst it ut ions.
meDium AnD long term neeDS
Physical Mit igat ion I nvest ment s
A range of physical risk mit igat ion opt ions and proj ect s could be undert aken over t he medium
t o long t erm, following t he init ial disast er resist ant reconst ruct ion and rehabilit at ion of asset s and
infrast ruct ure damaged by Cyclone Nargis. This could t ypically include bot h larger proj ect s such as
riverine and coast al embankment s and embankment prot ect ion works, expansion and improvement
of t ransport infrast ruct ure, as well as bot t om- up communit y- based risk mit igat ion invest ment s at
t he micro level. The lat t er could be based on part icipat ory communit y risk assessment s ( CRA) .
I nt egrat ed coast al zone management
There is a need t o harmonize various environment al management effort s in t he coast al zone.
This will help reduce disast er risk and also creat e opport unit ies for sust ainable livelihoods for t he
affect ed communit ies.
Promot ing mangroves replant ing and ecosyst em preservat ion
There is a longer t erm need for improving and rehabilit at ing t he count ry’s nat ural defences
against foods and other hazards such as cyclones and tsunamis through ecosystem preservation
and replant ing of mangroves along t he coast al belt .
I nt egrat ed climat e risk management
The hazards associat ed wit h climat e change are likely t o pose new risks t o t he communit ies
living in t he cyclone affect ed areas. There is a need t o research climat e relat ed risks in a comprehensive
manner including 1) underst anding t he implicat ions of natural fuctuations in t he climat e syst em
from season t o season, year t o year or in some cases from decade t o decade; 2) det ect ing and
underst anding t he implicat ions of obser vabl e t r ends in climat e change; 3) analyzing t he possible
implicat ions of pr oj ect ed cl i mat e change on a decadal t ime scale. Such an int egrat ed approach
will help devise pract ical st rat egies t hat will begin t o address present - day concerns over weat her and
climat e- relat ed losses, while also preparing ground for longer- t erm risk management .
Cat ast rophe Risk Financing and Transfer
A well-designed risk fnancing program enables a disaster-prone country to avoid major
economic disrupt ions following nat ural disast ers by meet ing it s post - disast er funding needs wit hout
resort ing t o maj or budget reallocat ions, addit ional t axat ion, or ext ernal borrowing. This involves
calculat ing t his resource gap – t he difference bet ween probable maximum losses for a given disast er
ret urn period and ex- post resources available t o t he government – and t hen det ermining t he most
cost - effect ive way of funding it . To meet it s post - disast er funding needs, t he government can resort
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t o a combinat ion of ex post sources of funding and ex- ant e funding arrangement s. Ex- ant e funding
arrangement s include reserve funds, cont ingent capit al facilit ies, and risk t ransfer inst rument s
( insurance and reinsurance) . The possibilit y of buying risk coverage from t he int ernat ional capit al
market s, including re- insurers, could also be explored. This would inj ect liquidit y immediat ely aft er
t he disast er and enhance coping as well as provide hazard cont ingent budget support . Depending on
t he peril, t he insurance arrangement s would follow paramet ric or index based t riggers. I n t he case
of Myanmar, the coverage could include weather related events such as foods and cyclones.
Next st eps. A more det ailed plan and cost ing of cross- cut t ing disast er prevent ion and
preparedness act ivit ies should be complet ed following t he assessment .
conSoliDAteD frAmework of Drm neeDS AnD prioritieS
The mat rix below provides a summary consolidat ed framework of t he DRM needs and
priorities identifed above, grouped together along the lines of the 5 pillars described earlier.
9 Annex 20: Disast er Risk Management
CONSOLI DATED FRAMEWORK OF DRM NEEDS AND PRI ORI TI ES
The mat rix below provides a summary consolidat ed framework of t he DRM needs
and priorit ies ident ified above, grouped t oget her along t he lines of t he 5 pillars
described earlier.
Tabl e: Needs and Pr i or i t i es f or Di sast er Ri sk Management
DRM Needs I mmedi at e
– Shor t
Ter m
Shor t –
Medi um
Ter m
Medi um-
Long
Ter m
Communit y- based Risk Assessment s Risk ident ificat ion
and assessment
( HFA Prior it y 2)
1
Comprehensive mult i- hazard risk
assessment at nat ional level
Communit y- based disast er
eparedness and enhancing r isk
awareness
pr
St rengt hening local level element s of
early warning syst ems
St rengt hen t he local level disast er
preparedness and response syst ems
“End-to-End” Multi Hazard Early
Warning and Disseminat ion Syst ems
St rengt hening
and enhancing
emergency
preparedness
( HFA Prior it y 2, 3,
4 and 5)
Const r uct ion of Mult i- Purpose
Evacuat ion Shelt ers
St rengt hening inst it ut ional and
legislat ive arr angement s for disast er
risk management syst ems in t he
affect ed areas
Mainst r eaming disast er risk r educt ion
and mit igat ion across sect ors
Fost ering Nat ional- level Public- Privat e
Part nership Forums for DRR
I nst it ut ional
capacit y building
( HFA Pr iorit y 1
and 2)
I nt egrat ed climat e risk management
I nt roducing disast er r isk r educt ion in
reconst ruct ion and recovery effort s
Physical Mit igat ion I nfrast ruct ure
I nt egrat ed coast al zone management
Risk mit igat ion
invest ment s
( HFA Prior it y 4)
Promot ing mangroves replant ing and
ecosyst em pr eservat ion
Explore t he development of micro-
insurance mechanisms
Risk financing and
t ransfer
mechanisms
( HFA Pr iorit y 1
and 4)
Cat ast rophe Risk Financing and
Transfer
1
I n 2005, over 168 government s including t he government of Myanmar pledged t o implement t he
Hyogo Framework for Act ion ( HFA) for disast er reduct ion wit h t hree st rat egic goals: t o int egrat e
disast er risk reduct ion int o sust ainable development policies and planning, t o develop and st rengt hen
inst it ut ions, mechanisms and capacit ies t o build resilience t o hazards and t o syst emat ically incorporat e
risk reduct ion approaches int o t he implement at ion of emergency preparedness, response and recovery
programmes. To achieve t hese goals, t he HFA out lined five specific Priorit ies for Act ion: ( 1) Making
disast er risk reduct ion a pr iorit y; ( 2) I mproving risk informat ion and ear ly warning; ( 3) Building a
cult ur e of safet y and resilience; ( 4) Reducing t he r isks in key sect ors; and ( 5) St r engt hening
preparedness for response.
a
1
1 I n 2005, over 168 government s including t he government of Myanmar pledged t o implement t he Hyogo Framework for Act ion
( HFA) for disast er reduct ion wit h t hree st rat egic goals: t o int egrat e disast er risk reduct ion int o sust ainable development
policies and planning, t o develop and st rengt hen inst it ut ions, mechanisms and capacit ies t o build resilience t o hazards and
t o syst emat ically incorporat e risk reduct ion approaches int o t he implement at ion of emergency preparedness, response and
recovery programmes. To achieve these goals, the HFA outlined fve specifc Priorities for Action: (1) Making disaster risk
reduct ion a priorit y; ( 2) I mproving risk informat ion and early warning; ( 3) Building a cult ure of safet y and resilience; ( 4)
Reducing t he risks in key sect ors; and ( 5) St rengt hening preparedness for response.
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