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January | February 2013 Chicken viscera for fish feed formulation

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The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry


Chicken viscera for fish feed formulation
by M.G Imam, Bau Chi State University, Nigeria


ish as a source of animal protein has played an important role in the nutritional budgeting of many nations. Fish production is becoming a very important source of valuable protein food. Fishmeal is the major protein source in aquaculture feeds.

However, the supply of fishmeal is not growing worldwide and the price is often high, so the replacement of fishmeal with cheaper protein sources is needed. Chicken viscera are among such protein sources replacing fishmeal. Viscera are the large organs inside the body: such as the heart, lungs and stomach. Research findings has revealed that certain chicken visceral organs such as heart contain over 80 percent protein of excellent quality while traditional fishmeal normally contain 60 – 80 percent high quality protein.

Fishmeal is the most important component in fish feed formulation. It is a commercial product made from fish and the bones and offal from processed fish. It is a brown powder or cake obtained by drying the fish or fish trimmings, often after cooking, and then grinding it. If it is a fatty fish it is also pressed to extract most of the fish oil. Fishmeal is a nutrient-rich and high protein supplement feed ingredient that stores well, and is used primarily in diets for domestic animals and sometimes as a high-quality organic fertilizer. Fishmeal and fish oil replacement has been the focus of very significant research efforts and hundreds of scientific papers in recent years. Despite years of research, fishmeal and fish oil remain very important, quasi essential, components of successful commercial

feeds for most fish and crustacean species. This generally has an impact on the feed and production costs for many aquaculture products. Over the past five decades, dozens of different protein and lipid sources have been evaluated in hundreds of ‘practical’ feeding trials. Many of these trials focused on replacing fishmeal, fish oil or other high quality protein and lipid sources by putatively more cost-effective protein and lipid sources. What is often overlooked in many trials is that fishmeal and fish oil are complex ingredients that are known to vary greatly in chemical composition. The raw material sources and types, seasons, and processing equipment and conditions used in the manufacturing of these ingredients all have great impacts on the chemical composition and nutritive value of these ingredients. Incorporating ‘20 percent fish meal in the diet’ or ‘replacing 50 percent of the fish meal or fish oil of the diet’ may mean very different things depending on the type and chemical composition of the fish meal and fish oil used in the study and the fish meal and fish oil levels in the control diet for such a reason, the composition of the ingredients to be used for replacing fish meal must be determined.

and growth. Catfish, like other animals, actually do not have a protein requirement, but they require a source of non-specific nitrogen and indispensable amino acids. Usually, the most economical source of these elements is a mixture of proteins in feedstuffs. Ingested proteins are hydrolyzed to release amino acids that may be used for synthesis of tissue protein or if in excess, used for energy. Use of protein for energy is expensive, thus catfish feed should be balanced to assure that adequate levels of non-specific nitrogen, amino acids and non-protein energy are supplied in proper proportion. It is more precise to formulate fish
Table 1: Amino Acids Requirements of Catfish

amino acids

requirement (% of dietary protien) 4.3 1.5 2.6 5.1 3.5 2.3 5.0 2.0 0.5 3.0

arginine Histidine Isoleucine lysine leucine Methionine+cystine Phenylalanine+tyrosine threonine tryptophan Valine

Protein and amino acids utilisation
Protein is the principal constituent of the tissues and organs of fish body and therefore an essential nutrient for both maintenance and growth in fish. The requirement for proteins in fish is therefore very obvious since protein constitutes more than 45 -47 percent of the tissues dry matter. A continual supply of protein is needed throughout life for maintenance

feed based on amino acid requirements. Nutritionally, amino acids may be classified as either indispensable (essential) or dispensable (non-essentials). An indispensable amino acid is one that the animal cannot synthesize in quantities. Sufficient for body needs, thus they must be supplied in the

10 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013

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FEATURE diet. A dispensable amino acid is one that can be synthesized by the animal in quantities sufficient for maximal growth. Most simple - stomach animals, including catfish require the same 10 indispensable amino acids. rich in energy, minerals and essential fatty acids. It is used at levels up to 50 percent in catfish fry feeds, up to 12 percent in catfish fingerling feeds and from 0-8 percent in grow-out fish feeds. Fishmeal remains the major dietary protein source in fish feed but escalating cost, uncertainty unavailability and lesser quantity has necessitated the use of other protein sources to reduce feed cost without compromising growth. Therefore, efforts have long been directed to find alternate protein sources of good quality which are less expensive and readily available as substitutes for fishmeal component in practical diets. A chief and readily available source of high quality animal protein is chicken viscera which are considered as a waste in the poultry industry. In the poultry processing industry, viscera accounts for nearly 30 percent of the byproducts. Fishmeal is a major protein source in aquafeed especially for carnivorous species. Increasing demand, unstable supplies and high prices of fishmeal with the expansion of aquaculture have made it necessary to search for alternative protein sources. Moreover, price of fishmeal is often high. It is necessary to replace fishmeal with cheaper protein sources. Plant protein sources such as defatted

Justification for chicken viscera as a replacement for fishmeal
Fishmeal is the most important component in fish feed making. Fishmeal contains 60-80 percent protein of excellent quality, which is highly palatable to fish. Since fishmeal is a good source of essential amino acids, it is often used to supplement feeds containing plant proteins. Fishmeal is also

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FEATURE soybean meal and corn gluten meal are good candidates as fishmeal substitutes. However, those ingredients contain antinutritive substances such as phytic acid and also lack essential nutrients such as taurine. For such reasons, that is why the use of animal protein sources is necessary and the cheapest and most reliable animal protein source that is readily available in most countries of the world is chicken viscera.
Subagja J., Slembrouck J., Hung L.T. & Legendre M. (1999) Larval rearing of an Asian Pangasius hypophthalmus (Siluroidei Pangasiidae): analysis of precocious mortality and proposition of appropriate treatments. Aquatic Living Resources 12, 37±44. FergusonH.W. (1989) Systemic Pathology of Fish. A Text and Atlas of Comparative Tissue Responses in Diseases of Teleosts. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA. Babatope A. F. (2009). Applied nutrition technology in fish and livestock series (2) Published by B. A. Falayi (Ph.D). National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research (N.I.F.F.R) P.M.B. 6006, New Bussa, Niger State Nigeria 63-1 08pp. Babatope A. F. (2009). Feed Formulation Manufacture and Quality Appraisal for Fish and Livestock Series (4). National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research (N.I.F.F.R). PMB 6006 New Bussa, Niger State Nigeria. 1-6Ipp. Babatope A. F. (2009). Tropical feedstuff composition tables and some biological catalogues in fish and livestock production series (3). Published by -B. A. Falayi (Ph.D). National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Research (N.I.F.F.R). PMB 6006 New Bussa, Niger State, Nigeria. 5-16pp. Shiba Shankar Giri, Sangram Ketan Sahoo and Satyendra Nath Mohanty (2010) Replacement of By-Catch Fishmeal with Dried Chicken Viscera Meal in Extruded Feeds: Effect On Growth, Nutrient Utilisation and Carcass Composition of Catfish Clarias Batrachus (Linn.) fingerlings. Aquaculture International Volume 18, Number 4 (2010), 539-544, DOI: 10.1007/S10499-009-9265-3. Preeda Phumee, Roshada Hashim, Mohammed Aliyu Paiko & Alexander Chong Shu-Chien (2009) Effects of dietary protein and lipid content on growth performance and biological indices of iridescent Shark (Pangasius hypophthalmus, Sauvage 1878) fry. Aquaculture research 2009. 40, 456-463. Balogun, A. M., Adebayo, O. T., Madu, C. T., and Eyo, A. A., Falayi, B. A., (2003). Leaching of feed nutrients, economic losses to fish farming. Journal of Aquatic Science, 18(2): 119-123. Li, M.H. and E.H. Robinson, (1996). Phosphorus availability (digestibility) of common feedstuffs to channel catfish as measured by weight gain and bone mineralization, Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 27:297-302. Crumlish, M. & Dung, T.T. 2006. Strategies to reduce risk and livelihood impact associated with outbreaks of Bacillary Necrosis of Pangasius spp. (BNP) farmed in the Mekong Delta,Viet Nam. DFID Aquaculture and Fish Genetics Research Programme, Final Technical Report (R8093). DFID, London, England. 186 pages. Abbas, I.I.and Ukoje, 1.A. (2009). Rural water utilization factors affecting aquaculture in Owo local government area of Ondo State, Nigeria, Journal of Geography and Regional Planning 2(8) 190-197. Pauly, Daniel and Watson, Reg (2009) "Spatial Dynamics of Marine Fisheries" In: Simon A. Levin (ed.) The Princeton Guide to Ecology. Pages 501–509. Goodwin A.E., Roy J.S., Grizzte J.M. & Goldsby M.T. (1994) Bacillus Mycoides- a bacterial pathogen of channel catfish. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 18, 173±179. Dominique P. Bureau (2012) Deconstructing the Fish Meal and Fish Oil Replacement Story in Aquaculture: Focusing on Nutrient Requirements, Characterization of Feed Ingredients and Pragmatic Approaches, the Alltech 28th International Symposium May 20-23, 2012, Lexington, Kentucky. Shuichi Satoh (2012) Replacing fishmeal – An imperative that aquaculture must successfully address, the Alltech 28th International Symposium May 20-23, 2012, Lexington, Kentucky. M.G Imam and B.S Audu (2012) Proximate analysis of chicken viscera waste as a potential replacement for fish meal in fish feed formulation. (Unpublished). Henken A M., Lucas H, Tijseen P A T and Michiels M A M 1986 A comparison between methods used to determine the energy content of feed, fish and faecal samples. Aquaculture 58: 195-201 A Kumar, A Bhatnagar and S K Garg (2009) Growth performance, carcass composition and digestive enzyme activity of pearlspot, Etroplus suratensis (Bloch) reared in inland saline groundwater ponds providing substrate or feed. Livestock Research for Rural Development 21 (10) 2009.

One of the greatest challenges in contemporary aquaculture especially in relation to fish nutrition is finding a desirable replacement for fishmeal. Researchers from all over the world have been conducting researches in order to find replacement for fish meal from both animal and plant sources. However, there are certain disadvantages that are associated with the replacements from plant sources ranging from low nutritious value to lack of essential amino acids. On the other hand, an animal source gives better results. Research on chicken viscera has revealed fascinating results and scientists from all over the world are doing more work. My current research focuses on proximate analysis of chicken viscera as a potential replacement for fishmeal in pangasius culture. It is hoped that the ending results will reveal more clues that will justify chicken viscera as a potential replacement for fishmeal.

Thanh Hung Le. Subagja J, Slembrouck J. & Legendre M. (1998) Study on mass mortality of Pangasius hypophthalmus during larval rearing and its control and prevention. Abstract 27, National Workshop on Aquaculture, September 29±30, 1998, Bac Ninh, Vietnam. S.N. Jamdar, M.H. Kishore And P. Harikumar (2005) Influence Of Ionizing Radiation On Protein Degradation By Endogenous Proteases In Poultry Viscera. NAARRI Annual Conference (NAC 2005), Held At Mumbai, Issue No. 273 October 2006.

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