January | February 2013

Spray-dried plasma from porcine blood in
diets for Atlantic salmon parrs
The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
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Volume 16 / Issue 1 / January-February 2013 / © Copyright Perendale Publishers Ltd 2012 / All rights reserved













































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S
ince the late 1970s, Atlantic salmon
aquaculture has grown into a global
industry that annually produces over
1.4 million tonnes of salmon with an
estimatedvalueofUS$7,812millionaccording
to2012FAOstatistics.Thegrowthofsalmon
aquaculture has been accompanied by a con-
tinuous improvement in feed formulation and
technologytomaximizegrowthandsurvivalof
salmonatdifferentstagesofdevelopment.The
searchfornewandalternativefeedingredients
andformulationscontinuesinordertoensure
sustainabilityofthisindustry.
A major challenge for the aquaculture
feed production industry is to identify and
validate stable, predictable and high qual-
ity sources of alternative proteins for the
manufacture of aqua feeds. In this context,
any satisfactory alternative feed ingredient
must be able to supply comparable nutri-
tional value at a competitive cost. Global
recognitionthatterrestrialanimalby-product
meals, especially non-ruminant blood meals
and blood products, represent the largest
and largely untapped safe source of animal
protein available within the international
aquafeedindustry.
Despite the fact that blood meal and
bloodproductshavebeenshowntobecost-
effectivenutrientsourcesforfarmedfishand
shrimp,itwasestimatedthatlessthanfiveper-
cent of total global manufactured aqua feeds
(21 million tonnes in 2005) contained blood
meal (2–5% average dietary inclusion level).
Blood meal is mainly used as a cost-effective
sourceofhighlydigestibleanimalprotein,asa
fishmeal replacer, and as a
pelletcolouringagent.
On a nutritional basis,
blood meals with the high-
est digestibility are gener-
allythosewhichhavebeen
spray dried. Spray-dried
proteins are subjected to
lessheatdamageanddena-
turingoftheproteinduring
the drying process com-
pared to traditional ren-
deredorring-driedproteins.
Aquaculture feed manu-
facturers that use blood
meal and blood products
in their feeds are mainly
concentrated in Asia and
North and South America,
whereas European feed
producers are using non-
ruminant blood products
mainly in marine fish feed
because it is now legally
accepted by EU regulation
(Tacon,2005).
Spray dried-plasma
as a feed ingredient
Spray-dried blood, red
blood cells (haemoglobin)
and plasma proteins have
longbeenrecognizedashigh
quality feed ingredients for
swine, cattle and poultry.
Spray-dried plasma (SDP) is
a feed ingredient composed
Spray-dried plasma
from porcine blood in diets for
Atlantic salmon parrs
Figure 1: Final size distribution in body weight
(BW) of Atlantic salmon fed diets containing
graded levels of spray dried plasma (SDD)
by Enric Gisbert PhD, Research Scientist, IRTA-San Carlos de la Rápita,
Spain and Javier Polo PhD, APC Europe SA, Granollers, Spain
18 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013
FEATURE
January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 19
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of a diverse mixture of functional proteins and
other biologically important components. SDP
has an excellent amino acid profile with high
(99%)digestibilityofaminoacids(Bureauetal.,
1999)andithasbeennotedinmultiplepublica-
tionsthatitimprovesanimalgrowth,feedintake
and feed efficiency. In addition, SDP has been
recommendedforinclusioninanimaldietsasa
source of immunological support due to their
high levels of globulin proteins (Campbell et
al.,2010).Althoughbloodproductshavemany
good qualities, there is scarce literature on the
effects of dietary SDP inclusion in fish feeds
(JohnsonandSummerfelt,2000).
Effects of SDP on Atlantic
salmon smolts
In a recent study, we evaluated the inclu-
sion of SDP derived from porcine blood
(AP820P;APCEurope,SA)asafeedingredi-
ent in commercial feeds for Atlantic salmon
(Salmo salar) parr and its effect on growth
performance,feedutilization,organisationand
functionality of the digestive system and
haematological parameters. SDP was incor-
poratedintodietsatincreasinglevels(0,3,6
and9%)andwaspreparedbydispersingitin
olive oil and then spraying it on commercial
salmon feed (Skretting T2 Select, Skretting).
Diets were named SDP0, SDP3, SDP6 or
SDP9consideringtheinclusionlevelsofSDP
inexperimentalfeeds.
Thequantityofoilneededtodissolvethe
highest level (9%) of SDP was also used for
incorporating lower levels of SDP in all the
experimental feeds. This strategy assured
that diets were isolipidic (31%), although
they did not have similar levels of dietary
proteins(rangedfrom43.3%inSDP0dietto
50.1%inSDP9diet).Thisvariationinprotein
content of diets did not invalidate the pos-
sible results of this study, since the dietary
protein levels tested were higher than those
generallyrecommendedforthisspeciesatthis
developmentalstage(Bendiksenetal.,2003).
Different studies have reported that dietary
protein levels higher than 39-40 percent do
notaffectgrowthperformanceinthisspecies
atthetesteddietarylipidlevel.
Evaluating SDP effect
Diets were tested in triplicate in Atlantic
salmon parr (45.4 ± 5.76 g) for a period of
86days(0gsalinity/l,12.5ºC,12hL:12hD),
then fish were smoltified and kept in marine
water(35gsalinity/l,16ºC,18hL:6hD)for
twoweeksinaIRTAMAR®recirculationunit.
Fishwerefedfourtimesperday(0830,1200,
1600and2000h)withautomaticfeedersset
atthefeedratioof0.9%ofstockedbiomass.
The feed ratio was periodically adjusted by
means of intermediate samplings for weight
andgrowthperformance.
The effect of SDP in salmon was evalu-
atedbybiological,histologicalandbiochemical
parameters, such as growth, survival, feed
conversionratio(FCR),proteinefficiencyratio
(PER), organisation of the intestinal mucosa,
proximate body composition, haematocrit,
serumproteinprofileandbloodcellcount.In
addition, smoltification success was assessed
byevaluatingfishsurvival,aswellas,thehisto-
logicalorganisationofgillfilamentsandplasma
osmolalityandelectrolytecomposition.
Weight and size
At the end of the trial, the mean weight
of salmon fed different diets was similar
(92.8-98.5 g) regardless of the SDP level
incorporated on the feed. However, the size
distribution of individual body weight was
significantly affected by the diet. Size het-
erogeneity is a common feature in salmonid
farming that affects the overall performance
oftherearingprocess.
The results of the hierarchical size effect
aretheestablishmentofagroupofdominant
fish that do not allow smaller (subordinate)
ones to feed normally. Therefore, under
conditions promoting hierarchy formation,
thelargestfishatthebeginningareexpected
togetthelargestshareofthefeed,growthe
fastestandhavethehighestweightattheend
oftheproductionprocess.
Under the present experimental condi-
tions,salmonfedSDP6hadthemosthomo-
18 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013 January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 19
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geneous distribution in body weight among
the tested diets. Thus, fish fed SDP6 had a
higher proportion of fish within the mode
of the population (81-120 g), and a lower
proportionoffishbelongingtosmaller(40-80
g) or larger (121-170 g) size classes in com-
parisontothecontrolgroup.Thesametrend
was observed when data were expressed in
standardlengthorusingtheFulton’scondition
factor. These findings are of practical impor-
tance since the improved size distribution
might reduce the tasks of size selection dur-
ing processing, and also diminish hierarchical
dominancesituationsthatultimatelymaximize
the harvested biomass and reduce the cost
associatedwithgrowingfishtoharvestsize.
Survival and FCR
Allfishfromdifferentexperimentalgroups
were able to successfully osmoregulate and
keep their hydromineral equilibrium of their
body fluids after smoltification, as data on
plasma osmolality and electrolyte content
indicated.Althoughtherewerenodifferences
in survival among salmon fed different diets,
parrfeddietscontainingSDPshowedaslight,
but not significant, higher survival after smol-
tification in comparison to the control group
(SDP0),whichmaybeduetothehigherpro-
portionofsmall-sizedparrintheSDP0group.
TheenhancednutritionsuppliedbySDPin
dietsalsoimprovedFCRandPER;salmonoids
fedSDP3andSDP6dietshadthelowestFCR
and highest PER values, respectively. These
results indicated that the nitrogen content
from these diets was much more efficiently
usedbyfish.Growthperformanceandproxi-
mate biochemical composition of fish were
similar among dietary groups, although fish
fed SDP3 and SDP6 consumed less feed in
comparisontothecontroldiet.Thereduction
in feed consumption and high PER coupled
with the high digestibility of SDP may also
resultinlessnitrogenwasteintheeffluentsof
aquaculturefacilities,whichisconsideredakey
elementforthelong-termsustainabilityofthe
aquacultureindustry.
Digestion and intestinal mucosa
Functionality of the digestive system was
notaffectedbydiets,asfishhadsimilaractiv-
ity levels of pancreatic and intestinal diges-
tive enzymes. However, fish fed SDP9 had
increasednumberofgobletcellsintheintes-
tinal mucosa, but height of intestinal villi was
not modified in this group. The major func-
tion of intestinal goblet cells and their main
secretory products, mucins, is the formation
ofmucuslayerswhichserveasthe‘frontline’
fortheinnatehostdefensemechanism.These
mucus layers play key roles in the establish-
ment of the commensal intestinal microbiota
andprotectionfromcolonisationandinvasion
by the pathogenic microbiota. Thus, the
reported higher abundance of goblet cells in
theintestinalmucosaoffishfedtheSDP9
diet may be linked to the ability of SDP
to support the immune-competence of
the fish. This hypothesis needs further
researchinordertobevalidated,although
previous studies on other fish species
seemtosupportthisidea.
The nutrition provides by SDP has
beenreportedtoimproveimmunecom-
petenceinshrimp(RussellandCampbell,
2008),eel(JensenandNielsen,2003)and
introutchallengedbyYersiniaruckeri,that
inadditionoftheconsistentresultsinter-
restrialanimals,indicatetheimproveper-
formanceoftheseanimalsunderstressed
farmingconditions.
Conclusions
SDP is an excellent ingredient for
Atlanticsalmonparrandsmoltdietssince
itisahighlydigestibleproteinsourcethat
improved feed and protein efficiency
ratiosandpromotedamorehomogene-
ous distribution of body weight in the
testedpopulation.TheSDP9dietresult-
ed in an increase in goblet cell number
in the intestinal mucosa, which supports
the idea that SDP may provide support
to the innate host defense mechanism
of the gut. Based upon the FCR and
PER results of this study, the optimal
dietaryinclusionlevelofSDPindietsfor
Atlanticsalmonparrwascalculatedtobe
4.1 percent. Research is being currently
conducted on the use of SDP in diets
for marine fish species, in particular for
gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), and
thepreliminaryresultsarereallyencour-
aging and within the same line to those
obtainedinAtlanticsalmon.
References
APCInc(2003).EvaluationofBIOFEND®
(spray-driedplasma)ongrowthand
sur vivalofrainbowtrout(Oncorhynchus
mykiss)challengedwithYersiniaruckeri.
DiscoveriesTechBriefs,Volume6,2
pages.Februar y2003,APCInc.,Iowa,IA
50010,USA(www.americanprotein.com/
products/biofend/images/Discoveries621803.
pdf).
Bendiksen,E.A.,O.K.Berg,M.Jobling,A.M
ArnesenandK.Masoval.2003.Digestibility,
growthandnutrientutilisationofAtlanticsalmon
parr(Salmo salarL.)inrelationtotemperature,
feedfatcontentandoilsource.Aquaculture224:
283-299.
Bureau,D.P.,A.M.Harris,andC.Y.Cho.1999.
Apparentdigestibilityofrenderedanimalprotein
ingredientsforrainbowtrout(Oncorhynchus
mykiss).Aquaculture180:345-358.
Campbell,J.M.,J.Polo,L.E.RussellandJ.D.Crenshaw.
2010.Reviewofspray-driedplasma'simpacton
intestinalbarrierfunction.LivestockScience133:
239-241.
Jensen,S.andM.Nielsen.(2003).EffectofAPC
plasmaadditivesoneelsbeingintroducedto
redheaddisease.Posterpaperpresentedat
AquacultureEurope2003,8-12August2003,
Trondheim.
Johnson,J.A.andR.C.Summerfelt.2000.Spray-
driedbloodcellsasapar tialreplacementfor
fishmealindietsforrainbowtroutOncorhynchus
mykiss.J.WorldAquac.Soc.31:96-104.
Russell,L.andJ.M.Campbell.(2000).Trialsshow
promiseforspray-driedplasmaproteininshrimp
feeds.TheGlobalAquacultureAdvocate,3(6):42-
43.
Tacon,A.G.J.2005.TheCurrentandPotentialuse
ofBloodproductsandBloodmealinAquafeeds.
ReportPreparedForEuropeanAnimalProtein
Association,53.
Figure 2: Broken analysis of food
conversion (FCR) and protein efficiency
rates (PER) from Atlantic salmon fed
different diets containing graded levels
of spray-dried plasma (SDP). The value
within the inner rectangle indicates
the estimated level of SDP inclusion in
diets considering the results of the used
methodology.
20 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013
FEATURE
January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 21
20 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013 January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 21
FEATURE
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The world’s most promising meeting point
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For more information about using AP 820P spray dried animal plasma or
AP 301P spray dried hemoglobin in your aquaculture diets, contact APC.
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C
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AF Anunci A-5 H HR.pdf 1 18/12/12 10:44
diet. A dispensable amino acid is one that
canbesynthesizedbytheanimalinquanti-
ties sufficient for maximal growth. Most
simple - stomach animals, including catfish
require the same 10 indispensable amino
acids.
Justification for chicken viscera
as a replacement for fishmeal
Fishmeal is the most important compo-
nent in fish feed making. Fishmeal contains
60-80 percent protein of excellent quality,
which is highly palatable to fish. Since fish-
meal is a good source of essential amino
acids, it is often used to supplement feeds
containing plant proteins. Fishmeal is also
rich in energy, minerals and essential fatty
acids.Itisusedatlevelsupto50percentin
catfishfryfeeds,upto12percentincatfish
fingerling feeds and from 0-8 percent in
grow-outfishfeeds.
Fishmeal remains the major dietary pro-
tein source in fish feed but escalating
cost, uncertainty unavailability and lesser
quantity has necessitated the use of other
proteinsourcestoreducefeedcostwithout
compromising growth. Therefore, efforts
have long been directed to find alternate
protein sources of good quality which are
less expensive and readily available as sub-
stitutesforfishmealcomponentinpractical
diets.
A chief and readily available source
of high quality animal protein is chicken
viscera which are considered as a waste
in the poultry industry. In the poultry
processing industry, viscera accounts for
nearly 30 percent of the byproducts.
Fishmealisamajorproteinsourceinaqua-
feed especially for carnivorous species.
Increasing demand, unstable supplies and
high prices of fishmeal with the expansion
of aquaculture have made it necessary
to search for alternative protein sources.
Moreover, price of fishmeal is often high.
It is necessary to replace fishmeal with
cheaperproteinsources.
Plant protein sources such as defatted
10 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013 January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 11
FEATURE
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LINKS
• Seethefullissue
• VisittheInternationalAquafeedwebsite
• ContacttheInternationalAquafeedTeam
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Chicken viscera for fish
feed formulation
Profitable aquafeed
moisture control
The shrimp feed industry in China
– an overview
Spray-dried plasma
– from porcine blood in diets for Atlantic
salmon parrs
Vol ume 16 I s s ue 1 2013 - J anuary | f ebruary
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