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Indian democracy is based on the Westminster model (British model of democracy is referred to as the Westminster model) where the importance of Parliament in the political system is central. Art. 79 says that there shall be a Parliament for the Union which shall consist of the President and two Houses to be known as the Rajya Sabha or the federal chamber or Council of States or Upper House and the Lok Sabha or the popular chamber or Lower House or House of the People.
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 

It is the federal house representing the States. Maximum strength (sanctioned strength) of Rajya Sabha is two hundred and fifty (250), of which 238 are to be elected and 12 are nominated by the President of India. The actual strength of Rajya Sabha is two hundred and forty five (245), of which 233 are elected and 12 are nominated by the President. The allocation of seats in Rajya Sabha is contained in the Fourth Schedule to the Constitution. The elected members of the (233 Members) Rajya Sabha are elected by the elected members of the Assemblies of States and the two Union Territories of Delhi and Puducheri in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote.
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Eligibility
A candidate for election to Rajya Sabha: 

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Should be a citizen of India Above 30 years of age and Possessing such other qualifications as may be prescribed by law of Parliament

Rajya Sabha is not subject to dissolution

One-third of its members retire every two years. Thus, it is a permanent body. Normally a member is elected for six years but a member elected against a mid-term vacancy (casual vacancy), serves only for the remaining period.

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to punish any one who commits contempt of House.com The Vice-President is the ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha (Art.   © 2013 UPSCPORTAL .upscportal. He issues warrants to execute the orders of the House.COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here . As the Presiding Officer. The Chairman‟s rulings cannot be questioned or criticised and to protest against . where necessary.Chairman of the Rajya Sabha  www.64).the ruling of the Chairman is a contempt of the House and the Chairman. For example. He safeguards the privileges and immunities of the members individually and the House collectively. the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha is the guardian of the prestige and dignity of the House.

com The Deputy Chairman is elected by the members of Rajya Sabha from among themselves. or discharging the functions of the President. or during any period when the VicePresident is acting as. While the office of Chairman is vacant.upscportal. © 2013 UPSCPORTAL .www.COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here . the duties of the office of the Chairman are performed by the Deputy Chairman.

upscportal.com When the offices of both the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman are vacant.COM . the Chairman exercises only a casting vote in the case of equality of votes. Under the Constitution. To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here © 2013 UPSCPORTAL .91) The member so appointed is known as the Chairman protem. the duties of the office of the Chairman are performed by such member of the Rajya Sabha as the President may appoint for the purpose (Art. Casting vote is the vote cast to break a tie when there is equality of votes.www.

upscportal. That is.www. the national and states‟ interests are protected. It has 12 nominated members who add to the quality of parliamentary proceedings and policy making. It means the proclamation can continue. Thus. To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here    © 2013 UPSCPORTAL . Constitution can not be amended unless Rajya Sabha.COM . sitting independently of the Lok Sabha passes the Bill. there is no joint session in case of deadlock.com  It is the permanent House and so has benefits like it can ratify proclamation of Emergency when the Lok Sabha is not in session and cannot be called into session immediately. It enables law making to become more sober when the representatives of the people are carried away by emotional issues.

com  Lok Sabha is composed of representatives of the people chosen by direct election on the basis of universal adult suffrage. if. up to 20 members to represent the Union Territories and not more than two members of the Anglo-Indian Community to be nominated by the President.www. © 2013 UPSCPORTAL . in his opinion. The maximum strength of the House envisaged by the Constitution is 552-upto 530 members to represent the States.COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here . the community is not adequately represented in the House.upscportal.

www.upscportal.  © 2013 UPSCPORTAL . The conduct of business in Lok Sabha is the responsibility of the Speaker.COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here .  The Speaker protem (sworn in by the President to swear in the newly elected members of House) presides over the sitting in which the Speaker is elected. He is assisted by the Deputy Speaker who is also elected by Lok Sabha. if it is a newly constituted House.com Lok Sabha elects one of its own members as its Presiding Officer and he is called the Speaker. If the election falls later in the life of a Lok Sabha the Deputy Speaker presides.

at any time resign from office by writing under his hand to the Deputy Speaker. He is eligible for re-election Resignation The Speaker may.www. It is mandatory to give a minimum of 14 days notice of the intention to move the resolution.com The Speaker holds office from the date of his election till.COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here . Removal The Speaker can be removed from office only on a resolution of the House passed by a majority of all the then members of the House. immediately before the first meeting of the Lok Sabha which is newly constituted after the dissolution of the one to which he was elected. © 2013 UPSCPORTAL .upscportal.

© 2013 UPSCPORTAL . 110)  Presides over joint sittings which are summoned to resolve a disagreement between the two Houses  Decides on granting recognition to the Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha  Following the 52nd Constitution amendment 1985.www.upscportal.com Under the Constitution. the Speaker is vested with the power relating to the disqualification of a member of the Lok Sabha on grounds of defection.COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here . the Speaker enjoys a special position  He certifies Money Bills and is final (Art.

Every question to be decided by the House must be proposed as „Motion‟.upscportal.com A motion is a proposal for eliciting decision or expressing the opinion of the house on a matter of public importance. Motions fall into three principal categories: Substantive Motions  Substitute Motions  Subsidiary Motions.  © 2013 UPSCPORTAL .COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here .www.

all motions are not necessarily put to vote of the House. the resolution to impeach the President of India.COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here .com A Resolution is a procedural means to initiate a discussion on any matters of general public interest. whereas all the resolutions are required to be voted upon.upscportal. Further.  © 2013 UPSCPORTAL .  All Resolutions fall in the category of Substantive Motions. A Resolution is actually a Substantive Motion. For example.www. But all motions need not necessarily be substantive.

the Finance Commission. notably amongst them are the Budget.upscportal. the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities and the Union Finance Commission Both Houses also participate in matters of elections of the President and the Vice-President Both participate in impeachment of the President.www. the Backward Classes Commission. Ordinances and Proclamations issued by the President.COM . the Commissioners for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. supplementary demands for grants.com  The Constitution requires the laying of a number of papers on the Table in both the Houses. reports of Constitutional and statutory functionaries such as the Comptroller and Auditor-General. a Judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court and CAG To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here   © 2013 UPSCPORTAL .

www.12 members of intelligentsia-which Lok Sabha does not have To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here   © 2013 UPSCPORTAL .upscportal.com The following are the differences:  Members of Lok Sabha are directly elected on the basis of universal adult franchise. Members of Rajya Sabha are elected by the elected members of State Assemblies in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote The normal life of every Lok Sabha is 5 years while Rajya Sabha is a permanent body Rajya Sabha has a nominated component.COM .

in three sessions in a year.upscportal. Monsoon session in the months of JulyAugust and Winter session in the months of NovemberDecember.www.  Normally Parliament meets.COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here .com  A session is the period of time between the meeting of a Parliament and its prorogation. © 2013 UPSCPORTAL . namely Budget session in the months of February-March. April and May.

However.upscportal.www.COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here .com All business pending before Lok Sabha lapses on its dissolution. as indicated below:  Bill pending in the Rajya Sabha which has not been passed by the Lok Sabha shall not lapse Bill which is pending in the Lok Sabha lapses Bill passed by the Lok Sabha and is pending in the Rajya Sabha lapses   © 2013 UPSCPORTAL . the dissolution of LS also affects the business pending before the Rajya Sabha to a certain extent.

laid before both the Houses of Parliament constitutes the Budget of the Union Government.upscportal. a Joint Sitting of both Houses to resolve a deadlock on a Bill will be held notwithstanding the fact that dissolution of the Lok Sabha has intervened since the President has notified his intention to summon the Houses to meet in a Joint Sitting etc. 112). The President is responsible for having the Budget presented to the Lok Sabha (Art.COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here .com  Under Article 108(5).  The „Annual Financial Statement‟. © 2013 UPSCPORTAL .www.

the budget goes through five stages:   Presentation of budget with Finance Minister‟s speech General discussion.upscportal.COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here . after which there is adjournment of the Houses so that the Standing Committees can scrutinize the demands for grants for a month Voting on demand for grants in Lok Sabha Passing of appropriation bills    Passing of finance bill.com In Parliament. © 2013 UPSCPORTAL .www.

the Vote on Account may be for a period exceeding two months. But during election year. © 2013 UPSCPORTAL .com “Vote on Account” by which Government obtains the Vote of Parliament for a sum sufficient to incur expenditure on various items for a part of the year (Art. It is generally 2 months worth of expenditure.www. 116).upscportal.COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here .normally four months.

© 2013 UPSCPORTAL .com Motions for reduction to various Demands for Grants are made in the form of Cut Motions seeking to reduce the sums sought by Government on grounds of    Economy or Difference of opinion on matters of policy or To voice a grievance.COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here .www.upscportal.

COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here . It has two features in common with the Money Bill: President‟s prior recommendations is necessary and  It can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha  © 2013 UPSCPORTAL . There are two types: Financial Bill which is a Bill in which there are provisions related to a Money Bill but also those of an ordinary Bill.www. 117.upscportal.com They are contained in Art.

com Bills which exclusively contain provisions for:  The imposition.upscportal. The custody of the Consolidated Fund or the Contingency Fund of India. abolition. the payment of moneys into or the withdrawal of moneys from any such Fund   © 2013 UPSCPORTAL . The regulation of the borrowing of money or the giving of any guarantee by the Government of India.www.COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here . alteration or regulation of any tax. remission.

Earlier contingency fund was of Rs 50 Crore but was recently raised to Rs 500 crore by parliament.COM . All expenditure from the CFI is by appropriation Bill. revenues and loans flow.  Parliament has by law established a Contingency Fund placed at the disposal of the President to enable advances to be made by him out of it for the purpose of meeting unforeseen expenditure pending authorisation of such expenditure by Parliament by Law (Art.upscportal. To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here © 2013 UPSCPORTAL .www. 267).com  The fund constituted under Article 266 (1) of the Constitution of India into which all receipts.

com  No-Confidence Motion An adjournment motion is moved to discuss a matter of urgent public importance and is available only in Lok Sabha and not in Rajya Sabha as it means severe criticism of the Government and is used to express dissatisfaction with the Government policies. Speaker‟s consent is necessary for moving the motion.www.upscportal. The opposition parties have an instrument in the form of „no confidence motion‟ to remove the Government. © 2013 UPSCPORTAL .COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here . The procedure for the NCM is not a part of the Constitution but is given in the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business of Lok Sabha.

upscportal.COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here . Grounds need to be mentioned unlike the NCM. Speaker can disallow a censure motion.www.com Censure motion can be moved only in Lok Sabha under Rule 184. © 2013 UPSCPORTAL . It can be moved against an individual minister or a group of ministers unlike the NCM.

Questions are of three types    Starred Unstarred and Short Notice © 2013 UPSCPORTAL .com The first hour of every sitting of Lok Sabha is called the Question hour.upscportal.www.COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here .

To a starred question.upscportal.  © 2013 UPSCPORTAL .com   A Starred Question is one to which a member wants an oral answer in the House and which is distinguished by an asterisk mark.www.  Minimum period of notice for starred / unstarred question is 10 clear days (that‟s. excluding holidays).COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here . members can put supplementaries because the Minister is orally answering the question. An unstarred Question is one which is answered in writing and no supplementary questions can be asked.

A Short Notice Question may only be admitted if permitted by the Speaker. A Short Notice Question is taken tip for answer immediately after the Question Hour.upscportal.www. © 2013 UPSCPORTAL . They relate to matters of urgent public importance.COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here .com They do not require the normal period of notice of 10 days.

COM .www. the President may. if they are sitting. his intention to summon them to meet in a joint sitting for the purpose of deliberating and voting on the Bill. other than a Money Bill or a Constitution Amendment Bill. notify to the Houses by message. a mechanism for resolving disagreement between the two Houses in respect of a Bill.com    Under Rule 377 of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in the Lok Sabha members are allowed to raise matters which are not points of order or which cannot be raised under any other Rule. or by public notification. To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here © 2013 UPSCPORTAL .upscportal. unless the Bill has lapsed by reason of dissolution of the Lok Sabha. When any other Bill is deadlocked. The Constitution of India envisages. if they are not sitting.

with such amendments. it is deemed to have been passed by both Houses.www. as are agree in the joint sitting.upscportal.com  If at a joint sitting. other than such amendments. as become necessary by the delay in its passage and such other amendments as relate to matters with respect to which the Houses have no agreed in their individual capacity. the Bill referred to it.COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here . if any. is passed by a majority of the total number of members of both Houses present and voting. if any. At a joint sitting no amendment can be proposed to the Bill.  © 2013 UPSCPORTAL .

The Chairman is appointed by the Speaker from amongst its members. The Committee consists of not more than 22 members comprising 15 members elected by Lok Sabha every year from amongst its members according to the principle of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote and not more than 7 members of Rajya Sabha elected by that House in like manner are associated with the Committee.com  The Committee on Public Accounts is constituted by Parliament each year for examination of accounts showing the appropriation of sums granted by Parliament for expenditure of Government of India.upscportal.COM .www. To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here  © 2013 UPSCPORTAL .

In scrutinising the Appropriation Accounts and the Reports of the Comptroller and Auditor General. and To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here  © 2013 UPSCPORTAL . P&T Department and other Civil Ministries of the Government of India and Reports of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India mainly form the basis of the deliberation of the Committee.upscportal. applicable to the service or purpose to which they have been granted That the expenditure conforms to the authority which governs it.com The Appropriation Accounts relating to the Railways. it is the duty of the Committee to satisfy itself:  That the money shown in the accounts as having been disbursed were legally available for and. Defence Services.www.COM .

com  that every re-appropriation has been made in accordance with the provisions made in this behalf under rules framed by competent authority.www. © 2013 UPSCPORTAL .COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here .upscportal.

the Legislative Assembly of each State shall consist of not more than 450 members chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the State 2.upscportal.COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here . Which one of the following is the largest (area wise) Lok Sabha constituency? (a) Kangra (b) Ladakh (c) Kachchh (d) Bhilwara Q. a person shall not be qualified to be chosen to fill a seat in the Legislative Assembly of a State if he/she is less than 25 years of age Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 © 2013 UPSCPORTAL .www. Consider the following statements: The Constitution of India provides that 1.com 2008 Q.

Under the administration of which one of the following is the Department of Atomic Energy? Q. In India.2009 (a) (b) (c) (d) Prime Minister‟s Office Cabinet Secretariat Ministry of Power Ministry of Science and Technology www.com Q.upscportal.COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here . who is the Chairman of the National Water Resources Council? (a) Prime Minister (b) Minister of Water Resources (c) Minister of Environment and Forests (d) Minister of Science and Technology © 2013 UPSCPORTAL .

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 www.com Q. The number of Ministries at the Centre on 15th August 1947 was 18. With reference to Union Government. The Constitution of India provides that all Cabinet Ministers shall be compulsorily the sitting members of Lok Sabha only. consider the following statements: 1. 2.COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here .Q. consider the following statements: 1. With reference to Union Government. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 © 2013 UPSCPORTAL . 2.upscportal. The number of Ministries at the Centre at present is 36. The Union Cabinet Secretariat operates under the direction of the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs.

upscportal. Which one of the following is responsible for the preparation and presentation of Union Budget to the Parliament? (a) Department of Revenue (b) Department of Economic Affairs (c) Department of Financial Services (d) Department of Expenditure 2011 Q.2010 www.com Q. All revenues received by the Union. Government by way of taxes and other receipts for the conduct of Government business are credited to the (a) Contingency Fund of India (b) Public Account (c) Consolidated Fund of India (d) Deposits and Advances Fund © 2013 UPSCPORTAL .COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here .

3. Withdrawal of moneys from Consolidated Fund of India only after passing the Appropria-tion Bill 3.upscportal. 4 and 5 © 2013 UPSCPORTAL . 2. and 4 only (c) 3. Which of the following are the methods of Parliamentary control over public finance in India? 1. 4 and 5 only (d) 1. Placing Annual Financial Statement before the Parliament 2. 2.2012 www. 3 and 5 only (b) 1. A periodic or at least a mid-year review of programme of the Government against macroeconomic forecast and expenditure by a Parliamentary Budget Office 5. 2. Introducing Finance Bill in the Parliament Select the correct answer using the codes given below: (a) 1. Provisions of supplementary grants and vote-onaccount 4.COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here .com Q.

Ordinary Legislation 2. 2 and 3 To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch www.COM Click Here . A deadlock between the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha calls for a joint sitting of the Parliament during the passage of 1. at the time of his/her appointment (a) need not necessarily be a member of one of the Houses of the Parliament but must become a member of one of the Houses within six months (b) need not necessarily be a member of one of the Houses of the Parliament but must become a member of the Lok Sabha within six months (c) must be a member of one of the Houses of the Parliament (d) must be a member of the Lok Sabha Q.Q.upscportal. The Prime Minister of India.com © 2013 UPSCPORTAL . Constitution Amendment Bill Select the correct answer codes given below: (a) 1 only (c) 1 and 3 only (b) 2 and 3 only (d) 1. Money Bill 3.

Regarding the office of the Lok Sabha Speaker.upscportal. the purpose of an adjournment motion is (a) to allow a discussion on a definite matter of urgent public importance (b) to let opposition members collect information from the ministers (c) to allow a reduction of specific amount in demand for grant (d) to postpone the proceedings to check the inappropriate or violent behaviour on the part of some members Q. If he/she intends to resign. He/She holds the office during the pleasure of the President. He/She need not be a member of the House at the time of his/her election but has to become a member of the House within six months from the date of his/her election.com 1.COM To Join Free Coaching for our Next Batch Click Here . 2. consider the following statements: www. 2 and 3 (b) 3 only (d) None © 2013 UPSCPORTAL .Q. 3. the letter of his/her resignation has to be addressed to the Deputy Speaker Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 and 2 only (c) 1. In the Parliament of India.

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