# Finite Element Analysis for Mechanical and Aerospace Design

Prof. Nicholas Zabaras Materials Process Design and Control Laboratory Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering 101 Frank H. T. Rhodes Hall Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853-3801 Email: zabaras@cornell.edu URL: http://mpdc.mae.cornell.edu/

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Remaining topics for the class
• In the remaining ~6 lectures, we will cover a random collection of topics that you can further explore on your own. They include (not necessarily in this order):
– – – – – Finite elements in 3D (solid elements) Transient problems, Dynamics Non-linear problems (material and geometric non-linearities) Advection-diffusion, Fluid Mechanics Optimization and Design

• These presentations will not be an overview of these subject areas. We will rather discuss and solve some simple problems that bring up these topics and the need for further studies in FEM.

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Elastic deformations in 3D
• Extension to 3D is very easy. For example, the equilibrium equations take the form: σ xx  ∂ ∂ ∂  σ   ∂x 0 0 ∂y ∂z 0  yy
  ∇T σ + b 0, where : ∇T  0 = = S S   0  ∂ ∂y 0 0 ∂ ∂z ∂ ∂x 0 0 ∂ ∂x  ∂ =  and σ ∂z  ∂ ∂y  

  σ zz    σ xy  σ   xz  σ yz   

• The traction/stress relation is now:  t x  σ xx σ xy σ xz   nx 
  t ty  = = t   z    σ xy σ yy σ yz   n y   σ xz σ yz σ zz   nz    
MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design N. Zabaras (11/03/2011) 3

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Elastic deformations in 3D
• The strain/displacement relation is simply:
∂  0 0  ∂x   0 ∂ 0 ε xx    ∂y ε    ∂    yy  0 0 ux  ε zz  ∂z       ∇ S u , where ε =  u y  = ε = ∂ ∂ γ xy  0  u   γ  ∂y ∂x   z   xz  ∂ ∂ γ yz  0     ∂z ∂x   ∂ ∂  0  ∂z ∂y   

• The isotropic Hooke’s law takes the form: σ = Dε
υ υ 0 1 − υ  υ υ 1−υ 0  υ 1−υ 0  υ  1 − 2υ E  0 0 0 D= 2 (1 + υ )(1 − 2υ )   0 0 0  0   0 0 0  0 
0 0 0 0 1 − 2υ 2 0      0    0   1 − 2υ   2  0 0 0

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Standard 3D solid element geometries

Tetrahedron (tet)

Pentahedron (wedge)

Hexahedron (brick)

These are element geometries with corner nodes only

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Solid elements with midpoints

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3D Finite Elements: Hexahedral elements
• This is an 8-node element. The shape functions are constructed by tensor product of 1D linear shape functions.
ζ

1 1 ( ( N1 e) = (1 − ξ )(1 − η )(1 − ζ ), N 2e) = (1 + ξ )(1 − η )(1 − ζ ) 8 8 1 1 ( ( N3e) = (1 + ξ )(1 + η )(1 − ζ ), N 4e) = (1 − ξ )(1 + η )(1 − ζ ) 8 8 1 1 ( ( N5e) = (1 − ξ )(1 − η )(1 + ζ ), N 6e) = (1 + ξ )(1 − η )(1 + ζ ) 8 8 1 1 ( ( N 7e) = (1 + ξ )(1 + η )(1 + ζ ), N8e) = (1 − ξ )(1 + η )(1 + ζ ) 8 8

or in compact format : 1 1,...,8 Ni(e) =(1 + ξξ i )(1 + ηηi )(1 + ζζ i ), i = 8 (ξ i ,ηi , ζ i ) : master coordinates of node i

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3D Finite Elements: 20 nodes Serendipidy element
• This is a 20-node hexahedron element. This element is not capable of accommodating a full tri-quadratic expansion in (ξ ,η , ζ ) , that is 1, ξ ,η , ζ ,..., ξ 2 ,η 2 , ζ 2 . For that we need a 27 node hexahedron element.

In compact format : 1 Ni(e) = (1 + ξξ i )(1 + ηηi )(1 + ζζ i )(ξξ i + ηηi + ζζ i − 2), i = 1,...,8 8 1 9,11,17,19 Ni(e) = (1 − ξ 2 )(1 + ηηi )(1 + ζζ i ), i = 4 1 Ni(e) = (1 − η 2 )(1 + ξξ i )(1 + ζζ i ), i = 10,12,18, 20 4 1 Ni(e) = (1 − ζ 2 )(1 + ξξ i )(1 + ηηi ), i = 13,14,15,16 4

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3D Finite Elements: 27 node Hexahedron
• A 27-node hexahedron can be constructed by adding 7 more nodes:6 one each face center and 1 interior node at the hexahedron center. • In elasticity application such an element has 27×3=81 degrees of freedom!

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27 node Hexahedron
• The derivatives of the shape functions can be computed as usual:
 ∂Nie   ∂ξ ∂η ∂ζ   ∂Nie      ∂x   ∂x ∂x ∂x   ∂ξ      ∂Nie   ∂ξ ∂η ∂ζ   ∂Nie     =   ∂η   ∂y   ∂y ∂y ∂y   ∂N e   ∂ξ ∂η ∂ζ   ∂N e   i   i    ∂z ∂z ∂z   ∂ζ       ∂x   
J : inverse Jacobian
−1

 ∂x  ∂ξ   ∂x J =  Jacobian  ∂η  ∂x  ∂ζ 

∂y ∂ξ ∂y ∂η ∂y ∂ζ

∂z  ∂ξ   ∂z  ∂η   ∂z  ∂ζ  

How do you compute J?

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27 node Hexahedron
• The Jacobian can be computed using the isoparametric map:
 ∂ ∑ xi Nie ∂ ∑ yi Nie ∂ ∑ zi Nie   i  i i  ∂ξ ∂ξ ∂ξ    e e e  ∂ ∑ xi Ni ∂ ∑ yi Ni ∂ ∑ zi Ni  i i i =   ∂η ∂η ∂η    ∂ ∑ xi Nie ∂ ∑ yi Nie ∂ ∑ zi Nie   i i  i  ∂ζ ∂ζ   ∂ζ    ∂Nie  ∑ xi ∂ξ i  ∂Nie =  ∑ xi ∂η i  ∂Nie  ∑ xi i ∂ζ  ∂Nie ∑ yi ∂ξ i ∂Nie ∑ yi ∂η i
∑ yi
i

Jacobian

J 

∂Nie ∂ζ

∂Nie  ∑ zi  ∂ξ  i ∂Nie   ∑ zi ∂η  i  ∂Nie  ∑ zi ∂ζ  i 

Gauss integration using a tensor product of 1D integration rules will finally give:
K = ∑ ∑ ∑ WiW jWk B D e B e | J |
e
Gauss Gauss Gauss

N

N

N

= 1 = 1= 1 i j k

(

e

T

)(ξ ,η ,ζ )
i j k

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The linear tetrahedron
• This is not used in deformation problems (poor performance). • We use natural coordinates as for the 3 node triangular element. • The volume of the tetrahedron is given as:
1 x 1 V = det  1 6  y1 z  1 1 x2 y2 z2 1 x3 y3 z3 1 x4   y4  z4  

Phase 123 seen from node 4

• For V>0, the nodes need to be numbered properly:
– For any face, the corners are numbered in a counterclockwise sense when looking at the face from the excluded corner.

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Linear tetrahedron:tetrahedral coordinates
• The four coordinates are related 1 as ζ 1 + ζ 2 + ζ 3 + ζ 4 = • Each ζ i is 1 at node i and zero at the remaining nodes and varies linearly as we transverse the distance from the corner i to the face. • These coordinates can be easily computed in terms of x,y,z as follows:
1   x    y z   1 x  1  y1 z  1 1 x2 y2 z2 1 x3 y3 z3 1  ζ1  x4  ζ 2    ⇒ y4  ζ 3  z4  ζ 4    ζ1  ζ   2 = 1 ζ 3  6V ζ   4  6V1 6V  2  6V3 6V  4 a1 a2 a3 a4 b1 b2 b3 b4 c1   1  c2   x    c3   y  c4   z   

a1 = y2 z43 − y3 z42 + y4 z32 b1 =43 + x3 z42 − x4 z32 − x2 z c1 = x2 y43 − x3 y42 + x4 y32 , etc. where : zij = z j , yij = y j zi − yi −

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Linear tetrahedron:computing derivatives
ζ1  ζ   2 = 1 ζ 3  6V ζ   4  6V1 6V  2  6V3 6V  4 a1 a2 a3 a4 b1 b2 b3 b4 c1   1  c2   x    c3   y  c4   z   

• From the above expression, note that: ∂ζ i =
∂x

ai ∂ζ i bi ∂ζ i ci = = , , 6V ∂y 6V ∂z 6V

• Thus differentiation with respect to x,y,z can proceed as:
∂ ∂ ∂ζ 1 ∂ ∂ζ 2 ∂ ∂ζ 3 ∂ ∂ζ 4 = + + + = ∂x ∂ζ 1 ∂x ∂ζ 2 ∂x ∂ζ 3 ∂x ∂ζ 4 ∂x = ∂ a1 ∂ a2 ∂ a3 ∂ a4 , etc. + + + ∂ζ 1 6V ∂ζ 2 6V ∂ζ 3 6V ∂ζ 4 6V

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Linear tetrahedron: Constant strain
• Recall that the strains are computed as:
∂   ∂x 0 0    0 ∂ 0 ε xx    ∂y ε     yy   0 0 ∂  ux   ε zz  ∂z       ∇ S u , where ε =  u y  = ε = ∂ ∂ γ xy  0  u    z γ   ∂y ∂x   xz  ∂ ∂ γ yz  0     ∂z ∂x   ∂ ∂   0 ∂z ∂y   

• The displacements are approximated as:
 u x1  u   y1   u z1    ux 2   ...   0  ..   0    ζ4         ux 4  u   y4  uz 4   

 u x  ζ 1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 0 ζ 4 0    u y  =  0 ζ 1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 0 ζ 4 u   0 0 ζ 1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 0  z 

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Linear tetrahedron: Constant strain
• Thus the B matrix is:
∂   ∂x 0 0    0 ∂ 0   ∂y   ∂ 0 0 ζ 1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 0 ζ 4 0 0  ∂z     =   0 ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 0 ζ 4 0  ∂ ∂ 0   0 0 ζ1 0 0 ζ 2 0 0 ζ 3 0 0 ζ 4     ∂y ∂x   ∂ ∂ 0   ∂x   ∂z ∂ ∂   0 ∂z ∂y    0 b2 0 a2 0 c2 0 0 c2 0 a2 b2 a3 0 0 b3 c3 0 0 b3 0 a3 0 c3 0 0 c3 0 a3 b3 a4 0 0 b4 c4 0 0 b4 0 a4 0 c4 0 0  c4  = const. 0  a4  b4 

B

 a1 0 0 a2 0 b 0 0 1  1  0 0 c1 0 =  6V  b1 a1 0 b2  c1 0 a1 c2   0 c1 b1 0

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Linear tetrahedron: Constant strain
• For calculating volume integrals, the following rule is very useful:

e

k l ζ 1iζ 2jζ 3 ζ 4 d= Ω

i ! j !k !l ! 6V , i, j , k= non − negative int egers ,l (i + j + k + l + 3)!

• For example, for constant body forces, you will need integrals of the form:

∫ ζ= md Ω
e

1! 1 V = = 6V 6V (4)! 1× 2 × 3 × 4 4

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• The shape functions are written in terms of natural coordinates as:

In compact format :
( ( N1 e) =ζ 1 (2ζ 1 − 1), N 2e) =ζ 2 (2ζ 2 − 1) ( ( N3e) = ζ 3 (2ζ 3 − 1), N 4e) = ζ 4 (2ζ 4 − 1) ( ( ζ 1ζ 2 , N 6e) N 5e ) = 4= 4ζ 2ζ 3 ( ( ζ 3ζ 1 , N8e) N 7e) = 4= 4ζ 1ζ 4 ( (e ζ 2ζ 4 , N10 ) N 9e ) = 4= 4ζ 3ζ 4

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• Consider the interpolation of any arbitrary function w.

• The partial derivatives are computed as:

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By taking the transponse

• Now take w=x,y,z.

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• This is a linear system with the required unknowns in the 2nd matrix. However, the coefficient matrix is not square! 1 • Differentiate ζ 1 + ζ 2 + ζ 3 + ζ 4 =wrt x, y ,z.
 1  ∂N  ∑ xi i  i ∂ζ 1  ∂N  ∑ yi i  i ∂ζ 1  ∂N  ∑ zi i  i ∂ζ 1  1
∑ xi
i

1
∑ xi
i

∂Ni ∂ζ 2 ∂Ni ∂ζ 2 ∂Ni ∂ζ 2

∂Ni ∂ζ 3 ∂Ni ∂ζ 3 ∂Ni ∂ζ 3

∑ yi
i

∑ yi
i

∑ zi
i

∑ zi
i

 ∂ζ  1 ∂x ∂Ni    ∂ζ ∑ xi ∂ζ 4   2 i  ∂x ∂Ni    ∂ζ ∑ yi ∂ζ 4   3 i  ∂x ∂Ni     ∂ζ ∑ zi ∂ζ 4   4 i  ∂x  1

∂ζ 1 ∂y ∂ζ 2 ∂y ∂ζ 3 ∂y ∂ζ 4 ∂y

∂ζ 1  ∂z   ∂ζ 2  0 ∂z  1 = ∂ζ 3  0 ∂z  0   ∂ζ 4  ∂z  

0 0 1 0

0 0  0 1 

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 1  ∂N  ∑ xi i  i ∂ζ 1  ∂N  ∑ yi i  i ∂ζ 1  ∂N  ∑ zi i  i ∂ζ 1  1
∑ xi
i

1
∑ xi
i

∂Ni ∂ζ 2 ∂Ni ∂ζ 2 ∂Ni ∂ζ 2

∂Ni ∂ζ 3 ∂Ni ∂ζ 3 ∂Ni ∂ζ 3

∑ yi
i

∑ yi
i

∑ zi
i

∑ zi
i

 ∂ζ  1 ∂x ∂Ni    ∂ζ ∑ xi ∂ζ 4   2 i  ∂x ∂Ni    ∂ζ ∑ yi ∂ζ 4   3 i  ∂x ∂Ni     ∂ζ ∑ zi ∂ζ 4   4 i  ∂x  1

∂ζ 1 ∂y ∂ζ 2 ∂y ∂ζ 3 ∂y ∂ζ 4 ∂y

∂ζ 1  ∂z   ∂ζ 2  0 ∂z  1 = ∂ζ 3  0 ∂z  0   ∂ζ 4  ∂z  

0 0 0 0  1 0 0 1 

• Once you solve these system of linear equations for the derivatives on the 2nd matrix, you can then compute the partial derivatives of w from an earlier equation as follows:

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• For transforming integration from dΩe to
d Ωe = ζ 1d ζ 2 d ζ 3d ζ 4 Jd d ζ 1d ζ 2 d ζ 3d ζ 4

you can show that
 1  ∂N  ∑ xi i  i ∂ζ 1 1 J = det  ∂N  ∑ yi i 6  i ∂ζ 1  ∂N  ∑ zi i  i ∂ζ 1  1
∑ xi
i

1
∑ xi
i

∂Ni ∂ζ 2 ∂Ni ∂ζ 2 ∂Ni ∂ζ 2

∂Ni ∂ζ 3 ∂Ni ∂ζ 3 ∂Ni ∂ζ 3

∑ yi
i

∑ yi
i

∑ zi
i

∑ zi
i

 ∂Ni   ∑ xi ∂ζ 4  i ∂Ni   ∑ yi ∂ζ 4  i ∂Ni   ∑ zi ∂ζ 4  i  1

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• One Gauss point integration is using the point
1 1 1 1 (ζ 1 , ζ 2 , ζ 3 , ζ 4 ) = ( , , , ) 4 4 4 4

with weight W=1. This rule is exact for constant and linear polynomials over plane-face tetrahedrals. • The 4-point rule
(ζ 1 , ζ 2 , ζ 3 , ζ 4 ) = (α , β , β , β ),( β ,α , β , β ),( β , β ,α , β ),( β , β , β , α ), where :
α =
5+3 5 5− 5 = ,β , with weights W 1/ 4. = 20 20

• The stiffness matrix needs to be computed with Gauss integration (note that B is now 6x30 matrix):
K e = ∑ Wi B e D e B e J
Gauss T

N

i =1

(

)(ζ ,ζ ,ζ ,ζ )
1 2 3 4

i

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Patch test
• The patch test is useful in testing new elements. The crimes that may be committed in the development of elements include:
– – – – – – Lack of completeness Lack of invariance: Element response depending on observer frame Rank deficiency Violation of inter-element continuity Inexact but rank sufficient numerical integration Etc. (for extensive discussion visit this web site)

• We test these crimes with the patch test. An element patch is the set of all elements attached to a patch node (here denoted as i).

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Patch test
• A good finite element must solve simple problems exactly whether individually, or as component of arbitrary patches. • To create simple problems, think of a mesh refinement process. For example, at the limit of refinement, the stress/strain states are uniform within each element. • The patch test has two dual forms:
– Displacement Patch Test : applies boundary displacements to patch and verifies that the patch response reproduces exactly rigid body modes and constant strain states. – Force Patch Test: applies boundary forces to patch and verifies that the patch response reproduces exactly constant stress states. – There are also mixed patch tests that incorporate both force and displacement BCs.

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Displacement Patch Test: translation in x-direction

• Pick a patch. At the external nodes of the patch apply rigid body motion as prescribed displacements. Set forces at interior DOFs to zero. • Solve for the displacement components of the interior nodes. These should agree with the value of the displacement field at that node. • Recover the strain field over the elements: all components should vanish identically at any point.

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Displacement Patch Test: constant exx

• We apply a constant-strain-mode ux = x and uy = 0 at the external nodes of the patch. This gives exx = ∂ux/∂x = 1, others zero. We set the forces at the internal nodes to zero. • We solve for the displacements of interior nodes. They should agree with the value of the displacement field at that node. • We need to also recover the strain field over the elements: all components should vanish except exx = 1 at any point. • If the displacement/strain states are reproduced correctly, the patch test is passed.

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design N. Zabaras (11/03/2011) 28

A force patch test: sxx=1

• We consider a patch test with uniform stress σxx = 1, others zero. On the boundary of the patch we apply a uniform traction tx = σxx. Convert this to nodal forces using a consistent force lumping approach. Forces at interior DOFs should be zero. • We need to apply a minimal number of displacement BC to eliminate rigid body motions. • Solve for displacements, strains & stresses over the elements. The computed stresses should recover exactly the test state. • If all test states are reproduced, the test is passed.

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design N. Zabaras (11/03/2011) 29

Stress recovery
• You already have noticed from the computer assignments that the stresses are always computed at the Gauss points. • Calculation of the derivatives of the basis functions (thus of strains and stresses) at the Gauss points is optimal (see Hughes for more details). • How do we compute nodal stresses from the values of the stresses at the Gauss points?
– We use a global least squares approach.

• Let us work with a particular stress component σ. We would like to compute the nodal strsses σi from the Gauss stress σG (known only at the Gauss points of each element).
N 1 σG min ∑ ∫ ( ∑ σ j N e − j  σ 2eΩ j =1     Known
nodes e i

) 2 d Ωe

Finite element int erpolation of stresses

only at the Gauss po int s

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design N. Zabaras (11/03/2011) 30

Stress recovery
N 1 σG min ∑ ∫ ( ∑ σ j N e − j  σ 2eΩ j= 1    Known
nodes e i

) 2 d Ωe

• Taking the derivative with respect to each nodal stress σi to be equal to zero results in the following:
e e e ∑ ∫ ( ∑ σ j N j − σ G ) Ni d Ω = 0 ⇒
nodes

Finite element int erpolation of stresses

only at the Gauss po int s

N

eΩ

e

j =1

e e e = ∑ ∑ ∫ Ni N j d Ω σ j ∑
nodes

N

e j =1 Ω

   
e

e

Mass matrix

Gaus s in tegration of this force term requires only the values of σ at the Gauss po int s !
G

Ω    
e

e d Ωe , i ∫ σ G Ni = 1,.., N nodes

• The force term is computed with Gauss integration using the known Gauss stresses!

CORNELL
U N I V E R S I T Y

MAE 4700 – FE Analysis for Mechanical & Aerospace Design N. Zabaras (11/03/2011) 31