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by Ralph A. Sarmiento
This is a collection of Bar Exam techniques, secrets, and strategies I wish I had known before I took the Bar Examination in September 1997. The Bar Exam is the most-feared professional exam in the country. When you take it, it is like putting your entire being, personality and dignity at stake. People, who know you and whom you know, as well as your friends and enemies alike, would be on the close watch, eagerly waiting to see you succeed or fail, earnestly waiting to join you in your celebration or to laugh at you in your defeat. The release of the Bar Exam results is the Judgment Day for every law student. It separates the sheep from the goats. It brings out tears of joy to some and tears of frustration, sadness and grief to others. Taking the Bar Exam is therefore a serious matter. Much is at stake.
BAR EXAM STATISTICS
Philippine Bar Exams Trivia
(Disclaimer: The information found hereunder are based only sources that were made available to the writer. Should you find any incorrect information, please call the writer's attention immediately.)
1st Bar Exams:
1901 with 13 examinees. 96.7 in the 1954 Bar Exams by Florenz Regalado of San Beda College 95.3 in the 1944 held by Jovito R. Salonga of the University of the Philippines & Jose W. Diokno, who did not finish his law studies. Manuel A. Roxas (University of the Philippines), 1913 Bar Exams with a grade of 92. Diosdado P. Macapagal of the University of Sto. Tomas, 1936 with a grade of 89.85 Ferdinand E. Marcos of the University of the Philippines, 1939 with a grade of 92.35 Sergio S. Osmeña (University of Santo Tomas), 2nd Place - 1903 Bar Exams Manuel L. Quezon, (University of Santo Tomas), 4th Place - 1903 Bar Exams Elpidio R. Quirino (University of the Philippines), 2nd Place - 1915 Bar Carlos P. Garcia (Philippine Law School), 6th Place - 1923 Bar Diokno was born on February 26, 1922. Diokno earned his Bachelor's Degree in Commerce Summa Cum Laude in 1940 at De La Salle College (now De La Salle University).
Highest Grade of All Time: 2nd Highest Grade of All Time: Bar Topnotchers (1st Placers) to become Presidents of the Philippines:
Other Bar Topnotchers to become Presidents of the Philippines:
Facts about the Jose W. Diokno Legend:
He took the CPA Board Exam in 1940 while he was on his second year in law school and placed No. 1. In 1944, he petitioned the Supreme Court to take the Bar Exams without a law degree. The Supreme Court granted his petition and he took the Bar Exams in 1944 and tied with the Class Valedictorian of U.P. for the 1st Place with a grade of 95.3. Diokno is perhaps the only one who placed 1st in both the CPA board exams & the Bar Exams. Recto was born on February 8, 1890 at Tiaong, Tayabas (now Quezon Province). He graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree from Ateneo de Manila where his grades were all perfect (1.0), except only for one 1.3. He was conferred by Ateneo with Maxima Cum Laude honors (highest honors conferred by Ateneo). He took the Bar Exams in 1913 while he was still in his senior year in law school at the University of Santo Tomas - and FLUNKED. He finished his law degree in 1913, Class Valedictorian, University of Santo Tomas. The 1913 Bar Exams marked the first time that the test questions in Civil Procedure were in English, a new language in which Recto could not express himself very well. Justice Fischer, the examiner in Civil Procedure, also noted that Recto's handwriting was very difficult to understand. Justice Fischer gave Recto a grade of 41 which automatically disqualified him. Recto took the Bar Exams again in 1914 and passed. However, I could not find any official record whether he placed in the Bar Exams of 1914. But it appears that the No. 1 Bar Topnotcher in the 1914 Bar based on the official records of the Supreme Court was Manuel Goyena. After passing, Recto wrote two books on Civil Procedure. When Recto studied in Ateneo and UST, the medium of instruction was Spanish. Manuel Roxas, on the other hand, UP's Class Valedictorian who topped the 1913 Bar Exams was a product of the US public school system and had spent a year in Hong Kong to better equip himself with American English before taking the Bar. Marcos was born on September 11, 1917. In college, Marcos' principal interest was the .22-caliber college pistol team. On September 20, 1935, Julio Nalundasan was at home celebrating that day's Congressional election victory over Mariano Marcos when he was shot and killed with a .22-caliber bullet fired by the 18-year-old Marcos. On December 13, 1938, Marcos was arrested for Nalundasan's murder but he successfully petitioned for release on bail, allowing him to complete his law degree from the University of the Philippines. In 1939, Marcos was found guilty and sentence to a minimum of 10 years in prison. Jailed, Marcos spent six months writing his own 830-page appeal while reviewing for the Bar Exams at the same time. Marcos posted bail to take the 1939 Bar Exams and passed with scores so high he was suspected of cheating. Legends say that his unofficial Grade was 98.5 and so he was summoned to appear before the Supreme Court en banc for an oral re-examination, after which his official grade was released as 92.35.
Facts about the Claro M. Recto Legend:
Facts about the Ferdinand E. Marcos Legend:
The next day.6. Fernandez (University of the Philippines) failed in the 1993 Bar Exams but placed No. he was acquitted of the charge of murder and forthwith liberated from imprisonment. 1 in the 1994 Bar Exams with a grade of 89.4. he returned to the Supreme Court where he was administered his oath as a lawyer. She later became the 1st woman Supreme Court Justice in 1973 and the 1st female President of a constitutional commission in 1986. Tecla San Andres-Ziga of the University of the Philippines placed No. 1940. 1 in the Bar Exams in 1937 with a grade of 92. 1st woman to Top the Bar (1st Place): 2nd woman to Top the Bar (1st Place): Bar Flunker who Placed 1st on his Second Take: National Passing Percentage . Marcos is the only Bar candidate who was called by the Supreme Court for an oral reexaminations. Laurel and on October 22. Cecilia Munoz-Palma (University of the Philippines) became the 2nd woman to place No.Last 10 Years .2. Francisco Noel R. In 1940. Marcos orally argued his own case in front of Supreme Court Justice Jose P. She served as Senator of the Republic of the Philippines from 1963 to 1969. 1 in the Bar Exams of 1930 with a grade of 89.
By Decade Tenth (10th) Place Trending This graph represents the Scores/Grades of the Tenth Placers of the last 10 years of Bar Exams. They are more or less the grades you need to be in the Top 10.National Passing Percentage . .
582 87.027 87.418 87.811 87.960 .947 88.985 88.828 88.Schools With Two or More Bar Topnotchers (Since 1951) Total 188 177 75 35 23 19 17 14 Law School Ateneo de Manila (AdeMU) University of the Philippines (UP) San Beda College (SBC) Far Eastern University (FEU) Manuel Luis Quezon University (MLQU) University of Santo Tomas (UST) University of the East (UE) University of San Carlos (USC) Average Grade 87.
000 85.075 87. Sarmiento Divine Word University (DWU) St.700 85.825 86.000 86.200 89. 15. 10. 9. . 6.729 88.142 88.138 86.350 87. 7.572 88.800 85. 11.450 87.150 88. 5. 13. V.275 Year 1954 1951 1978 1985 1968 1997 1997 1985 1988 1986 1961 2006 2006 2005 1993 1.650 86. 4. La Salle (USLS) .183 87.Atty.725 Schools With 1 Bar Topnotcher Each (Since 1951) Law School University of Southern Philippines (USP) FLS Zamboanga Arturo Eustaquio Colleges (ZAEC) Adamson University University of Bohol (UB) Mindanao State University (MSU) University of St.223 85.Recoletos (USJ-R) University of the Visayas (UV) 87. 12.550 85. 2. 3. Louis University (SLU) University of Iloilo (UI) Luzon Colleges Dr.850 89.Rizal Arellano University Grade 93. 14.Recoletos (UNO-R) University of San Agustin (USA) Silliman University (SU) University of the Cordilleras (formerly BCF) Ateneo de Davao University of Nueva Caseres (UNC) University of Manila (UM) Xavier University (XU) University of San Jose . .205 86.900 93.300 85. Ralph A. 8.450 87.250 87.9 8 7 6 6 4 3 2 2 2 2 Lyceum of the Philippines (LP) University of Negros Occ. Orestes Romualdez Educational Foundation University of Cebu (UC) University of Perpetual Help .
825 84.15% . First Sunday: A.00 in 1992 by Jayme Sy.80 in 1963 by Antonio Abad.16. the eight Bar Subjects are not however of equal weight.M. Ponferrada of the University of the Philippines (UP) 87.: Labor Law & Social Legislation Total Second Sunday: .185 in 1989 by Gilberto Teodoro.M. Bicol Colleges 84.: Political Law & International Law P. of Ateneo de Manila University 89. of the University of the Philippines (UP) 93.Recoletos (UNO-R) & Priscilla Valer of Ateneo de Manila University Lowest 1st Place Grade of All Time Highest 10th Place Grade of All Time Lowest 10th Place Grade of All Time Highest 1st Place Grade in the last 15 years Lowest 1st Place Grade in the last 15 years Highest 10th Place Grade in the last 15 years Lowest 10th Place Grade in the last 15 years KNOW THE ENEMY Subjects & Schedules The Bar Exam is divided into eight Bar Subjects spread over four Sundays.649 2003 2005 2003 Highest & Lowest Grades Highest 1st Place Grade of All Time 96. While the relative total weights of each of the four Sundays are equal. Jr. Philippine Law School (PLS) 18.40 in 1992 by Angela Garcia of University of Negros Occidental .00 in 1954 by Benjamin Paulino of University of the East (UE) 82.25% .700 84.70 in 1954 by Florenz Regalado of San Beda College (SBC) 86. Jr.Recoletos 17.80 in 2001 by Rodolfo Ma. San Sebastian College .00 in 1996 by Edgar Bernal of the University of the Philippines (UP) 84. of Far Eastern University (FEU) 93.10% . Jr.
is one of the purposes of this book. Time for Answering You have four (4) hours for morning subjects.M. This means that you have to think.m.: Criminal Law Total Fourth Sunday: A. that is. things that we cannot control and we just have to find a really good way of dealing with them. to 12 noon. distinctions.: Remedial Law P.M. On the other hand. but only three (3) hours for afternoon subjects.A.10% . The first technique therefore is to learn how to take advantage of things you can control and minimize. Objective-type questions should therefore be taken as part of Bar Exam realities.: Civil Law P.M. and enumerations. Most of the questions are essay problems and those that require theoretical discussions.M. from 8 a. from 2 p. i. Remedial Law can literally pull you up or down heavily.M.15% . formulate. which.m. notwithstanding the supposed policy against asking questions that require pure memorization. Type of Questions Bar Exam questions come in different types and forms.25% . Legal Ethics & Practical Exercises carries the lightest weight (5%). to 5 p. analyze.20% 5% .: Taxation Total Third Sunday: A. However..25% . Things We Cannot Control There are things that you can control and things that you cannot in the Bar Exam. this does not mean that you can take Legal Ethics and Practical Exercises for granted because even if your General Weighted Average is enough to land you in the Top 10.e. Remedial Law is the heaviest at twenty percent (20%) and so it contributes significantly to whether you make it or not. we still see a lot of objective-type questions. This is understandable because afternoon subjects carry a lesser weight compared to their morning counterparts. However. if ..m.15% .M. and write faster in the afternoon.: Mercantile Law P.10% .e. there appears to be no considerable difference in the length of the questionnaires for the morning and afternoon subjects.: Legal Ethics & Practical Exercises Total . you still won’t see you name in newspapers or in the Supreme Court website when the results are released. i. like definitions. by the way.25% All morning subjects have higher weights compared to the afternoon subjects. but if you get a Grade of lower than 50 in Legal Ethics. However.
People who flunk have problems in one. poor understanding of the law. while the third L is learned in law school. trends and repetitions. obsolete legal knowledge. These repeated questions or topics are favorites of Bar examiners. Language problems come in the form of grammatical errors. Why People Flunk the Bar? It is said that one should have the three L’s to become a lawyer – Logic. Every question must be anticipated.not totally prevent the adverse effects of things that you cannot control. Language and Law. and the like. inadequate preparations. But if we can only guess or anticipate where the questions will come from. This is not within your control. This is done by looking back while looking forward. and poor written communication skills. For example. poorly structured sentences. in two or in all the three L’s. there is too much material to be covered in each subject and you do not know where the questions will come from. Other reasons are illegible handwriting. you have no excuse if you cannot answer them convincingly. Law problems come in the form of ignorance of the law or legal principles implicated by the questions. Look for patterns. and sometimes even emotional problems. it will make preparation a lot easier. You should closely study and analyze questions of the last ten (10) years at the least. Looking Back While Looking Forward There is no better way to understand the nature of Bar Exam questions than by studying and examining past Bar Exams. health problems. poor analysis. No question in the Bar Exam should be a surprise. WHAT TO DO BEFORE THE EXAM Preparation is the Key . a shocker. But looking back is only half the secret. or worse. Every issue must have a ready solution. and not knowing how to apply the law to the facts of the problem. A good percentage of questions is repeated or recycled oftentimes with only slight modifications. the other half is anticipation. unjustified conclusions. Logic problems come out in terms of misappreciation of the facts and the issues. misspelled words. The first two L’s are supposed to be in one’s arsenal even before entering law school. Most of the reasons for flunking the Bar Exams are related to these three L’s. faulty reasoning. and since they are recycled.
Evaluate your performance on each of the eight Bar subjects. but make some adjustments on subjects that you perceive to be more difficult than the others. They are rare and they are just icings on the cake. especially to Remedial Law. . Consider also the weight of each Bar subject as well as your own perceptions on their levels of difficulty in allocating your review time. More review time should be allocated to morning subjects. you should know your strong and weak subjects. It tests more than mere memory and understanding. You no longer study to survive the horrifying graded recitations. Before you begin your intensive Bar Preparation and Review. Note that there are only around fifteen to twenty numbers or problems in each subject. You must have a game plan and you should stick to it as if your entire life depends on it. Check your armory. It is more about preparing your machine to use and apply all these legal knowledge that you have acquired. Not Just Hard Bar review and preparation isn’t really about studying hard and burning your machine too much. Conduct an inventory of your books and materials. The following are proven preparation tactics: Analyze your strong and weak subjects.Preparation is the key to success to success in the Bar Exam. Bar Examiners will only choose topics which are important or relevant. It is not only about filling up your mind with legal knowledge. Study to Beat the Exam Bar Review and preparation isn’t law school anymore where you just sit down in long hours of lectures and wait for your turn to recite provisions of law and cases. Your transcript of law school records can give you a more or less objective evaluation of your performance. But this is not just any kind of preparation. This will give you an idea on what your strong and weak subjects are as evaluated and perceived by your law school professors. Bar Exam Preparation is not just about studying to know the law and jurisprudence. Hence. Study Smartly. Examine your transcript of records and compute your grade average on each of the eight Bar subjects. The Bar Exams is not only about what you have remembered or what you can recite. Consider the Weight of Each Bar Subject. It tests your ability to analyze legal problems and to apply relevant laws and jurisprudence. as a general rule. Be sure you have all subjects and topics covered. Questions that are out of this world should not really pose much of a problem. Consider this data when you allocate your review time on the Bar subjects.
Hence. They have not yet been the subject of a Bar Exam in the last century. they will never be asked in the next century or even in the next millennium of Bar Exams. You will know this by studying past Bar Exam questions. then you are in for a big shock mentally and physically in the first Sunday of the Bar Exams. To avoid this shock. However. I’m sure you have covered them in law school. Provisions that have already been asked repeatedly in Bar Exam should be included here. But the Bar Exam is more than that – it is an essay exam! Even objective-type questions. Practice. This includes provisions that are not expected to be in the arsenal of new legal practitioners.Classify Legal Provisions Since the Bar Examiners can only ask so much. there is only one effective way to prepare. Controversial provisions that have not yet been asked should also be placed in this category. good essays. Class “C” – relevant provisions that are the usual subjects of legal controversies and cases but which have not yet been the subject of a Bar question or which have not been the subject of a Bar question in the last five or ten years. they may be sacrificed in favor of those in Categories “A”. the secret is . “B” and “C”. or enumerations are all to be answered in essay form. listening to lecturers. Class “B” – important provisions that should be mastered. Example of categories are the following: Class “A” – very important provisions that should be mastered and memorized. practice writing essays. the actual amount of legal knowledge that you need in each subject is pretty much limited. therefore. The secret here is to classify provisions of law into different categories. distinctions. therefore. Take Practice Test Under Exam Conditions Law school exams usually take only about one to two hours. that is a good way to prepare if the Bar Exam were only an exam on reading comprehension and listening. like those asking for definitions. Place in this category those provisions that have already been asked in the Bar at least five times. Practice. and reading their materials. Don’t worry. Just study and understand these provisions. The technique. Well. is to acquire legal knowledge by listening to good review lectures and by studying your materials and then spend time to practice applying that legal knowledge by writing good essays. Class “D” – Not so important or relevant provisions. you should still read them as part of your preparation. Practice. but if you lack time. that is. The problem with many Bar takers is that they think they can hurdle the Bar Exam by simply attending Bar Reviews. More likely. But have you already tested yourself using a full-length Bar Exam questionnaire in a full stretch of four hours or two Bar subjects for a total of seven hours in a single day? If not.
you should limit memorization only to those provisions which you have classified as Class “A”. I am therefore surprised to meet many Bar Examinees who got the courage to take the Bar Exam without having read the text of the Constitution. completing the name card. To Memorize or Not. These are the three C’s in the study of law. by simply studying and trying to understand them. But it doesn’t mean that it will be your only book on the subject. but not the codes. reviewing your answers. That is the Question Attempting to memorize all the law available will make the exam frustrating and difficult. As to the others. or discussions that are not in your principal book you have chosen. Civil Code. actual answering. ringing of the bell.to take Mock Bar Exams that simulate actual exam conditions. underlinings. In fact. that is.m. and (c) Cases. But I am not saying that you should not memorize anything. till 5 p. Besides. Simulate time allocations. See if your writing hand and fingers can survive seven hours of punishment. Well. Once you found anything of that sort. inserting it inside the envelop stapled in the notebook. and your notes and other jottings on the subject. sealing the envelope. Stick to Your Own Materials Choose only one principal book per subject and be sure it is one of the books you have used in that subject while you were in law school. you may . matters.m. from 8 a. (b) Commentaries. the Labor Code. Moreover. it is also through repetition. The tactic here is that during the pre-month (August). you will be surprised that you may somehow remember them. it is not really necessary for you to cite legal provisions. and the relevant provisions of the Code of Commerce. the Revised Penal Code. and other key provisions. by reading. See if you your mind can stay active for the whole day. your principal book should already contain all you need in that subject. Oftentimes. even verbatimly to some extent. the Tax Code. As discussed above. See if you can manage answering without having to answer the call of nature. Codal provisions contain the text of the law per se. Stick to Codal Provisions Never take codal provisions for granted. the Family Code. You reserve days for Mock Bar Exams. You still have to quickly browse other books and materials and look for concepts. you won’t have the time to actively and consciously memorize everything. that is. highlightings. Court of Tax Appeals Act. restating a legal provision of concept in your own words will have more impact on the examiner because it exhibits profound understanding of legal provisions and concepts. Tariff and Customs Code. and re-reviewing that you will subconsciously commit legal provisions concepts to memory. Evaluate your mental and physical readiness for this kind of exam. etc. reviewing. If you have only read the commentaries or the cases. excerpts from cases or their titles verbatimly. Bar Materials should always be studied in this order: (a) Codal Provisions. make marginal notes in your principal book. It must have your markings. how can you then write “the Law provides that…” with confidence? You don’t know the law or what it provides if you have not read the code.
fool some Bar Examiners some of the time. You might have prepared your mind for it pretty well but if your body bugs down. One tactic here is to write love letters to your spouse. then let him or her serve as your inspiration. Get enough sleep. Every time you get up in the morning. fiancé. Do not separate with your spouse. You should also keep away from all kinds of emotional problems. Avoid radical changes in your personal relationships Avoid radical changes in your personal relationships during the review period and the Bar Exam month. as well as a sense of guilt every time a day passes and you have not really studied anything. Keep a healthy lifestyle throughout the review period and the Bar Exam month. Worse. Countdown Have you already counted how many days you still have before the first Sunday of the Bar Exam? If not. parents. friends. worry. that you can no longer spend the same number of hours with them as before. but you cannot fool all Bar Examiners all the time. always try to reclaim your mind and channel your energy to your preparations. Do not marry. then avoid the temptation of wooing one during this period. If you still have no boy friend or girl friend. and your enemies (?) and explain to them what you will be undergoing. morally and financially if you need to or beg for it if you have to. Exercise to keep your body and mind sharp. grief. fiancée. If your mind starts to wander and you begin to lose focus on your preparations because of anxiety. Eat nourishing meals. but if you lose a loved one during this period. you may just be simply fooling yourselves. Ask for their understanding and support. relatives. and errands that could be done by other persons. chain emails. then try to count the days remaining and keep a countdown in a conspicuous area in the place where you will be staying during the review period. you lost focus in your preparation and review because of him or her. I suggest you use a chalk and an eraser and keep a countdown on your bedroom door. that they should spare you from text messaging. To see you fail in the Bar Exam is the last thing your loved one wants to see if he or she were still alive. Prepare Physically & Emotionally The Bar Exam is not just about mental preparation. beg if you must but things like these just have to be postponed after you shall have finished taking the exam. Most of these problems may be avoided if only the persons close to you understand what you are going through in preparing for and in taking the Bar Exams. . its importance to you and to them. If they want to. kids. You cannot afford heartaches during this period. Worse. Take the Bar Exam for him or her. then all your preparation will come to naught. and other personal and family problems that you could not have avoided like losing a loved one or critical illness in the family. God forbids. Do not break up or cool off with your boy friend or girl friend. deduct one day from this countdown and it will give you a sense of urgency in your preparation.
IV. Sarmiento I. Thou shall answer only what is being asked. Ralph A. IX. Thou shall not make an unjustified conclusion. VIII. V.Things to Bring Notice of Admission Identification Card Sign Pens Tissue Paper Emergency Medicines Books & Notes Lunch & Snacks The Ten Commandments in Answering Bar Exam Questions by Atty. Thou shall write legibly and clearly. Thou shall leave your personal biases at home. THE BAR EXAM FOR DUMMIES PRELIMINARIES . Thou shall always state the legal basis of your answer. X. Thou shall not brag about your legal knowledge. VI. II. III. Thou shall not invent facts. Thou shall not criticize the problem. Thou shall not abandon your common sense. Thou shall not write unduly long answers. VII.
2. its better to be effective. logic. – Take your vitamins. legible handwriting) in your system by now. Also. The last thing you will need during the entire bar month is an uncomfortable lodging place. You won’t have time to go over annotated books during the bar month. You can never tell… . Don’t be hesitant to ask about amenities and furnishings. 4. you need that to keep your brain running smoothly too. – Months before the Bar. Adjust your body clock. In this way. You will need at least a week to allow the place to “grow on you” so that you will not shock your system and risk having to adjust yourself within the bar month. Also train yourself to eat a fast but full lunch. – Be it airline or vessel reservations and lodging places. Even this preliminary would need careful planning. Inquire at the Bar Confidant’s Office from time to time. Also. This will train your hands to write continuously for 4 hours. Family Home. and drink lots of water. 1. 5. Calculate the number of days you will need to process your permit and visit the Bar Confidant’s Office among other things. especially for first time bar takers. Practice answering Bar questions using the exact same sign pen you will use during the bar within the exact bar examination time. Go for codals instead and maybe reviewers and answers to bar questions. That is 8am-12pm and 2pm-5pm. – Schedule your departure for Manila around a practical and comfortable time. Prepare for a to-each-his-own scenario in the airport or port. Support Pendente Lite. Grace Period. Bill of Particulars. it’s good to trim down your materials to the most basic ones. you should have imbibed the 4L’s (law. You should never assume that someone would be there to meet and help you carry your luggage. Make sure the landlady or the manager of the condo or dorm personally confirms your reservation. Also. be sure to confirm your billeting.This should be the jumping board to psyche up for the momentous task ahead. Of course. you will be constrained to limit yourself to these materials and avoid spreading yourself out too thin. make sure you train yourself to wake up at 5 am and stay wide awake and alert till 5 pm. – Be sure everything is complete for the processing of your bar permits. 3. “run the marathon”. always plan your trip around the pragmatic horizon. eat healthy. THE FIRST SATURDAY This day should not be taken lightly for it is as nerve-racking as the first Sunday itself. But more than the efficiency factor. Never overload. Pre-week reviews may help. outlines and notes will do. Brief. as a very popular reviewer would suggest. Lastly. language. This will simulate the examination schedule. do so months before the bar so that you can monitor your body’s response. 6. This will require a very good technique. The “fear of the unknown” will occupy position number one. allow yourself reasonable time/days for settling into your new place. If you have to try some new supplements. Never forget physical activities. . therefore.Bring only things you really truly honestly need for the preweek. Be weary of possible apparitions courtesy of early childhood traumas and fixations. Ask around and confirm the completion of the requirements before leaving forManila.
Subpoena. Survival kit is essential. TRY to get enough rest. 4. Need testimonials? You won’t need to look very far. This will at least ease your nerves at some level. 4. Also. Literally jump out of bed and do some physical movements and stretching. to rouse your sleepy brain.1. . (it’s advisable to make and keep a list according to your individual needs) 3. 5. Pray a lot. Befriend it. The Bar is not something to conquer. Give enough time and provide for personal necessities. Panic attacks and anxieties will be in overload on this day. visit DLSU and find your assigned building.Call someone who inspires you. Read tips if you have. More importantly. 5. Attend the Bar Ops mass. this is the time to break away from the monotony of legal provisions and indulge your weary brain in some good old “tsismis” of what’s and who’s. This is the time to relax a bit. . 6. Ab Initio. Just read. Yes. Savor the fellowship and the moral support given to you by your well wishers. welcome the day like a meeting with an old lost dear friend. (or sleep if you’re one of those who can) THE FIRST SUNDAY THE first Sunday is the height of the pendulum. .You should have set your alarm clocks the night before to make sure you don’t over sleep. Fresh air outside the four walls of your condo or dorm will do you a lot of good. 2. Wear comfortable clothes and shoes. “Knowing thy enemy is winning half the battle” 3. 2. If possible. Summons. 1. Pace yourself. Damages. . Familiarize yourself with the place and go through the anticipated routine. don’t study them.Instead of “tagip-TIPS”. Call or talk to someone who inspires you. Pace yourself and do not overdo it. you cynics! YOU CAN PASS THE BAR WITHOUT THOSE TIPS. You are already expected to be finished with deep studying during the past 5 days or so. In the rollercoaster play of emotions that Bar takers would surely experience this whole month. So get a load of them while they are still there. . rely on your personal preparation. Do lots of calming exercises. Be sure to catch yourself and not waste your energy on useless worries. 7. It will clear your head. Limit your review to codals. – You will need God’s blessing as well as a break from studying.Call your family. Re check things to bring and make sure you don’t forget your permit and pens. the first Sunday will be the peak. They will be overflowing during the first Sunday but you will sorely miss the action after they abruptly become invisible during the 2nd and 3rd weeks.
Call to mind that the MOST minutes an examiner would spend on your booklet is 10. as in “nerbiyos”. “Use sound discretion. Smart studying is the key. Un-law it! 3. DURING THE PRE-WEEK This is still crucial and you can’t let your guard down just yet. 1. Remember the techniques in formulating your answer. Calculate the minutes you would want to spend on a question to make sure you finish on time. Just make sure you don’t tarnish La Salle’s immaculate reputation by doing something foolhardy. Of course. NEVER DISCUSS ANSWERS OR TALK ABOUT THE PAST EXAM. TEN MINUTES. after all. Go malling. Mondays should be reserved for recreation and insanity.Dress for success and enjoy the La Salle cheering squad awaiting you alongTaft Ave. Remember your 4L’s. we are all of legal age. 7. Consider it fait accompli. 5.However. THE MOMENT The make or break nature of this examination is not debatable but the good news is. 6. Destierro. You have the best excuse to have the audacity to indulge your most sinful desires and go zany. every minute counts. This is the moment of truth. 2. MAKE SURE HE GETS WHAT YOU MEAN IN TEN MINUTES. Your “Bar experience” would not be complete without it. 1. I’M TALKING ABOUT ALL 20 QUESTIONS. The days in between will need genius planning and technique because you can’t waste a single day and lose it to an ill-prepared schedule. In a word. eat out or do something insane as a release. 3.Do things that are not related to the bar. 4. it is expected that you have done your share of studying and preparation. Get over it. we have the opportunity to make it lean more on the “make” side. Go out. It will help ease your nerves. Just make sure you stay within the limits. Nuisance. Remember. ASSIGNMENT OF ERRORS: Berate yourself if you feel that you want to give in to your penchant for discussing answers. You’ve done your part. Off limits to books and review materials.” 2. The pyramid or the inverted pyramid will be very helpful. moot and academic.6. . PRAY. . Don’t skip the “parade”. . Motion to Dismiss. Think of someone who inspires you. Be conscious of the time but don’t let it get the better of you. .
getting through the bar month in good spirits is one mean feat. pause for a while and think of the reason why you are here in the first place. 5. . . Upbringings and family backgrounds are enlightening. enthusiasm and energy. 12. Different strokes for different folks. Don’t just study everything randomly. 6. Now is the worst time to give up. The pressure is there and it can get into everyone at one point or another. Anticipate differences in opinions and attitudes. 7. Study. 10. 15. Trust your instincts. 11. Study but pace yourself. You’ve earned it. Prioritize subjects but rest when your body calls for it.Tuesday onwards.Call someone who inspires you. You still have a lifetime of friendship to share together. Contract of Adhesion. Remember : The Bar will only be a month. “See the forest and not the trees” as one of our professors would say. But hold on.And if you lose the passion. GETTING PERSONAL For those who will have roommates. Accommodate quirks and idiosyncrasies. 8. mentally. Chose more important topics to dwell on and disregard likely insignificant ones. Be honest with your feelings but be open to suggestions. 5. 14. Postponement. dear Bar taker. On money issues: Lay cards on the table. You are here because you deserve it. just the fact that you have come to this point only tells you one thing. emotionally. Don’t hesitate to discuss and keep a list of expenses. Smart studying is the key. You are a motley crew stashed away in one bedlam. 3. Be sensitive to the needs of others.4. Getting Through the Rest of the Week By the third week. so stick to the fight when you’re hardest hit. Do at least one good thing for a roommate a day. back to serious business. Have some bonding time with roommates. Enjoy the experience. Be considerate. 6. Respect each other’s space.” Sustain your buoyancy. its when things go rough that you must not quit. Don’t take things too seriously. When you find yourself in tense situations. 13. Don’t over react. it may be near when it seems afar. Study. . Subpoena. 4. think happy thoughts. Keep floating. Here are a few tips: 1. The enemy at this point? Giving in to self-pity and defeat because of the toll the bar brings physically. 9. you will feel the gradual but very pronounced loss of excitement. Here’s a little inspiration : “ …you can never tell how close you are. and financially. Always remember that you are all going through the same thing. Practice the art of compromise. 2. .
You deserve it. has been studied. a review of all that has already been studied rereviewed.Alejo Labrador 1. Glenn M. The blooming secret in passing the bar examination is this: Present good answers that will make the examiners take notice. for example. Actual preparation for the bar examination starts from the first day a law student attended class during the first year in the law school. Physically and emotionally. justified by appropriate legal authority. it will also have its moments. written in readable English and more importantly. If the candidates are at a loss as to what specific legal provisions or case doctrines to use in answering problems. But before you go paint the town red. 5. impressive presentation. Enjoy! Treat yourself. that the provisions must be correctly understood and the thought or words thereof put to memory.HAPPY ENDING Nothing beats preparation and passion but after all is said and done." . Mortel (espogi4@yahoo. After a chapter. to keep the subject matter and the provisions fresh in mind. 2. Articulation is expressive of the following basic fundamentals: good language. It will be hard but you have to admit. logical reasoning and substantial background knowledge of law and procedure. By study is meant. Give out your thank you cards.com) "There is nothing that can help a bar examinee most than a constant and intensive study of the provisions of the various codes and the interpretation and application thereof by the Supreme Court in its decisions. The key to passing the bar examinations is contained in one word: ARTICULATION. 4. don’t forget to pay your courtesy calls. assuming that he is prepared in all other matters. the next one should be studied next. You’ve gotten through the bar in one piece. Gratitude is never an outmoded virtue. Good answers anchored upon logical reasoning. The examinee who has a fairly good command of English. it will be a growing experience and not many people have the opportunity to claim that. and after this. you will walk out of La Salle’s gate soaked in beer feeling proud of yourself. stands definitely with a much better chance of passing. CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES HE GREAT FORMULA IN PASSING THE BAR EXAMINATIONS Contributed by: Atty. . 3. That will constitute your BRAGGING RIGHTS. the only alternative left for them is to use their own common sense.
Get this straight right now. You can never expect to pass the bar examination without preparation. You have to write simple. full of substance and supported by law and other authorities. 21. 19. Force yourself to read. 29. all your efforts will go to waste. Never fail to read the newspapers when you are preparing for the bar examination. Memorizing a particular provision of law word for word but without understanding it and its various implications is a lot of wasted effort. but proper. understand and absorb what law you reviewed. This would not do you any good. Read newspapers from 20 to 30 minutes every day. on command of good language. Always remind yourself that time is of the essence and is decidedly running too short for you. sound and systematic preparation. Predicting probable questions based on important principles or provisions of law is the safer method of speculating what the examiners are likely to ask in their examinations. Remember. 20. 23. 24. and will always be a difficult proposition! 8. 12. Early to bed. 11. whether he has a good or black heart. Otherwise. never write kilometric answers. Remember.6. still is. Good handwriting is decidedly a great factor in passing the bar examination. Never stay up late to the wee hours of morning. 17. Impressive answers showing the candidates reasoning faculty is what the examiners want to read in your examination notebooks. . 13. Ability to retain your understanding of the substance of the law through efforts of study is more desirable quality to possess than mere ability to memorize legal provisions. keeping your health in good running condition is just as important as reviewing and passing the bar examination. Love and review cannot mix in the business of preparing for the bar examination. you have to conserve as much energy as you possibly can. The responsive character of a given answer would depend to a great extent. this review can wait! Do not be stupid. Make your motto now: Stick to codal provisions! Compliment this with doctrines laid down in recent decisions of the Supreme Court. There will be times when you become sleepy while reviewing but never for one moment. Systematic review can only be done by the use of what we call scheduleswhich the candidate must follow vigorously to the letter if he expects to attain the best results. tell yourself: Man. grammatically correct English if you want to hurdle the examination. 26. Passing the bar examination has been. By far the most important tool that the bar candidate could equip himself with which to tackle the examination that is inherently personal to him iscommand of written English. that is the way to make a man healthy. 10. 28. 18. The greatest blooming secret of passing the bar examination is and will always be: PREPARATION! Not just any kind of preparation. 27. 15. 25. are gems to the examiner. logical reasoning and impressive presentation. This objective of preparing impressive and responsive answers can only be achieved by constant practice. 16. early to rise. 7. A morning shower is a must. Presentation of answers that are not only good but logical. 22. To beat time. cramming law into your head. 9. 14. wealthy and wise. No one can really help you pass the bar examination but yourself.
Never. Never start for the examination without bringing along with youtwo or more fountain or sign pens. the better. constant practice will help the bar candidate write good answers that examiners will give favorable credit. Never forget that every candidate is a potential bar topnotcher. 39. Do not try to memorize 50 definitions or distinctions in any given time. they become a liability. 35. for numbers in the enumeration. Legal knowledge is not enough to solve a particular legal issue. Depend on your own capabilities. 33. make efforts to frame your answers so that they areresponsive to the questions. 36. 45. give justification why your answer is a yes or no. Always remember. Brevity and directness when done properly could make an answer both effective and impressive.g. Avoid display of flowery expressions which are complicated by legal verbosity. What is a complaint? The perfect answer should include both definitions in criminal and civil procedure. Unless. Fountain or sign pens are really the most important equipment in bar examination. . capable of asking unpredictable questions. just limit your ambition for the present to just working hard to obtain a 75 percent in the great battle of your life. Make the first four in the enumeration definitely good. 38. the examiner qualifies his question with instruction enclosed in parenthesis like: (Answer with a yes or no only). direct and reasonable answers that are responsive to the questions. The real secret in remembering the matters contained in an enumeration is the use of keywords. What is important is ability to apply this knowledge to the solution of legal controversies. bank too much on them. All you need are sensible. The bar candidate should do well to be always on guard against catchy questions capable of being answered in a number of ways. 34. at all times. Fight your battle royale on a high plane! 32. 44. e. Never depend on tips for your passing. practice. Whatever your answer may be. however. The shorter the answers are. always justify your side with reasons based on law. Cheating is one sure way to endanger your future career as a prospective member of the legal profession. 31. 41. Two or three will do. if you are a candidate just preparing for the bar examination. the examiner may not count his fingers. Never beat around the bush. Which side you take. Ten to one. Practice. 43. b. rule. It never pays. etc. So. Never leave a blank in an enumeration! However. provided it is written in legible language. equity and justice. 46. The most convenient method of tackling problem questions is to present immediately the conclusion of a given answer. when overdone to a point where the ideas sought to be conveyed becomes vague and difficult to understand. 42. examiners are absolutely a bunch of unpredictable fellows. They may likely cause your downfall. You must. c. Make your keywords on enumerations you consider important.30. Go right straight ahead with your answer. Never be content to answer questions with a mere yes or no. The technique of writing down answers responsive to questions is a matter that the candidate must learn as a matter of imperative necessity. 37. if you use the letters a. the more direct. Never commit such atrocious act like cheating in the bar examination. of course. whose chances of passing are quite problematical. However. Avoid citations if and when you are notabsolutely sure about them. so much the better. 40. Like the weather. Always determine the real facts (examiners have the bad habit of including irrelevant facts to confuse you) and the issue or issues in controversy. But never brush these tips aside as nothing but trash. the examiner will never deny you the corresponding credit you deserve.
In your preparation for the greatest battle of your life. 61. are making good in the practice of law. Contributed by: 52. he explained. The second factor: Hard work of preparation. Victory belongs to the most persevering! 49. Dean Salonga stressed the need for the candidate to determine for himself a definite goal . had helped him tremendously in preparing for the bar examinations. 68.an objective. 55. in his experience. Nothing can really put a determined man down. 56. he recalled. must have the spirit and the will to emerge triumphant in the great task of attaining his definite objective. The bar candidate. a smile that outshone his youthful countenance. 60. 65. Mortel 53. he had always nurtured in himself the secret ambition of topping the bar examination if and when he takes it. 48. 58.This. (espogi4@yahoo. Of course. 66. call upon Him who is the source of all knowledge. he never deviated from his objective. if he expects to achieve success. At the same time he confided that while he had this great ambition within himself. He will make all things beautiful in His time. The young educator recalled that when he took up the study of the law from his freshman year at the state university. is Dean Jovito Salonga's formula of passing the bar examination. in a nutshell. HARD WORK! 50. there were possibilities of failure. he never breathed it to any soul. it is always good to dream of great ambitions. A smile crept over his face. to which he must train his guns from his first year in college up to the time he finally tackles the bar examination. 57. Take comfort in this: That even those who become lawyers by "just luck". Atty. 63. The main bulk of Dean Salonga's preparations centered on the writing of review notes on all bar subjects since he was a freshman law student. The first factor: DETERMINATION. wisdom and understanding. 64. it requiresthorough preparation. the possibilities are equally great for success as well as failure. 67. He discussed at length the various factors which. You see. 62.47. No one can really tell whether he can pass the examination. Nevertheless. This great task. And particularly so when you realize any of them eventually. bended knees and tears. HARD WORK! . In deep humility.com) 54. said that passing the bar is a hard job and. therefore. Preparation such as this one provides the student self-confidence to face the examination without fear. much less be certain that he will top it. Imagine the embarrassment to which I might have exposed myself if I really told the whole world then of my great ambition and never made it? he said. he admitted. An Interview with Dean Jovito Salonga 51. contributed very greatly to his attaining an impressive foundation of knowledge in all bar subjects. 59. he explained. The youngest of law deans ever to assume such distinctive office in this country. much less to the girl of his dreams at the time. . Remember. Glenn M.
Moreover. 78. The last factor: Group discussion. The idea here. Dean Salonga shook his head. More than this. 70. group discussion will afford the candidate a better understanding of the law which he may have before then. 72. knowledge and ability to apply them in our lives. This enabled him to go over mentally the various points covered in the review he made the previous day. the dean explained. (espogi4@yahoo. The third factor: Extensive reading of every and all conceivable printed matter. be they cultural. gives the candidate an idea exactly where his weak point lies. 80. In this case.com) . NEVER QUIT! 85. if you will. Dean Salonga always had this morning meditation. Dean Salonga has this to say: 83. is to attain not only a broad cultural background knowledge but also a better facility and ability for selfexpression. Dean Salonga said group discussions. he said. Discipline. Contributed by: 87. 74. 75. Another advantage of extensive reading is discipline. merely but passing knowledge. Dean Salonga does not believe in requiring students to memorize the law word for word as is being required by majority of professors in the different colleges. And what does he think about the so-called textbooks sold profitably in the market and used intensively in the law colleges? 79. An Interview with Dean Vicente Abad Santos 86. and above all. never fit to be used in the law colleges. the bar examination. "Never forget that preparation is the thing that he must have to fight his battle. Mortel 88. As a parting word to the bar candidate. 77.69. 82. They piece all these clippings together and publish them later to pass the same as "textbooks". The fourth factor: Fifteen minutes of daily morning meditation. Atty. The dean maintains the view that many of these so-called "textbooks" are written by what he calls properly as scissors and clipping authors who do nothing but copy and quote materials after materials here and there from numerous works written by authors no better than they. Withprayers. such as enables one to absorb what one reads. particularly over matters under review. it gave him an opportunity to make the brain rest after a long and tedious dreary reading. philosophical or otherwise. capacity to cut clippings can do just as well in the preparation of similar "textbooks". 76. 71. We must do everything to liberate ourselves from the shackles of memory work. and more definite emphasis on the understanding of the law from its philosophical and economic standpoints." 84. 81. Many of them in his opinions are no textbooks at all by any given standards. he added. 73. he will have an opportunity to take remedial measures to save the situation. Glenn M. Any high school graduate with ability for research.
(espogi4@yahoo. Atty. As a matter of fact. 91. the candidate should never worry about his answers any longer. will enable the candidate to conserve as much energy for the grind that is to follow so that on the first day of the examination. the bar candidate should enter the examination roomconfident that he will not only pass it. 110. 103. 104. What did he do after graduation day? 95. This. he feels fresh and ready for the battle. Another advice Dean Abad Santos wants to pass on to bar candidates is that they should never leave any question unanswered. he pointed out. 100. you should never make the unpardonable mistake ofquitting. Preparations should not begin after graduation but on the first day the candidate enters his freshman year in the law school. 102. present or future. He recommends no hard and fast rules on schedules with respect to the review of the eight subjects given in the bar examination. 94. he said. is to relax both mind and body in preparation for the review during the months prior to the actual examination day. but pass it he would with flying colors. according to him. Dean Abad Santos has no objection if the candidate should go to a movie the afternoon prior to the actual examination day. 101. If they are at a loss as to what specific legal provisions or doctrine to use in answering problems. The UP law dean. there is nothing he could do about changing them. Glenn M. This valuable piece of advice from former Dean Vicente Abad Santos of the College of Law. Contributed by: 107.89. 98. 92. the candidate should have had this confidence from the first moment he entered his freshman class in the law school. 96. 97. After all. No matter how disappointed you may be with your answers to questions on the first day of the bar examination. one subject after another.com) 109. the UP law dean said. . Rather. Mortel 108. Only the examiners can determine this. the candidate should go on leave from work if he belongs to the working gentry. With the best of spirits. he explained. CONFIDENCE! An Interview with Dean Ricardo Lacson 106. is addressed to all bar candidates. he will not be exhausted and confused. 105. the only alternative left for them is to use their own common sense. First. This review will be intensified only during the month prior to the examination. 99. Thus declared former Dean Ricardo Lacson of the Philippine Law School. University of the Philippines. 111. The review should be made easy the first three months after graduation. the youngest to occupy this distinguished position in the state university. the UP law dean suggests. cited the cases of some UP law graduates who quit after the first day of the examination because they thought their answers were no good. After any given examination. He also suggests that the candidate should sleep early so that when he wakes up the following day. 90. The idea here. he should worry about the next examination. 93. Dean Abad Santos immediately went on a two-week vacation from his codes and textbooks.
Dean Lacson explained that most professors teach only as a sideline and therefore find little time to prepare. 122. 114. Added to this. less able to absorb what they read the night before. The examinees spend too much time on those questions they know so well and the net result is that they finally realize they have very little time left for the other problems. have helped him in preparing for the examination. an indispensable factor in writing impressive answers. Another factor that the candidate should consider as an important equipment to enable him to pass the bar examination is command of language. even in classroom work. The next step is to find out how many questions are asked. 121. Dean Lacson said. 125. the candidate now adopts measures that will enable him to stay late in the nights during the four or five months of preparation. in his opinion based on his experience. Dean Lacson stressed the importance of beginning bar preparation from the candidate's first day in the freshman year. The dean turned his attention to the biggest mistake that the candidates always commit in answering questions. Dean Lacson pointed out. they can never expect to cover. . Faulty method of instructions. The candidate must read the questions very carefully before attempting to write down his answers. in improving their teaching methods that the students could benefit much from them. Having determined this. 128. they never take seriously their preparations while still in the law school. The trouble with students. Many of them only begin to study law for the first time during pre-bar review classes after their graduation. Little does he realize the fact that these measures are very injurious to his health.112. The result is that next morning when they wake up. He has to make sure he understands what the questions really call for. The first factor: SERIOUS PREPARATION. he also takes plenty of coffee. 117. 113. Relative to the manner of answering bar questions. Cognizant of the very little time he has in his hands. Consequently. the professors don't even know how to conduct their respective classes. Dean Lacson complained. What happens? 119. 116. Dean Lacson said. He discussed the different factors that. Why do most students have faulty preparation in school? 129. Some of these professors do not even show their students that they know at least something about their subject matter. And they think by staying awake all nights they can cover grounds which. the PLS dean has this to say: 124. Sometimes. 126. my reading of the law. 123. 130. this contributes to the sad state of affairs relative to the training of students. 118. The candidate has to resort to the taking of all conceivable medicine to make him stay awake practically all nights. their minds are all tired. he must apportion the time available in his hands proportionately to the number of questions. Dean Lacson passed the bar the following year Manuel Roxas topped the examination in 1913. 115. They ought to spend as much time or even more. 120. the decisions of the court. 127. has helped me a great deal in acquiring a better command of language. In my time.
139. 145. Having a balance diet during this rigorous period of preparation is a matter which candidates always overlook. 152. Mortel (espogi4@yahoo. he secured all the available notes and books used during his undergraduate days and started his review preparation in earnest. of course. the dean said. those who really have the ability to impart legal knowledge. boarding with three or four candidates in a dormitory or a secluded house and providing themselves withreview notebooks. Glenn M. Other suggestions for the bar candidates that Dean Martin recommends include efforts directed toward having a balance diet. the students never learn anymore than what their professors know about their respective subject matters. We expect to get good professors. should use only standard textbooks for review and avoid reading notes all full of unnecessary details and useless explanations that can only produce mental confusion in his already confused mind. He took a stock of the situation and immediately prepared a schedule that would enable him to complete his preparations for one month! 147. After three months of intensive reading and study trying vainly to grasp all those matters contained in his piles of notes and books. Despite his defective review efforts. 132. The remedy? 133. San Sebastian College. Proper apportionment of time when answering questions will enable the candidate to tackle all by not making the mistake of using too much time on a few at the expense of others. 143. . a procedure that consequently reduced his mental efficiency. I am citing my own efforts as a warning to the future bar candidates so that they will not commit the same mistakes I made in my time. Dean Martin cited his review efforts for the 1936 bar examination where he copped the 7th spot among the first 10 top places that year. 136. Judicious selection of materials for review purposes is a matter of extreme necessity to the bar candidate. 134. Contributed by: An Interview with Dean Teodorico Martin Atty. Martin of the College of Law. REVIEW MATERIALS 137. he said. This time they should have nourishing food. 148. 146. 144. according to former Dean Teodorico C. 135. 149. 141. 142. proper apportioning of timeavailable when actually answering bar questions. In justification of this statement. particularly in the eight bar subjects given in the examination. what enabled Dean Martin to obtain very high rating? 150. Imagine my consternation when I realized that I had only one month more to review and there were eight bar subjects to tackle! he recalled with vivid clarity. to enable them to to build up body energies that are fast getting worn out from terrific use. Immediately after graduation. he said. Good background knowledge acquired during four years of college training. 138. 151. The bar candidate.com) 140. Dean Martin said. So he had to force himself to review two subjects in the short span of four days. he said. Dean Martin recalled not without regretful remembrance.131. We are always willing to receive suggestions from others how to improve our method of instructions. In this way. 153. he came upon the realization that he never completed reviewing a single subject. he explained.
Here. the bar candidate will be able to discussand exchange notes with them on matters that need clarification. MY BAR EXAM NOTEBOOKS . 156. he pointed out. he said. It is impossible to review at home. they are afforded with the maximum quiet that augers well for concentrated study and review. Moreover. The demands of family living. family chores and problems unduly disrupt concentration. particularly when there are children. Dean Martin's last recommendation is the need for the candidate to provide himself with review notebooks for all bar subjects where he could jot down important provisions of law under each and leading decisions of the Supreme Court interpreting these legal provisions. 155. living with other companions. according to Dean Martin. Living in a house with three or four other candidates has undeniable advantages. 157. 158.154.
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