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I shouk:I like 10 Ih8nll Or DavId Nicolle lor tlIs -.ssIstance
with mat..for 1M Sieiia'l Musli'ns and lor checking my eflorts in
ItIat -. Abo my appreaatiorl to Lyn Slone for pnMding pho-
tognIphs. and 10 I'ler. Todd and Irene 0lIYies fof wrestling with an
an6ql.Iated CDfTlClUIer 10 IIIow me to produoe the map. F"1II8Iy. gralefIJ
ttwlks to S8rah Barter-Bailey lot her W1guistic skil5.
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Campaign 46 Lake Pelpus 1242
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AI oopyright ..matsoever is by the pubistB. All
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upon this matter.
lTll THE f LL OF the western half of th Roman Empire in the
4th I1tu numerou barbarian o-ibes erupted into 'w·ope.
Charlemagn King of th Franks became emperor f the
lands when crown 'd by the pop in AD 00 (though Byzantium, entr-
f th ea tern empire, r garded itself the tru u ce SI r of Rome). On
harlemagn 's death in J4 the mpire wa divid d b tween his son
and rand on5. large area would b 'com Fran e, whit much of the
east rn part r main'd under the rule of the western 'Roman' emperor.
The Gennan kingdom was th first to recover fTom th chao of th
late 9th c Dlury. The ount were larg Iy allodial landholder, that is,
th ir land was not held of an lord, and so feudali m had made Ie'
headway. Th problems of the monarchy were compounded b the 'heer
'ize of the eropil'e, stretching from the 'hores of the Baltic down to the
Alps and be ond and from the French borders to the lav mar 'hes
which neCTat d any real hope of c nLl-ali 'ation. Within the empire itself
weI' geographical ob ades, Sll hath grea fore ts separating axony
and Thuringia from FraJ1Conia. uch obsta I had r ult d in th [Olr
G rman trib ,th wabiaJls, BavaJ'ians, axon. and Franconian devel-
oping a eparate p apk', with their own dial 'cts, customs <Uld laws.
Cn erman iolenc
was a cepted far more than
in man} other kingdom.
King were recognised a'
guardians of order but this
had its Limitations. Despite
a progre s through his five
duchie b Conrad II in
1025, any notion of royal
ties wer imm dial Iy
hatt red by the LothaJ'-
ingian , wabian and
Italians. Lords in G nnany
xpect d to use force to
secure their rights or win
an argument wh n pea e-
ful methods were not
sufficient. War in Germany
was fuelled by problems
over inheritance (especially
as ther wa' Litde clear id a
of n ble 3
An Ottonian casket of c. 1000
shows guards at the crucifixion
wearing sImple tunics and
carrying circular wooden shields.
(Copyright British Museum)
Mainz:e Melrichsladl X
Tusculu01 X
X Benevento
Naples •

4 Map of the Holy Roman Empire. Boundaries varied to some extent during the course of this period.
'Christ Triumphant', from the
Reliquary of 5t Hadelin of about
1046, is dressed as a warrior in a
mail coat with side-vented skirts.
There is no sign of a hood,
unless It has been pushed right
back on the shoulders. (Treasury
of Church of 5t Martin, Vise,
h irs to titles and fiefs papal propaganda struggle over church land,
royal minorities and the decline of dynastie after 1076 The dangers of
su h hao were recognised and led to th instigatiOJ of th LandJriecle,
based on the Fr nch 'Truce of ad'. However in G rman th oaths
were not kept and, being voluntal1' as ociations, violence continued
under the gui e of punishing tho e who brok> th pea e. The mp ror
could offer mediation through hi com in dealing with di putes. A
r. udal and magi tel'jal overlord, with large imp rial land., theocratic
id al' and war-l adership th mperor. houLc! hav b en a power wiulin
Germany. hi was not, however a political realit .
IL was Frederick Barbaro sa who fir t added th till 'HoI,' to that of
R man Emperor. In fact the Inj 1'01' and hj on or heir, tbe 'King of
the Rom<ms', were faced with large block of land such a wabia and
Saxon which, ere full of pett princelings who felt mey had every right
to maintain m n to fight tlleir private quarrels. Their retinues were far
larger than those of contemporal Lord in France or Englalld. It was not
wlusual for spiritual and temporal lords to hav 100 knights and the
margraves (border lords) had ven more. Thi m ant that th potential
r ourc s of th > empire were impres ive but only if the mperor could
unite ev r on to fight wh n r quired. Private disputes and power-
politic en ured Ulat u 11 a response was lIDCOfnmon.
Th duke who had d n up took conO" I from m crown, while
pri ate war raged within each dttkedom. However, the lllperor had
man royal estates cattered through Franconia and wabia, and the
Chw"ch u"adilionall leaned toward royal upport. Thus the emp 1'01'
weI' never totalJ submerged, de pite th occasionaJ ri e of dangerous
pretender. ivil war raged from 1077 to 1106,
when Henry IV fought off two rival, and again
from] 125 to 1135, bet-\ een Emperor LothaiJ" U
and Frederick Hoben tauren. Duke of wabia,
whi h initiated th sU'uggl between Welf (GuelI)
and Waiblingen (GbibcUine).
Th mperor were acutely aware of their
'Roman' onnection and often int der d in the
politics of northern Italy. fter his ucce ion, th
new king would wish to weal' th iron crown of
Lombardy and the imperiaJ crown b stow d b
the pop. Thi often meant u ing u-oop to back
up hi claim and it wa not llllU ua1 for m
emperor to sta in Ital for 'everal year. The
erman annjes usually assembled at Augsburg or
Ratisbon in August or ptember alld marched
via the Brenner Pa s into Italy or, more rarely
thr ugh me Mont erus or St G mard pas e .
From til Brenn I' Pas the army a'sembled in the
plain ofRoncaglia.
From th mid-lIth c ntmy 'h p pe found
them el e tr a delkate line, playing off Llle
potentially dangerous 'inter-st' of the erman
emp !'Or in nortJlel11 and cenu-aI Italy, again t th
aggre' ive settJ ment of th Nor-mans in ouLhem
Italy and Sicily. The greate·t of th Hoh n taufen 5
This Reliquary of St Hadelin,
made probably in the third
quarter of the 12th century,
shows warriors still wearing
side-vented hauberks; those slit
front and rear were more con·
venient for riding. The coifs
almost appear to be attached
over the top of the helmet brim
though, given the date, this
seems highly unlikely. The lance
has a ring attached low down.
This Is probably a very early
example of the ring fitted behind
the hand-grip, which pressed
against the arm-pit to s10p the
lance sliding back on impact.
(Treasury of Church of St Martin,
Vise, Belgium)
emperors was Frederick I known as Barbaros a
('Redbeard ), who led. ix expedition La Hal . For
much of the 13th century, outhem Italy was the
FfohenSu'mfen bas for th main furcat to the
papacy. Frederick II 11lpor 1/l'undi (wonder of the
world), a ruul1ess yet il telligem emperor, consol-
idated southern ital b 1231. IIi death in 1250
led vemuall to a blood int IT gnum from 1254
La 1273. Th actual nd of tJle Hohen taufen line,
tJle 'nest of viper. " came in 126 after aEinaJ
stn,lggl WitJl th Angevin over uthern Ital,
r suIting in the ballJ of Ta liacozzo and th e'-
cution of Conradin, Fredel; k grandson.
1'h emperor al 0 had probl m in the east,
for here was an immen border eltJed by
march r lord - lIwlkf:.J1·apm (margrave). Fa ed b
hostile and often heath n tribes beyond tJ1C
borders, the margrave \ ere accustomed to main-
taining large miJitary forces. ]n the early days
the men had b en vital since full-scale
incm ions by Magyar (Hungarian) o'oop were
common. However, the vi tory of Otto I, the
Cr at over the HWlgarians at th L chf Id (955)
put an end to any ma'or threat. The Germans
expanded east, building fortified BU1gwiirden
(lawns) but erman invasion for e into Poland and Hungary often
fa d ·tarvarion beaus th nati es de troyed or carried off their pro-
vi ions. mall force were sometim s more succe sful such as the purely
,axon troops \ ho won Conrad II's Polish victory in 1031. Progress was
cbeeh d b a major lav insmr ction in 1066. When Lothar of
upplinburg became duke of Saxony in 1106, hri tianity was for lhe
first lime push d into lav territory with v i g O l u ~ by mean of winter eam-
paign' which allowed pas age over tJle marshe east of the Elb . By 1125
the German were establish d as far as lh OdeI'. In futm there would
b a thru I' ea t b soldier and s ttl r from as far away a Flanders, and
b warrior monk, notably the Teutonic Knights, into Pmssia and Rus ia.
996-1002 Otto ill
1002-1024 Henry IT
1002-1014 War again"tLombardy. King Ardoin deposed
1003-1017 War again l Poland. Its king, BolesJav seiz s Lu aria and
Sile ia
1024-1039 Conrad II ucce ful against nobles and ha ome sue e. in
1030 Invade Hungat bu defeated by King t phen I
] 031 Regains Lusatia from Poles (temporarily)
1039-1056 Henry ill
10 -1 Defeats Bratislav of Bohemia
1047 Defeats r v It by Flanders and Lor-rain
1049-10 2 Invades Hun ary v ral tim but
I' pul d by Andrew I
1056-1106 Henry IV
Inherits throne at age of ix. Wh n of ag , he
r co ers central authority lost during a weak
lO73-1075 uppres es bloody axon revolt
]073-1077 mpire weakened by prolonged
truggl with papacy. H nry ubmit at ano a
1077-1106 ivil War. Rudolf of wabia proclaimed
anti-king - killed in 1080
1086-1088 econd rival, Herman of Luxemburg,
evenrually defeated
1081-1085 Italian E"'-pedition. Rom captlJJ"ed
(1083), re aptured by Norman under Robert
Cuiscard (10 4)
1090-1095 Second Italian Expedition
1093-1106 Revolt of sons Henry and onracl.
Emp ror captured and escapes (1105)
1106-1125 Henry V
1107-1110 Fighring in Bohemia
1l08lnvade Hungary but defeated
1l09lnvade Poland but d feated
llI0-1111 Italian Expedition ee submission of
1112-] 115 Cru hes revolts in Lorraine and other
1120-1124 Several campaign in Holland
1124 Invades Franc but repuls d by Loui VI
1125-1137 Lothair II
1125-1135 Civil war against rival, Fredeti k of Hobenstaufen, Duk of
wabia. hus began the struggle of Welf (Guelph) and Waiblingen
(Chib lline). Fred lick defeated
1136-1137 icilian exp clition defeated by Roger n of icily
1138-1152 Conrad m
First Hohen taufen emperor. Rebellion by Well' led by axon dukes,
Henry th Proud and Ienry the Lion (duke 1142-11 0). Late r was
Like an indep ndent king, congu ring Slav tenitory
1146-1148 Conrad and his n ph w, Frederick,join Se and em ade
1152-1190 Frederick I 'Barbarossa'
Cr ate t Bohen taufen ruler. ampaigns in Bohemia, Poland and
1182 Finally d pose Henry the Lion
1154-11 6 Lx Ttalian expeditions
1166-1168 Fourth Expedition captures Rome but disease force retreat
from Italy
1174-1177 Fifth Expedition end in defeat at Battle of Legnano (1176)
1189-1190 Tak pa.rt in Third ru ade but drown in iii ia
1190-1197 Henry VI
1190 Short revolt by Welfs under Henry th Lion
1191-1193 arnpaign in southern ltal again t ancred of il
1194-1195 Return, conquers Sicily and crowned king
The 12th-century town gateway
at Eisenach In Thuringia. (Photo:
Astrid Schwan)
Built by the archbishops of
Cologne in the first half of the
12th centul')', the Drachenfels on
the Rhine was later enfeoffed to
the counts of Drachenfels. The
ruined Bergfrled also dates from
the 121h-centul')'.
11 7 Reb Ilion in south m [Lal . Henry dies trying to uppr it
Frederick II, yOlmg on of Henry, fa es ri al anti-king Rudolf of wabia
and Ouo ofaxony
1197-1214 Otto IV of Bnmswick (Welf) and Philip Il of Swabia
Ri al emp ror until Philip as assinat d in 1208
Otto now face Frederick 11. Latter allies with Philip It of France in
war againstJohn of England and Ouo who are defeated at Battlc of
Bouvines (1214)
1210-1239 Rise of the Teutonic Knights
1211-1224 Alta k again t Cuman in Hungary, on invitation of King
Andrew. Later expelled by him becau e of th ir growing power
1226-1285 Conqu st of Prussia
1241 Battle of Li gnirz (Wahl tart). Mongol defeat Henry !.he Piou of
ile ia
1260 Battle of Durben. T Lltoni Knights defeated b Lithuanian'
1211-1250 Frederick II 'The Wonder of the World'
Much of reign pent in Italy again t pop . Victory over Lombard L agu
at Baul of ortenuova (1237)
1229-1230, 1240-1241 Wars against Pop Gregory IX
1244-1247 War again t Pope Innocent Tv.
1247-1256 ivil war in Germany by Frederick and his son Conrad,
against anti-kings 1-1 nry of Thuringia and William of Holland 'up-
ported by Innoc nt 1
1250-1254 Conrad IV ivil wars ontinu in G rmany. Conrad cam-
paign against Lh Pope and other ind pendent Italian state
1254-1273 The Great Interregnum
Civil wars rife in Germany. Rule has brok n down
126 Battl of Tagliacozzo. End of Hohen rauf< n lin
1273·1291 Rudolf I of Habsburg
War again to tokar II of Bohemia, who i' killed at tI e Battl of the
archfeld (Dumkrut) (1278)
On Rudolf d ath til I ctors are so h'ight ned b his t rritorial
gains that they bypa his on
1291-1298 Adolf of Nassau
Deeply involved in the truggl in the etherland where England and
Franc are vying for power
129 Challenged b Albert ofHab. I Llrg and killed in battle at Gollheim
1298-1308 Albert I
ampaign against the Bohemian dynasty, but \ eak
Feudalism, th giving of homage and fealty (and the ervlce of fighting
men) to a lord in retum for land or upke p, wa ne er as mark d in
Gennan lands as it was in France, England and oth I' we. tern areas of
Europe. WbH the collap 'e of tile Carolingian dyna ty had brought
chao and civil wars to France and Ital ,th stablishment of a axon
dynast}' in 919 had allowed a 'table ro al administration to reappear onl
eight year aft r the break-up of the ,arolingian line. Such a strong hold
rather re u'icted the growth of £ udal bonds which were es entiaIly a
form of ready respon by local lords and vassal working 10 ely against
enemi . The plinces and lord were the hell' to triba] blocks of land
whi h had be n allodial, that is, independent famil
e tate owing no ervice to the king or emperor. In the
11th and 12th centuri uch ervice might or might
not be forthcoming when ailed upon. This itllaLion
wa particular! n ticcablc on the ea tern borders or
'//laths where the counts of th march or markgrajen had,
since me time of Charlemagne in the 8t11 entury, h ld large
bodie of warriors to safeguard their border. These lord had
little inclination to change and 111e influen of feudali m was
therefore slow in making itself felt acros Germany. The Rhineland
\'Ia the most completely feudali ed area but Franconia, Lorraine
and Burgundy also utili ed feudal practice, as did Bavaria to a
certain extent. Yet the concept of knighthood its If wa a far Ie
\ ell d fined ideal than in we tern Europe and together with 111
granting of fieE, was not even establi h d wHil the] 2111 century. Tb
fir l r cord d in tance of a knigbtil1g ceremony elate only to 1146.
The king was exp cteel to ommand hi army, aI d ag wa no
obstacle: the 13-year-old Henry IV led o'oop again t tile Hungarian
ill 1063. The king could pas authority down to a eluke aIld a bishop.
orne larg r wlits till r rained a territorial base, de pit feudaloblig-
ations, and 0 a canting nt from each regnum was I d by
it duk .
Gideon, from the Bible
d'Averbode of about 1170, has a
'U'-Shaped line on the mail under
his throat, in the same way as
some figures in the Bayeux
Tapestry. It may be a ventall
drawn up over the chin, or even
an early separate coif.
(Bibllotheque de l'Universite,
Liege, Ms. 363B, f.16v)
Once the consent o[ the
prin e' was obtain d at the
a embly in the Reich tag.
knights ould be demand-
ed for the ReichshcClfa'/u·t,
service eith I' in Gel-many
or b yond the Ip. The
('Mirror of
the axon '), written in the
1220s, notes that 40 day ,
grace was allowed after the
summons for servic on the
erman ide of the AJp .
For servic 'outh of th
Al P (th Romjah'rt) a
gen rous 4] °da wa
allowed. Quota wer
usuall fixed by ustom:
Poland and Bohemia were
(Q upp1y at least 300
horsemen, though
[ewer men were required
from tenants-in-chief for
ervice beyond the Alp_
than for that in Germany.
HO'wever, th realit), did not
mirror til ideal. Tn 1156,
for eampl ,the Privilegiu,'m
minus allowed th dukes of
Au tria to take part only in
operations in neighbouring
lands and kingdoms. In th
13th century the margraves
of Brand nburg owed th
king of G rmany uncondi-
tional sentice only in axony and huringia, while in 1212 th
Bohemian were 1 t all the exp dition to Rome altogether on payment
of a sum of sil er.
Thus th mperor wa potentially IV ak. In 1124, Henry V found that
many German- I' fu d to join hi advance into France becau they
wer not keen to fight for ign r . Though the per Ol1al r tinues of those
attending a diet (parliament) in 1235 were recorded at 12,000 knights, in
r alit th impel-ial army often had to rely more on the forces of the
church. E c1 siastic did not hold aIJodial land having it rather by
imperial decree. Th ir service were not feudal, how ver. From til
revenue of the e estates they were xpe ted to find and Anan e a
p cific number of troops, a burden which sometime left them pawning
01- mortgaging th· ir land or good. Many abbots, bi hops and arch-
bishops were miJi.tary leader and auld be se n a the head of ·beir
1D n. Their importance to the emperor" ma be seen from the fact that,
in ]046, mperor Henry 1Jl invad d Italy with thr archbishop, ten
10 bishop and cwo abbots.
TOP Knights receive communion
before departing for war, a
poignant reminder of the flck.le
nature of battle, from the
Rolandslied des Pfaffen Konrad,
a Franconian manuscript of
1170. (University Library,
Heidelberg, Ms. Cod. Pal. Germ.
112, f.47r)
ABOVE Roland's paladins In
battle, from the Rolandsl/ed.
Notice the 'T'-bar on the end of
one knight's nasal, the first step
to a full face-guard. (University
Library, Heidelberg, Ms. Cod. Pal.
Germ. 112, f.66v)
Frederick Barbarossa wa the first mperor to fully e tabU 'b western
feudalism in th G rman lands, and b 1J 0 had managed to bind hi.
prin e , both lay an I cel iastical with th tie of a alag . Land was
now h ld in r turn for ·ervice. In t ad of d manding cash pa m nts
from th noble, Fr del; k organi d th rai ing of troop al ng 'imilar
line to tho c tabli hed in France. The I-man prin e , both la and
ecde iasti aI, weI' n w t nan -in-chi f, b und to end fixed quo . of
kni ht for a period of ix, k. Th might b Furth r alled upon at
ther time, aft r another. ix-we k p riod, when th emp ror or th
lenant-in-chi f would pa r th knights. Prince- of th chur h took
prec dence over tho of th laity. Thi attempt to bring order and a
more regular uppl I' u'oop to th imperial call was laudable but tran-
iLOry. Although u h demand were usually m t, an re al iO'an e could
have fatal con equence : the defeat at Legnano in 1176 rna be blamed
on the r fu al of orne magnate n tabl Henry th Lion to f< 1I0w th ir
mperor. ter r d rick' d ath in 1190 hi. ucc or were unabl to
maintain the f< udal
struclUr and the princes
manag d t impos
increasing d mand for
aulonom within their
lands. Fr deri k II (]2]]-
] 25) allowed fre ct rn
from imp rial int r£ renc
and th monar h becam
clectiv again. Though
Rudolf I of Hab burg
(1273-129]) m to hay
achieved a partial r v r al
in thi tr nd he al 0 wa
for d to crush in ur-
rection b r bel and to
d tro their a. tIe in
order to exerci. e hi pow r.
If fr or unfree knigh
were to r e for long
periods monetary remu-
neration wa xp ct d.
Moreov r, th reluctanc of
G rmal princ 'in sending
t11 nece ary troop to
fight in the imperial arm
m ant that d pit th
potential power of the
mperor' forces, almost
in vitabl numb r had to
b mad up by hiring
earl the late 11th
cennu Henl IV was
advised to use a form of
mage for employing mer-
This copy of the Hortu8
Oeliciarum (destroyed by fire in
1870) shows warriors of about
1180. The rather bulbous round·
topped helmets were favoured in
German lands. Many German
manuscripts such as this one do
not show the long tunic
emerging from below the mail
coat, which was common in
other areas.
cenarics to replace the peculiarl German 'feudal' levy then existing.
This call was repeated by Henry I of England to his on-in-Iaw, Emp ror
Henry ,after hi abortive campaign again t France in 1124 lUld it was
beard again after the d feat at Bouvines in 12] 4. Certainly th personal
troops of the emperor were often larg Iy mer enary: Henry I u'ed
6,000 of Lhem for a wo-year peliod includjng 1,500 killghts and a
similar number of squires, in hi ru ading project of 1196. Many uch
m rcenarie were paid for by mon y-ll f:. Fred rick n and hi thr e
Hohen tauren ucce sors had permanent bodies of G rman merce-
naries, while in 1238 Frederick brought over a troop of mOlmted
era bowmen from Hungary, and a year later ordered a ea-captain to
bu as man crossbows with two-foot stirmps as couJd b found in ere.
The Marshal alone, oum Fred rick of Antioch, is aid to have com-
manded 1,600 hired troops in 124 . Manfred had 1,200 German h avy
horse with him at til Batrle of Benev nto in 1266.
In the late 13th century m rc nari came especially [rom the
Rhineland and e 1 di triets, and had a bad r putatiO)) for gr cd. A
ub Lantial number of hired soldiers anle [wm rile Low ountries. he
Brabanr;:on wer particularly loathed for their bmLality, first being
employed within Gel'many in ] lOb A.r hbishop Philjp of Cologne,
though Fr derick Barbarossa had taken rll m into Italy for his cam-
paigl of 1166 and 1174. A mall group of Braban ons distinguished
i t ~ e l f in ] 107 however, in helping relieve the Archbishop of Cologne
12 who was trapped in TuscuJum.
The Siculo-Norman Uber ad
Honorum August; of Peter of
Eboli, probably dating to the
early 13th century, shows a
mixture of Norman, Sicilian,
Muslim and German styles of
dress and equipment. If the date
Is correct, the helmets show no
sign of the latest faceguards.
Here Emperor Frederick I
'Barbarossa' sends his men
forward to cut a path through
Hungarian woodland.
IBurgerbibliothek, Bern, Ms. Cod.
120 II, f.143r)
RIGHT The more settled con·
dltions In the empire from 1000
were reflected In the small
number of castles. The wars of
the investiture contest, begun In
1075, set off a great increase in
castle building, though mottes
never became popular. Many
castles were set on crags,
allowing domestic buildings to be
arranged for comfort, while
flanking towers were slow to
develop. There was often a tall
watchtower or Bergfried. The
Wasserburg, protected by a wet
moat, was useful In flat areas.
a) The Husterknupp II the
courtyard and artificial mound
adapted after c.950 from the
Carolingian fortified farmstead.
Ii) altered to create a motte and
bailey castle in the 12th century.
bl Staufen in 1090, provided with
palace and tower, the castle from
which the Hohenstaufens took
their name.
cl Miinzenberg, Hessen, built
c.1174 and strengthened after
1286 by the Falkenstein family.
Because the plateau site is long,
the castle has two Bergfrieden.
dJ The fortified palace of
el The tower or Bergfried at
Steinsberg. Such towers were
primarily for defence rather than
for living in.
German Cities
In rman land the
military organisation for
citie was rather like that in
Italian citie , that is, it wa
bas d on ilia e knights who
lived in th city. The 13
a (i)
a (ii)
astl s were held by Bm-gmannen or castellorurn cllstodes and were of
increa ing importanc ; strongholds guard d th Dani b lav and
Magyar frontier. Th distri t at d the a tie \ hi h ono'olled i wa
known as the Burgward.
Large nwnb r of infant! came from the La\' Countri man of
who e ruler became vassal of th emper r and suppli d either feudal
quotas or m rc narie . The Count of Fland r d pit 'iding with Otto
IV t the Battl of BOLlvine in 1214, was actuall a a sal of th F'rench
rown. The number of foot soldiers ent b th e territorie was often
sub tantial: the Count of Hainault sent 10,000 in 1183.
Th notion of an obligation on all free men to perform military
service lingered in Germany fat, longer than elsewhere I' suiting in free
peasants being seen in Germatl at'mie even in the 13th century. The dis-
tinction between the wan'ior, and the peasant holding allods (hereditat
land LLI1der no lord), two elements offeudal soa ty, was slow to d velop.
Footsoldiers from peasant communjtie or republics prospered in som
areas unfavourable to knights uch a th mat'shes of the north coast of
Frie land and of Dithmar chen - the latt r's oldier)' removing Dani h
influence at the Battle of Bornhoved in 1227. he wi s mountains and
valley aw the rise of three pow rful canton: ri, Inten'l'ald n and
chwyz which produced the most famous peasant infano)'. Thi low
growth of ocial di 'tinction wa also as i ted by the open [rontier on the
ast. In axon especially the arm' was rather like tile old Heerban, the
levy of all fr e men. Though the axon noble was distinguished from the
les er fr eman all fough t on foot tluoughout th 11 th c ntury. The
threat of lavic raid' kept
tl1 general ummons alive
on the ea tern bard r but
it di d out elsewhere.
I o w e v e l ~ ther wer vari-
ation , ev n in lands where
feudali m was taking root,
LI h a a summon to
appear with all forces. The
FolgefJilicht, the call to anus
for the maint nance of
public peace only exemp-
ted women, shepherds,
cl rics and hur h t-vants.
Even more enveloping lh
u trian La:n.drecht of 1237
requir d everyone t
defend the country in an
m rgen y.
Emperor Henry VI captures
Salerno in southern Italy In 1194,
from the Llber ad Honorum
Augustl. There are several points
of interest: the shape of the
banners, popular In Germany; the
heraldic boar, borne in a circle,
on the shield of Dietmar von
Schweinspoint; the lone slinger
on the batllements; and the man·
powered traction trebuchet on
the batllements In rear.
(Burgerblbllothek, Bern, Ms. Cod.
120 II, f.132r)
knights themselves had th ir numb r swollen b burgher, rich mer-
c h a n L ~ who e importan through wealth was equal to that of the
kni htly class. S rvice all horseback initially fell to thas b st uited to it,
in oLher word the urban knigb ; later it includ d all townsmen who had
enough money to support such animals. ome burgher held fiefs from
lay or ec le iastical lord and rode to war in armour. OLher migbt
in ( ael end the a.rmed m n th y used wh n on th road, or I e a ub-
stitute for Lhem ehe , depending on the requirements. In ome cities,
su h SLra bOLlrg and agdeburg, th e mounted bLlrgher were
known as K017 laj!,eror Konslojler (constable). nlike in Ital ,paying ivi
levie, or those allied levies who might come to assi 't, was not practis d
until the later l3th cent11 I),. The forces usualJ becam organ! 'ed
b tween the vierteln (quarters) of the town, each under a viert,ebneisICI;
and often led b th mayor.
The effectiveness of the e forces wa mixed. With le s opportunity to
develop a military spirit- Je e en than in Ital which at least aw some
transient militaq successes by the citizen - there was little in the way of
accomplishment. The petty fighting which racked Germany betwe n
n ighbouring prince and king did not help to produce an effecti e
militaq citizenship. Th town bodies were usually mployed in main-
tainillg and defending th ir wall and w re nol lIsually exp ted to go
mor than half a day' march frolU them. Urban troop t nded to a (as
a nppon force for Lhe rest of the ann , often
being u ed a marksmen. Th cro sb w wa'
ommonly used in all rman ities in the 13th
century, notabl in the Low ountries and
amongst the Han e towns, and shooting guild
were ·stablished.
arl a 1256 the city ouneil of Mainz
deeid d to hiJ-e mercenaries as far as possible. In
this \ \ ~ a y they employed knig-hts and Ie . er soldier,
and in addition made treaties Witll n ighbouring
lords and knighc, who rec ived payment in
return for militaJ)' aid. Such agreements becaJne
increa ingl common. In 1263 Count Adolf of
Berg became a itizen of Cologne aJld, in retw-n
for a daily wa of five mark in ologn p nnie ,
agreed to provide nin knights and 15 squire on
armoured horses. FOl- its part the city would find
25 men from the be'l families, armoured and
mount d on armoured horse. ologne made
funher treati willi aunts William and Wall-am
ofJuli h and Dietrich of KatzeneUenbogen. The
number of knights provided by su h agr ements
was not great, but the were knights nevertllele s,
member of th trained warri r cia and a
valuabl ommodit.
It wa not only kin s, prince and [QI-d that
fought ach tb r; truggl al 0 took place within
ities. tn ] 3th-century ologne, there was tension
between th leading families and th guilds.
Eg ed 01 by the Archbishop, Engell ert n of
FaLk nburg, the guild got LO ether and decided to assalilL the house of
th ir en mie . Thi resulted in a liv I cIa'h on the tr he
guild men tried to block the tr with chain, but the kni hts, wh an
harcU ha eben nWllerou , form d LIp on h r' back and d pit
narr wne of th tree, dr v ba k their enemie and br k Lh
chain. Th Dobl laught red man citiz n ,parti uJarly th \ aver.
ev 11 more bizalTe in id n t k plac everal, ar la r in 126 ,
. a r lilt of a di pute b tween lw important families th Over t lz n
and th Win. Th Wei en, wh bad finall been driven lit of th city
refu ed to go quieti '. The paid obbler, wh hOll la llnd r n of
the arch of the ci wall, to dig a hole und r the waH large enough for
a hor eman t pa s through. Once thi huge excavation was finished
Dul< Walram ofLirnburg, th cOllnlof 1've and the lord ofFalkenburg
agr ed to nter th city with 500 men n th night of 14 ctob I ~ he
duk manag d to do ju t thi, P n d th neare t gate and let in aU his
troops. nfortunately, the a er tolz n had be n warned and, with the
UppOrL of th citiz ns, attacked th intrud r. blo dy ncount I' I ft
everal nobl dead, and nded with the e pul ion ofth W i en [action,
a Ilumber fwhom wer cal LUI' d.
By the 11th c r tury counts and marctlli 'e had 10 t ontr 1of mo·t citi ,
and Ii d in rural ca tie or on . am roew (e lat )
with their retinues of knights who weI' granted
fieE·. B r the mid-12th century anI the arqui of
o n t ~ rrat till remain d ind p nd ilL. Hm r
e pedal! ' in difficult terrain uch th fOOtllilJ
of the Alp or th Romagna, ~ udal lord
I' main d dominant. Th bi hop w r nm all
pow rful in rno·t iDes commanding va al and
Ie er vas al (valva sores). Man citi d manded
that Lh nob] live within th iI" all ~ I' mll h of
th ar but th e nobl built t w r house,
retain d fi hting In n and ontinu d tbeir private
quarrel a b for. De pite chi ,th noble form d
an important fighting fore and tog th rwith th
wealthier LOwnsmen and non-noble (mililes pm
commune - knights for th ommune) w re
exp cted to provid ca airy hoI' and attend in
per on LlI1l ick old or an infal t, \\lh n a ub-
ULUte auld a tend. Th mo. t pow rEul
12lh-eentury city, Milan, was owed th 'ervi e of
2,000 knights. Not ever on wa call d up at once,
hm v r, and .tizen w I' pai Lf< r th ir h r '
upke p and for i los or injUl in c mmunal
rvic ,in addition to th ir 0\ n pa . Infantry w re
provided b th Ie. wealth Lawn m n on a
regional basi. Abl -born d mal ither between
th ag of 14 and 70, or 1 alld 60, w r ligible.
Infantry ffi r r eived a . mall. tip nd tllrough
the ar, and oth r rank re iv d pay while Oil
a rive rvic. Uj d Llicch rving Flor nc in
Emperor Henry VI rides out, his
banner-bearer before him, from
the Uber ad Honorum Augusti.
The imperial eagle Is emblazoned
on his shield, horse-trapper (the
only one shown In the scene) and
helmet. Traction trebuchets
appear in the background,
together with a crossbowman.
(Burgerbibllothek, Bern, Ms. Cod.
120 II, f.109r)
An Ivory _aket from K61n, made
In the let. 12th """'lvry, hII,
ac-. from the life of TrI,U1n.
KnighUl In Iong-,leewd heuberb
wu. cylindricalOf' e1ightl,
round·topped helmeUl e, the)'
set ebout __the. with
double-edged .-0.. ICOflYrillht
British Mu....m)
1184 reccin;d three SQlidi
per day for cavalry and one
for foot soldiers. In 11th·
century Milan men .....ere
groupcd in units, perhaps
based on thc six wards
('quartcrs') imo which tile
city was latcr di\'ided. Town
walls were already being
officially lIlaimaincd in Pisa
in 1162 and sometimes
each was respon-
sible for its sector.
The cQ"tadQ (coun-
l'l-.side) under communal
control also pro\i.ded men for use m'er a limited area. Cavalry might be
expected from nobles and dependent communcs, infantr)' from areas
split into districts, specific regions usually being placed undcr each
quarter of a cit}'. Such le\'ies were oftcn u.sed for pioneer and engineer
seniccs. In nonhem Ital)' tile urban states demanded all resources when
necessa'l"; Perugia expected its rolllndo to supply weapons, men, horses
and conl.
In northern illld centralltal)' the first refercnce to hired soldiers is in
1124 and then onl)' as indi\iduals; bands ofmerccn;u;cs do not appear
until the mid-13th ccntu'l',
It was Archbishop Aribert of Milan who illlroduced the cllrTocdo. an
ox-drawn cart bearing the standard of St Ambrose, A rall)ing POSt ",
its OWII guard. it was a disgr.lce to lose it 10 all enCIll)', The idea ....'its taken
up b}' many IL,lian cities and was seen occa...ionally in Germany and
By tllc ciu'ly 12th ccnlll'l' command of levies was oftcn in the hands
of electcd consuls, including members of thc lla!T'f/Ssorts and othcr free
citizens. Their disunit), and caution pl'Obabl)' led to the apath)' of the
Lombard League in undertaking lll.ti0r ollclIsivc actions. Nevertheless,
this League, formed in 1167, prc,·clHcd an)' real hope of Ccnnan
sLlccess. Its armics werc advanced in ol'gimisatioll. strong in cavalry
(which was ideal for warfare on the Lombard plain), and toughcned by
pcrmanent fig-hting. \'CL their squabbling- hindcred the formation of a
unified state. There were alwa)'S some cities willing 10 aid the Germans,
b)' providing men and supplies. Indecd, it was the lise of such 11'00pS
which allowcd the cmperor his succcsses. Howcvcr, too man)' Italians
were hostile, and too man)' cities rcquired long sieges (with the e\'er-
present threat of disea.<;e) for the empel'Or to \.'in convincingly.
When the Hohcnsl<lufcns conquercd Sicil)' in 119'1 thc)' were quick to
Illilke usc of tile fighting men tile)' lound there. Fcudal contingellts were
largely made lip of knighu; frOIll Apulia in sollthern Ital)', supplementcd
by Imlian knights and militia scnt fl'Olll the cit}, communes, who paid for
tlleir upkcep for the initial four or six weeks, aftcr '\'hich tllis burden fell
upon thc king. The Arrine--lxlII could be lIscd in timcs of national
emergenq' to call out freemcn and serfs. 111e mainsta)' of the troops
Great helms
a) From Madeln, Basel-land, a
late 13th-century German helm.
(Kantonsmueum, Liestal,
b) From SChlossberg bei Dargen
In Pomerania, probably made in
the third quarter of the 13th
century. (Museum fur Deutsche
Geschichte, Berlin)
c) From Bolzano, made at the
end of the 13th century, probably
German. (Castel San Angelo,
used b the German rulers were L.he Saracen , under Qa id and heikhs.
The cl Li, orienral taste. of nd r "uch a. Fr derick LI meant that
the e men w re allowed, iJ d ed I ouraged, to pursue th ir Mll lim
faith and culture; they in their turn r warded thi' L.ol 'rance with 10 alt
lmmatched by the rest of th icilian troops. The popes could nOl.
frighten Lbem with LhreaLS of excoml lmicat.ion. a ,,-aluable bonu to the
German emperor in their sU'uggles wiLh the papacy. Bervveen 1222 and
1226 Fr d J' k esrabli hed coloDies of cu'aCens On the Italian mainland,
mainly around Lucera, wher i has be I sLimated LhaL b rvveen ] 6,000
and 60,000 weI' 'ettl d, probably in luding women and hildren.
C rtainly omewher between 7.000 and 10,000 cavalry [rom here rode
with Frederick on the of 1237. Hi' 'on M.mfr d - dubbed
, ultan of'Lllcera' by the Pope in 1266 - ma hav used up L '10,000
aracens at th BatLi of Benevento.
Th accounts would sugg ·t that 'nch men were rg,mised on a
de imal ba i, ince aL Cart nuova 7000 are aid to have harged in
seven division , probably of 1,000 men ea h. If th is lncluded the
araccn', each division ma have b en made up of fi e compani s each
of 200, tllem Ives divided iJ Lo five units of 40 eigbt-man se uons. TI r
was sLrong influ nc in i ill [rom Andalusia wh r . uch a y'tem
operated, wiLh a Qa'id officering each 1 OOO-man division. ome
emperor, noral I Frederick II, had aracen bod guard, in luding units
of Tunisian Berber. an' of Llle Mu lim soldier foughL a iJlfanU ,
but ome were emplo d a. lighL cavalry armeo wiLh composiL bows.
The aracen also provided valuabl service in sicgecraft. om were
involved in building ieg engines as \ 11 a in the produ Lion of mail
and ,""eapon". In addition, icily had a fleet of ships, many crewed b
enoese sailors. Frederick wanted to u"ength n th xisting fleet to 100
ralley' and 50 transports b 1225. He eems to have gone sam way
toward acbi ving dus, since in ] 228 40 galle wer' u.s 'd on his rusad
au mpt In ] 241 65 galleys are I' corded, wiLh possibly 100 gall s in
crvic und r mnardo. admiral to anfr d, in 1258.
One unique aspect of the erman army wa th employment ill lar e
munbers of a special type of fighting man, th unfr knight,> or minis-
tetial s (Dienstleute). This class emeJ'ged in the firsL half of the lOlh
century, and was first introduced in large numbers b onrad U (1024-
1039).Inth lltilcenruryG nnannoble.wereabl t makcus of til ir
economic advantages; they enfeoffed llew knightly retinues of mini te-
dale om Limes in large number.
nlik th vas aJ knighlS of ap tian Franc or orman EI gland,
nunisteriales lived under a form of'legal bondage, yet in pra tic uch
re tri tion rell ct d th va sal-lord agre m nt made Isewhcrc.
Despite this tile lord in German t hni all wn d his minist riale ,
because of the ITong tie of hereditary and personal dependenc of
t1lese m n to their lord. Th word its If impli s a service, usually miLitaJ)',
et the e knight wer aL 0 known b the atll I' term LI ually LI d for free
knights, mililes. MiJites' also re[en-ed to dle gr at magnates, who were
also Ere knights, bence the ne d for a separat tenn for the unfree 17
RIGHT 'The Victory of Humility
over Pride', from the
1200, shows knights wearing
helmets with face-guards. Notice
the two-handed grip used on
what at this date Is stili an
ordinary arming sword. The coat-
of-arms Is a later addition.
18 (Kestner-Museum, Hanover)
h e
k n i g h t ~ , especial I 111 the
campI x I galjar n of the
12th c ntury. Thi di -
tinction was mad well into
the 13th century wh n the
fr e knights, the milites
liberi, were disappearing
altog til rinG rmany, and
were finally ab orbed by
int r-marriage with minis-
terial s in th following
The mini teriaJe began
life a non-noble Ere men,
e ·tate admini trator who
did not own th ir e tate in
the same way as free vas·al .
They could be passed from
lord to lord, hired out a.
mercenaries, or ven 'old.
Th if ervices were valued
by ec I sia ti al land-
holders becau they could
b employed as required
and senL to fulfil imperial
demands widlOUl 10. of
land or revenue. uch wa
their value tllat their importance increased until, by the later 12th
cenrnry, many held distinguished imperial po itions. In till' way the
were increasingly seen as worthy of holding e tates and inde d, such
office w re soon being converted La tenm'e . At the end of the 12th
century, the mini terialis wa a land-holding knight in a similar way to th
c b a
a) c.1050-1120.(Museum fur
Deutsche Geschlchte, Berlin)
b) c.1 000+ , from Yverdon,
Swltzerla.nd. (Schweizerlsches
c) Probably c.1 040-60.
d) 13th century
e) Hand-and-a-half-sword,
f) Lancehead, 13th-14th century.
(Kantonsmuseum, Llestal)
g) Lancehead, 13th-14th century.
(Historisches Museum, Bern)
h) Detail of scabbard from the
statue of Count Ekkehard,
Naumburg, c.1250.
free knights, who looked upon this developm n withdi ta teo 'ome
mini teriales became extreme! pow rful, holding s'veral castles and
leading large retin ue .
ome ministeriales W re given fiefs but, becau'e the were obliged to
'erve th ir lord anyw'ay, homage wa tlleoretically not required. In orne
ar as fi f giv n by the lord, rather tl1an on condition of homage, were
called hove/en (house-fief'). By the end of 111 12th century uch dis-
tinctior wer pretty a ademic. on e mini t riale w re holding land by
'erviJe fief (jure rninistelialiwn) and a tually pr ferred i as a safeguard for
their heirs. They also held land b), real or hereditaJ fief (JU1'e jeod£), fief
for life (ju.,-e !In:caTl:o) , manOlial fief (jure uillicationis), or in return for
'astl -guard (jure castren is jeodt;. The latter fiefs, together with U10
'ittached to a ca tI or the ca teIJan' office., ere cOlllmon in Germany.
They were designed to ensure that adequate mini teriales or men nom-
iJlated by them were available for variou services in a o-onghold. U1
J2th enttlr)' progressed fiefs held injure mil1isterialiu1n were incr asingly
being replaced by real fief.
Though mini tetiale' wer technicall born into service, in practice,
lord w I' Ie s lik ly to keep so-ictly to th I tter of the law. Mini teriale
were tTeat d largel)1 as free men and only marriage outside the lord'
circle, with potential 10' of and futw'e knighLS, wa a mall I' for
eriou on iderati.on. Other-wL ministeriales were allowed to take
other lord in addition to their own, which ased the pre sur upon a
lord l endow his va 'sal with land. How vel', unlike in France or
England, the id a of li ge homag ,i.. rvi e first and foremost to one
p ciA lord, was not practised. In the Rhineland
ome ministeriale' offered 'li ge castle ' to new
lord , but this referred to the building and had no
implication for th man. Rather multipl
agreements were .in tile form of mutual aid
treatie , whereby the mini teliali would assist th
lord in r tmn for a oef money-rent, or even
plunder. Wernh r von Bolanden, th richest rnil1-
isterialis at the end ofth 12t11 century, boa t d44
lord, not including the emperor. Wher lord
shared u h men, it wa a matt r of haring
certain dutie ; only one lord actually owned the
man. Oams of fealty were tecbJucall unnecessar
since, being erf:, tll iT loyalty hould have been
expe ted and unquestioned. However, oaths wer
often 'worn wh D a minj teliali b gan activ
service or when a OUtll ame of age. The weI'
taken eSI eciall wh n a minislerialis W < L ~ pIa ed in
another' retinue. Yet they often refused to fight
knjghtl)' r lativ , r war anI)' to th ir lord
overlord or to the empire. However, tJle lord'
inter sts (or their own) wer oft n pIa ed before
those of the mpire, and riot. against the emperor
'ometimes oc lUTed.
Ministeriales were vital to a lord who wanted
pow I' and protection. They weI' u ed in all
affray, and migh uffer torture, mutilation or
The Ene/de 0' Heinrich von
Veldeke was Illustrated probably
at the end ot the 12th or early
13th century. Some knights wear
deep cylindrical helmets with
tace masks, while archers have
kettle-hats with slightly flared
brims. One crest at top lett
appears to consist 0' three small
flags. (Stalitsbibllothek zu
Berlin -Preusslscher
Kulturbesitz, Ms. Germ. fol.282,
Strap arrangements of shield
Interiors reconstructed by
Helmut Nickel from surviving
examples in Marburg, as evi-
denced from rivet-heads and
leather fragments (Der mltte-
la/ter Re/tersch/ld des
Abend/ands, PhD thesis,
University of Berlin, 1958)
a, b) Mid-13th century
c) 2nd half of the 13th century
In this scene from The Ene/de,
cylindrical helmets seem to have
a brim well below eye-level, the
chin protected by an extension
pierced with breathing holes.
Note the myriad devices now
being worn as crests, and the
padded and quilted thigh-
defence (cu/sse) worn by the
knight at upper lett.
(Staiitsbibllothek zu Berlin -
Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Ms.
Germ. fol.282, f.59r)
death if captured. Many were held for ran OlD for many were actuall
sized; al au 70 m n belonging to the bishop of Hildesheim were taken
b th duke of Brunswick in 1279 at the iege of Campen Ca tle alone.
The aunt-Palatine Hugo von Tubingen. capttu'ed about 900 f the
2,500 men lIS d by Duke W If in a feud with him in 1164-65.
One of the main task of ministeriale was to hold castle. The lived
in fortified hou es or LOwers, often allodial property of their own. ome
Lived witl1 other in larger castles belonging to th ir lord. om lords
required allodial castle' to be re-granted a' fiefs. Their ca tlcs were aI'o
1.1 d as gaol, a in the celebrated ca of Richard the Lionheart, incar-
c rat d by Leopold of u tria in Dumstein a tle. where the astellan
was hi' ministeriali , Hadmar von Kuenring. Man
G rman lord were captur d and implisoned to
await ran am.
ini teriales were often pow rfu! and ecure
in th ir own strongholds. Thus, despite oatl1S of
feallY, they sometimes rebelled robbed tl1cir lord
or disobeyed him, especially when their master
was away. Fred rick Barbaro sa hanged eral of
his ministeriales for cau 'ing dislul-bances wbile he
wa away on th S cond ~ r u acle. Dme ven
a assinated their lord. However, many w r loyal,
trusted in council, and 'erved well in , ar or in
pmsuit of blood feuds.
mid-12th century d cumenl con rning UJe
Arcbbishop of Cologne'. men provide a mall
in ight into th ervices of mini terial es. Whether
or not the were e n ~ off'ed knights, they w re
expected to defend the arch bishop's lands,
tllOugh beyond his boundarie they expected
payment if th Ydid not agr e to s rv voluntarily.
Ministeriales holding a fief with fiv marks'
income should go over the Alps with U1eir lord for
the coronation of the king. However the arch-
bishop not only had to giv aclvanc warning of a
year and a day, he also bad LO provide each man
with 10 marks and 40 ells of cloth for equipment,
plu a addled pa !<bor e, two travelling bag four
A coronation sword bearing the
arms of the Holy Roman Empire,
dating to between about 1200-
1220. The rather small disc
pommel may be a style from
southern Italy or Sicily, at that
time under imperial rule.
(Kunsthistorisches Museum,
The Ord I' of t Mary th irgin wa e tablishecL by a group of G nnan
merchants wh el lip a ho pital out iet the besi ged walls of Acr in
1190 during the Third ru a Ie. Thi b came a perman nt ho pital
inside the walls, and b 1196 ev raj atelJjtes had b en stablished. The
Order was recognis d by th pop, at first follmving th Rul' of th
Order of 5t John. Thi' was then amended so that Rule applied to the
bospital, whit the RuJe of the Templars wa used to regulate the cI rgy
knights and other brothers.
. rever as powel{LIl in the Holy Land as th Templar or HospitLlllcr',
the knights found anothet· opening to th 'ast of the empire, wh I'
heathen. lavs provided a flu'get for con I' ion. Herman von alza, who
became Hochmeistt>1' ( nmd Master) in 1210, was invited by the king of
HungaJ)' to aJTIpaign against th Cumans and olIi red BlH'zenland in
return. Although the king Lat I' reneged upon thi promi ,th Ord I'
now looked ea t. Imp JiaJ support am in 1226, when Frederick U
made the a prince of the empire, and this wa
hown b the addition of the bla k imperial eagle on a gold
e. utcheon on his anns. Two ear later von alza built a base
at Vogelsang on the River Elbe, but in 1229 the knights were
hancLed Kulm province, with the bIe 'sing of both emperor and
pope, and \vith only nominal papal uzerainty. The follo\ving 'ear 20
knights and 200 ergeants under broth I' Hermann Balke et out on a
ruthless campaign, building a network of ca tics and follo\ving a polk
of con r ion or death. Three ntr d v lop cl: in the OLlth and south-
west of enmm)'; in Prus ia, with a beadquart rs at arienburg wlder a
Lmulmei leI' and in Livonia, where Balke became Lantlmei leI'. Acre
remained the hom of th Order.
In l201 Albr cht von Buxhovden had founded Riga on the Baltic,
and in about 1202 the Brethren of the Sword were established to prate t
u1e aJ'ea. B)' 1204 th re were 50 k.night mostl), from one area of central
G I'many. '1\... IIty Y ar later the had conqllered larg areas of Livonia.
Half their nUlllber w re lost while helping a crusadjng fore in 1236
which refu d to wait until the mar h w re froz n in ....rioter and
between 1237 and 123 Hermann Balke amalgamated them into the
ivoniaJl bran h.
In 1242 t.h Livonian BrethI' n advanced into Orthodox Chri tian
Russia and met a rounding d 1" at at Lake Peipus, th so-call dIe
laughter, whet' numbers of knights are said to have fallen through the
ice, while others fell victim to light horsemen. The 'arne ' ar saw a
selioliS Prussian revolt. A crusade launched in 1253 graduall s iz d th
land separating Pi'll sia and Livonia ( amland and ourland) and led to
the foundation of Konigsberg. By the late 1270 ,d pile setbacks the
Order could field ome 2,000 knights; by 129 rno t oppositiml was
horse hoes and 24 nail for ve ,two m n. On at th Alps ach man
recei ed one mark per month for the duration of h joun y. If
payment wa not forthcoming on tim , the minist riaJi was freed.
Ministeriales ..vith lower incomes could opt to stay b hind, but had to pay
an indemnity equal to half their fief"s revenue.
crn h d. After th fall of cre in 1291 the headquarter moved to
Venice, but it was the disappearance of heathen n mies in ea tern
Europ and a gr at defeat at Tannenburg jn 141 ,which heralded the
real decline of the rder.
Henry IV's Civil Wars
Battle of Flarcheim, 27 January 1080
In 1077, Henry 1 was threat ned by a coalition of prin e who lect d
hi iter shu band, Rudolf of wabia, as counter-king. Mter a victory tl1
following year at Metrich tadt (a cavalry ngagem nt on the border of
Franconia and Thuringia) Henry a sembi d a new arm and felt strong
enough to onfront Rudolf. Rudolf had lost the upport of some of the
Sa.xon princes, and appeared weak enough for a winter campaign
again t him to prove worthwhil . Henry therefore march d out, only to
find him elf onfronted by Rudolf near the vLUage of Flarcheim,
b tween Ei enach and Miihlhausen in Thuringia. Henry, reali 'ing tbat
the axon forces had gathered on a hiU behind a brook 0 a to b able
to attack him a be forded the stream, wi ely decided to march around
iL What happened n xt is unclear. H may have waited until dark (about
16.00 hour) befor movin . In a 'now torm, Duke Wrati lav ofBohemja
cut down RudoU" ·tandard-b arer, and th Saxons, v r Iy attack d,
fl·d. The hronicl r Ekkehard sa)'. that dw'ing the battl a group of
Saxons wlder Otto of ordheim attacked the 1'0 al camp, killed the
quir s and seized much booty then t Irn d on th Franconians and
Bohenuans forcing a sWTend r. Henry afterwards returned to East
Franconia and disbanded the army. Whetller Henry wa actually
d feaLed, or simply withdrew when he realised how many axon still
support d hi rival i not known, but Berthold say. that th annie wer
only parated by nightfall, when tile freezing weather forced Rudolf to
wi til draw to the neare t viJIage, I' turning to th field in th morning.
On intere ling oml11 nt h make i dlat only 3 men were killed in
Rudolf arm, 36 of these b th hand of lesser' troop, nOL frol11
knightl wordsm 11.
Battle on The Elster, 15 October 1080
Henry' x ommunication b Pope Gregory VII in 1080 provid d Rudolf
with a perfect excuse for anotller rebellion. Hem)' needed to unit the
men from south and west Germany with those of Bohemia and Meissen.
larching through Thuringia along the soutllern borders ofaxony h
wanted to join with tile other conting nts on th aale or the Elster. The
Saxon w r tri k d by a feint again t aslar allowing th main royal
army to pa s ea t. Reali ing their mi take, the axon tm-ned to pur u
Lhe enemy, overtaking Henry on th EI r near Mil in. The king had hi
back to the river and though h may have been joined by tile Baval'ians,
the Bohemian and Mei sener cooting ilLS w re still on the oppo ite
bank. H 111)' r alis d that h could not p It off a battle any long r, while
hi reu'eat was thr atened by the proximity of the Sa.xon forc . H
mov d to a wamp valley, the 'Grona, which prote ted him from a
22 dir t a aull by tile enemy. On arrival the knights of both ide began
The sword of St Maurice, a
double-edged weapon of about
1198-1215 with a brazil-nut
pommel and metal scabbard, has
enamel and engraved decoration.
(K,unsthistorisches Museum,
RIGHT Some knightly figures on
the Shrine of Charlemagne wear
simple cylindrical helmets with
no faceguards. The long shields
bear rather simple fonns of early
heraldic devices. (Cathedral
Treasury, Aachen)
The Shrine of Charlemagne, a
silver reliquary made in lower
Lotharingia between c.1200-
1207, has numerous Illustrations
of early helms with face-guards
and neck-guards. One flgure in
the tent has flung his coif back
to revea.1 the padded arming cap
worn beneath. (Cathedral
Treasury, Aachen)
trading insult \ hUe Henry
pondered. Hi exit layover
the bridge at Zeitz, but thi
may well have b en closed
b the townsmen. However,
the men of Bohemia and
Meissen were approaching
and either the bridge
would hav to be forced or
a cro sing built. he
axon could move arOlmd
th swamp to the we t, but
uch a mov would take th
b st part of a da , allowing
Henl ither to bllild hi
crossing or pa muod the
sou hern end of the swamp
to keep the enem at a safe
Many Saxon foot soldiers had fallen b hind during the plU· wt, and
now King Rudolf commanded all knights whose horses were weak to di -
mount. Thi tiffened th ranks of the infa.J1U·y md, with OttO von
Nordheim, the cond in command at their h 'ad, the e bodie of foot
moved to occupy th eros jngs over th Grona. While thi wa in pro-
gre ,the mounted knights mad to eirel the wamp. ow a cavalry
battl opened a tb two force mad ootact, but Henry was soon
threatened by Otto with the foot oldier who cam over the cro ing.
Defeating par of Henry' force, Otto led his men into the enemy camp
and having succe sfully prevented them from plundering, left th camp
and fell upon the re·t of the enem who were busynghting. Henry lost
hi army, many of whom drowned in the EI ter but had the atisfaction
of knowing tint Rudolf was dead from a fatal wound in the abdomen, his
right hand evered. The
mar h L.hrough axony had
allowed the axons to att-
ack Helll before he could
form his lHire force; a
more circuitous rout may
have been the c1iffi renee
b !:we n d £ at and vi tory.
Barbarossa's Italian
Battle of Carcano, 9
August 1160
Emperor Frederick Barb-
arossa pent even month
besi ging the malJ town of
Cr ma in north Italy. Thi
included tying pri on r
from Milan and rema to a 23
This mailed north Italian knight
of about 1210 has a pierced
lace-guard. Notice how the chin
tie is looped through a metal ring
presumably riveted inside the
helmet brim. The latter appears
to be fluted. (Church of St
Justina, Padua)
siege tower as protection but it wa. 0 pound d
b catal ulan the walls that the tower was pulled
back. Fina1l , when the tower reach d the wall
th d fend r' r tr ated to the itadel and t nn
weI' agre d. h imp rial arm r was in need of
I' vitali arion and most of th nnan I' turned
over th Ip.
iJan th fat of
f arcano,
from Milan, willl a I from four
f its LX quarter. The arm was fortifi d b
knights from Brescia and Piacenza. Barbaro a
cam to lift th i ge, umm ning nnan and
Italian tro p, including units from mo,
ovara, erc -IIi and Pavia, Levie from Montf! mil
and nobl s from the Milane contado who were
·till tr ing to preserv> their fre dam from the city.
Th ~ r to gath I' at a point belW en th astle
and Milan i elf, in order to cut all' th b i ging
In Lead of waiting for all hi force to gam r
how v r Barbaro a des ended on th Milane e
si ge lin onl to find that the en m had 00
intenti n of fi hting a defen iv a ti n. be
ilan s foot advanced to me t the imperial
tr p ut \ r U[ up b the G nnan knigh on
m imp rial ri ht wing and th canvcciowa . iz c1.
On th I fl it was a differ nl matt r. Th n-
ring nt from omo and er eUi were d feated b
th Milane and Br ian knights who nearl
wiped out the ovarese too before turning witll
impr s iv ohe ion to h lp til tubbornl
l' iring 11ilane infanu in tead f indulging in
a pur uit. Barbaro' a was unwilling to pI' nand
mu t hay realised thal h had mi uudged the trength of th be ieging
force. Ind d, on r port tat that h had ani 200 knights I ft. Th
w ath r intervened witl1 h a rain, and the two armie \v1thdr w, the
ilane to dleir an1p and Barbaros a towards Com. nfOrLunat I this
withdrawal ofimperiaJ for es wa unknown to th additional 2 0 knj hts
n w approaching from I' mona and Lodi, who were urpri d by the
Milan on d1 following d ' ~ and t k h avy C' ualti . b fore Fredelick
harged to me re cue. he victor for the Milane wa hOw; a ortie
from arcano d tro ed Ul ir sicg ngin . \ hil 11 cia aft r the ballJ
the \if ed m iege for ear of ful'Ul l' attacks.
Battle of Legnano 29 May 1176
Having continued hi campaign in [tal, Fredelick Barbaro a wa at
Pa ia in th pring f 117 wh n h d cid d to wa tom r tim in
negotiation with lilan. R inforcement had b en umm ned from
mlan and n w mad Ul ir wa' toward Barbar a wh tog ther
with hi guard, was probabl al waiting ~ r th mer enary ~ r e und r
hri tian of Mainz. Thi arm had tr un d mlan rm t r eoli,
1: German knight, 11th century
2: Bohemian foot soldier, 11th century
3: Polish heavy cavalryman, 11th century
1: German knight, 1000-1150
2: Lotharingian infantryman, 1100-1150
3: Veronese infantryman, c.1139
1: German knight, 1150-1200
2: Milanese Infantryman, c.1170
3: Italian knlght.late12th century
1: Ministerialis, Wolfram von Eschenbach, c.1200
2: German knight, c.1200
3: Thuringian archer, c.1200
1: Savoyard knight. c.1225
2: Infantryman from Aries, c.1220
3: Count Louis II of Loos, c.1216
1: German knight, c.125O
2: Sicilian Saracen horse archer, c.124O
3: Tunisian Berber bodyguard, c.124O
4: Sicilian crossbowman, 1200-1250
1: Walter von Geroldseck, Bishop of Strasbourg, c.1262
2: German urban Infantryman, 1250-1300
3: Mounted crossbowman, 1250-1300
4: Infantryman from the Low Countries, 1250-1300
1: German knight, c.129O
2: Braban(j:on mercenary, c.13OO
3: Cuman auxiliary, 1250-1300
Castello di Lombardla at Enna In
central Sicily, a Byzantine
stronghold fortified first by the
Normans a.nd then by the
near Rom l' 0 month arli r, and wa mar hing north t upp rt
Barbar a. Th north rn army in Iud d th ounts of aarbru ken
Fland r and HoUand th landgrav of Thurin Tia, the archbi'h p f
10 n and 1agd bur ,and ev ral bi hop. Thi- for of perhap 500
knigh and 1,500 erg an ,had ignificanu redu ed in pot ntial ize
b the refu al f th pow rful H n the Lion, Duke of Bavaria, to
answ I' the summon. It era .ed th Alp ia the Lukmanier Pa . rath r
than one of th astern pa e; thi r ut avoid dad tour astward, but
had the di advantage of pia ing it on tile road through omo WiUl
Milan direcd betw en it and Barbarossa's a-oops 1 mil 'outh at Pavia.
Fr d dck I ft Pavia with an cort of p rhap 500 knigh', kin d
Milan and m l th north rn arm at omo wh I' he was j in d b i
burgher, making a force of perhap 3,000-3,5 0 men. Howev r the
Milan I now eeing the real dang r in allowing Barbaro sa to unit all
ulr fore s, caU d for h lp from other citie . M anwhile, Fr deri k t
ut £ I' Pavia, a ain kirLing jlan' unfortunal L UJi Lime he am
within 20 mil and th Leagu iz d it. chane, marching OUl t d al
with the thr at before th mperor could get ba k to Pa ia. lint d
c nLin nts indud d 300 men from Novara and ¥ r IIi, 200 fr m
Piac nza and 50 from Lodi, n cam from Bre ia, rona and th
Verone e mark; their infantl 'were t defend Milan while ule "ilane
fo [mar h d out with th cavaiJ', a for <:: of p rhap 4,000 hor . Th
advan e guard of both armi . urpri d n another in tl1 wo d
round at Legnano, about 1 mile north-\ e t of Han. h 00
erman av 1m I [0 th 700 Milan knights, h w r Ul n att-
a k d b th main b d at d brok. he main mbaI'd b d am fr m
th \ 0 ds to fann 0PP ite th nnan , wim th Lombard cavalry in
four divi in. D 'pit inferior l1lunb r ili G nnan knights harged, 33
and ucce i ely broke up the en my division
, hich may have been in column. Many hor III n
fled pa't their infantry pW'sued by th imperial
troop, Th foot oldier had mad a stand
around th carro cio, perhaps assi t d by a tr nch
( r canal) which partly prot ct d the overnight
camp til had pre umablyju t left. Drawn up in a
mass with fronted sill Id and sp ar I v U d at
th en my, I' inforced b ome of the knights who
now dismounted, the pre ented a formidable
obstacJ and. uccessfully halted the pursuit. The
Milanese kni Tbts themselve ralJied when they
m t a body of Brescian knights who had com to
upport Milan. Togetll I' they laun hed an atta k
on tbe flank of tll erman who do not eem to
have mplo ed archer or era. bowmen again t
the enem foot, not ev n from among tll
bur rher of Como, presumably becau they were
too far in tlle rear. Se ing th ermans falter, tll
ltalian foot may well have advanc d at thi time.
Th imperial standard fell and Barbaro sa was
unhor d giving ris to a rumOlU' tllat he was
dead and to panic. Lack of infantry and too few
men togemer with the pirited opposition from
arm d townsmen marked the end of Barbaro a'
ambition in IU'lly. He manag d to return to Pavia.
There ar no report of how close hri,tian of
Mainz and hj relief fore from the outh mayor
may no have be n.
Frederick II's Italian Campaigns
Battle of Cortenuova 27 November 1237
The ltaJian preferenc for deaJing Witll imperiaJ threats wa to attack me
en my only whjle hi forces w r divided as at Carcano and L gnano.
Having been thwarted by these tactics in 1236 and failing to capture any
strongholds, Fredelick IT retw"ned me following ear with 2000 knights
and moved on Brescia. He already had the allegiance of ManUla, which
had defected fr m the Lombard League. However, a Lombard army in a
s ur po ition pl"evented any furtl1 ration, and in November several
Italian city contingents were reJeas d from the imp rial army. In order
to nti e th enemy out Frederick then crossed tbe Oglio with p rhap
as many a 10,000 men including 2 000 German hal' e and mar h d
w stward toward Cremona pI' t nding to depart for for winter
he Lombard, d spite fielding a force probably imilal'in iz to that
of m mp ror, decided to return home too, and deciining the obvious
route which would have meant marching a day behind the en my, they
made a wid r detour north to add another day between tbem elv and
Frederick. Th emperor, however, warned of the move by smoke ignals,
had marcbed directly aJong th riv r in tead and a the daylight began
to fade, fell upon tb Lombard cavalry in the region of Bergamo at
34 Cortenuova.
The Story of Tristan, a
5trasbourg manuscript of c.1240.
Though the knights all wear full
helms, none wears a surcoat and
only some wear leg armour.
(Bayerlsche S1ailtsblbllothek,
Munich, Ms. Germ. 51, f.86r)
The left-hand thief crucified
alongside Christ in this miniature
of c.1250 wears a coat of scale
armour, with short sleeves and
no hood. Though often asso-
ciated in western art with
Muslims or other non-Christians,
here it is used in connection with
a man whose soul is saved. As
with many scale coats, this
example has short sleeves and
no coif, since scales were stiffer
than inter-linked mail.
(Bibliothitque de i'Universit6,
Liege, Ms. 431, f.18Bv)
The armour worn by Parzlval and
Feirefiz in this mid-13th century
manuscript is typical of that
worn in much of western Europe;
however, the 'V'-necked opening
01 the sureoat and the wide tri-
angular shields were popular in
Germany. (Bayerlsche
Staitsbibliothek, Munich, Ms.
Germ. 19, f.49v)
he imperial cavalry, in s ven division'
were met b the knights of the Lombard
ad ance guard but the element of surprise
h Iped the G rmans to repulse th m with th
1st d i , ~ ion alone. am fled from th camp,
while other crowded round the focal point of
the great ca1'roccio, prot ted as iL wa b a, dit h
or canal in fran and the ~ l l a g e of ortenuova
in the rear. The imperial army could not make
any hcadwa: again t th Lombards, who were
secure in thi defended positiol . Accardi), g to
'ome chronicl r Frederick u ed his aracen
archer to break up the encm ranks.
Hm ever, he him 'elf does not mention them
in his own report of the battle, nor do th
eem to have had an major effi ct, . ince has-
tilitie were called off as night fell It may be
that the archer wer late in arri ing or of
n gligibl number. The knights were ord red to sle p in their armour to
be read for in Lanl action next morning.
How v r, the L mbards had had nough. neler cover of darkne
increasing numbers left their positions and slipp d awa until th whole
army fled. The cro . on the carmccio wa brok n off and carried away, the
wagon it elf con idered too great an en umbrance. The cross-piece was
also abandoned and later fOlmd b imp rial oldi rs. Th amp was
taken and Frederick.' men chased and killed numbers of the enemy and
aptur d other. This 1-
lJincant d ~ at did litt! for
th imp' rial au
however. Though th
Milan mad ov nur
Fr derick th r fus t
agr e to an unconditional
urrender and th bitt r
stmggl ontinu d,
Siege of Parma, 1247-48
During his contion d
campaign again th iti
Fr deri k n marched n
the ci ty of Parma wi Lh om·
10000 men. ProbabJ to
5 w in number to un"ound
the ity, the 'ct up a si cr
camp oppo it part of th
cit i wat d on th I ft
bank of the river, mall r in
area than thal on the right
bank. Tbi camp was
dubbed . ittoria'. From it
thc ernp r r proc d d (Q
d n I.h cit pr vi 'ion by
w' ling th oUnLrysid r. r
mil around. HaLo
hoped ad ter an attempt
to reJiev th itizens. Un-
fortl.tnal.eJ, in h had
n [ urr lInded the ity, hi
effor were nol. \\ h II eff-
ective; the antuan ailed
up the Ri er Po with a neel.
and pro eeded to help
Parma, whi h it If po '-
s cd a larg number of
fighting men. Winter am
and I.h m n of Al an-
dria B r am , Pa ia and
~ nona w rent h m'.
Frederick aJ·o nr pan of
hi arm Tre i a and
At andria. a re uh hi
remainiJlg force can ist d
of 1,100 hor e, 2,000 fOOL from Cremooa and an unknown number of
arac n. further 1,00 .. ere removed. Fredcri k Lh n went hUl I..iog
accompanied, il i said by 500 mounted m n. n 1 February, \ hil h
was awa th Parmesan' 'ame out with half meir army in order to mar b
up th Po again t KiJlg . nzio (Fr deli k' illegitimat on). Th' ther
36 half of m ir f< r orli d ut to guard Lh ir rear. Tbo e in amp, WimOLl
LEFT The little carved and
painted figure of a sleeping
guard at the Holy Sepulchre was
made in Saxony between about
1250 and 1300. The most
noticeable feature is the surcoat
lined inside with vertical plates,
probably of steel though they
could have been of horn or
whalebone. His neck Is protected
by the upright collar of a padded
aketon worn beneath his mall.
His helm has a rather unusual
semi-circular lower front plate,
possibly an early visor.
A surviving shield of the von
Nordecks of Rabenau, black on a
white field, second half of the
13th century.
(Universitatsmuseum, Marburg)
waiLiJ g for orders and without donning full armour attack d thi force
but, on being wor ted, re reated back to the camp wi h the Parmesan in
hot pur uil. The Parm an br k into th imp rial camp with the
neeing en m, laught ring a they wcm. About 100 knights and 1,500
foo soldier were captured along with the entire camp.
Struggles Within German Towns
Battle of Frechen, 1257
Conrad von Hochstaden, Archbi hop of ologn ,becam mbroil din
a di pute with the citiz I s of the city. FollowiJ g everal he, onrad
cut off acce s to the city b land and wat r: placing hi troops on aU roads
leading to ologn. Dietrich von Falkenburg, a 100"d hired by the
bur hers, aid it was a di grace for them to be cut off b / 400 enemy
soldiers and uped them to come out and fight them. The citizens
responded and met the archbi hop' men at Frech n. The atta k was
succe ful on F'alk nburg, who initially held his own men in res Ive,
threw them into the fight.. It may b that hi figur of 400 wa a
delib rate undere timat to spur on th burghers otherwi e the citizen'
vi tory ay little for the fighting ability of the archbishop's soldiers.
Battle of Hausbergen, 8 March 1262
Anoth I' battJ which developed from the sUl.lggles between a city and its
e c1 ia tical head wa tllat b tween th trasbourg bw"gh < rs and Bishop
Walter von Gerold eck which gave it the name The War of Walter'. Thi
began and continued with the destruction and
looting of illages and the blockade b Waller of
th road into the city. Th landed knights had
id d with the bi hop who had arranged that if a
knight's property wa atta ked, the bells were to be
rung in the neare t villages and tJle call taken up
by oth rs. Thu when the So"asbourger marched
out under tlleir old burgoma tel', th knight
Reimb Id Li b nz Ber, illt n 011 d troying a
tower ncar Mundol heim, about five miles north of
Strasbourg, th alarm wa sound d. Bishop Walter
came up with 300 knights and prepar d to attack th
burghers as they returned. th cli is appmached
tho e burghers still within the city set out W1d r
Nichola' Zorn [0 r inforce th ir comrad s and joined
up with them orne 3.5 mile' from trasbourg at
Hau bergen. The burgher form d up in line of battle
and encouraged on another, especially tho e on foot, an
intere ting omment which ugge ts that tlJeir morale was
not as good as that of th hor men (p rbaps becau e it
wa easier to flee if already mount d). wo kni hts wer
order d to how the infantrym n bow th y hould fight.
Th ize of the o'asbo Irg r forces app ar to have ur-
pri ed Walter's knights when they saw tllem for at fir t th Y
were unwilling 0 advance. When advised of the situation, th
bi hop called them award. De pite allowing any to leave who so
cbose, honour made the knights remain, though many were sure
tlle were about 0 die. 37
_prelilTlinaryjou t took place when Mar u· of
Ecb....ersh im, a young patrician not yet knighted,
advanced to dare an opponent to fight him. Th
challenge wa taken up bl a knight named
Beckelariu '; both Ian es splintered the hal' 'e col-
lapsed wilh their riders and died. Men rushed out
from both armie but u,e trasbotll'ger reach d
Mar us first and sl w his opponent.
The battle now b an i.n cam st. The bishop s
knigh joined batd with the nemy knigh but
were then attacked in Aank b burgher who weI'
lowl advan in T on foot in a solid mas of 'p ar .
killing h I"e withjn reach. The burgoma tel' had
ad ised them to thrust persistently, even ifit meant
killing their friend " horse' b cause, he reasoned
(perhaps in fun) the were cIa e to home and
could return on fool. The Su'asbourgers had
truck befor th bi hop' fa tsoldi I' bad com
up. It may be that u,e bi hop eeing hi foot move
out toward in order to I ar a ditch,
mistakenl tll011ght th YW I' 1 aving and decid d
to alta k without th 'm. Ther i also th star of
how hj infanu)' were ev rely galled by 400 enemy
cro sbowmen, planted a ro' th road hatf
'hooting whil- half reloaded, to prev III tJle iJlfantl)' joinjng their
knights. What vel' happened, the bishop's men were e entuaLly
crushed b I weight of number and, de 'pite pres ing on after having two
hoI' e killed wlder him Walter was defeated tl1e 10 s of 60 killgh
and 74 captured, though tJ1 bi hop him elf escaped.
The Struggle For Sicily
Battle of Benevento, 26 February] 266
h P pe pro laimed a TU 'ad again t ling anfr d of icily, and
Charl s of invaded with an army said to be over 26,000 'trang,
including 600 mount d crossb wmen and many on foot. B the time
th confronted anfred near the tOwn of Benev nto. man had been
lost mrough hunger and the number of horse had al °diminished.
The French, however held th higber ground, with 900 Prav
horsemen in the fir t lin ,1400 cavalrywitl1 hades in th and. and
700 uncleI' Raben of Hand r in the third. In front wa a rna of
infantry to 'kirmi h wi 'h tJle ara n '. < a h Fren h avah)'man was
accompanied by tw toot oldiers who e job was to kill any wounded
nemy oldiers.
h i iUans, wi I Ben ento at uleir backs, cros, ed tll River
alore by a narrow bridge which cau ed gap b tween the clivi ion,
Th first lin was composed f 1,200 GenTIan mcrcenarie , the sec ncl
f about 1,000 T Iscal and Lombard mer enary avail' under G Ivana
Lancia of Salerno, togeilier wim 3-400 arac n light horse. and in me
rear King Manfred with perllap' 1,000 Si iljan udal cavalry. Covering
the arm w r larg numl ers of aracen infantry archers, \ bo moved
forward withoUl orders and shot up the enemy faa but w r broken
38 by the first French mounted li-ne. Howev 1', meeting the erman

ABOVE Battle of Benevento.
RIGHT, ABOVE Battle of
RIGHT 51 Maurice, a statue made
in Brandenburg between 1250
and 1300, wears one of the
earliest representations of a coat
of plates. The plates are
delineated by rivet heads on a
tabard-like garment worn over a
mall coat, with a separate coif.
This coat of plates is fastened at
the rear by three straps and
buckles. Most of these early
examples appear In the vicinity
of the eastern part of the empire,
a possible reflection either of
Slav or Hungarian influence or of
the dangers from their archers.
(Cathedral Museum, Magdeburg)
Battle on the Marchfeld
now that Ch rl , ha ing
impotentl observed the
rout of his maio force.
charged up with hi
division and scatt red the
few troop who 'ulTounded
onradin, When the
imperial looters aw their
commander in flight, they
also took to their heels,
H nry of Castile managed
to rally a number of
horsemen and advanced
against the ngevins.
However, 40 French
knight feigned fUgh to
draw out th en m . As
the broke rank they were
attack d by harles' battle,
whil th 40 knight
whe led to trike their
flank. De pit a rall , the
could not hold off the
Angevins and fled.
Conradin, Frederick and
al aoo were caught a few w ek later and like rhos tak n in th battle,
weI' executed. He11l1' of astile wa impri oned for 23 years.
The Eastern Problem
Battle on the March.feld, 26 August 1278
Rudolf I mad> an attempt to crush nativ' Bohemian rc i tance and met
a larg arm under King Ottokar, on th bank of the River arch.
Among oth r, ttokar I d a force of Moravian, north German merce-
naries, Pole and om Rus·ian. Rudolfs troop included at least 14.000
Hungarian. both heavy and light cavalry, many of them Cumans.
The Bah mian dre, up in ix divisions: Bohemian; Moravian
with additional Bohemians [Tom the Pilsen area; Germans from Mi nia
and Thuringia; two divisions of Pol<:: . and Bavarians and north Germans
with Ottokar him elf. re rve probably of Bohemians, was com-
manded by Milita of Diedicz Chamberlain of 10ravia. All wore green
ros e as a di tingui hing badge. Rudolf or anj ed hi men in three or
po sibI four division apparently placing th Hungarian in three
divi ion of their own on hi left with the creen of umans in front.
I owever the exaCl placement of ith r army i not known for certain.
infanu)' appear to hav tak n part.
Riding fon¥ard, th Cumans and Hungarians advanced in a semi-
ire! round th right flank f the n -m , harrying with arrow the
Boh mian and Poles stationed there. The Hungarian h avy cavalry th n
harged forward into th enemy flank 10 ing ohe ion, and after a litlle
whil put th Bohemian and Pol s to fli ht laught ring or cap uring
man men during the pur uit. eanwhile, on Rudolf left Ottokar had
pushed the imperialists back. However steadied by their r serv , they
reformed and advanc d again. his time Ottokar's troops w re push d
back his reserve broke and the whole of hi' line collap ed. Ouokar was
killed and man were caught by the HunO"arians and llrtlanS a they
sought afety in fliglu. Other drowned trying to s ape across the river.
Succession Quarrels
Battle Of Worringen, 5 Jnne 1288
In 12 3 th death of the Du he of Limburg in Lower Lorrain et off
a uccessiol1 struggl b tw en Dllk John of Brabant and ReinaJd of
Gu IdeI' ,th dt! h on ort, who was support d by Si gfri d of
We terburg, Archbi hop of Cologn and th other lord. Joh_l1' up-
porters i.ncluded the citizen of Cologne, who 1'0 e again t th ir
archbi hop in 12 . John moved to attack Won'in n on th Rhin,
where the castle I e \ ~ e d h avy tolls on shipping. On 4JLme iegfri. d drew
up near euss and blocked
th road to Cologn d ny-
ing John' supply rout.
ext morning the arch-
bishop march d to th
Rhine in th leading divis-
ion, followed by the force
of th aunts of Lux m-
blLrg and Cuelder. John
meanwhile drew off acros.
the PIetsch to open ground.
Th duke a replacement
hoI' e read , led the large
Brabancon divi ion; lh
econd included th counts
of Laos and Jiilich. 1n th
rear, on the Rhine near th
ca tIe was th thi rd
clivi ion with the hoI'S and
foot (many with piked
club) ofth OlLllt orB rg,
and communaJ force from
ColoO"n . Th army may
have numbered about
2000-2,200 knights and
mounted sergean ts, and
2 000-3,000 fool. nemy
number weI' similar, with
p rhap lightly more
cavalry. About 30 quil"es
were dubbed byJohn.
John waite I for AT h-
bi hop iegfried' forces on
a hill b hind a marsh with
the olague-Warring n
road in front. Siegfried's
battle advanced towards the
count of B rg, who S 11 to
Knights Jousting, from Wilhelm
von Or/ens of c.1270. One knight
has a scarf wrapped round his
helm. Note the three enarmes or
carrying straps inside the shield.
(Bayerische Staatsbibllothek,
Munich, Ms. Germ. 63, f.49r)
A siege, from Wilhelm von
Orlens. A crossbowman aims
from the top of a siege tower,
while a warrior with an axe
hacks at the wooden structure. A
counterweight trebuchet Is
shown at bottom right. Note the
stiff shoulders of the surcoats of
the mounted knights rounding up
horses and cattle. (Bayerlsche
Staatsbibliothek, Munich, Ms.
Germ. 63, f.81r)
the duk for aid. John
ignored advice to ill in
pOSluon near til road
ditches and mar h and fall
on th n my as they
cros d the dit hes of the
erkenich-Worrin Ten
road. In tead, be under-
took to help Berg, moving
over th Col gne road
toward th en my.
e thi', iegfried
cro ed th M rk nich
road to meet him, all three
division' dosing up into a
huge moving mass. In open
fi Ids betw en the angle of
tlw road the armie lowly
[0 ed, 'as if th Y had a
b,-id' in front of dlem in
th sadeI I '. Raa of Gaver
fealing an overlap b the
long nemy front, wanted
John to thin and I ngthen
the line, but inst ad the
divi ion closed up 'thick
and tight' as eyewitn ss,
Jan van I eelu, put it.
Packed knee to kn e,
th B r a b a n ~ o n were out-
Oank d on their light by
the Count of Guelder'
clivi ion, who wer more
in tere ted in pLlshin on to
plunder the ducal camp.
.,'" However, they were soon
blocked by the arrival of
th econd division lU1der
Loa' aJld]ll1ich. Di ciplin was uch that none left th rank to attack the
few who gOl through to the camp. John' hor fell, as did that of hi
banner-b'arer, the uump tel'S ceasing to blow wltil they saw th flag
rai ed again. oun Henry IV of LlDcembw-g tli d to eize John, bu a
he did 0, be was slain b a B r a b a . n ~ o n knight, Wouter van den
AJ i gfri I' menb gantoweaken the ountofBergcam upwith
th third divi. ion. A Braban on hoI' man led the infantry, many armed
with spiked clubs, to attack the Archbi hop' flank and rear, the infantry
aI 0 storming his WTroCclo in the form ofa wooden castle. OnJohn' right
a final push felled Gueldcr's banner; the count and Si gfried Wel"e
among those tak n pri oner. After a long hard battle the victory of Duke
John' army sealed the ind pend J1 of Brabant from tl, G nnan
Battle of Gollileim 2 July 1298
Thi' bartl took I la e between King dolr of Nassau an the COllnter-
king, Albert of Bab bnrg- u o·ia. It appear to have been a battle
b tween knights though the number invol eel ar unclear.
Albert suppo ell gave order for the hal' s to be kjlJed, resulting in
a wall of dead hal' He h b hind whi h the Bavarian knights ontinueel
the ·truggl on foot, with their prine . before them. He is also supposed
to ha ord red th knights b ginning t wear in rea ing amounts of
solid armour in ctle form of teel, whalebone or uir bouilli. Fighting
men w re to especialJ harp n their sword points for better thrusting
and a sword ctlrust which might also burst links apart, was Ule
best wa to fmel gaps. The Bavarian are supposed La have briefly rested
behind the wall of horses, another questionable event. V'I'llcther or not
u h La tics were actuaJ] used, tlle batLle nded with the death of dolr
and the sllcce sian to ctle crown of the victolious Albert.
Benjamin Arnold German Km:ghlhood I05(J.l '()O (Oxford, 1985)
John Beeler, Wmfare in Feudal EUlVpe 730-1200 (London, ]972)
Eric Christian n 771ft orlhem en.t ades, The Ba.ttic and lire Calholic
Fmnlier 1100-1525 (London, 1980)
Ph.illipe ontamine Wa:r in lhe \tliddle Ages (Trans. Micha I Jones
Oxford, 19 4)
R. H. C. Davi , A Hi lory ojMedieval EwojJe (London, 1970)
H. Delbnkk, Ge. chichl€ des Kriegshu'I1s1/:n Rahmen del' politi dum Ge chichle,
m:· Miltelaller (Berlin, 1923, repro 1964)
W. Erben, Kriegsgeschichl.e des Miltetaller. (Berlin
and unicb, 1929)
F. L. Gan'bof Feu.dali 111 (Tran . Philip Gt-ier on,
London 1952)
K. Gorski 'Th Teutoruc Order in Prussia',
Medievalia el Hmnanistica, XVII, 1966
Ferdinand Lot, CAl"1 Militai're elles Armee au
Mo)'en Age en Eumpe el dan le Proche-Olienl
(2 vol, Paris, 1946)
PteI' MutlZ Frederick BarbanJssa: A stud)' in
Mfdiev{/,l Polilic (1969)
David icolle, 'Th Mooreale Capital and the
Military Equipment of Later orman 'icil',
Gl,adiu , >"'V, 19 0, pp. 87-] 03
, he apella Palatina Cei1iJlg and the MusLim
MiJitary lnheritanc of Norman Si ily'
Ctadills XIV: 1983 pp.45-145
A,'m and ArmOU1' oj the Crusading.E,'m (2 vols
w York 198 )
. W. . Oman A Hi lOry' oj lhe A"l oj War in the
Micldle g ,AD 373-1485 (2 vols, Landau,
] 924· (repr. 1960)
J. F. Verbrugg n, The Arl oj Warfare in t;u'IOpe
dW7,ng the Mid 1I.e Ages ( ran. 01. S Williard &
Mr. R.W. authern, Woodblidge, 1977)
The Massacre of the Innocents
of about 1280 shows mail coifs
with the squared lappet familiar
In German illustrations. The
central figure wears a short
uncovered haubergeon. His coif
has a lace around the temples
which probably secures a steel
cervelliere beneath. He seems to
have no mail chausses but, like
his companion on the right, does
wear gamboised culsses which
divide Into strips at the calf and
are stitched to give a close fit.
Over these are attached solid
poleyns to guard the knees. The
man on the left seems to have a
long· sleeved surcoat. Note the
buckles on the waist belts, but
lies on the sword belts. (By per-
mission of the British Library,
Ms. Add. 17687)
A1: German Knight, 11th century The mail coat is rather
old-fashioned in being split up the sides for ease of
movement, rather than at front and rear. Examples of this
style persisted in Germany for over two centuries. Though a
front and rear vented hauberk would be better for use on
horseback. this knight still fights as an infantryman, The
helmet is of the old spangenhe/m type, plates being riveted
inside a framework of bands. It has no nasal (nose-guard)
and the mail coif lacks any throat defence. His large oval
shield Is based on several instances of pictorial represen-
tation but, like examples depicted elsewhere in western and
central Europe, is unsupported by archaeological evidence.
A2: Bohemian Foot Soldier, 11th century Common to many
other areas of Europe, infantrymen were often distinguished
from knights and men of rank by being almost totally devoid
of body armour. This man, however, does possess a helmet
with a nasal to protect against the cut of the slashing swords
currently in use. It has been drawn up from a single piece of
metal, unlike that of the mailed warrior. The rivets round the
brim serve to hold a leather or canvas band Inside, to which
is stitched a padded lining. He also carries the so-called kite-
shaped shield Introduced around the turn of the 11th century
for both foot soldiers and horsemen. The boss, a legacy from
the circular shield, which once covered a hole in the shield for
the fist which grasped a bar, no longer has a true function.
A3: Polish Heavy Cavalryman, 11th century The Poles
were in contact with the Germans on a number of occasions,
threatened by the aggressive policy of the emperors. This
man wears a coat of iron scales and carries a shield with
stitched leather sections. His gilded helmet is set with
applied decorative plaques, and he carries a short axe at the
B1: German Knight, first half of the 12th century This
knight's helmet has a forward-pointing apex typical of the
time. Mail sleeves now reach the wrist, but unlike some con-
temporaries, he wears no armour on the legs. His sword belt
is fastened by passing the split ends of one half through slits
cut in the shorter half and knotting them together. This was
the almost universal method of holding the belt in the t2th
century, and remained common in Germany in the following
B2: Lotharingian Infantryman, first half Of the 12th
century Dressed in a short mailcoat with sleeves only to the
elbow, he carries a circular shield, now equipped with cross·
strap enarmes instead of the metal bar used in earlier
versions. Despite the widespread adoption of 'kite' shields,
the circular variety was often to be seen in the hands of
B3: Veronese Infantryman, c.1139 This man is of some
standing in the city. being well-protected in mail. His dress
also displays a couple of features of Italian equipment: the
helmet is tilted forward but also drawn out and down at the
rear to afford some extra protection for the back of the head,
and the shIeld is very long. The squared off lower edge is a
feature of some Italian shields, otherwise only seen In use by
some Muslims. His equipment is of knightly quality, but the
single mail-covered leg indicates that he is a heavy
Infantryman, who has to present his left leg towards the
C1: German Knight, second half of the 12th century The
legs are protected by strips of mail laced in place down the
back, though other knights wore full mall hose. His helmet is
tall and hemispherical. a style which was popular in the
empire. The sides are painted with simple early heraldic
arms. His nasal is expanded at the base to form an inverted
'T' bar to help guard the mouth, the first step towards a fUll
face mask.
C2: Milanese Infantryman, c.1170 The helmet worn by this
man, a member of the city whose soldiery caused the
Germans so much trouble, is drawn down at the back to
guard the nape. He wears no armour, but his shield has
strengthening bands and is rounded off at the bottom. He
carries a very early form of falchion, the weighted end of the
blade being particularly good for dealing heavy blows.
C3: Italian Knight, late 12th century This figure represents
one of the north Italian knights who fought with (and against)
the Germans during their campaigns south of the Alps.
Though his eqUipment differs little from that of his German
companion. his helmet is drawn out at the back which,
together with its rounded skull, gives it rather the appearance
of a later salle!. The medial ridge is drawn up at the top to
form a crest. He carries an early form of flanged mace fitted
with a head of copper-alloy.
The V"tta Caroll Magnl of the late 13th century relates the
life of Charlemagne and portrays the church militant In the
form of Archbishop TlJrpins. His crest of a mitre seems to
have a cloth mantling hanging down at the rear, which wafts
out behind, though the other helms have a plate over this
area which Is presumably a reinforce. No surviving helm
shows this feature, since any reinforces are
usually added to the front. (Cathedral Ubrary, St Gallen,
01: Ministerialis, Wolfram von Eschenbach, c.1200
Wolfram came from a family of Bavarian ministeriales. The
pendant sleeves and 'Y'-neck on his surcoat can be seen in
several German sources of the period. The practice of
embossing the surface of the helmet with vertical flutes was
popular in Germany. an action which strengthened the metal.
Whether the armourers of the day realised this or simply
employed it as a decorative addition is not known. His face
is completely protected by a mask riveted to the brow of the
helmet. On top is a small crest in the form of a 'banner' which
repeats his heraldic arms. Whether Wolfram actually used
the battle-axes (shown on the Manesse Codex of the early
14th century) or his family arms of flowerpots with handles,
is not known for certain. The warhorse, taken from a manu-
script of The Eneide, wears what appears to be a quilted
form of trapper, though the dot in each square of the original
may possibly represent some form of metal reinforcement.
02: German Knight, c.1200 This figure is also largely taken
from The Eneide. The mail sleeve now extends over the
hands to form mittens, in which the palm Is covered by cloth
or leather to facilitate a good grip. The hand can be
extricated through a slit in the palm. His mall hood is
extremely unusual. having two eye-holes and presumably
forming part of the mailcoat worn beneath the surcoat.
However, the manuscript gives no hint as to how it was laced
up. It may have been an elongated form of ventall, which
would normally only cover the mouth at most. Some ventails
seem to have been laced either side of the temple and this is
how we have chosen to depict this example. Another note-
A knight from a Flemish manuscript of the late 13th century
wears armour of similar type to that In France reflecting the
strong influence of that country. (By permission 01 the
British Library, Ms. Sloane 2435, f.85)
worthy item is the baggy quilted cuisses now used to defend
the thighs. Slipped on over the mail chausses which emerge
below, they are drawn up and tied to a waistbelt. The rather
wide shield was a form popular among German knights, and
his arms are repeated on the surcoat, a style as yet
uncommon. Again rather a rarity, his sword hangs from a
wrist strap, a device more usually seen in connection with the
03: Thuringian Archer, c.1200 Unarmoured except for a
kettle-hat, this archer sports a weapon of almost longbow
proportions. His quiver has a form of hood to protect his
arrows, rather like that used by east European or Muslim
horse archers. The arrows with their crescentic heads are
carried point-uppermost, a feature usually associated with
crossbow bolts. It may be that the archers of this region were
influenced by their proximity to the Slav borders.
E1: Savoyard Knight, c.1225 This figure comes from a
region of the empire which formed part of the Kingdom of
Aries. He wears a form of early helm, the faceguard now
extended to protect the sides and back of his head. ned
below the chin by laces, the helm was put on over the mail
hood and padded arming cap. His cuisses are more close-
A siege, from the late 13th-century Weltchronlk of Rudolf
von Ems. A foot soldier ascends a scaling ladder protected
by a very large 'kite-shaped' shield, a.lmost a form of pavise.
The kettle-hat was faVOUred for siege work since the broad
brim could deflect missiles dropped from above. In contrast,
the crossbowman wears a great helm. Though often seen In
western art, it Is debatable whether such ali-enclosing pro-
tection would be preferred by crossbowmen. (Cathedral
Library, St Galien, Switzerland) 45
This cmssbowman, from an 14th-century album
probably made in Flanders, wears a scale coat rather than
the mail favoured by his companions. As with other
examples, he also a great helm. (Blbliothl!que Royale
Albert ler, Ms 9245, f.254r)
fitling below the knee, the latter protected by a very early
form of poleyn, which we have reconstructed as cuir bou/lll
(hardened leather), each of which has been pierced round the
edges and stitched on to the cuisse. The almost triangular
shield is typically German in style.
E2: Infantryman from Aries, c.1220 This man wears a coat
of mail, but with a separate mail coif, unusual at this date.
The squared lower edge was a style favoured within the
empire, and probably shows German influence in an area
Increasingly coming under France. His curious helmet- more
than one depiction exists in this region - may have been
made from two halves with an applied crest to protect the
join, though it could equally well be drawn up from one piece
of metal. The roping shown both on the crest and brow-band
are also rare; roped decoration on armour did not become
popular until the sixteenth century. That on the brow-band
might be twisted cloth but it is hard to suggest such an
explanation for the medial crest. His shield is of the old,
round-topped 'kite' variety.
E3: Count Louis II of Loos, c.1216 This picture is based on
the count's seal, and shows him wearing a surcoat with
stiffened shOUlders, though it is not known for certain how
this was achieved. No support is visible on this or many other
examples, and though one or two elsewhere in Europe
suggest an extension of a cUirie, or solid cuirass, worn
beneath, here it may well have been achieved by stiffening
the cloth itself. The surcoat is decorated with his heraldic
arms. These are repeated on his horse's trapper, which only
covers the front half of the animal, a form rarely encountered.
On his original seal the helmet is shown with a crest, but the
form of it has been lost through damage.
F1: German Knight, c.1250 The equipment of this knight is
rather similar to that of his contemporaries in France and
England. He wears no solid armour on his knees, but his
helm has become somewhat deeper, supported by a padded
coif with a roll around the top, which gives his mail coif a
squared appearance. His sword has a crescentic pommel, a
type rarely seen outside Germany. He bears the arms of a
member of the von Mallinckrodt family of Westphalia, which
are repeated on his horse's trapper.
F2: Sicilian Saracen Horse Archer, c. 1240 Frederick II was
especially fond of Saracens and this man, whose dress is
rather similar to that of the Saracens of Andalusian Spain,
carries a composite recurved bow of sinew, wood and horn.
The sinew on the back (outer side) of the bow gives stretch.
the horn on the belly (inner side) gives good compression. He
does not use a bow-case, though his arrows are carried in a
quiver on his right side. The sword is of the straight form
favoured by the Arabs.
F3: Tunisian Berber Bodyguard, c.1240 Frederick II, like the
Sicuio-Norman Roger I before him, employed bodyguards of
Tunisian extraction. This man, in striking contrast to the
German knights, is very Arab in his dress, complete with
turban over a steel conical helmet, topcoat and circular
shield with leopard-skin covering. Body armour is in the form
of a short coat of lamellar, small iron plates laced together,
which was popular among many Muslim soldiers but rare in
Catholic Europe.
The knights In the Histoire de
Bon Roi Alexandre, probably a
Flemish manuscript of about
1300, wear altlettes on their
shoulders, a method of dis-
playing heraldic arms rather
than offering subs1antlal pro-
tection. The helmets have what
appear to be movable bevors on
the lower front half, though this
could be an early visor.
(Bibliothl!que Royale Albert ler,
Ms. 11040, f.36v)
Notes sur les planches en couleur
Al 0IMliIr IIlIlII'NtIlI, XlI .._ 11'1_ I'....... <!Mot ...... dlI!s. Son <aIIJlI
.. ell rlllCiwl1YP' IKadIIlIlliJMllI-. U "--do BohOme.
XlI ..,l.II...,..d'".......·
_......II'I_..ol'lI'I ....
..... ... lI'IlIOIIdiIr .. _ ... 'do..,_ 0\3_
__ .. ........lJnllIIr-dolllr .. -=-..._
____.. CUr _Son _ olaoIIlIlllmi. __,*",,-
...... ol'
II NlIitdu lCIlI u _.__Pl*-'"
r-.. .., cr__....-.
_dulllt lrl_aul _
... ll. CIl_.. 1IiIlI1I'lIIiIlt ....
......... __.rarinll_
\IlIu:iIr 1Il"'1Dng u _1rlNrllur c.rt .. _ Alitllo.., .....--.s
.....llIt s...-_ _
_ ............s._ ,I·'I ciIIk_....
....__ T __..
III_CZllDlllllld'llllllllnl 111GS. 1II __1II
................ cr- _ _ • .......-.111
___......._ 1NiIIoI t:J00MlIlr a.
... .III_tl __.IIl d'-.
........._.1riIlII_.1MoooC 0iIIIrt.
D1..........-. ... ,2QO.1.I_. __ _
.......-c:IIIII _ IIl""*"' _ _
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An umivaIled source of information on the uniforms, insignia and appearance of the world's fighting
men of past and pre ent. The MCII-at-Arms titles cover subjects as diverse as the hnperial Roman army,
the Napoleonic wars and German airborne troops in a popular 48 page format including some
40 photographs and diagrams, and eight fuIl-colour plates.
CHRISTOPHER GRAVETT left, was born in 1951. He has a master's degree In
medieval studies from London University; and Is now Assistant Curator at the RoyaJ
Armouries at HH Tower of London. He has published a number of articles on his period of
Interest and is the author of severaJ Osprey books Including Campaign I] Hastings 1066 and
Men·at·Arms 166 Medieval German Armies 1300-1500.
GRAHAM TURNER Is a leading artist In medieval history, but a relative newcomer to
Osprey having produced the artwork for Warrior 10 British Redcoat (2) 1793.18I5 and the six
outstanding battle scenes for Campaign .... PavIa 1525. This is his first Men-at-Arms.
Concise, authoritative accounts of decisive encounters in military history. Each 96 page book contains
more than 90 iIlustrations including maps, orders of battle and colour plates, plus a series of
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Detailed information on the uniforms and insignia of the world's most famous military forces.
Each 64 page book contains some 50 photographs and diagrams, and 12 pages of fuJl-colour artwork.
Comprehensive histories of the design, development and operational use of the world's armoured
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cutaway of the vehicle's interior.
Defmitive analysis of the armour, weapons, tactics and motivation of the fighting men of history.
Each 64 page book contains cutaways and exploded artwork of the warrior's weapons and armour.
Avec annotations en francais sur les planches en couleur
Mit Aufzeichnungen auf Deutsch llber den Farbtafeln
100 BC·§lI'/NJ
131 THE SCYTHIANS 700-300 B.C
165·1.6 BC
110 ROME'S ENEMIES (4) SPAIN 218-1' BC
.TH,9TH C.
19 BY2ANTINE ARMIES 8116-1118
100 El aD & RECONQUISTA 10SO-I.91
117 BYZANTINE ARMIES 1111-1461

9. THE SWISS AT WAR 1300-1500
11 0 VENETIAN EMPIRE 1200-1670
1.4 M£DIEVAlSURGVNDY 136'1-1.n
•Tille. continued on inside bock co..'
1'" ,
9 781855'326576

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