Ceramic n Engineering: Properties, Processing, and Use in Design. d Edition, Revised and Expanded, David rich er so^ W. 2. ~ntro~uction Engineering Materials: Behavior, Properties, and Selection, G. to
1.

olidifiedAlloys:Processes

*

~ t r u c t ~ r e sApplications, e d ~ e d by
0

inforced Ceramics for Structural Applications,

~avjd

5. Thermal Analysis of Ceramics, robe^ F. S ~ e y e r tion and Wear of Ceramics,d ~ e d Said~ a h a n ~ j r e by hanical Properties of Metallic Composites, edjfed S ~ o ~ jOchjaj by ro 8. Chemical Processing of Ceramics, d ~ e d B ~ ~ r a 1. Lee and ~ ~ ~J. a r d e by nd A. Pope 9. HandbookofAdvancedMaterialsTesting, ed~ed ~ i c ~ o / a sC ~ e r e ~ j by P, s j n o and Paul~.C h e r e ~ j s i n o ~ ~ I O . Ceramic Processing and Sintering,M. N. R a h ~ ~ a n 11. Composites Engineering Handbook,~ d ~ by P. K. e d 12. Porosity of Ceramics, Roy Rice W. 13. Intermetallic and Ceramic Coatings, e d ~ e d ~afendra aho of re and 7: S. by B.
on Techniques: Technological Applications, e d ~ e d K. 6 by . eering Materials: Impact, Reliabili~, Control, e d ~ e d and by

International Center for Actuat~rsan^ Trans~ucers ~ I C T ~ Pennsylvania State ~niversity e P ~ , ~niversity ~ r Pennsylvani~

M A R C E L

D E K K E R

This book is printed on acid-free paper. Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY 270 Madison Avenue, New York, 1001 6 212-685-4540 tel: 21 2-696-9000~ fax: Marcel Dekker AC Hutgasse 4, Postfach 8 12, CH-400 1Basel, S ~ ~ e r l a n d tel: 41-61-261-8482; fax: 41-61-261-8896

The publisher offers discounts on this book when ordered in bulk quantities. For more information, write to Special Sales~rofessional Marketing athe~quarters the address above.

Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, m i c r o ~ ~ ~ n g , andrecording,orbyanyinformation storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing f o the publisher. rm Current printing (last digit): l 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Ferroelectrics can be utilized in various devices such ash - p e ~ ~ i v i t y ~g dielectrics, pyroelectric piezoelectric electrooptic and sensors, devices, devices PTC components.Theindustriesareproducinglargeamountsofsimpledevices,e.g. ceramic capacitors, piezoelectric igniters, buzzers and PTC e ~ s t o r continuously. th s But until now ferroelectric devices have failed to reach co~ercialization more in functionalcases.Inthelightsensor,forexample,semiconductivematerialsare superior to ferroelectrics in response speed and sensitivity. Magnetic devices are much more popular in the memory field, and liquid crystals are typically used for optical displays. Ferroelectric devices often fail to be developed in the cases where competitive materials exist. This is mainly due to a lack of systematic a c c ~ u l a t i o n of hndamental knowledge of the materials and developmental experiences on the devices.

Duringmy12-yearteaching periodon"FerroelectricDevices," I foundthatno suitable textbook is available in this particular field, except some professional books I decidedtowriteasingle-authored likemulti-authorpapercollections.Hence, textbook based on my lecture notes, including my device development philos~phy. This textbook introduces theoretical the backgroundferroelectric of devices, practical materials, device designs, drivelcontrol techniques and typical applications, andlooksforwardtothe hture progressinthisfield.Thoughthediscoveryof ferroelectricity i s relativelyold,sincethedevicedevelopmentisreallynewand interdisciplinary, it is probably impossible to cover all the recent studies in a limited page book. Therefore, I selected only important and basic ideas to understand how to design develop ferroelectric and the devices, puttingparticular a focus on thidthick film devices. Let me introduce contents. the Chapterintroduces overall 1 the background, "General view of ferroelectrics," followed by the theoretical background in Chapter 2, "Mat~ematicaltreatmentofferroelectrics."Chapter 3, "Devicedesigningand fabrication processes," provides practical designing manufacturing the and of devices. Capacitor applications described Chapter are in 4, "High permittivity devices,"Chapters 5 and 6 treat thidthick filmapplications,i.e."Ferroelectric memory devices" and "Pyroelectric devices," respectively. Chapter 7, "Piezoelectric devices" deals with piezoelectric actuators and ultrasonic motors as well as acoustic transducers and piezoelectric sensors. Optical devices such as light valves, displays, wave guides and bulk photovoltaic devices are described Chapter 8, "Electrooptic in devices." In Chapters 9 and 10, we learn basic concepts of "PTC materials" and

111

.. .

The on Pennsylva~aState University. "Piezoelectric Actuators and Ultrasonic Motors" pages) authored byK."andtheirdeviceapplications.FinallyinChapter11we discuss "Future of ferroelectric devices.iv Preface "Compositematerials." in which the rnarket size is estimated.EDU For the reader who needs detailed i n f o ~ t i o n smart piezoelectric actuators and on sensors. this text is designed for a course with precision machinery and robotics. This textbook was written for graduate students and industry engineers s ~ d or~ g working in the fields of electronic materials. Critical review and content corrections on this book are highly appreciated. I express my gratitude tomy ICAT center faculty who have generously given me their advice and help during the writing. E-mail: KenjiUchino~PSU. Kenj i Uchino . Indiana Universi~ Pennsylvania. University Park. Send the i ~ f o ~ t i directed to Kenji Uchino at 134 Materials Research Laboratory. particularly to Dr.worked out all the problems. is Even though the author this I sole am of book. Though thirty 75-~ninute lectures. and the author's strategy for developing bestseller devices is introduced. Specific acknowledgement is given to Professor J a p e Giniewicz.nevertheless it includes the contributions ofmany others. 16802-4800. U m a ~ ~ e l e g ~who. (Kluwer Adademic Publishers 1997) recomended. (349 Uchino. 814-865PA Fax: 2326. who reviewed and criticized the entire manuscript and of provided linguistic corrections. Yulcio Ito (now in Rutgers du University)allowedmetousesomeparagraphsandfiguresfromourcoauthored papers. the reader can learn the content by himselflherself aided by the availability of examples and problems. Dr. optical materials and c o ~ ~ c a t i o n s .

iii vii viii ix 1.5 Capacitors 4.S 1.1 Tensor Representation of Physical Properties ~ h e n o ~2 n o l o ~ y 2.4 1 .4 Material Fa~rication Processes of Ceramics Device Size Grain Effect on Ferroelec~icity Ferroelectric Domain ~ontributions Ceramic Chip Hybrid Substrate Relaxor F e ~ o e l ~ t r i c s 57 67 73 84 89 5 106 108 108 119 126 V .1 Capacitors 4.1 3.3 4.2 Resigning 3.2 4.3 1.6 Origin of ~pontaneous Polarization Origin of Field ~nduced Strain Electrooptic EBect Example of Ferroelectrics 18 Applications of Fe~oelectrics 1 2 4 9 13 20 23 38 2.4 3.2 1. e of Ferroelectricity L Resigning 3.3 3.

3 .2 Temperat~e~n~are~ Light Sensors Infrared Image Sensors iezoelectric Vib 18 5 161 174 176 180 197 230 239 243 248 250 255 257 260 269 275 276 279 283 221 222 10.Contents 131 138 139 145 6.2 CompositeEffects 3~~ .

ion emanent ~ o l ~ z a t i o n yroelectric coefficient Lorentz factor elative ~ e ~ i t t i v i tdielectric constant y. tran§ition t~mPerature) Strain Spontaneous strain Stress Electro§tric~ve coefficients mechanical co~pling factor tran§mi§§ion coefficient ive index lmary electrooptic coefficient Secondary electrooptic coefficient hase ret~dation .

7. 9. 1Q. 4. 8. 5. 2. 1. 11. 3.Q. Course Explanation & Prerequisite Knowledge Check General Viewof Ferroelectrics ~ a ~ e m a t i cTreatment of Ferroelectrics al Device Designing and Fabrication Processes High ~ e ~ i t t i v iDielectrics ty Ferroelectric Memory Devices Pyroelectric Devices Piezoelectric Devices Electrooptic Devices PTC Materials Composite Materials Future of Ferroelectric Devices ~ e v i e w l ~ ~ ~ 1 Time 4 Times 4 Times 3 Times 2 Times 1 Time 1 Time 7 Times 2 Times 1 Time: 2 Times 1 Time 1 Time viii . 6.

to solve the following questions without seeing the answers the next page. 1 Calculate the induced polarization P under an external stress X in a ~ i e z o e l e c t ~ c a piezoelectric constantd.~ law of s e ~ ~ relative p e ~ i t t i v i t yE using a C ~ r i e . some prerequisite knowledge is expected. Weiss temperature T and a Cu~e-Weiss o constant C. eusing a c stress X . Indicate the work function in the following energy band of a metal. Q3 Q4 Q5 6 Q7 Q8 ~ ~escribe s~~~ v ~ l o cvi in a material with mass density p and elastic the compliance SE. eve1 of In id0 Q9 Q10 There is a voltage supply with an internal impedance 2 . with ix . Calculatethe capaci~nce of a capacitor with area S and electrode gapt C filled with a material of relutive ~ e r ~ ~ t E i v i ~ t.strain x relation. Describethelightvelocityin a material with a refractive index n (c: light velocity in vacuum). Indicate a shear stress on following the square. escribe the C ~ r i e . density Calculate the ~ ~ l u r i z a t i o nof a material with dipole dipole momentqu (Gm). on Q1 Q2 escribe the definitions of elastic stifness c and c o ~ ~ l i u n S.In order to understand ferroelectric devices. 0 Indicate the external impedance2 to obtain the maximum output power.

X Prerequisite Knowledge (Correct rate moreth 2 1 l .

. e ~ o e ~ e c ~ i c s to be very ~ are said T riC C 1 .

Thus. you should relation between the relativepe~ittivity and the refractive E =O l l ti0 + + : l c + l 4 I) l f l origins of the electric polarization. electricfield is applied.2 Chapter 1 Ferroel~trics utilized various are in devices as such high-pe~ittivi~ dielectrics. and PTC (positive ~ m p e r a t ~ ec o e ~ c i e n to f resistivity) components.1 showsschematicallytheorigin of the lpolesperunitvolume[C/m2]. There ole r e o r i e n ~ ~ o n .electroopticdevices. of causingelectricdipoles. the constituent atoms are considered to be ionized In such i and either are positively negatively or charged.piezoelectricdevices. ionic and electric polarization. ferroelectric devices often fail to be c o ~ e r cini areas~of applicatio ~ competitive materials exist. pyroelectricsensors. microwave region). This phenomenon is own as electric po~rization the electric. The electron clouds also deform.Lightsensors.typically are manufac~ed from se~conductive to in materials which are superior ferroelectrics response agnetic devices are much more popular for memo^ applicati a e typicallyusedforopticaldisplays.Onereasonforthis r is due tothe lack of systematic andcomprehensive com~ilationof knowledgeonferroelectricmaterials. andthepolarization is expressed ~ u ~ t i ~ t i vasthesum of the electric ely 1.Figure are three primary con~ibutions:electronic.€orexample.cationsareattractedtothecathode anions to the anode due to eiectros~tic interaction. l .~ ~degree . In this chapter. owever. eac The t eto ~ which 'sm ~ c o n ~ i b ~ ttos e the overall ~olarizationof thematerial d e ~ onthe n ~ ~lectronic polarization can follow alte~ating fields W ond. we will learn~ n d ~ eknowledge on f e r r o e l e c ~ c i ~ ' n t ~ lectric materials. higher than visible light wave) and ionic polarization z (109-101~ cyclelsec.

Compared with air-filled capacitors. ob: Bound charge ot: True charge Charge accumulation in a dielectric capacitor. 1. the spon~neous crystalsare said to possess s p o n ~ n e o ~ p o l a ~ z a ~When an electric field. dielectric capacitors can store more electric charge due the to dielectric pol~zation as shown in Fig. in general is a i~ or and tensor property). it is d e d polarization of the dielectric be can reversed by ferroelectric. relatedelectric and is to the fi the following expression: * Here.Such a o n . The physical ~uantity comspo o the electric stored charge t called area isthe elec~*c displace . 8 5 4 ~ 1 0F/m). Dependingonthe crystal structure. . ~ermanent dipole reo~en~tion follow can cyclelsec).2. "his is why fe~oelectric materials with permane for ~ c r o w a v e dielectricmaterials. the centers of the positive and negative charges maynotcoincideevenwithouttheapplicationofanexternalelectric field. .eneral View of Ferroel~~tflcs 3 is valid only when the applied electric field has a higher.theirpermittivitiesaretypicallyhighatlow signi~cantly increasingappliedelectricfield with frequency. E is the material's reiiztive E '~~ p e r ~ i t t i v(also simply called permittivity d~electric consta~t. O is the vacuum permittivity (= 8 .

mom~nts result from th .

. ion ugh lattice vibrations at a finite eigen lattice vibrations a in becomes zero. ~onsider caseinwhichthe the ~ o l ~ ~ a tis caused by all the ions being displace^ equally in a lattice. .(electric c h ~ 4) relativetothecrystal ~ e lattice. t follows at that. there exists a field local from . . any indivi~ual ion site. own schematically in Fig. 1 4 It can be shown that: (c) ossible eigen lattice vibration modes in a ~erovskite crystal.even if there is no external field.

cubic it is known that y is calledthe brentz y = 1 . k ( 0) is the ' > higher-order constant. B y rewriting Eq. thentheincrease of the elastic energyperunitvolumecan ' be expressed a : s Here.6 Chapter l \ External Field E o \ Dielectric material of the local field. constants k and k.7) using: . the elastic energy also increases.Here factor. The energyof this dipole moment (dipole-dipole coupling)is Defining N to be the number atoms per unit volume: of F u ~ e ~ o rwhen e . 8 5 4 ~ 1 0 F/m. the A ions are displaced their from nonpolar equilibrium If thedisplacement is U. form It shouldnoted in be that pyroelectrics. l ) EO is the pe~ittivity of vacuumand is equal to 8 . If the ionic ~oZarizabiZi~ "~~ of ion A is a then the dipole momentof the unit cell of this crystal is: . (1. - i This local field is thedrivingforcefortheionshift. For an isotropic system. Eloc is givenby loC= EO + X [3(pi*ri)ri $pi] / &Eo ri5. k plays an important role in determining the magnitude ' of the dipole moment. andthe f m positions.

which will be discussed in detail in Section 2. increases with decreasing temperature. barium titanate) due higher value of Lorenz factor (= a to thanfoundforother crystalstructures. then of the = 0. a shift from equilibrium the position - [k'/N3q4]) is stable.leadingtothephasetransition. Spontaneous polarization can occur more easily in perovskite y type crystal structure (e.a.Notealsothatthepolarizability is sensitive to temperat~e. and combining withl3q. the total energy can be expressed as follows (see Fig. (1.5): From this. a linear relation of the a with temperature.6).leadingto a ferroelectricphase transition. - Dipole (a) interaction (b) Elastic energy )W Welas = (~2Nq2)P2 : + (~/4N3q4)P4 (c) Total energy wtot =wdip + welas Fig.thisvaluemaybecome ! negativewithdecreasingtemperature. the urie-Weiss law is derived. the A ions are stable and remain at the -polar e~uilibriumpositions. harmonic term of the elastic energy is equal to or greater than the coefficient dipole-dipole coupling.General View of Ferroelectrics 7 where q is the electric charge.5 Energy explanation of the origin of spontaneous polarization.Supposethattheionic polarizability of ion A. one can see that if the coefficient of the. even [(W2Nq2) if (Nay2/9q2)] > 0 ~ ~ l e c t r i c at) a hightemperature. Considering a first approximation. 1. . 1.2( 1). = [(2Nay2/9&o2) oNqIL)]/ Otherwise.g.

i 0 3 exhibits ionic ~ s p l a c e m e n ~ i l l u s ~ ain~Fig.036 A and a = 3. l/$for corner atoms and 1/2 for face-centered atoms).12~10-~ + e unit cell volume is given . of = 4. C a :number of the dipole c ~ c u l by ~ a taking e product of the c ~ ~ magnitude g e total dipolemomentin a unit cell is c ~ c u ~by t ~ a summing dipoles (notice the ~actional contri i.992 A. S )(0. 1.6atroom as t culate the magnitude the spontaneouspol~zation.061x10-10m~ 4e(0. e.

036)x m3 (P1 1. 'cal coupling effect.3 x The e x ~ e r i m evalue of PS is about 0.9 v = a2c = (3. the converse p i e z ~ l e c ~ c e E i t .3) "eZectro~t~ctio~" in a gener~ is used sense to train. and hence ~ ~ u e n implies also y the ~ "converse o ~ e v e rin solid state theory.25 C/m2.992)2(~. ~~l m3 (P1.2) * e spon~neous o l ~ z a ~ is n p o defined as the pol~zation (total dipole moment) unit volume: lomz9Cm(64. that e l ~ ~ o s ~ c tisa nsec io material is a mono- .1.

When expressed as E.7 ~icroscopic explanation of the piezostriction and electrostriction. the are the and distance between two the cations (lattice parameter)remainsalmostthesame. in which force (F) = spring constant (k) x displacement (A) holds).there is nostrain. .lo) the propo~onality constant d is called thepiezoelec~c constant.in Fig.11) is the electrostrictive constant.electric fieldand the anions in the opposite direction.7(b). theamounts of extensionand contractio~of the spring nearly same.the soft theinter-ionicdistance. Ontheotherhand. ions are not connected by such idealized springs (those are cded harmonic springs. the springs possess somewhat to easyextend hardcontract. In most u ~ ~ ~ ~ o k1A i c k2A2>.producing a strainwhich is of inde~ndent the direction of the applied electric field (+E or -E). subtle but to Such ~ e ~ n c in s e the displace~ent causes a changeinthe lattice parameter.hence. precisely. andhence is an even-function of the electric field. "his is the converse ~iezoezecEr~c X = dE. - (a)P I ~ % ~ i ~ c t r i c Strain (b) E l ~ t r o s t ~ ~ t i o n . E + l C . they m (F = ~ i ~ cases.Dependingonthedirection spring expands contracts or more the than contraction expansion or of the had spring. causing a strain x (a unit cell length change) in propo~on the electric field to eflect. (1 . and can be expressed as - (1.l. that is. leading to the relative change in of theelectricfield. This is called the ezectrosEric~ve efect.

11 in Fig. ~ ~ e o u s p o l ~in tai particular polar ~ on mother stable crystal state in which are re (In terms of an u n ~ n n e d single the ions 180" aboutan axis ~ ~ nto ~ ntial double minima in Fig. in the relation d P=dX. 1.what is thenormalor phenomenonwherebycharge (Coulo~b alstress(forceperunitarea). When a large reverse bias elec s p o . relation (E2) at a high e field level.7(a) also possesses a s p o n ~ e ~ bias us dipolemoment.whatisactuallyobserved . in Section 1. which is duetothe p o l ~ ~ t i o n reorientation. (1.Note q( the same piezoelectric coefficient is used as used in E.) . iez~lectric effectabove.8 shows typical strain curves for a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate ( strictive lead magnesium niobated (PMN) based c ~ ~ c . doesnot exhibithysteresis under an electricfieldcycle.S. d Figure 1.Thetotaldipolemoment puza~~atiun. P? . Generally. 1. causesa remarkable change in also ' c men~oned to a s ~ e ~ u e Z e c ~ ass . ~ ) in PZT becomes distorted md shows large hys~resis field level.lo).Then.1. 1.as a field-indu~ strainis a com~licated combination of the three basic effects juste s c r i ~ .12) theconverse Ei6ctric field (kV/cm) Electric fieM (kV/cm) Typical curves strain for a piezoelectric zirconate titanate (W based (a) and an el~~ostrictive ma~nesium lead niobate ( " ) based ceramic (b).

9 x 105 Vlm = (1.77 X c/m2)/(3400X 8.854 X I .9 x = 3.1 ne of the lead zirconate tita~ate ( 590 X C/N with adielectriccon§tant e3 = 3400 and an elastic com~liance s33 ) calculateindu the will in~oduce tensor ~ u ~ the ectin~ su~§cript§ the at x=dE =d ~ ~ e s ~ n d e a completely clamp r 3 = x3/ s33 = 5.0 x 1Q7N/m2 /2Q X m2 3 = P3/WE = 5.

hen mechanical energy is suppli put mechanical energy). 0 x 10-l2 m 2 ~ ) ( 3 4 0 0 8.854 x x (b) is about k2 of the 10 x 105 ~ansd~ction accomp ratio F/m) (P1 -2.10) (1.13 en electric energy is supplied to piezoelectric sample and some a e l e c t r o ~ e c ~ ~ i c au ~ l ~ ~ ~ ~ a c t o r co l = (1/2)(x2/ S)/( 1/2)( = d2 / S € 0 ~ ener~y)/(~nput electrical energy).13) ion isp placement is ently the r e ~ ~ c ~ v e . .

14) where "1. (Note thattherefkactiveindex is or ion compactnesspolarized the light propo~ionaltoelectron the density electricfielddirectionwhich is pe~endicular thelightpron to ~rection.r ~ s tensor quantity and is represented geometrically by the opticali ~ i c a which is described by t ~ (1. the phase re~dation between the rY r ~ and e ~ r~ a o r waves ~ given by i ~ ~ i is ~ . n2 and n3 are theprincipalrefractiveindices. material'sdensity or compac~ess the will be axis and densified along the x and y axes. the refractive indexis treated as a symme~ical e c o n d .the change in refractive indexis given by an expansion expression: ere n(E) and n(0) (no) are the refractive indices atE and zero rijk is the p r i electrooptic c o e ~ c i e n( ~ o c ~ e l s and ~ ~ t e#e~t) c ~ ~ c i e(Kerr e#&). the rr coefficients are represented in the following matrix: 1 1 R12 R12 0 0 12 R11 R12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 so that the refractive indicatrix under an electric field applied along the z direction expressed as: x2 + y2 22 + = 1 . nt ons side ring the paraelectric phase of a perovskite crystal (m3m) as an example. leading to a decrease nz and increase an of theindices nx and ny .14 Generally.) o i en light is ~ansmitted along the y direction. (1.16) no2(1 ( n 0 ~ / 2 ) R l 2 E ~ ~ ) ~ 1 (no2/2)Rl1E22)2 no2( is - - The refkactive index change under an external electric field is explained intuitively as en an electric field Ez is applied to a cubic perovskite crystal.ththe appli~ation an of electric field. the crystal is elongated the and along z-axis contracted both along ~onse~uently.

Notice the crossed polarizerc o n ~ g ~ a t i o n . output intensity the light is modulated as a function of applied voltage according to: This is the p~nciple e ~ n d operation of a light shutterlvalve. ZT) sample a with r e c ~ g u l ~ (optical shape at 45" with respect to to the samplewith an dent intensity: IQ) is lightintensity I F z ) by ne~lectin are listed below: . where d is the electrode gap and L is the optical path length (See Fig. 1. and the voltage b the required for the first i~tensity maximum (i. Placing the crystal between crossed polarizers m g e d at a 45O angle with respect to the zaxis.9).e.. ry= E ) is an impo~ant ch~acte~stic called theha~-wave vo~ta~e.15 +l Optical phase retardation through an electrooptic crystal.

Uno2 = (P1. ( u is~ ~ by ~ respectively. the phase difference between these waves~ e ~ rY)~ i v e n ~ o ~ where .2) - or din^ (polarized dong x) waves are describedas Sincethewavelengths ofthe e x ~ a o r ~ n ~ @oldzed alongz-direction)andthe (P1.3. - + - = 1. l/nx2(Ez) .3.4) (P1. (P1. by Also you shouldnoticethattheincident light (afterpassing ~ ~ ~ of polarizer) has or^^^^ and e x ~ u o rlighticomponen~ qual mag~tudes. once at the inlet and once again at the outlet crystal surfaces a factor of (1 -Re)2.3. Taking into account the relation. and numbers waves of exist in^ in the crystal with an optical ~ a t h ~ n g tof L h L & and Llhx.7) is thevacuum wavelengt~ the of incident light.3.5) 11 >0 and R12 c0 in most cases.1) In a cubic s ~ c t u r ethe refractive index change under an external electric field along . (P 1.16 refractive index at = 0 : E no electrooptic Ken coefficients : phase retardation:ry reflectance at the crystal surfac int The initial sphericalindicatrixwillbedeformed applied electric field EZ: x2 into an ellipsoidalone under an 22 + y2 no2( 1 ( n 0 ~ / 2 ) R l 2 E ~ ~no2( 1 (no2/2)Rl 1Ez2)2 )~ The output light intensity is reduced twice.3. z-axis is expressed by the following two equations: l/nZ2(Ez) Uno2 = R1 1Ez2.3. d(l/n2) = (2/n3) dn.6) (P1.

ariat ti on inthelightintensity of an electroopticshutterwithapp . the electric field - comp~nent ex 142 .cot + ( ] sin[(2 Iho)y a t + (p p - lntensi~ A ~ ~ l i Voltage ed voltage.9) the output light fiom the ZT can be described as p in[(2n/?q))y -cot + ( ] sin[(2n/?q))y cot + (pat the - .eZ142 = (1 .the linearly polarized light incident on the electric field vectoras PLZT in terns of its (P1. (P1.10) .45O orientation.3. [sin[@ /ho)y.3.

The ~ a ~ . It is also known that the spontaneous pol~zation and the spontaneous strain xs PS follow the relationship and xs decreases almost linearly with increasing temperature. Figure 1. while E tends to diverge 1 ~ near Tc.~ e i s s ~ ~ n s and TO is the C u r i e . while in the p ~ e l ~ t r i c phase.12 schematically shows the tem~rature PS E. the output intensity through the 2nd polarizer is obtained: ( I = (112) (1 -Re)2 (Io 12) [1 cosry)2 e (sinr'y)2] 4 1 2 ) IO(1 -cosry) Chapter 1 - (P1. dependence of the spon~neous pol~zationand pe~ittivity PS decreases with increasing temperature and vanishes at the Curie temperature. . -m3m).3.BaTiQ3has a polar perovskite crystal structure.w a voltage. Also.4mm). 10 shows the output intensity I as a function of applied voltage Vz.is tant re slightly lower than the exact transition temperature Tc. the reciprocal (relative) p e ~ t t i v i t y is 1known to be linear with Curierespect to the temperature overwide range in the paraelectric phase (so-called a Weiss law).13 these phase ~ansitions. however. barium titanate undergoes a series of complicated phase transitions. Below the - ans sit ion temperature TC called the Curie t e ~ p e r ~ (about 13OoC). which is &i d the minimum voltage required to produce the ve fn as first m ~ i m u m the transmitted light intensity. (1. is given by in A typical ceramic ferroelectric is barium titanate. that is. With d ~ r e a s i n g ~ m p e rfrom e a t ~ room tempera~e. E=C/(T-To). is non-piezoel~tricand exhibits only it the el~trostrictive effect.12) Figure l. Figure illustrates successive 1.~ e i s s t e ~ p e r a ~TO.11. In the case of it exhibits the piezoelectriceffect in the ferroelectric phase.18 Thus. spontaneous ~re polarizationoccurs. ~ e tetragonal (C4v . and the crystal s ~ c becomes slightlyelongated.1. which is used here as an example to illustrate somepropertiesofferroelectrics. As showninFig.19) where C is the C u r i e . In the high temperature paraelectric phase (non phase) there is no spontaneous polarization (the symmetry is Q.

- .(a) (f) indicatethetemperaturerangesfor eachapplication. if wecanshiftsuchtemperaturerangecloserto room temperature.General View of Ferroelectrics A TC : Curie temperature Crystal structures of BaTi03.a practical materialis obtained. (a) Capacitor Te~per~ture (d) Piezoelectric ~ ~ s d u c e rElectrostrictor (e) (f) Electrooptic device Temperat~e de~ndence ofspontaneous the polarization pe~ittivityin a ferroelectricmaterial. In otherwords.

Rhombohe~~

0
"

150

-100

-so

0

50

100

150

Tempe~ture (5)

V ~ i o phase transitions in b ~s

~ titanate. ~ i

~

1

1.1

1 .

2 2

= Q I ~ P andrefkactiveindex changes An3 = - (112) no3gl 1P32 ~ ~ , andAn 1= - ( 1 ) no3g 1 2 P 3 ~ . ~ x p e ~ m e n ~ these are: Q1 1 = 12 values of
andx1

0.090 m 4 C 2 , 4 1 2

= - 0.035 m 4 C 2 ;

g1 1

compac~ess along and pe~endicular the electric field. to

m4C2. Co~paringthe absolute valuesbetween Q and g and the ratios 12 and g1 1412, discuss s i ~ l ~ t i ins terns of the crystal lattice e

= 0.136 m 4 C 2 ,

g12

= - 0.038

1)

C. Kittel: In~oductionSolid Physics edition, to State 6th

2) 3)
4)

Chap.13, John Wiley Sons, New York (1986) .Kinase, U. Ukmura and M.Kikuchi: J. Phys. .Uchino and S. Nomura: Bull. Jpn. Appl. Phy omura, L.E. Cross, R. E. Newnham and S. J . Perovskites and ItsTransducerApplications, J. Mater. Sci., 16, 569 (1981). trostrictive Actuators: Materials and Applications, Bull. Amer. No.4, 647 (1986).

Physicists usually treat a natural p~enomenonusing .a simple mathematical form: one is a linear approximation and anotheris a non-linear expansion theory. Hooke's law, the stress- strain relationand Ohm's law, the voltage current relation a m two of the most famous linear laws in physics. These linear relations are extended into matrix or tensor relations in linear algebra. Onthe other hand, the Maclaurin or Taylor series are popularly used to calculate slightly perturbed physical quanti~es aroundan equilibrium state inclu~ngnon-lineareffects.Inthischapter,wewill consider the tensor representation of physical properties (linear relation) pheno~enology ferr~lectricity(non-linear relation). of

-

Let us fiist consider the tensor for electric conductivity. The conductivity is &fined so astocorrelateanappliedelectricfieldandtheinducedcurrentdensity follows:

Since the both electric the field current density are fiist ranktensor(that is, vector) ~ u a n ~ t i ethe conductivity should have a second rank tensor representation s, (that is, with two suffixes); this is described as

(2.3)

e x e ~ ~ l iby i~iezoelectric f ~ coe~cients, providin~relatio~ a ~etween applie~ and the induced strain the field
23

are f~st-rankand second-r& tensors, respectively, the d should have a~ d - r a n tensor form represent^ as k Ei
Xjk

= L= dijk
i

(2.5)

The d tensor is composed three layersof the symme~ical of matrices.
(i = 1)

layer 1st

dl11 dl12 dl21 dl23 dl22 131 dl32

dl1 d13

2nd layer (i 2) =

d21 d212 d221 d222 d232 d231
211

d223 d23 d31 d32 d33

3rd layer (i 3) =

311 d321 d331

d312 d322 d332

Generally speaking, if two physical properties represented using tensors of prank are and q-rank, the quantity which combines the two properties linear relation is also in a c represented by a tensor of (p 4)-rank.

ryst

etry

A physical property me as^^ along two different dir~tions be equal if these must
ally is consideration sometimes two directions are c ~ s ~ l l o ~ a p ~ cequivalent. reduces the number of i n d e ~ ~ d e n t components tensor representing the above property. - r Let us again take electric conductivity as an example of a s ~ o n ~tensor. ~ If the as in an (x,y,z) coordinate system is described in an (x',y',z') system J', Jand J' are related using a unitary a t r i ~ ~ m as follows:

e electric field is ~ s € oin~the same way: ~ e d

at~~~atical~ a t o ~ ~ t Tr ~ f

or

a' Then, we can c~culate co~esponding tensor defined by the
(2.10)

012

012

01

21

a22

023

a31

032

03

all a12 a13

a21 a22 a23

a31 a32 a33

#A

unit^ matrix without ani m a g i n part has ~

the following relation:

13

a3

a32

31

For c e n ~ o - s y ~the ~ a n s f o ~ a t i matrix is written as e , on
0 -1 Q 0

Q

-1

and for rotation about a principal axis,

[The proof involves t h e r m o d y n ~ c ~ considerations tric tensor.12) When the crystal has a 2-fold axis along the zLaxis.15) . the electric conductivity should have the same tensor form in terms of the ans sf or mat ion: 0 -1 0 0 0 1 From the condition 0 -1 0 0 -1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 (2.26 or 0" ' Chapter 2 - U aikajl a k l (2. the ~ a n s f o ~ a t due~ a i o to (2.13) the following equivalencies can be derived: 031 = 0 1 3 = G32 = 0 2 3 = 0 (2.14) a sy~etric tensor beyond the sco 1 1 9 0229 0 3 3 0 0 1 2 = 021 It is very impo~ant note most to that physic^ c o n s t ~ t s form.

16) 0 0 131 dl 3 dl2 0 dl23 2nd la er 0 0 -dl23 3rd layer 311 0 d311 0 (2.r tensorhas 33 = 27 inde~ndentcomponents. .the t r a n s f o ~ a ~ o n Conside~ng tensor s y m m e ~ m and n such that the with dl23 = dl32 and d213 = d231 (each matrixof the ith layer of the d tensoris symmetrical). general ~ d . matrix is given by 1 0 0 0 0 1 27 for example.17) 0 dl31 0 0 d33 A. Since dijk is a ~ s y m m e ~ i c ~ j and k some ofthecoefficientscanbeeliminated.~ t ~ e r n ~ t i c ~ ~ o Ferro~lectrics Tre~trnentf W e n thecrystalhasa4-foldaxisalongz-axis.leaving18 in independent dijk coefficients. we can obtain: d212 = dl22 dl 11 = d222 = d l 12 = dl21 = d211= d221= = d33 1 d313= d l 33 = d332 = d323 = d233 = = d312 = d321= 0 d333 = 0 d311 =d322 d113=d131=d223=d232 dl23 =dl32 -d213 = -d231 = Then we getthe d tensor as follows: 1st lay (2. this facilitates the use of matrix notation.

d21 = by a single suffix 1 to 6 in matrix notation. fore.wemake ts ~otation the s ~ com~onents. 3. as follows: S of these new symbols themay (2. .6) is rewritten as: e last twosuffixesinthetensornotation co~es~ond to ~ o ~ ~ o n e n eref. for ~ n i (i = I. 6) . 2.. j : = 1.28 the num~er suffixes as of .. forconsistency.for instance. 2. or .

dij's not of a second-rank tensor.22) The marix notation vantage compactness has of over makes it easy displ to c ~ ~ c i on n ~ ea plane di remem~~red in sp that ir the do form. An example of a piezoelectric matrix for the point group 4 is written as Q Q 0 Q 15 -dl4 0 0 ' (2.electrics (2. and and ijkl the tensors. 1 6 5 (2. .24) coe and ere. Using a similar reduction of the notation for the elec~ostrictive ~ f ~ ~ i e n ~ c we get the following equatio~ ~o~esponding (2. d coef~cients. diH and giM are calledpiezo the ectric electrostrictive respectively.21) onents.24): to Eq. the(1/2)s are ~ n n e c e s s ~ .23) d33 d31 d31 0 0 theoretical ~ e a ~ e of tthe pheno~enonof n strain xkl is expressed in terms the electric of (2.

Calculate the induced strainx5 (= 2x3 1).. Since x5 = 2x31 = tan 8 = 8 and 1' = IC /l80 rad..017.1) d andforall crys~lo~ap~c point Suppose thata shear stressis applied to a square crystal and the crystal deformed as is illus~ated Fig.30 hapter 11 21 M24 M14 Tables2. 2.1and2.2summarizethematrices groups. in F F . x5 = 0. .1. 21 Shear stress andstrain c o n ~ ~ u r a ~ o n .

. .. .at~~matica~ Tr~atm0ntf F 0 r r o 0 ~ ~ ~ c s o 31 wit p u p 1 T~c~ic .. ..

. * . .3 (~ontinued)~ i e z o e l e c ~ c c o e f ~ c im n t e . . . . .

. . * b t . . . . .Electro~t~ctive coe~ficie~t X.

I . I ) . .432. . . . Point group 23. . I * . * Chapter 2 . m3 Point group 43m. . * I .34 continue^) Electrostrictive coefficient m a ~ x . . m 3 ~ .

we can obtain the transformed stress r~presen~tion: A.l) The off-diagonal componentsX13 and X31 have the same magnitude and represent X.2). When we take the p~me-coordinates illustrated in Fig. that Note a shear stress is equivalent to a combination of .and verify that the above-stressis equivalent toa pure shear stress in the original (non-prime) coordinates.x. respectively (Fig. X to a cube of material Solution Using 8 = 45O.a t ~ e ~ ~ t iTreat~ent Ferroelectrics cal of 35 For acube-sha~d specimen.2. 2. 2.2. a pure shear stress. the stress tensoris represented as as 0 0 0 Using the transformation matrixA calculate Ax-A"~.A-~= 0 0 X $ - 0 0 0 X 0 0 (P2. Application of a pair of stresses X and . tensile s a s s X and compressive stresssimultaneously along the (1 0 1) and (1 0 1) axes.

3 extensional and c o n ~ a c t i o n ~ stresses. along an extensio~alstress a 0 0 0 0 31 0 0 d33 0 0 dl5 d3 l 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 dl5 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 is t r a ~ s ~ o into d ~e . an n l s i ~ i diagonal ty l ~ e ng. withoutthe co~trac~on the 3' d ~ e c ~ o n .

Therelation 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 S alculatetheinduced n underanelectricfie1 §olution .is induced under an ate exhibits a cubic crystal symne does not show ~ i e ~ o e l ~ t r i c iHo. ty a~~lied electricfield.

Note that the series . volume~c strain (AVfV)given by It is importanttonotethatthe X[lll]//+ 2 X[lll]l= (M11 + 2M12) E[111I2 (P2.4. on the temperature.1 l(b) shows the distortion schematically. does not contain terms in odd powers of P because the fiee energy of the crystal will not with changepolarization reversal (P -P).6) is independentof the applied field direction. the strain induced 1 is given by along the [ 1 l] direction. The phenomenological fo~ulationshould applied the be for whole temperature range which over the material is in the paraelectric and ferroelectric states. 2. x[ 1 1 1 U. ( 1 1 6 ) ~ + + P6 (2. X[I 1 l]// Z xij (1/43)(1/43) = . the strain induced perpendicular to the[ 1 l] direction. = [X 1 + x2 + x3 + 2 ( ~ 4 + x512 + xd2)]/? 2 = (M11 2M12 + E[111I2/3* M441 (P2. Thestrain x indud alonganarbitrary direction is given by x = I X"J I* I* : 1 1J (P2.4.3) where li is a direction cosine with respect to the i axis.p y depend. ~~111111.3(b).4. ( 1) ~ a n ~ Theory of the a u Phase Transition A t h e r m o d y n ~ theory explaining the behavior of a ferroelectric crystal can be c~ obtained by considering the formof the expansion of the free energy as a ~ n c t i o n of thepolarization P. Weassumethatthe Landau frwj energy F inonedimension is represented formally a : s F(P.4) On the other hand.38 Chapter 2 Thedistortion is illustratedin Fig.T) = (112)a P2 + (114)p P4. "herefore. m-> . in general. is 1 calculated in a similar fashion as Figure 2.26) The coefficients a.

For T the Landau free energy is obtained at: C To theminimum of (2. zero atthis temperature. It is notable that thepermittivitybecomesinfiniteatthetransitiontemperature.32) Figure 2. (2. The polarization for zero applied field is obtained from [(T -To)/&() C]PS + p Ps3 = 0 so that either PS = 0 or Ps2 = (To T)/p EO C. m.Triglycinesulphate is an example of a ferroelectric exhibiting the second-order transition. Refer to the discussion in Section 1. theuniquesolution PS = 0 is obtained. y is often neglected because nothing special When p is term.27) To obtaintheferroelectricstate.3 1) .28) where C is taken as a positive constant called the Curie-Weiss constant and To is c equal to or lower than the actual transition temperature T (Curie tempera~e).~at~ematical Treatment of Ferroelectrics The equilibrium polarization in an electric fieldE satisfies the condition: (2.the coescient of thetermmustbenegativefor thepolarizedstatetobe stable. (2.27) as is by this (2. c positive.30) PS L= ZJ(T0 -T)/(p Q C).(2. The temperaturedependence of a is relatedon amicroscopicleveltothetemperature dependence of theionicpolarizabilitycoupledwiththermalexpansion and other effects of a n h ~ o n ilattice interactions. whileintheparaelectricstate it mustbepositive passing through zero at some temperature To (Curie-Weiss temperature): 39 cx = (T -TO)/@C (2.29) - For T >To. this is called a The relative permittivity is calculated a : E s )= &()(a 3p P2) + Then.4(a) showsthevariations of PS and E withtemperature.2. c The phase transition occurs at T = To and thepolarizationgoescontinuouslyto second-ordertra~si~ion.

First-order ~ a n s i ~ o n (2. 2. The equilib~um condition E = for p is negative in Eq.5. shows a maximum and a discon~nuity the of . 2.34).e.. the transition becomes first (2.) ' c Te~~eratur~ 0) hase transitions in a ferroelectric: (a) second-order and (b) first-order.40 P e ~ t t i v iE ~ t Pe~ittivity E (Curie Temp.36) ote the temperature that Curie TC is higher the lightly than C To.26) and y is .35) TC = To + (3/16)(p2 Q C1 y) (~. In thecase of p > 0. (2. es are plotted for the second. the p exhibits a finite maximum at TC for a ~ ~ s t -t r ~ ~ s ~ t[Fig. or: i.33) leads to either PS = 0 or Eiq. -TO)/&OC] + (112) p fore: (2.34) e transition temperat~e is obtained from thecondi~on the Tc that the paraelectric and ferroelectric phases are equal: F = 0.and firs resin Fig. . (2.4(b) o r ~ i io~ tana ate is an example of a ferroelectric undergoes a ~rst-order that phase ~ a n s i t i o ~ . te~perature andthat a discrete jump of appearsat Tc. Also. ositive.) (a) Tc Te~perature (Curie Temp.

The potential ~ i n i m are o b t ~ n e a (P2. (b) phase Veri@thedifferencebetweentheCurie by: and C ~ i e . the free energy at the non-zero pol~zation must be to zero (F = 0). is a = (T .TQ)/EQ C. P At the Curie temperature.5. Thus we o b t ~ n another condition: F = (112)~~ + (1/4)p P2 + (1/6)y P6 = 0 .1) There are generally three minima including = 0 (F = 0).41 Free Energy P Freeenergycurvesplotted€orthesecond-(a)andfirst-order ans sit ions at various temperatures. .~ e itempera~res expressed ss as TC = TQ+ (3/16)(p2 EO €or a €iist-order phase~ ~ s i ~ o n the Landau free energy expanded as where .

stress and temperat~e.38) and (2. ) (P2.4) .5. are called the (a= (T-TO)/EO ) C (2.5. (P2.3) (P2.42 Chapter 2 Equations (P25 and (P2.X. a + (1/2) p P2 + (113) y $= 0 g (P2.5. respectively.41) (2. (2. and S and elastic compliance and the electrostrictivecoefficient. we obtain TC = To + (3/16)(p2 C/ y .38) X This leads to Eqs. (2.40) (2.thepi and ectric coupling term and the only electrostrictive coupling term is introduced. Eliminating the P terms from these two equations. electrostrictioninferroelectricswereformulatedinthe 1950s byDevonshire2) a d n aye3) Let usassumethatthe elastic Gibbs energyshould be expandedin a onedimensional form: X.3) is validforalltemperaturesbelow Tc.6) ~ e n o m e n o ~ o ofy E~ectrostrictio ~ In a ferroelectric whose prototype phase (high temperat~eparaelectric phase) is centrosy~etric non-piezoelectric.(P2.respectively. the following equations are derived: E=aP+pP3+yP5 X = QP2 l/EO&=a+3pP2+5yP4 (2. -(aGl/aX)= SX+ Q (2.5.37) . but Q.5.39) en the external stress is zero.39).4) is only valid at T = Tc.5. T are the polarization.2) are reduced for non-zero polarizations to 1) a+pp2+yP4=0.42) .

46) xs d s where we define the spontaneous strain and the piezoelectric constant a : Spontaneous strain: Piezoelectric constant: xs = QPs2 d = 2 EO E QPs (2. the inverse permittivity changed is in proportion to p: I/EOE - = a + 3 p p2 + 5 y Pc + 2 ~ p (Ferroelectricstate) a + 2Qp = (T . (i) Paraelectric phase:PS = 0 or P = Q E E (under small E) Permittivity: E = C/(T -To) (Curie-Weiss law) (2.48) piezoelectricity equivalent the that is to electrostrictive We by see phenomenon biasedby the spontaneous polarization.44) The previously mentioned electrostrictive coefficient in Eq.To + 2Q~Cp)/(&oC) (Paraelectric state) (2.24) is related to the M electrostrictive Q coefficient through M = Q &02e2 (ii) Ferroelectric phase: Ps2= (d X (2. When a hydrostatic pressurep (X = p) is applied.e.6. two different states are derived.47) (2.49) To or the Therefore. 2.p)/2y.(2. (2.48) Eq. Q h 0). P = 0 and P2= (4 p2-4ay . pressure the dependence the of Curie-Weiss temperature transition temperature T c is derived as follows: In general.43) Electrostriction: x = Q &02e2E2 (2.45) p2-4ay .~athe~atica~ Treat~entf Ferroelectrics o 43 ( E If the external electric field is equal to zero= 0). The temperature dependences of are the spontaneous strain and the piezoelectric constant plotted in Fig. the ferroelectric Curie temperature is deaeaxd with increasing hydros~tic pressure(i. .p)/2y or P = PS + EO& E (under small E) = Q(Ps + EO E E)2 = QPs2 + 2 EO E QPsE + Q &02e2E2 (2.

1) S = d33Q EO €3 Q33 = 3 2 0 ~ 1 0 .1 1 m4c-2 Let us use the relation: (P2.44 Temperat~e dependence of the spontaneous strain a d the p i e ~ o e l ~ t r i c n constant. spontaneous strain and piezoelectric constant as a function te~perature.X.spont~eous pol~ization. 8 ~ 4 ~ 1 0[ l ~ / = 0 2 [c/mZ] .Estimate the spontaneousp o l ~ z a t i o n = 0.1) where only the coefficient a is dependent on temperature. a = (T To)/&oC.7.1 In the case of a second-order phase transition.T)= (1/2)a P2 + (1/4)p . (=€3) = 800 and 33 at room te~perature. * (P2.(112)s x2 Q P2 x . arium titanate d33 = 320 x has C N . Obtain the dielectric constant. of - .~ ~ [ C N ]x{82.6. the elastic Gibbs energy is expanded in a one-di~ensional form as follows: G1 (P.

7.e. o ~ a e l ~ c t rphase --T >T -ic (P2.4 b ch~acte~stic e~ua~ons: e e et tin^ E = 0 i~itiallywe ob n the follow in^ two stable states:Ps2 = 0 or .9) iezoel~tric cons~nt is obtained as o far we discuss have the electric field ~ d u strains. i. Let us consider here the CO . piezoelec~c strain c ~ rse ~ ~ e ~ ~~ ~ e c e * c t ~ c ~ ~x t d = .

converse ~:lectrostrictive The effect.52) This is the co~verse elecFrost~c~ve e+ecF.46 A 1k0 E)= 2QX ( (2. T ( U r \ \ U l x lo-2 N n " E 0 \ " E W 1 -X50 100 ~ern~ra~re ("c) 50 0 50 100 . the stress ~ ~ of the npe~ittivity.2 of apter er ? cs . n) 3)d c o n s ~ t &om the ~eld-induced s strain in the ferroelectric phase or fkom piezoelectric resonance.7 Temperature dependence of the electrostrictivecon st^^ Q33 and . response The toabout 1 in the low p i e z ~ l e c ~will be discuss^ in Section 7. of the top and bottom plates have opposite signs for uniaxial S ure change.i n d ustrain in thep~aelectric c~ phase. so far. Several expressions for the electrostrictive coe~cient have given been From the data obtained by independent experimen~ methods such as eous pol~zation s p o n ~ n ~ strain (x-ray and ~us ~ ~ c t i oin the ferroelectric phase. the i ~ 1)electric ~ e l d . 4) ~ressure dependence of ~ e ~ i tin~ vparaelectric phase.^) A b i m o ~ h s ~ c t u r e subtracts which the static capac of two electric provide superior stress sensitivity andtem~rature ~ b i l i The c s ~.i n ~ stress in ~ sensor^.

Such crystals are called anti-polar crystals. Such crystals are called ~ ? ~ e ~ ~ o e ~ e c ? ~ c ~ . the crystal returns to its anti-polar state. Figure 2. piezoelectricity a p ~ a r s . and hence. In a paraelectric E relation is linear. is almost temperature (1) ~ntife~roe~ectrics The previous sections dealt with the case in which the directions the spontaneous of dipoles are parallel to each other in a crystal (polar crystal). in ase. polar t and antipolar materials. There are cases in which antiparallel orientation lowers the dipole-dipole interaction energy.9 showstherelationshipbetween(appliedelectricfield)and and in paraelectric. This is called double ~ a ~ stripe checker type board typ Schematic ~ a n g e m e nof the spontaneous dipoles in non-polar.8 shows orientation the of the spontaneo~s electric dipoles in an anti-polar state in comparison with a non-polar and a polar ikee energy of an antipolar state does not state. no spontaneous polarization can ~curve. the application of an external electric field or mechanical stress cause a transition the dipole orientation to a parallel may of u state. where the differ appreciatively from that of a polar state. Figure 2. low induced polarization is propo~onal t crystal becomes ferroelectric p o l ~ z a t i o n removal hysteresis shows electric of the field. ferroelectric antiferroelectric phases. . Figure 2. In an anti-polar crystal. in a ferroelectric phase there appears a hys ans sit ion of thespontaneouspolarizationbetweenthepositive negative directions. is no significant anomaly in the electrostrictive coefiicient Q through the tem range the in whichparaelectric to ferroelectric transition phase occurs Q inde~ndent. ~ ~ e be observed as a whole.athe~atical r ~ a t ~ e oftFerroelectrics T n 47 nearly equal values ofQ were obtained. electric the anti anat field.7 shows the temperature dependence the perovskite of the electrostrictive coefflcients Q33 and Q31 for complex ~ b ( ~ g i / 3 ~ b 2 / 3 )whose Curie tempera~re near O * C ~ ) It is seen that there is 03.

" It treatsthe coordinat~as one~mensional. = Pb represents the ferroelectric phase. the strains from the two sublattices are QPa2 and QPb2. ignoring the coupling between the two sublattices. For the electrostrictive effect. respectively (assuming equal electrostrictiveconstants Q forbothsublattices).ferroelectric and antiferroelectric materials.Pb.Thetotalstrain of thecrystal becomes (2.7) simplestmodel for ~ t i f e ~ ~ l ~ t r i c e is the"one-dimensionaltwo-sublatticemodel.48 Polarization Polarization (a) Paraelectric (b) Ferroelectric ' field (c)Antiferroelectric Polarizationvs. since ~tiferroelec~city originates from s~blattices.it is appropriateconsider sublattice to the the coupling between the coupli~g also for the .electricfieldhysteresiscurvesinparaelectric.53) owever. We willdiscussheretheintroductionofelectrosctivecouplingin energy expression for ~tife~oelec~ics. and a superlattice (twice unit the lattice) is formed two from neighbor in^ sublattices each having a sublattice polarization Pa and The state Pa Q. the antiferroelectric phase.6.. while Pa = .

The coupling term for the elec~ostriction the following form: 49 which in hy~ostaticpressure p is employed. a volume contraction is observed at the Nee1 point. This is quite different from f e ~ ~ l ~ t r i c s .theinducedvolumechangeintheparaelectricphasecanberelated induced ferroelectricpol~zation the following formula: by to the Below the phaseans sit ion temperature (this temperature forantife~~lectricscalled is ~ e e ~ e ~ ~ e the spontaneous volume strain and the o n ~ e o uantiferr~lectric Z r ~ ~ ~ r e ) sp s pol~zation relatedas are (2. the if positive or negative inter-sublattice coupling is s~onger than the coupling.at~emati~al ~ a t m ~ ~ t Tr of electrostrictive effect. C t.10 illustrates which always a show volume expansionthe at thespontaneous strai~s acrystal scheme tic all^ in 0. Qh and are the electrostrictive constants. en PaandPbare in the parallel con~~uration (ferroelectric phase). the actsincrease to the strain .56) Hence. that is. the spontaneous volume strain can dependingvalue on the of > l).60) Even if the perovskite cystal shows Qh 0. Introducing the the followin transfo~ationsPF = (Pa Pb)/2 and PA = (Pa Pb)/2leadsto expression: - The dielectric and elasticu a t i o n of state followas ~ s + l@' PF2PA2 + 5" PA4] (l+~)p+pPF2+3pPA2+y (2. and XT is the i s o t h e ~ a l compressibility. Figure 2.

g4Tio. we assume that the magnitudes of Pa and pb do not change drastically through the phase transition.ggNbo.the term acts to decrease the strain.6sno.8) Figure 2. a- This phenomenological theory explains the well experimental results the for ~tiferroelectric perovskite crystal PbZr03 and others. (for .11 shows the strain in the antiferroelectric ceramic Pbo. whenthey are inthe anti-par~lelconfig~ation(antife~oelctricphase). (a) Ferroelectric Arran~e~ent X = Q (I +Q) (Pa + Pb)2/4 x =QPa2 Intuitive e~planationof the sublattice coupling respect with to electros~ction S2 >0).o2[(Zro.g8o3 as a function of an applied electric field91 The large change in the strain associated with the field-induced transition from themtiferrwlectric to ferroelectric phase canbe estimated to be Here.o6]0.4)o.50 Chapter 2 xs.

This consideration these directions two reduces the numberof the independent tensor components representing the above property.> -first-order phase~ n s i t i o n x = Q PS2 spontaneous strain + 2 Q &Q& PS E piezos~ction electros~ction + Q Y ) & E2 2 2 .at~e~atical Treat~ent of Ferroelectrics 51 Antiferroelectricphase I (kV /m) 1 Field induced strain in a P b ( ~ . of diffe~nt directionsmustbeequal if a e c~s~lographically r equivalent. S n ) ~ 3 a n t i f e ~ o e l e c ~ c . Tensor representation: when two physical properties are represented using tensors of p-rank and q-rank.taken as positive for smaller angle. based 1. the quanti~ which combines the two properties in a linear relation is also represented by a tensor (p + 9)-rank. A physicalpropertymeasuredalongtwo 3.> -second-order transition phase eQ . 2. Phenomenology: (M) >Q . 4. Shear strain: x5 = 2 x31 = 2 Qb.

3 0 0 0 0 0 ' 0 0 0 . of the stable sublattice ~olariza~on con jump in strain associate^ i n d ~ by ~ external el c an '1 e room tem~erature form of ~u~~belon at the ~ i e z o ~ l em ~ c c 11 -dl1 0 0 0 0 0 atthe ~ i e z ~ l ~ t r i c must be in tensor ~ o u n %axis the ~ a d for a 1~0'rotation transformation matrices are 0 -1 0 .constant is insensi 7 . In ~ t i f e ~ o e l e c ~consid~ratio~ ~ublat~ce cs.3 2.

3 int t 22 1 31 331 .

In a fmt-orderphasetransition. a33 = 1 : a22 Continuingthe c~culations d123. d23 1. 1 1/3/2. To)/&oC. a12 = 1/3/2.p)/2y and (T.a21 = . d331. a 120° rotation is considered such that a1 = -112. PS satisfies the following ~ u a t i o n the in temperature rangeof T <Tc: a + p PS2 + yPs4 = 0 .2 In the case of a first-order transition. d312. Ps2 = (4p2. for 2.4ay .to)/^ C = (3/16)(p2/y .54 Chapter Next. Calculate the inverse pe~ittivity the vicinity of the Curie tem~rature.5.(Tc-T)kO ) . d212.3 p ( a+ =-4a-2PPs2 Since a = (T . verify that the slope ((l/e)/ilT) and just below Tc is 8 times larger than the slopejust above Tc. + 3 g PS2 + 5 y PS4 . we can for obtain all the necessary e~uations deriving the final matrix form. phase the h d a u free energy is in expanded as in Example Problem 2. The pe~ittivity given by is l/&O& = a Thus. l / € = ) € 3 p PS2 + 5 ( a . = -112.

20. 729 (1951) K.T)<c 1. E. p. Newnham and S. L. Nomura: Jpn. J. Phys. Phys.p PS2 C l = -4 [(3/16)(p2/ y -(Tc) Considering (Tc . Cross. . . Study Committee on Barium Titanate. E. 1 C.24-2. Appl.F. K. Nye:PhysicalProperties of Crystals. Phys.Suppl. Kay: Rep.Appl. Uchino. (1981) K. Newnham: Jpn. 82. Rev. L367 (1 981). 43.460(1985) . Uchino:Jpn. J.J.E. Phys. J. E. K. obtain theappro~imation this equation. 85 (1954) H. Uchino: Roc. L. F. Jang and R. Appl. J. F. Nomura. J Appl. 230 (1955) K. of J.Phys. Cross. Newham: Jpn. . Kuwata. S. Phys. L367 K. L. S. 17. 3. Phys.p. Nomura.123. Kittel: Phys. 3’71(1982) K.Uchino.London. E. Uchino: Solid State Phys. S. chino. Nomura: J. S. (1981).a t ~ ~ ~ a r e ~ct ~ e~ tFerroe~ectrics Tt i of n we can obtain l/€()& 4 a 2 = 55 - .140(1972) A.OxfordUniversityPress. Prog. Cross. Uchino and S. J. E. Jang and R. Appl. Devonshire: Adv.

poaable.le communication S such as cordles§. you know what kind of e popular worldwi components are used in a cellular phone? ~ e r ~~apacitor§ i c icrowave Oscillators ~ e rFiltersc ~ .

Vol. we nee as consider material fabrication processes. 11. N. u ~ - ornstein. chemical prepara~on methods .x ) y ~ x ' y ~P6 + ] f XSEj] x2-[(l -X)QA f X 57 .1 shows the composition dependence of the permittivity and mechanical coupling factor kp the E T system. Somenecessarybasicknowledgesuch as particle size effectanddomain con~ibution fe~oelec~icity also be discussed in this chapter. can estimated a be by pheno~~nolo~ical S elastic energy of a solid solution is assumed to be a linear bs elastic energyof each component: - - .are uti ceramic powders ensure i reproducibi~ty the of thedevices.: Landolt Verlag.T) (1/2)[( -X)aA + X = 1 + (1/6)[(1 -(1/2)[( 1-X)SA 3 P2 + (1/4)[(1 -x ) g + xp ~ .') for If we do not havethis sort of comprehensive experimental data.U. (1979).After the material design such solid solution compositions and dopants. Their piezoelectric coefficients ares in the international data book: ellwege et al. fabrication The of fe~~lectric devices generally involves S: preparation of the ceramic powders and sintering of the shaped s ~ c t u r e s . Group 111. to will utilized for piezoelectric applications. physical properties of a solid solution x) A x B. Sp~ngerthe electro- Figure 3.Populardevicedesignsincludemultilayers films. how can we estimate the values for the solid solutions? In general.

l. on PbTiOa 100 60 0 80 20 40 Compos ition GO100 40 [mol %) 20 80 0 0 Pb~rO~ coupling factor kp in the PZT system.6 4. c ~ o m ~ h coupling. pie2 C e l ~ .2. ~ ~ i t t i v i t y .i~~ ~ e s en~ 3 ) 3.P b T i 0F . ~ ~ f ~ c i efor t s n ans sit ion tempe " " " " ~~nstants " " " " " " " " " " 130 4.solution reasonable provides fmt-order es~ates of e spontaneous pol~zation and strain.4 -0. Abe et al.058 .7 10.3 6. . reported a good example of theo~tical ~ical fitting to ~ x p e ~ m results for the solid solution P b ~ Z n i ~ N b ~ 3 ) 0 3 .8 2.86 1.3 5 show these fittings calculated the basis of the data presented in Table 3.

PZN 3.l S m Q: LLJ 4.3 4.2 0 4 0.6 0.2 f- 3 4.2.9 3'80 3 4.3 4.0 U V Fz 0. X-" (a1 (b) .nd Fa~~cation Proc 200 l 00 l0 01 0 0 -1000 PZN 0.0 3.t Q Q= 4.2 PT " 10 0 0 PZN 0l .8 X t- 3.9 Q J PT 10 . calculated and (b) e x ~ e ~ m e n (a) 4.1 X- 0.8 PT X (0) . 4 .

f. r c .rnbo.

~ ~ f i c i ~ is c y ~ o ~ ~ c e ni n ov e stal ~ e ~ c i e n cin ~ s i .b ~ titanate m ~ in 3.6(a)J.

(soft piezoe i ~ ~ tur ~ i n and thk xmm.25) Q3 . ~ i m u m s ~ a i nhysteresis and ceramics. and (b) dopant effecton actuator p ~ ~ e t e r s .(a) ~ e ~ n i of o n r n ~ i m u ~ ~ the strain and the degreeof hysteresis. . ~ hyste~sis calcula~d is fkom the s t r ~ n devia~on Ax athalf of the m ~ i m u melectricfield (1 10 9 8 opant effect onthefield-inducedstrain.el helps us to sTio.

Although acc indesigning ~tuator ceramicsusedforpositioner is very n e c ~ for~ "hard" s making piezocerami p~icularly suitableforultrasonicmotorapplications.theacceptordopingcauses through the easyreorien~tion deficiency.Thesedopant at~ibuted the ~ o ~ a i n eflect. i. a low coercive field. density) charge (p: (P3. but also a large aging due to depoling. Thus. leading to of "hard' ch~acte~stics. -~~ the hysteresis and the coercive field. donor the doping is not effective very for domain pinning. the stability of the domain walls. The "hard" piezoelectric is defined for EC 3 1 k~/mm. +3 suppress .From Gauss's law. introduce oxygen deficiencies and in the case of donor b5+. e.1. oreover. it is notewo~hy lead-con~ning that ceramics such as type se~conductors to Pb evaporation during sintering. Consider the transient state of a 180° domain reversal. movable headhas the polarization configura~on is stabilized.Donorexhibit large piezoelectric d constants.relate^ dipoles. due to doping provides rather "soft"~haracteristics the piezoceramics. is by Explain dopant the effects on the "soft"and"hard" characte~s~cs of piezoelectricceramics. since theion can not easily to hop an djacent A-site vacancy due to the close oxygen surroundings. which reveals a domain W front with a head-to-headpolar~zation config~ation. l e ~ i n g a high coercive field. ic cceptor ions. while the "soft" one is for EC cc 1 kWmm. Pbdeficiency is intr~uced.1) thedomainwallfrontisveryunstablein a highlyinsulating materi~. However.63 On the c o n t r ~the ~ c e p t o rionswith a smallvalence +l . which is definedas a field for reorienting the pol~zation direction. leadingto quick ~isap~arancethis domain wall. On contrary. to pinning The coercive electric field of a ferroelectric material. let usconsiderthemovablechargesduetothe c ~ s t a l l o ~ a p hdeficiencies. the "soft" and "hard" characteristics are a reflection of the coercive field E .in (. effect . such as Fe3+. other words. First. to xt. affiected dopants. if the of material charges. since donor doping cancompensatetheoriginalacceptortypedeficiencies.

6) 40 30 20 10 0 0. .05 0.1 0.02 0.the ince meas~ement ~ h n i ~ toe t u dete vi~ra~on levels was not e s ~ ~ l i s h e d previous ~ a c t e ~ s at c s high ~ t vi~ration levels with a constant c u ~ e ncircuit.01 0.

nn i 0 ration velocity v for 100 v i ~ r a ~ ovelocity for un n .

00 .% o f~ e 3 + .10 shows mechanical Q versus fraction mole of 29 (x) at effective S and 0. the i n ~ n s i c dielectric loss con~butionsigni~cantly increases.5 m/s for ~b(29xTi1-x)~3 with doped 2.1 vibration velocities v In m e c h ~ c aQ with l increase in vibration level is at.related the to dielectric loss. the worst material at a small vibration lev ation level.We can conclude heat that generation is caused primarily by dielec~closs (i.Figure 3.o ~ibration velocity ~ ~ n of d resistances the ~ n ~ equivalent electric circuit for piezoelectric component. resonance loss at small a vibration velocity is m ~ n l y e ~ bytheintrinsic d ~ n ~ mechanic^ loss. RA(directly me~sured) 100 =&+Flm 30 10 tan 30 . while .3 (2) for the e~uivalent circuit. a .1 1 h i g h l i ~ h ~ key material ated factors ~fecting the heat piezoelec~c material. 8 )m e ~nimum around the rhombohedral-tetragonal~ o ~ ~ o t r o ~ i c words. Figure 3. Vibration Velocity v0 ( d s ) 1. changes signi~cantlyaround a certain critical vibration velocity. P-E fer to Chapter 7.e.3 0. Section 7. The resistances and Rm inthe e ~ ~ i v ~ Z e ~ separatelyplottedas a function of vibrationvelocity?)Note ted to the mechanical loss.1 03 . and data obtained from an conventional not relevant to high power materials.. the Thus. is insensitive to the average vibration velocity. and with incre~ing vibration velocity.

preparation of the ceramic powders and sintering of the sh s~ct~es. Since the oxide-mi~ng results in dif~culties in achieving microscopic compositional unifo~ have a l employed in chemical methods ( c ~ ~ r e c ~ i t a ~ o ~ . because high purity BaO is expensive and chemically less reactive. Theusualmethod is the o x i ~ e . been~ x i ~ ) more recently ceramic devices. To suppress this second phase 0 several mol'9 excess PbO doped in the final sintering stage is effective.l l) Swartz. MgO.x ) 0 3 powders. 21-02 and Ti02 areweighedinan approp~a~ proportion. Then the sample is crushed and milled into fine ~ powders. et al. The drawbacks here are that the milling process does not efficiently give particles of size less than 1 pm. mixed. Then PbO is added to the columbite.~si~nin~ and Fa~~cation Fe~oelec~c devices are typically f a b ~ c ar m p o l y c ~ s ~ l l i nceramics. this In section. In general. However.~ ~ i ~ g t ein ~ ~ i ~ chemical composition is made by firing raw oxide crushing them into fine powders.10) k t us consider the preparation of P b ( ~ x T i l . The raw powders PbQ. This f~ o e involves two steps. and the sample is calcined at 800 900°C. .processesfor f a b ~ c a ~ n g leadzirconate titan~te(PZT) and lead magnesiumniobate ceramics are reviewed.12) They demons~atedthat the perfect perovskite phase can be obtained by the reaction tg 6 starting fromc o Z u ~ ~ i~ e m 2 0 and PbO: For PMN-PT. - . - - BaO in principle from qui-molar quantities of raw powders of and 7302. MgO. andcalcinedat around 800 9 0 0 " for 1 2 hours. Nb2Q5 andTi02 are mixed and fired at 1000°C initially. BaCO3 powderis en^ instead of BaQ. reported a unique method taking account of the chemical reaction process. Several mol % excess MgOis particularly effective in obtaining the perfect perovskite phase. and that the contaminationof the sample by milling mdia is unavoidable. re article size dis~butionand compositional u n i f o ~ i t yare the key factorstobecontrolin the rawpowder in ordertorealize reproducibi~tyofthe c acte~stics. this simple process generates a second phase ~ y r o c ~ l o r e ) in addition to the perovskite phase. A similar calcination prmess starting from PbQ.m205 and Ti02 can beused for Pb[(Mg1/3Nb2/3)1-xTix]03.

.

+ .

An example is found in the mechanical strength: mechanical fracture in occurs at the grainb o u n ( i ~ ~ e rtype).. because the driving forceof sintering is related to the surface energy of the particles. the necessary diffision length of the atoms for sintering becomes shorter. "his results in high density ceramics. itis well recognized that the raw powder ch~acte~stics strongly affect the manufact~ngconditions the product and final characteristics. Notice that the physical propertiesof the sintered body on the property of each fine crystalline particle.70 Chapter 3 ) inter in^ Process After being shaped into a desired shape.. 3. the grains grow and the grain shape also changes s i g n i ~ c ~ t. . which accelerates pore diffusion. but also on the the pores.12 3 . Diffusion Sintered Body Molded Schematic diagram of sintering process. the p o l y c r y s ~ ~ n e material shows higher mechanical strength. On the ~ ~ ~ r ~ g ~ ~ ~ c e r ~ bodies occ~ionally c contrary. the agglomerated powder body is fired at a hightemperature(lessthanthemeltingtemperature).Accelerated ~ f ~ s i o the ofn constituent atoms onthe fineparticlesurfacesduetothesurfaceenergy(surface tension) promotes crystal bonding at the contict interface between the two adjacent particles provides and sufficient mechanical strength to ceramic the without This firingprocess is called signi~cant distortionfromthe inital moldedshape. Moreover. for fine powders. when the crystal itself has a strong cleavage character.general. y l However. with increased specific surface area). primarily e l i ~ n a t e s pores and increases the ceramic density (see Fig. During sintering. In the sintering is acceleratedwithdecreasingparticle size of therawpowder (i.e. " ~ i ~ ~ e r which " i ~ g .12).

l p Figure 3. . = 2. p = 3. and for ~~~1 grain growth. es ongraingrowth.17) Figure g 3.14 shows a good linear relation between the sintering period and the square of the grain size.esigning andF a ~ ~ c a t i o n Processes 71 wth inthe PLZT ceramics 9/65/35 ceramics sinteredfor (a) 1 hour and (b) 16 hours.13 showsthemicrophotographs of a PLZT 9/65/35surfacesinteredat 1200°C for 1 and 16 hours. ~ e f e 16) n rex ~ is ~ ingrelationshipbetweenthegrain size andthe sinte~ng In the case of n ~ gruin~growt~. s ~ i n from the oxalic acid ethanol method.

( +l *( l-x) +3*x 1-y) +5y = +6 2x+3y=3 ( O < X < l .%) is very e f f ~ ~ in e u ~ ~ r e s s i n ~ v s la + a e Nb5+ make a n d the A-site and the e a~countthe charge neu~alityof +2. 1 / 3 < y < 1)). . at.n 0 4 8 12 16 Sintering time(hrj 20 LZT as a function of sinte~ng time.

i to ~ n c ~ o n like Although this device isagile the displacement curve~ i t h o ~ t such as scannin~ tunneling mi inves~gated inte~sively so for a 1 more than l cm3 can be easily grown s by a simple a special crystaldirec~on. N ~ et al. e total capacitance is .20. because of lack of skill in fabrication. section.21) esigns this in multilayers. h y ~ o t h synthesis e ~ ~ ently. Estimate i and two a r gap capacitors CO we denote the capacitor area. it was sample ceramic and the coated electrodes over most S. including single dis Single disk are devices expe~ments.rial 73 piezoelectric/elec~ostrictive devices. composites and thi~thick films. ~ ~ mathinplateof LiNb03 crystal. However. nd these days low because of e~ciency in still impo~ant for the laboratory constant of a barium titagate based isk sample.

To achieve a low driving voltage." Layers thinner than 10 pm.c ~ t eth hod.3. Substitutin~ = loB3m. and requires e than sophisticated techniques. which is currently used in mul~layer capacitors. but is suitable for mass-production of more thousand pieces per month. a " ~ c ~ r ~r ~ Z ~ e whose distance above the carrier determines the film thickness. which is connected in parallel by the external electrode up to hundreds layers. d e ~ o c c ~ ~ ~atd. actuator and electrooptic applications. (P3. a multilayer structure is composed of alternate f e ~ ~ l e c ~ c . . we obtain the real d i e l e c ~ c constant of E = 1000. Figure 3. slip is castinto a film under a specialstraightblade. 3. The i~g for multilayer capacitor fabrication.3. will also be introduced in actuator devices instead of the present 100 pm thick sheets. i~ of ectric ceramic multilayerstructures have investigated been intensively for y words for the fbture trend will capacitor. ~ n i a t u r i z a t and~hybridi~ation the devices.74 1lC = ~/(EOE + 2 4 ~ 0 = (1ko S)((~/E + 2 S) Sld) Sl6) Since the apparent dielectric constant was calculated from C/(w Sld) = 500.2) (P3.3) m. the film. As shown in Fig. be "finer" and "hybridization.Green sheets in two steps: slip prep~ation the ceramic powder anda doctor blade of slip is madeby mixing the ceramic powder with soZvent. n ~ i ~ Z ~ t i c i z The.5 x d above mistake is occasionally found when alcohol is U polishing. called a green sheet. N o n . 6 = 0.3. After drying.15. layer thickness or the electrode t t e ~ be adopted for practical devices. has the elastic flexibility of sy~theticl ~ a ~ e rTbe volume fiaction of the ceramic in the polymer matrix at this point is about 50%.'' . andit is not dried completely on hot p1 a should careful to be not make a a r gap i (even sub~cron!)d ~ n g the electroding process. pa will aretechniques two for mu1 devices: making ceramic d and the ~ p e .(P3. electrodes composes a unit ~splacement element.u n i f o ~ c o n ~ ~ r a t i o n s he~ro-struc~res or of the materials.1) The following relation obtained: is (l/&)+ (2 6ld) = 1 6 0 0 . 10 ceramicand internal electrode layers fab~catedby c o ~ ~ n gAn .16 shows a flow of manufacturing processof the multilayer ceramic actuators.

Vacuu~~zation) (~nching) (ElFtrode pnnting) ( ~ ~ n a ~ o n Cutting) Press. and internal electrodesr printed ae using silver. takingspecialcare to c 500°C sintered chips are then polished. the . bodiesaresinteredataround 1200'C in a hrnace.6 . Several tens to 100s such layers are then l ~ n a t e dand pressed using a hot press. . M e r cutting into small chips. External "electrode Polarization direction Internal electrode Structure of a multilayer actuator. paladium or plati~umink. Binder Sin!ering) electrode IExternalevaporation.and ~ a ~ ~ c a t i o ~ Processes 75 The green sheet is then cut into approp~ate an size.pnntlng) Fig. (Binder mixing. and finally the chips are coated with a water-proof lead spray. wires are attached. externally binder evaporation at . 3 1 Fabrication process for a multilayer ceramic actuator. .

this u s i ~ ~ ~ i e z o e l and ec e c ~ o s ~ c t i cases. res~ectively ~~ l ve .7 T e m ~ r a ~ rise versus Ve/A (3 k re effective volume ene era tin^ the heat and A is the su . and n to be the total =Lx=LdE=L S case the ~enerative dis num~er layers n (more effe of V 0 0.76 s~lacement m a ~ n i ~ c a t ican be e o~ si ~ i e ~ o e l e c ~Verify i c .1 M .

77 lastic s i hm n ezocer~ic plate .

20showssuchabimorph sbwture.3a) Notice that this difference comes from the electrode gap di~erence: in (a) and 112 in t (b). .There have been many reports on equations describing the tip ~ s p l a ~ m e and the nt are provided here.19 illustrates two resonance frequency. According to the con~guration. For both cases the ~ n d ~ resonance ~ ~ u e n is y e ~ ~ n by d total e n ~ c d e the thickness t as?3) f = 0.24) The bimorph also included a sensor function: the sensor electrode can detect the voltage generated in proportion to the magnitude of bend. poled Two piezoceramic with plates thickness(i. (3.161 (tlL2) (p ~ 1 1 ~ ) . b i m o drive is inevi~bly~ c o ~ p by a r d ~ t i o n ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e o a must be employed. (3. e t2) =(L2/ d31 6 (312) V.e.t is thetotalthickness) and Linlength are bonded their with polarizationdirectionsopposite to eachother(a)orparalleltoeachother(b). tip displacement6 under a voltage V is provided the as follows when one end is clamped ~ ~ ~ l e v e r (c condition): Two types of piezoelectric bimorphs:the (a)anti-parallel polarization type and (b) the parallel polarization type. motion.4) As can be ~ t i c i p a the. Summaries tl2 in bimorph designs without shims. To obtain a perfect parallel motion special m ~ h a n i s m Figure3..~ ’ ~ . A complexbimorphproposedby Ampex has divided electrodes electrically connected oppositely at the tip and bottom the (suppo~ing part) parts so as to com~nsate canting angle at the bottom by the opposite bend at the tip. Figure 3.

1) After cutting the ceramic into plates of 265 p m in thickness. . 4 (3) (300 x Cm) (20 V)/(40 X 10-6 m) (P3. get the piezoelectric plate thickness: m we = (25 x m) = 530 pm. (3. 3.161 [ 5 3 0 ~ 1 0 .~ ~ ( 2 5 xm)2] ~ ( 7 . pardlel motion a with position Using a PZT based ceramic with a piezoelectric constant d31= -300 pC/N.2) us. 9 ~ 1 0 ~ lO. design of ano-shimbimorphwithatotallength of 30 mm (5 mm is usedforcantilever clamping)whichcanproducea tip displacementof 40 pm with20 V applied.Thewidthofthebimorphisusuallychosenasw/L suppress the magnitude bending.161 (t / L2) (p SIlE)-ll2 = 0. respectively. the density and the elastic Calculate response the complianceoftheceramicare p = 7. roughly 2. Substituting L of Eq.14 is b to type Considering a certain applied low voltage.6 msec. 3.4) f = 0. of - The response timeis estimated by the resonance period. ( )in Fig. FromEq.I k~m3)(16x10-12 m2/N) (P3.5.5.aterialandDevice e s i ~ n and Fabrication Processes ~n~ 79 ig. Here. type (a) in order to obtain a large displacement. S of this bimorph. the two plates are bonded together after electroding and electrical c 115 so as notto poling.3b) with 25 m . 30 mm in length and 4 6 mm in width.20 B i m o ~ h s ~ c t u r e a for perfectly sensing feedback function.(3.9 g/cmf and S 11E = 16 x 10-12 m2/N.

2) of ( t ~ / to maximizethe ~ ) Sup~ose = Ym. (P3. the metal plate thickness should adjusted to tm = k I 2.6. to mfers to the distance between the r Q i ~ . a can be f a b ~ ~ a t e d "he~tip deflection 6 of the unimo . 6 = (d31 E)L23tmtc/(tm+tc)3. the function f(tm) = tmtc I (tm + ~3 must be m t ~ c ~ n etc s or fora fixed total thicknesstc + tm = ttot. the equations become: Substituting to in Eq.3) with Eq. the piezoelectric or Young's modulus for the constant.6. (b) for a fixed total thicknessk + tm. (3.80 en a p i e z o c e r ~ c plate is bonded to a metallic shim. L. d31. of ceramic or the metal. 0 h the t =2* .~ ) style is given by Here E is the electric field applied to the piezoelectric ceramic.~ e e ~ t r ~ Z and the ~ n d i n g st ~ ~ZQ e S represented as Q = [tc tm2(3 tc + 4 tm) Ym + k4Yc] I [6 tm(tc + tm) Ym].6.6) be Thus.Yc m. s (a) (a) zed for a fixed ceramic df(tm)/dtm = (tc -2 tm) t I (tm c + tc)4 = 0 (P3. Setting YC= Ym. k or tm is the t h i c ~ e s s eac material. t =k I 2 o = tc = ttot I metal and ceramic plate thickness should be adjusted to tm to = ttot I 3. In addition. thelength of this u n i m o ~ h .6. Yc calculate theoptimicondition deflection 6 for the following conditions: (a) fora fixed ceramic thicknessk. (P3. men.4).

5mm can g~nerate 20 a 60 which is 8 times as large as the splacement under ~splacement a multilayer o of ( ~ type) ~ shown in ~ as ~ ~ 2 Also the generative di from of the position center the bal c end of the to the moonie its is easy f a b ~ c a process.I A composite actuators ~ c t u r called the" ~ o o ~ has"been devel e ie 1 sure sensitivity and the small ~splacements induced in a piezo ediate characte~stics t w the conventi ~ ~ n ators. 3. W sensitivity bykeepingthe act~ation~ n c t i o n . ~o~ oonie (a) and a modified oonie (Cymbal) (6).3. it exhibits an order of magni~de larger disp ltilayer. WO metalplateswith a narrowmoon-shapedcavitybonded [Fig.22(a)showssuch a 1 3 composite where device. while the ~ w ~ e r s a e rolled into a polymer using a hot-roller in the second method. The moonie with a size of 5mm x Srnm x 2.21(a)]. Figure. 3. - .23 shows the flowchart for the fab~cationprocesses.3 composites are introduced in Chapter10. Section 10. much and l genera~ve force (10 kgf) w S device consists of thin a than the b i m o ~ h . ne-step punch in^ can make endcaps from a metal plate.22(b)]. The f a ~ ~ c a t i o n processes are classified into a m ~ l t i n ~ a and rolling meth0d2~) Figure 3. a piezoel~tric ceramic bodies re al composites can be fabricated. is which is made by dispersing piezoelectric ceramic powders u n i f o ~ l y a polymer in matrix [Fig. The r fab~cation processes for 1. PZT polymer ain in two a dim~nsional array. - The simplest composite from a fab~cation vie~point a 0 3 connectivity type. The powders are mixed with molten polymer in the first method.3.

PZT: polymer composites: (a) 1 -3 connectivity and (b) 0 -3 (Ball milling) (Film casting) I (Rolling) (C~endenn~) I Piezoelectric component Fabrication process for PZT: polymer composites.82 2 connectivity. c ~ ~ u for sfab~cationof oxide thin are e films classified physical into chemical processes: .

Heavy A plasma ions bombard the cathode (target) and eject itsatoms.The sol-gel techniquehas also beenemployedforprocessing EZT films.Theseatoms are deposited uniformlyonthesubstratein an evacuatedenclosure.32) ~pplicationsof thinfilmferroelectricsincludememories. " Principle of a magne~on sputtering apparatus. acoustic wave devices. melting epitaxy. I?LZT.24 showsprinciple the of a r magnetron sputtering apparatus.~O)and PbTi03. piezosensors and mi~o-mechatronic devices. 83 Sputte~nghas most been commonly for used ferroeketric thin films such as LiNb03. leading to sometimes a higher coercive field for domain reorientation. capillary epitaxy etc. surface . -- .aterial and Oevice ~esigning Fa~~cation and Processes Electron beam evaporation R ? sputte~ng. sputtering I DC Ion beam sputte~ng Ion plating (b) Chemical Processes Sol-gel method (dipping. spin coating etc.31) Figure 3.) mica1 vapor deposition(CVD) CVD Liquid phase epitaxy. "he thin film structure is inevitably affected by two significant parameters: (1) Stress from the substrate Tensile or compressive stress is generated due to thermal expansion mismatch between the film and the substrate.

as follows: wi .

0 -0.Etectric field (kV/mrn) -1.5 i I 200 T 0 0 50 100 .5 -1.

o Temp fdl 0 1 2 3 Grain size (f l m ) 4 5 size dependence of the pe D = 2.1 . D=1. k A ~ l i field (ktrlcrn) ~ d Grain size de~endence the i n d ~ c e ~ ~ in ~ of s n .

Figure 3.30 shows the ~ m p e ~ t u r e c Z e of the cla ous ratio particle size powders. which deweases with decreasing particle size. This demons~ate between the critical particle size md the Curie temperature.2 Z ~ ~ ~ i size. Uchino et al.29 shows the tetragonality (c/a) change witb particle size in pure BaTiO3 at room The cia value decreases drastically below pm and becomes 1 (i. 0. Temperature ("C 1 . previously a number of i n f o ~ a t i v e experimen~.esigning and Fa~~cation Processes 7 R e g ~ n g much the smaller particle size range. Figure 3. e. Sin le c stat Particle size (urn) b t e m ~ ~ t ~ e .

.

mono-domain state can not .12 Ti03 500 0. 1 Ti03 95 ao.8 2.15TiOg 180 0.2 10 1.g~ro. ~lyc~stalline (ac o ~ ~of r e n ~ o ~oriented tiny c ~ s t a l ~ ~ .032 6.02 0. state l a ~ ly domain Figure 3.9 57 54 58 50 so e 1) ~ o m reo~ent~tion~ ~ n in each rain.g5Pb0. 19 0. Ba~O3 125 Bag. c skites.2 1.33 shows reorient~~on observed in ar inde~ndently ea& of achieved.08 0.y for ci r size.

90 "3 l ~ ~ a in n piezoelec ia .

(1) (2) ornain reorientation in F i ~chernaticde~ictionof the s ~ a i n change in a ~ e ~ ~ l e c ~ c ~ s ~ i a t with the ~ o l ~ z a t i o n ed reo~entation. .

0 3 exhibits a rho~bo [l 1l] . (022)/(0~2)* (002)/(220) (002)*(200)= 0 .[ K [022]. the angle bet~een of the non-1 80° two 1) 1 is c a l c ~ l a t e ~follows: s as 2)/(200).l . i [ l l l ] .[ l l ]= [002]. l= ] us.

10) .on a m o n o ~ o m si n ~ ction in~icate§ a with cla = 1.01. eter of (3.

whereasthe 0 180° reversal domain con~butesmainly to the pol~zation.39). a e n~ Next. Figure 3.(3.thehysteresis in the x versus P plotshoul y beobserved.94 hapter ~ ~ = § s [ I c o s ~ ~ ~ v / I ~ v . but the strain is not at its minimum. only the 9 ° rotation does.12) = . co~esponds a certainE3. providesCT = 0. It is shown sc~ematically Fig. all reorientations are being represented by the former. These authors assumed thatthere exists a characte~sticangle 890.Butin onkr tosimplifytheexplanation. ~ u ~ e ~ o r finding the polarizationP3 and the field-induced strain x3 (or xi) as by e . in tetragonal crystals.38thatwiththe in application of an reversal occurs rapidly whereas the 9 ° rotation occurs slowly?2) It is notable that 0 G in the figure.the relations~p between 8 and E3 has to be known.37(a) shows the measured values ofi n d u d strain in r h o m b o ~ ~ PZT ceramics.3.theorientation becomes 0.9 ° reorien~tionand in rhomb 0 71°and109O reorientationsoccur. a the induced strainx3 versus pol~zation shows large hysteresis (Fig. Suppose a 90° domain rotation of 6r occursin a smallregion dvin a ceramic.in order tofindthetrendforthechangeininducedstrainwithanapplied electricfield.Uchida et al. it is possible to estimate the volume in which a 180° reversal or a 9 ° rotation o c c d .37(b)].~ / ~ ] = S S ((3. al ~ o m p ~ thegtwo 090 and E3 figures reveals the relationship between 090 and E3 n [Fig.domain rotations. a function of the electric field E3. a 90° rotationof the small region can occur.It is apparentthatpronounced hysteresis also appears inthe versus E3 curve.and as a result.4O(b).44) .Such is the for low case the t e m ~ r a phase of ~e Pb(Mg113 03 which is shown in Fig.36 shows the relationship between 890 and 3.43) P3 owever. Cknerally in such a case. byin to ng-Eq. 3. there is serious discrepancy with x p e ~ m e data.x312 = x2 owever. 3. analyzed this problem by introducing a characteristic angle 890 for non-180° domain reorientations. there remains some polarization while the induced strain is zero 900 reo~entationscanceleach other the pol~zationsfromthe180°and ecome zero.5 and x1(3. This is because the 180° domain reversal 0 doesnot contribute to the induced strain. such 0. ccur. accompanied by no volume change. in which the microscopic regions with spon~eous strain change only their o~entations. the induced go.1 1) over a S x1 andbe x2 can o as a ~ n c t i o n of go is satisfied. formaterials whose polarization is d o ~ n a t e dby 180° non. and the region remains inits intial state. 3.1 O S ~ 1) C S model.

nt - .57Tio. b. where 690 is a c~tical tio on and (cos2 8 -113) is pro ' - X L .95 Q.43)~3 and (a) the calculated 690 E3 relation ( ) The m e ~ ~ e m e was done at 30042.5 1/31. Electric field E3 (a) k V /1 ~ (b) 7 Tr~sverse strain x1 versus field in ~b(~o. 120 f4 l U B Q _ .

J I &nce of the domain volume (b).5 0 0. Notice the ~eviationof betw~en180° and 9° 0. 2 3 x3 x 10 x -1 -0.5 1 .

2 0.1 Of .1 C/m2) 00.PS -0.2 -0.

8 11.25/60/40 0.5 85 85 The crystal o~entation the dielectric of c o n s ~ €3 and t piezoeleetric in Fig.7 25/58/42 0.96 1.8 18.7 13 7 5.98 and coercive fieldin tetragonal and rhomboh~al PLZT ceramics.732 2 5 1 6 0 1 ~ 0.6 1 86.3 14. reoriented volume fraction specimen 25/50/50 25/52/48 5/50/50 5/52/48 5/54/46 Principal strain Ss (%) Spontaneous ~ ~ e n t e d Coercive polarization volume field Ec fraction (%) (kVIcm) (pUcm2) 71 72 65 6.6 5.8 2. hapter 3 Principal strain.16 1.2 7. in change and d33 before and a k r poling.4 2.5 45 49 22 28 & Calculated (kV/cm) 17.9 4.5 78. spontaneous polarization.2 2.5 58.74 6/65/35 0. Let us . L 1 Crystalorientation d e ~ n ~ n c i ofs thedielectric e constants of a tetragonal PZT.4 5.7 16.6 5.8 13 13. and piezoelectric . 3 41.68 18 23 30 18 14.7 8.65 5. 45 65 56. gonal PZT are schematically ill €3 ented polycrystalline the the sample.

but hasadvanta~es ."soft" piezoelectric . response . Device designs: Single disk ultilayer ~ n i m o ~ ~ i m o ~ h ~oonie/cymbal Flexible composite Thin/thick film 4. the approaches E ~leading to a decrease inpe~ittivity piezoelectric c o n s ~ shouldincreasemonotonicallywithincreasingpolingfield. butshows disadvantag~ in generative force.> Donor . ~ l e c poling ~ c orients the pol~zationalong the z-axis.Before poling. 1. the pe~ittivity . after poling. The bimorph type exhibits large displace men^. thus. . in generative force. Doping effects on fe~oel~tricityPZT: in Acceptor .~"hard" piezoelectric > n.. dielectric constant the shouldhavean i n ~ ~ ~valuet ~e t w Emin Emax.domain p i ~ i .life time and the elec~om~h~c coupling bff.On the con^^.. omp par is on betweenmultilayersandbimorphs: 1 The multilayer type does not exhibit large displacements.deficiencycom~nsation . the a ~ n and and piezoelec~c constant should be zero.Pb > -> aration of ceramic powders: oxide-~xin~ technique co~r~ipitation alkoxide hydrolysis 3. life time and elec~om~hanical coupling k33 2. t finallyexhibitingasaturation of d33 above a certain poling field (close to the coercive field). response speed. 5. Tipdisplacementin a bimo~h under a one-endclampcondition (cantilever): 6 = (312) d31 ( ~ 2 / V or t2) 6 = 3 d31 (L2/t2) V (according to the structure) . because of a u n i f o ~ crystalline dis~ibution.

.e. . to12 . t ~ ~ e ~ 7.amen~l ~esonance fre ialceases to be ~ e ~ o e l(i.

o r 3. .

Yamayoshi.. Pt. Takahashi and S. J Appl. Phys. NY (1971). Y.Appl. Hagimura and K. 93. S. '95. Phys. 32. W.184 (1995). T~ahashiand K. It K. W. Yoshikawa. Nomura: Jpn. Calculate all the possible angles between the two non-180' domain walls. Cook H. A. Furukawa and H. Uchino: Proc.NegishiandT. S. H.55 (1988). K.Appl. Suppl. 9) B. Ultrasonics Int'l. Tomikawa.dimension^ finite chain of two kindsof ions +q and -4.cos0 dv a d cos2@dv. Hirose: Jpn. l. . C. Y. Appl. . Y.Academic Press. Usingthisdv.H. (3.1 l). Abe. 2. 3.142. Jaffe.Uchino. Inagawa: Ferroelectrics 87. n when the polarization is uniformly ~ s ~ i b u t with respect to ed 3.p. Minburgh.SB. Hirose. S. Electroceramics. K. 2422 (1993). M. 47 (1989). J Zheng.Hirose:Jpn. de Vries: J.. . K. Takahashi and J. S. 30. 0. 373 (1989). J. TagaandH. Chen. No. the volume element dv is given by Chr = 2nr2 d r sine de. 28-2. S.J.Phys. 33 (1998).Shimizu:Jpn. R. N. S. S..01).J.Phys. l . 28. Uchino: Ferroelectrics. and Jaffe:PiezoelectricCeramics.6 e. . Uchino.102 q + q q + 0 q q + 4 q q (a) -a -2a-3a +3a a 0 +2a . In calculating Eqs. Aoyagi. Uchino and S.30-1. p. A Joshi.5 Bariumtitanateexhibits a tetragonalcrystalsymmetryatroom tem~ra~e and the distortion firom the cubic structure is not very large (cla = 1. Suppl. Hirose.1117(1991).calculatedv. Hirose.10) and (3.

Ferroelectric Mater. Ozaki: Electronic Ceramics 13. 1079 (1967). Int'l.81(1984). Yoshikawa. K. K. Onitsuka.: T. Amer. &c Appl. Industry Research Center. 91th Ann. K. 16. Mtg. Japan (1983).A. Fundamental Div. H. Zuleeg: Ferroelectrics 10 A. H. 1555 (1989). Ceram. Nomura: Ferroelectrics 37. Appl.Imai. l P. Kinoshita and T. Soc. . Appl. Kyoto. Soc. E. Abe. 433 (1977). Phys. J.100 (1983). 107 ( N. Ceram.26-2. Takasu: Inspec. K. N. Imanaka and K. Uchida and T. Cross: J. Gerthsen and G. J. Tanada.489 (1976). Phys. (1989). Penn State University (1994). Appl. 3193 (1996). Ishida et al. Amer. Uchino and S. Kuwata. Soc.241(1997). S. Uchino and J. Uchino: Ultrasonic Techno 5. K. Ando and H. Takahashi.. W. 10. Phys.Uchino. Ferroelectrics '90. R.105 (1981). Goto. Yamam~a:Ceramic Trans. Enomoto. J.610 (1991). T. 10. Ikeda: Jpn. Elect. Ceram.Uchino: Proc.48 (1992). Uchino and S.evice ~ e s i ~ nand ~ i n F~~rication Processes 103 Kato: Ceramics Fine Technology. Kyoto (1977). J. A. Appl. p. K. Corona Pub. Uchino:PiezoelectricActuatorsandUltrasonicMotors. Ceramic Dielectrics.Saegusa et al. 191 (1984). 72. . Lett.Uchino and T.. Phys. Phys. Supp1. K. J. Lab. Ceram.26 (1982). Q. 1298 (1982). E. Takasu: Inspec. Symp. K. K. .: Amer. Uchino: J. Oonishi E. Yamam~a. Ceram. L. Uchino and S. J. Kitayama:Ceramics 14. Lejeune and J. Uchida: Rev. S.Shrout. Kuwata. Yamaji. 1st Mtg. de Vries: J. Nomura: Jpn. Soc. Sadanaga and T. Soc. K. K. Yamaji. M. Kinoshita Ferroelectric Mater. K. L408 (1982). Appl. Commun.ShirasakiandTekahashi:Abstract21stJpn. Shirasaki: Abstract 22nd Jpn. Mater. Kuwata. Zheng. Sugawara. Yoshikawa. Sadanaga. Kakegawa. K. Y. Phys. D. Series 2. Dogan: Ph. S. Appl. S. H. 996 (1992).269. 579 (1981). 21. p. 198 (1987). (1 974).MA. 311(1984). G. Fundamental Div. K. 29 (1986). 1990). Kmger: Ferroelectrics 11.. J. Dey and R. Schmidt: Ferroelectrics 31 . Samara: Ferroelectrics. Schulze and L. Uchino and S. 6. Okuyama et al. 4 N. 2. P. 31. Hirose: J. SW-. Amer. A. Shimizu: Jpn. Thesis. Nomura: Jpn. C. Y. 235 (1981). p. Xu. J.: Ferroelectrics 33. Appl.Yamakawaand K. 29 (1986).KluwerAcademic Publishers. 26.Abe: ~ec~stuZZizution. Ikeda: Jpn. A.T. Konno Electromechanical Vibrators and Their Applications. 277 (1971). Phys. 8t Appl. N. Uchino and T. 75. K. p.: Appl. Sci. Newnham and K. S.166. K. 2C6. Boilot: Ferroelectrics 54. E. Tokyo (1969). Amer. p. C.3 Fabrication Technology of Ceramic Powder and Its Future. Vo1. and H. Uchida and T. J. Ceram. 21(9).R. M. Soc. Nomura: Jpn. Nagai and Edit. Uchino. 209(1979).Nakamura. W.p.Kyoritsu Pub. 79. M.269 (1977).Ceram. K. p. 3B5. . A.p.Mohri. Summer. J. Soc. Y. 67. Enomoto. Tanaka: Proc. E. K.

the d e ~ n i ~ o n s are: bimo~h . . bimo ultimo~h. however. unimo~h. an elastic s i hm double ac~ator plates bonded together with or without an elastic shim multipleactuatorplatesbondedtogether with orwithout multiple elastic shims . h - single actuator c e r plate~ ~ single actuator plateBr.hould dis~nguishthedevice te~inology: monomo~h.All are bending devices.

con st^^ around emajorapplication of ferro the Curie CS is forcapacitors.utilizingtheirhigh two classes of cone itors: rcuits.1) ~ e r ~ i c c a p ~ iat o ~ p with single opular. capacitors ip are ul~a-small capacitors for high frequency applications. highlighting sizes their ranges. which be must account forprac~cal applications. Figure 4.1 s ~ ~ ~the v e osu s z ~ capacitor types. plate Se~conductorcapacitors e x ~ b i tl capacitance verytric in using thi layers a se~conductor ceramic ( e based se Chapter 9.3). mate~dls stabilize to the temp 105 . large capacitance arge dielectric constant are des th a high dielectric constant are sometimes (c) Te tric dispersion. ~ 0 . Section 9. while multilayer ceramic capacitors parallel type. basic s p ~ i ~ c a ~re n s o (a) Small size. using a Ti dl and the other is for compensation thermal of is a high permittivity low-dielec~ic constan 1 ~ .

external electrodes. or cheaper Ni or Cu paste is used to form the electrodes. Finally.106 hapter 4 Satellite Commun. from a slurry of the dielectric powder and organic solvents.5 [mm] - ~ ~ Z ? i ~ e r have structures been developed as part of capacitorm ~ u f a c 4. are painted on. See Chapter 3. Figure of starting multilayer capacitor chip. Automobile Commun. Calculate the wavelength in air (E = 1) and in a dielectric material with E = 30 for electromagnetic wave at 10 GHz.3(2) for the details of the manufact~ing process. _ . Section 3.used to connect the chip with the circuit. Ag.2 schematically shows a the inte~ation electrical circuit components. "hin sheets made by the tape casting tec~ique. are coated with Ag-Pd. then several tens of sheets are stacked together and sintered.0 x lo8 m/s in air and v t c / de in the dielectric. . Taking accountof c = 3. mv T mv T FM Radio AM Radio lultilayer :eramic lapacitor ledonductor lapacitor Various capacitor types classified according to their sizes and operating frequency ranges. : =3x /d30 [m] = 5.

.2 4.2 2. "he electrostaticcapacitance of a multilayer capacitor is given by the following formula: - where E is the relative permittivityof the dielectric material. .7' (100) 100 10 2 5 6.0 30 334 25. 2.Cap. the total volume is reducedbyafactor of ( to sustain the same capacitance.7mm3. (PI?) L W T (W) 1 10 1 10 . . the device volumecan be reduced to7.4 2.2 1.Cap.1 8.2)Theconventionalcapacitor of 10 witha 30 pmlayerthicknesshas a volume of 70mm3. .6 1. .2 2.7 70..0 Ceram.n the number of layers.5 3. Note the that c a p a c i ~ c increases in propo~on the square of the number of layers. 1. whenthe e to Table 41 s u ~ ~ z specifications several .64. L the thickness total of the capaciator. e s for multilayer total size is fixed.1 10 7.6 1. layers n Totalthickness L ctric field direction Internal electrode " Structure of a multilayer capacitor.~.6 3.2 --" . Conventional 7.7 10 Cap.107 The thickness layer of multilayer capacitors been has d u d remarkably.3 1.7 (319) 909 (390) 1 Tantalum Electrolytic 2. S the electrode and area. the " ~ .l ~imensions of multilayerceramiccapacitors. ~ Present Ceram.Notethatbyreducingthelayerthicknessby h .7 1. B y decreasing the layer thickness down to 10 pm.8 3. Relative Green Sheet Capacitance Dimensions Volume at Room (mm3) Thickness Volume (1 Temp. capacitors.3 0.0 1. with thicknesscurrentlyontheorder of 7 10 pm.

S @ C 6C 6C 6C 6C e l ~ ofe~roelectricssuch as r been utiliz~for very comp ~ e r o v § ~ thave been investi e§ .

.e. a f ~ ~ o e l e c ~ c ~ e Sr o v s ~ t e 1 ions.h ivi ctri ir very high ~ e ~ i t ~ v i ~ . .in§ensi~ve h ~ a c t ~ ~ § t i c s c (i. and .

ordered islands in the range of 2 -5 nm.e*s 0 0 .. e o toeoa.0 e 0 0 0 e o o e l. 0 0 0 0 t e e 0 0 kO.8) The resolution high image in Fig. to. PO.0 0.0 k.. .000000... - uctua~on of ionic .4 0.. . l. e roe e 0 0 0 .O. ~ oeoo ~ 0 0 0 0 0 0 ..... ). )O. ~ O .0. 0 0 .7 Fraction of 0 om~uter simulation calcul crystaltype zig region size: 4 x 4).eo.oe 000 0 100 0.5 shows a comput~rsimulati has reported sh the electron mi~roscopy.. 0 0 . O .OO.00..7 0 20 0.OO.00. 0 . IO rooooeooe 0.O l00.00. 0 . e00 e eo0 ) .OO0O. eo00 100. eo l..O. 0 0 . 4.. We i c composi~~n fluc~a~on" which is one of the widely most models relaxor for the Fi ure 4.. 1.7 Fraction of 0 e 0 0 0 IO. O O O a lOOO.50.110 act reason why the phase an sit ion is & h e in the relaxor ferroelectrics has been clarified. each of which may hav tr~sition temperature..6 0. e v0.0.4 0.0 teoveoooa 0 0 0 0 ~ o * o e~ . .3 0. tO.3 0.O 000.O.r000.. .. 100.a00 . 'O.OO..O.eo. v) Fraction of 0.00e ). B.4 0.00 o.000.O. . *e 0 0 00... t00.0 eo 0 .0. a 10.0 POOO.0 lO.0 lO. O O .OO.3 0.6 0.0..v ~0.. 1.0. e e M 0. . .5 0. l.00.6 0.5 0.

h P e ~ i ~ i~ieiectrics v i ~ 111 High resolution e l e c ~ o n ."The p e ~ i t t i v i t yof relaxor f e ~ ~ l e c in thesp ~ a e l e c region obeys the following ~c ~c quadra~c relation: rather t ~ a n n o ~ alaw the l ve the tem~erature c~fficient pe of d i ~ ~ s phase sitio ion. example. Thus. Note ion-ordered islands in the rangeof 2 -5 nm. obtain a rather ~ we which provides more stable temperature change. the followi~ ed . some is specifiedratherthanthe "~urie point. by rimpos posing the Curiewith a ~ ~ e Curien t etm ~ e r a ~ r e . for In the case of the pe~ittivity.~ c r o s c o ~ of a Pb image single crystal(110).

(4) 450.112 provement of the t e r n ~ e ~ ~ ~ e ~ c i e n t ~ ~ i t ~ v i t toe of in tQ type9 45. (5) 1 s .

the real and i ~ a ~ parts of~ i n pe~ittivitytrace a half ci pe~ittivity plane).t y fe~oelectric relaxors: Note the differencein the coo~rative ~heno~enon..h (a)S 113 ~ ~ . 4.e. ~ i a ( )~ ~ ~ o e l ~ t ~ ~ b relaxor ulti-potential-well model for (a) the ~ k ~ a v i . ion follo tric field negative potentials.derive the ~ono~spersive case: E(@) = eS f (1 j WT) ion rela~onfor a + (2) Also discuss how the above obeys dispersion so-called the (i. increasing drive e ~ h i ba delay with i~ is an intuitive explanation for the d d in a double-mini~um a (Pig.9). with wever. Consider an order-disorder ty electric with potential with a relatively lo quasi-dc the field.type relaxor . n X . Under a alte~atin between the positive an ion (1) sing a mathematical represen~tion. 0 near OC shifts towards higher ° perovs~tecellduetothe di pol~zation appears.

4.2. and r is a constant.2. are expressedas a .(AU -p)/k'I'l. a+.= ere.2) to the opposite transition probability. a. The transition probability for an ion from the (P4. a+= - + in Fig. the local field in the crystal is described by F=E+yP.9.(AU + pF)/k'I'I .2.4) r exp[.3) (P4. p thedipole of ) we in~oduce numb~r + (or the e total dipole number is given by volume) is re~resented as e ~ e ~ n d e n will be expres ce Then. F When an external electric fieldE is applied.114 Chapter 4 F Ion in a double-minimum potential. r exp[. potentialminima. and the (P4. AU is thebarrierheightbetweenthetwo moment. . .

we obtain E(O) = Es / (1 + j 0%) .2.11) Consequently.9) (P4. (P4.2.16) - .2.AUkT) (P4.115 (P4.2. (P4.8) N+ = (112) (N + P/p).2.10) p Suppose that the external electric field Eo . (P4.$).2.(P4.2.15) S The subsc~pt stands for a static value(o= 0). and in theparaelectric phase Es =Z C / (T Tc).jot is small and that the o l ~ ~ ~ o n E= is given by P=Ps+&o&Eoejot From Eq. ( P 4 2 13) where TO = 1 I2r exp(. .

1 1 C l .2.o eplot for a ~ouble-minim~m oeCl .13) can be r e ~ ~ t as e ~ t €(~) € ( ) = '~ + j €"(~) . .

12 0.3 0.ivi 6 lo' S I' O 0.z B 8 c.24 8 . 4 410' 0.06 0 60 8 0 100 120 140 160 I .18 3 I O ' 2 10' 1 10' 0 20 40 0.

118
3.

~haracte~stics relaxorferroelectrics: of (a) high pe~ittivity (i.e., re -insensitive ch~acte~stics diffuse phasetr~sition) (c) dielectric relaxation

to ielectric rel~ation some relaxor ferroelec CS is a ~ b u t e d the .presence of in ~ c r ~ o m ~Once.macrodom~ns induced by an external electric field, the ns are dielectric dispe~ion disap~ars the loss becomes very small. and

4.1

A multilayercapacitor (50 layers) is madefiom a 10 dielectric mate~al = 3000. ~ s s u m i n ~ E a 90% ratio
relaxation e time
as

areaoverthechipsurfacearea,calculatethechipareatoobtainatotal capaci~nce of p 10 . is ~stributed, pe~ittivity the dispersion follovvs

4.2

& ( ~= &S / (1 )

+ ( ~~) j
c o m ~ ~ s o n the with

iscuss the Cole-Cole plotchangein

Murata Catalog: Miracle Stones. K. Utsumi:Privatecommunicationat
3)

4th U -Japan Seminar Dielectrics on

h

~e~oelectricity, ~ijmegen (1995).

Recently, very large scale semiconductor using memories ferroelectric y. Since conventional the Si micromachining films been have investigat~ technology coupled with silicon oxide or nitride, and metal, i s limited in its ability to produce fine-scale capacitors,u ~ l i z a ~ o nferroelectiics with high ~ e ~ i t t i v i t y of or polarization hysteresis has been considered as a possible solution to the problem.

e devices in o ~ erasable ~ semicond There are voZutiZe and ~n-voZatiZe~ memories. ~~A~ m Access memo^), which is widely because of its high ty, in is a volatile memory. Data i stored memory are lost when the electric power is shut off. On the contrary, non-volatile memories include a circuit-latch mu1 s ~ a c e - ~ o t e ncontrol ~al both types,in general, h

Figure 5.1 shows the~ n d ~ S e n ~ a capacitor; a Si02 film capacitoris connected to the sourceof a 5.2 showsthestructure ofthe g; chosen by x-y ~ ~ e s s i nthat i electrodes simultaneously,thus ( ~ e ~ o r i z i n g Since the ~ c u m u l a charge leaks, the capacitor must be ), t~ repeatedly (re~es~ing). ord Line

.
capacitor.
119

p-type Si

e structure of a D The el~c~on-hole genera~onaroundthe pair radia~on changes the ~ o u nof charge on t memo^ (SOJ? error). In order retain memo^, the c ~ a c ofi the memo^ ~ ~ capacitormustbehigherthan 30 (remem~r = 1 - 5 . f 01)

E x p l ~ n genera~onprocess of the ~ e p l e ~ oand inversionlayersin the n p-type Si) using a simple energy b voltage is appliedonthemetal. the hole and electron concentra~on band model. For simplicity, you can use th close to zero.

a

~onduc~on band

Fermi le

vel
I "

EF
etal

EF
Valence band Se~conductor (p-type)

Oxide0

Energy band model for a

p-type s e ~ i c o n ~ ~ t o r

E3E2

E3
(c) Inversion State

Inversion layer

Let usconsider an n-channelenhancementmode MOS asillustratedin Fig. 5.5. A positive gate voltage induces the electron inversion layer, which then connects the n-typesourceandthen-typedrainregions.Discussthedraincurrentbehavioras a function of the drain/source voltage.1)

p-type se~conductor

with a p-type se~conductor ( n - c h ~ e l

ositive gate voltage induces the electron inversion layer, which then connects the n-typesourceanddrainregions.Thesourceterminal is thesource of carriersthat flow through channelthe terminal. the to drain In such n-channel an electrons travel from the source to the drain so that the c o n v e n ~ o n ~~ e n c from the drain to the source. hich is analogo~s a to aninsulatingcoat(the be, wherethewater(the

n that the flat band

. Since forsmall

E

S

increase^ to the point where is equal to zero (~recisely sp versioncharge d e n s i ~ is shown Fig. 5.6(b). A in

123

c o n d u c ~ c e thedrainbecomeszero.The at omes zero.

slope of the

ID versus E

en EDS becomes larger than the above value (Ea), point in the channel at the which the inve~ion charge is just zero shifts toward the source t trons enter the channel at the source, travel and then, at the pinch-off point the electrons ion ( ~ e p l e ~ o n where they are swept by the E-field to the layer) contact. Ifwe assume that the c

m

I

Gate

l

/I

I

71nversioi layer Electron flow (n chmel) (a) Drain voltage EDSa Gate voltage

II

" Inversion lay Electron flow rain voltage EDS= Gate voltage EG

1

Gate

(c) Drain voltage EDS>Gate voltage

-channel with the

dsource voltagefor an n-ch~nel

r ~ ~ ~ o Volta c ~ u r vers .

300 10 k ~ z I 0 .

thereadingprocess is destructive.whichincludesthe pol~zationreversal. the observed c ~ e n t ~ o fornat u positive pulse can indicate the initial o l ~ z a ~ o n that is. large c ~ e nIposi is a t . as discussed above. From a practical point of view.10 shows the current responses to a series of pulses (two positive pulses 2 ~ o l l o w ~ two negative pulses) on a PZT film with 20 x 20 ~ m electrodes. . . the Polarization versus electric field curvefor a ferroelectric film. Thus. In this memory device. or p state.the g ~ is ” most serious problem of a ferroelectric film to overcome for non-volatile memory applications. the current flows according ! current contrary. on a ferroelectric film at every reading process in pol~zationhysteresis ch~cteristic degrades increasing cycles. when the pol~zationstate is on C first. . in atile memo a voltage is applied gate the “on” to and the the state.a ferroelectricthin film witha large pol~zation-electric field hysteresis is acitorthe pictured in structure Fig.thesecondpositive pulse generates only a small current Iup. film in pol~zation state is on A. a the generates drain a drain on current the nt rem~ent pol~zation state. the increases ~ ~ a t i c a l becausethespontaneous pol~zationreversal is associated.~ by en a positive pulseis applied just after the negative pulses.inordertoretain thememory state. that is. a wri~ng processsimilar to thecase ofisrequiredeverytime.However. after reading the initial state by applying the positive voltage. a lifetime (that is. 1 or 0 state. the minimum pol~zation state becomes A for all the times. Let us assume a P-E hysteresis loop of the f e r r ~ l e c ~ c as i l l u s ~ a ~Fig.This is c with ‘ ~ ~ t ~which ~ . ly Figure 5. an on or off state. the time until the ~ o l ~ ~ a tde~adation observed) of more than ion is 10l5 cycles isrequ~ed.

1 ws superior an~-fatigue prope~ies. (2) search for new materials. 5. The possible origins for the fatigue are related to the generation oxygen vacancies of uch effort has been made to remedy this proble and the diffusion o proposed ideas can (l )improvement of the film fabrication process. F u ~ e ~ o r newdrive modes such as a combination of the D M operation during the switch-on sta the memo^ mode during the switch-off stage have been proposed. an improvement as is CO wed to the lifetime of lo7 cycles for New electrode materials RuO2 and Ir have been found to exhibit improvement in with e. ~@ r @ ecent new thin film mate~als include ~ e r . i g ~ e 1 shows F for rew~ting remanent pol~zation Y1 and the in Y1 even testing after for the remanent pol~zation not does change signific 1012cycles. material patented by S y m m e ~ xwhich hasa basic compo .s ~ c ~ ~ e Z e c ? ~ c s . fatigue in c o m p ~ s o n the convention^ Ptelectrode. .127 o a series of pulses (two positive pulses follo film with 20 x 20 pm2 electrodes. (3) improvement of electrode materials.

1 tin 0 .

.wi 1.

Y.p.130 3. T. H. Sakuma. p239 (1979). Ohno.1 S ~ e y i n the literature. 5.. T. Jpn. Nishimura. V01. (2) Tabulatethe experimen~llyobtainedphysicalparameters of the PZT films and compare with the data for bulk ceramics. tg. Uemoto and K. Physics evices.2 J. Symp. S. Matsui. . H. is an inversion current FSET is achannel surface potential control typeof FET. and Appl. is about 30 P. 2) 3) 4) 5) (1 997).Nakano. M. Edit. Appl.Fujii. Yam~ichi. Scott C. and L. Ferroelectric Mater. T. (1 995).456. M. and T. . . ~inimum memory capacitance 4. We learned Chap. cMillan: Roc. Yamakawa: 2nd Proc.. emory. ( ) List thepapers(minimum 5) whichreport on epi~xiallygrown PZT 1 films. 5.US.Electronics. (4) Discuss the crystal orienta~on the PZT films byreferringtothe ate: theoretic^ E x p ~ ~ t i o nJpn. A. (f = type of reading device. .~atanabe. (3) Discuss the above deviation briefly with reference to the papers' results and conclusions.36 [9A].. Phys.Ito. Okuyama.. J. exhibit ve high dielectric c o n s ~ n If we c N. Okuyama: FerroelectricBull. Phys. 6) 7) H. 4th Int. Ohtsuki. Neamen: Semiconductor and 2nd Irwin.No.AP942235. Kyoto. T. T. Shimada: Appl. Ceram. D.S~aemori. 55$0-55$7. Namba: Nikkei Micro Mihara. Nakagawa and Y. Cuchi~o. it is applicable the to of Discuss the fe~ibility this operation frequencyof the ~crocomputer. and recent discuss s u m ~ ~ zstudies the on e ferroelectric thin films from the following viewpoin~.2193(1991). Pas de Araujo.32(1994).Soc. in 4 that magnesium lead ~.. A.Monterey. for Thin 1997). H. 1) D. Jpn.onIntegratedFerroelectrics. Phys.

~yroezectric eflect incertainmaterialswas n=co a longtimeago. of ct Practical applications ofthepyroelectriceffect in temperat~e sensors and light detectors been have promoted. The merits of ~yrosensorsas compared to se~conducting inbed-sensor materi as are summari~d follows: of a) wide range of response frequency. and it due the tem~ra~e dependence of the spon~neous sound. illustrated schematically in Fig. This is basically to pol~zation a polar material. b) use at room temperature.2: (a) face electrodes with the polarization direction irradiation. Two typical electrode ~ ~ g e m e nfor pyrots sensors are illustrated in Fig. enabling commercial some marketing ferroelectric ceramics. etc. but a the requires a s o p ~ s t i c afabrication process for applying uniform transparent electrodes t~ for the inflared light. andsuch materials were referred as "electric stones.1. 6.) materials for pyrosens~rs the are unnecess~.1) Here p ( laPS/aTl) is denoted as the ~ y r o e Z e c t ~ c c o e ~ c iThetphenomenon is = e~ . 131 . The principle on which the pyroelectric effectbased concerns thec ~ ~ generation is g e associated with the spontaneous l ~ i z a t i change witht e m ~ r a ~ e : ~ on j = aPs/a t = (~Ps/aT)(~T/a= p(aT/a t). c) quick response in comparison with other temperature sensors. d) high quality (optical-grade homogeneity. i and (b) edge electrodes with the polarization parallel to the direction ~ ~ n d i c u lto r irradiation. The former type has higher efficiency. 6. t) - - (6." It was observed when such a stone was to gene^^ electric and charges a 'fc~c~ngff thrown in the fire.

13 S .

chop b Y .. e.in Qf i.

g. ( 2 Introducing a thermal time constant we obtain finally > When ozy) > 1. In order to increase ri. Since the charge generated a temperature rise AT is given as by q=pAAT. the valuep/ p cp) should be increased. €ET). is i ~ . The impedance (e.1 / 2 . neglecting the size or ( surface effect.2).(6. we obtain: ri = q p UOA 9 ~ + ~ 0 2 ~ 2 ) . Fig.2(a)]. Figure 6. Amplifier for a pyroelectric infrared detector. ri = q p / p cp h. and s where p is the density of the pyro-material. using Eq. The resistance R is relatively high and is inserted to remove the charge after it is transistor must have a ~ g h thermally induced on the pyroelectric (Cy)).4 shows an amplifier circuit for measuring a pyroelectric voltage signal.134 Chapter 6 y a its where q is the transmitt~ceof the incidentradiation. cp the specific heat and is the thickness h of the detector [refer to 6. The ~ ~ r r e n t r e s p u n s i ~defined by ri. A a detectingarea. ri = (IWA) (dq/dt) . .. coefficient c o ~ e s p o n ~ nto the loss ofheatperunitareaofthedetectorto g s ~ o u n d i n g due to its increase in temperature.

but that is relatively independent of frequency between ~ / T(0. = R (CD + CA).9)may be written as (6. Therefore. > ME). The rv decreases with fiquency at high frequencies. the value( / p cp E) should increase. Figure of Merit PC ’p P/(CpE) p’tcpae) thermal p/cp(e tan6)lI2 Application low impedance amplifier impedance amplifier high imaging device (vidicon) high impedance amplifier the when pyroelectric element is the main noise source p: pyroelectric coefficient.(6. p/cp or p/(cpe). cp: specific heat.11) At a high frequency (> l / z ~ . Note that differs from ri by a factor p rv of (l/e). and its efficiency or figure of merit evaluated in several ways. the i ~ a ~ a t i chopping frequency is chosen just between UTI) and l/%.E: relative permittivity a: thermal diffusivity .1 10 Hz) and l/w (0.12) assuming that CE) CA. is in terms of p. where TIE. for example.we obtain rV=qp/pc~&Ao9 (6.01 Hz)2) Thus. In order to increase rv9neglecting again size or surface > effects. Eq. on - The pyroelectric sensor isa device for transducingoptic~thermalenergy to electrical energy.10) (6.and CD and CA are the capacitances of the detector the amplifier. in D practice.Pyro@~ectric Devices The voltage responsivity for such amplifier is expressed as: an rv = (l/ WA)(dV/dt) = ri lzl 135 (6. AssumingRLCC R.9) where z is the impedanceof the detector-amplifier combination. Figures of merit for pyroelectric materials.

oom-temperat~e prop some "figures of merit" for their ateri 30 19 1 rature ~ e p e ~ ~of ~ cf ei ~ ~of m e ~for a e e§ t .

om. we can calc~late .

s i g n i ~ c ~ t l y . .138 P 1Cp& 800 300 20 0 600 400 200 100 18 20 22 24 "0 n 5 10 (a) ias Field (k:V/cm) cb) Figure of merit ( p / c ~ & ) change with temperature (a) and bias field (b) for ~.33TiO3-based ce as the (a) voltage.67Sr0. Maximum black b (b) ST at a chopper fr~uency 40 of Cushion ring Silicon window I A polymer-based (PVDF) pyroelectric infrared sensor.

7). et al.9 shows the sulphate. o of 6.6 a typical s t r u c t ~ e mer for p ~ ~ l ~ t r i c in practical usage. a pyrosensor requires i (thermal an light ray the electrical signal can detected only at the ~ s i estage of light illuminationor be ~ nt as a light-chop shut off.$) which allows forminiatu~zation the pyrosensors (Fig. An elec~omagneticmotor is conventionally used mechanism. -type pyroelectric temperature sensor.6. and 4 ~ darkness. One of the ~ s ~ of the p~o-vidiconis g degradation of the image over a v ~ ~ the ~ longperiodofusageduetothermaldiffusiononthetarget.6.7) The light emitted from an object is filtered with a g e ~ a n i u m lens producingan infrared beam whichis focused onto the pyroelectric target o u g h ~ an optical chopper. Figure shows 6.10 is an example of a picture taken in target. In Fig. proposed a se~ented targetdesign to solvethe d i ~ s i o n problem. .This is monitoredfrom the back surface of the target by elec~on-beam scannin~ using a conventional TV tube.139 infrared ray (input).8)Figure 6.8thevisualization of a thermal-dis~butionimage is exemplified by a pyro-vidicon tube. The ~ m ~ r a t u distribution of the object is represented on the re target as a voltage dist~bution. microscopic structure of a D-TGS [deuterated triglycine ( ~ D 2 ~ ~ 2 ~ O O ~ ) 3 ~ 2 S O Fig.butrecently a piez~lectricb i m o ~ hchopperhasbeendevelopedby ~ u w et~al.

h0 cit ~ ~ c at~yro-vi~ico~ of ~ r ~ tu l .

.

p i e z o e l ~ ~ i c b i m o ~is s ) h the 6.o r d e r phase an sit ion for the free energy.c i r c voltage gene rat^.1 second. calculate the followi ~ ~ s p ~electrode. ~ sensor materials such as b) use at c) quick response in c o m p ~ s o ntemperature wi d) high quality (optical-g mogeneity. and a l i ~ h t ..) p~osensors unnece is sensors.1 as sum in^ the ~ ~ t . . plcP and p/cp E. materi etc. There is a PLZT (6/80/20)ceramicdiskwith 1 cm2 in thickness electrically poled along the thickness with When the sample is illuminated 0.2 . ~t 6. m~hanism (e. cp:speci~c heat. a: thermal diffusivity ck film s ~ c t is essentialfor quick re ~ e nsivity.142 hapter erits pyrosensors of se~conducto~: wide a) r ~ m to other p uency.c h o p ~ r to mi~aturization. E: relative ~ e ~ t t i v i t y . and e n t (c) theo ~ n .g. Figures of merit for p y r o e l ~ materials: ~c Figure of Merit Application P/Cp P/(CpE) pl(cpaa p/cP(s tan~)1/2 the~al aging device (vi~con) ~ g h i m p~ i f~ e c e the pyroelec~c ~ l i when r element is the main noise source coefficient. calculate thete~perature dependence of the figures of merit for pyroelectric a detector: p.

b and c inthefigure)with spontaneous on temperature polari vs. . and that heat is no loss norelectric loss is taken into account.3 Consider thee materials:sharpphasetransition. :~rinciples Applic~tion~ and Press. (2) the relative pe~ittivity.1 (S) = 1 (mJ) ) Sample volume v: 1 (cm21 x 0.01 (cm) = 0.01 (cm31 Temperature riseAT: 1 (mJ)/ [2.(3) temperature stability de (4) aging.diffusephase an sit ion successivephasetransitionmaterials(a. NN12 7JN.143 Assume that all the light energy absorbed by the sample.039 (K) 6.2forthe necessary data. Oxford (1977).cussthemerits and demerits each of fiom a pyrodetector application viewpoint respect with to the following: the (1) m a g ~ ~ ofp.01 (cm3)] = 0. Gordon & T ~c rs New York (1982). relationsillustratedthe as in followingfigures.57 (J/cm3K) x 0. Use Its in I n ~ a ~ e d Towcester.RefertoTable6. p.267. (a) phase Sharp transition I : (b)Diffuse phase tr~sition (c) Successive phase transition 1) 2) 3) erbert: ~ e ~ o e l e c t r ~ d ~ e d Sensors. Total heat energy: 10 ( m ~ / c m 2x 1 (cm2)x 0.

144 .

the acoustic impedan and emagnitude of theinducedstrainx by an external electricfield E is repres this figure of merit (an i m p o ~ nfigure of merit for actuator applications): t Y l c field E is related toan e x t e ~ astress g figure of merit for sensor applications): voltage cons~nt (an impo~ant 145 . the elwtromec .~ e ~ a materials charges i n electric on their surfaces ascons a ~iez~lectricity extensively utilized in the fabrica~onof variousdevicessue is t r ~ s d u c eactuators. ~ ~ u ~control y so on. ~ e n c and used. surface acoustic a v devices. and various potenti Thereare five ~mpo~ant figures of meritin p i e z ~ ~ ~ ~ c s : constant g. ~.

which indicates the strain per unit electric field and theelectric field per unit stress. e l e c ~ o m ~ h ~couplingfactor. we obtain an impo~ant relation between g and d g = d / EOE (E : pe~ittivity) (.. From the f u n d ~ e piezoelectric equations: n~ (P7.1.) electrical e n e r / ~ . (W* 1. ( the sensor figure of merit g (external E = 0) is given by E q .) results in an electric fieldof polarization P induced in a material with eo&x E=P/€()EX = (d X) / €)x (e.) the actuator figure of merit d (external X = 0) is given by Eq. 1 electrical energy andmech~ical energy.146 Chapter 7 T&ng into account the relation. P = d X. g = d /E ~ E ~ . but or = (Stored mechanical energy /I ut electrical energy) (74 ". ( 3 4 2 : P = d X. ng into account E = g X.) 73 Obtain the relations~p between the piezoelectric d and g constants.4) eterms.1) (P% 1 2 .1. The P. e cal ef~ciency sometimes C O ~ ~ S ~ 1 ~ ) are ~ .3) (P7.

(b) e energy m trans~issione ~ & i ~ n t &o Notallthestoredenergycan be actually used.12) .8) Let us consider the case where an electric field E is applied to a piezoelectric under constant external stress ( 0. &ax = (~utput mech~ical 1 Input electrical energy)max (7. to choose a proper load to maximize the energy From the maximumc o n ~ ~ of n o (7. the and actual done work on the mechanical load. As shown in Fig. blem 7. = [(llk) + II( lnC2) .1 12 a x .1 1-2.1 1) we can obtain & = [(Ilk)-II( lk2) .1. the output work can be calculated as while the input electrical energy given by is ~EdP=(~&E+dX)E.147 LetuscalculateEq.13) h ~ c k212x ~ value. hmax = lc212. (7. k2 can be calculated as k2 = [(1/2) (d E)2 1 S] / [(1/2) E2] = d2 1 EOE*S. because a compressive stress is necessary to work to X < the outside). Since the input electrical energy is (112) EO& E2 per unit volume and the stored mechanical energy per unit volume under zero external is given by stress (1/2) x2 1 S = (112) (d E)2 / S.(7.4). Notice that k2/4 (7.10) tr~smission c~fficient.~ i t zero mechanical load or complete clamp (no strain)m h a output workis done. hmax = k2/4.7) energy or &ax ~ u ~electrical =( u t energy / Input mechanical (7. For a small k.whenanelectricfield E is applied to a piezoelectric material.1). (7. 7. and for a large k.

.

or icalener~y) ( ~ o n s ~ r n I elec~ical ener~y) (7.1 y ~a~srnission coe .~ h i c h close to the v is theoretic~ly.

For a long is vibration r e c ~ ~ plate ~~ o u g h l .. (P7.17) echanical loss (tan S. en yo2 + 2(&0e/d)yo + ( & ~ d s=) 0. resonance e resonance kquency 009 the 2 defined with respect to the full width at ~ m / d[2do] as : M = 0 0 / 2do.1)+ 1 / [(-1+ dl -k2) + l] 1 = [(llk) -d(l/k2) .1 + EOE]/ (d yo + Q&) ) = [ -1+ dl -k2)(21k2 ( . ere. al e e l ~ ~ o m ~ h ~ i c a l spectrum.3) e maximum h can be obtained when satisfies y W d y = [ (2sy +d)(dy +W) (sy2 +dy) dl / (dy + +w)~ (P7.2. e m e c ~ a ~ cquality factor.4) = 0. (P7. (7.150 ~ ~ ~ 7t e r h = .2.2. ) de of resonant the S litude at an off-reson~ce f'requency (d E L.112. the maximum ~ s ~ l a c e m e n t u l t d3 .5) yo = (Qe/d)(.( S y2 + d y) / (d y + Q&).1 + dl -k2). k2 = d2 I S EO&. we can get the m ~ i m u m value of h: = [d y0(21k2 . L: length of the s ~ p l e is ~ ~ ~ f i e ) ~ c ~ by a factor propo~ionalto QM atthe ~ s o n ikquency. y putting y = yo into h(y).

c (7.2 c illustrating two extreme cases.18) velocity). or mechan from one matching other? E e m ~ h a n i work one by one m a t e r i ~ the c~ on e a~plied force F an Fi~ure shows a ~ o n c e p t u ~ 7. en =G. general.151 The acoustic is a p ~ e used for ~ evaluating r the acoustic transfer betweentwo materials. specific acoustic acoustic of mech conceptually. In a solid material.19) ~iscussions. by in 2 2 = ~ressure/volume (7. there m h e kinds of impedances. It is de~ned. If the materi ~oon . where p is the density and is the elastic stiffness of the material.

03 9 355 33 380 0.1 1300 175 50 0 19.30 3 10 - 6 120 193 328 .6 1700 289 26.piezocomposi and ~ i e z o ~ l mTable 7. 8 ) of r s p roperties of representati~e i e z o e l ~ d33 ( P C N 2.c ~ s ~ l the materia~s.3 33 ( 1 0 ' 3 V ~ )57. piezocer~ics.8 593 190 12.F=O "0 echanical impedance m a t c ~ n is section s u m m ~ z e s currentstatus of piezoelec c mate~als:s i n ~ l e .50 0.7 3400 65 5 105 6 42 0. piezopolymers. ~ ~ ~ e t esome of the p i e z ~ l e c ~ c m a t e ~ ~ s .1 s.

respectively. c~ c e n ~ 3 is one of the most d o ~ a entering onto n~ with dopants such as phaseover a widertemper 0 3 solid sol~tions[ r p i e z ~ l prop c ~ ~ lutionsystem is d e ~ by ~theZrcontent. z is a ~ e l l . n ~ .~ o ~ n Lithium niobate and lithium tantalate belong to an isomorph0 are composed of oxygen ~ t ~ ~ r The n . The crystal s y ~ of the ~ e these single crystals is 3mandthe pol~zationdirection is m ~ h a n i co~pling ~ ~ c i for surface acoustic wave.rial p r o p e ~ e depending on thecut of the materialsand s e wave propagation. t e m ~ r a t ~of s o Curie e are 1210 and 660°~.

doping w ions such as NbTa5" or provides soft like PZT-5. On the hand. becausethe oxy~en vacancieswillpindomainwall ~ o t i o n .4 shows dependence the of S cons tan^ on compo~ition near the mo~hotropic phase boundary.154 Chapter 7 ~tragonal ferrmlec phase perovskite s ~ c t ~ e th of . This e~ancement in piezoelectric effect is attributed the to increased ease of r ~ ~ e n ~ t ofo the i n pol~zation under an applied electric field. 3.t its p r o ~ ~ e s P vacancies. because of the facility of domain motion to resulting due the Pb3" 3. Figure 7. efer to ~hapter Section 3.1(3). ~ o p i n ~ PZT material wi or the donor acceptor changes ions ~ ~ a t i c ~ Donor l y .t 5. ~ e thetetragonaldistortion decmses andat x > OS2 the s ~ c t changesfromthe tetragonal 4mm phase to another ferrmlec~c phase of r h o m ~ h ~ a l phase The line dividing these two phases is called the ~ o ~ ~ t r o ~ i c boundary composition is considered to have both tetragonal and rhom coexisting together. have their highest values near the mo~hotropic phaseboundary. x. 500 400 300 00 * I I 100 n " 3 10 20 30 3 zirconate titanate ( . Subse~uently. increasing a content. suchas PZT-8. other acceptor doping with Fe or Sc leads to PZTs. PZT in ternary solid solution with another perov re: ositions m intensiv investigat~ solution with * hich are patented by different companies.

clear ul~asonic imaging is e a zero ~ m ~ r c a ~ e wave. tanatehas a largecrystal dis a ro with te~agonality onal s ~ c t u r et eratureits .~ e n s e l ysinter^ P b T i ~ 3 c e r cannot be o b ~ n ~cs 31°) exhibits an extremely low ere.of several d c o n s ~ n ~composition ne on the m o ~ h o ~ o p i c e end member of PZT.155 800 A 600 N _I . differ the mentioned They from ly normal ferroelectrics in th exhibit a broad phase ~ a n s i ~ o n the p~electric ferroelectric state. ependence . a from to fr~uency de~ndence dielectric c o n s ~ n t of the (i. Since these transducers can generate purely longitu~inalwaves ~ o u kt ~h s ~ i with no tran ~ a t ~ k3 1. ( acoustic S supe~or substrate device applica~ons. respectively. dielectric relaxation) a d a n remanent p o l ~ i ~ a t i o n . Relaxor ferroelectricsbe in can polycrystalline or either form as single crystals.e. k and kp are ~ c ~ e s s t tors. . relaxor materials complex have perovskite s ~ c t u r e s . 2 X :S 400 W “l c 48 60 50 58 52 56 54 phase bound^ in the PZT system..

solid solutions. Y .

.

7. By combining an approp~ate (extensional shear and types). . The very mechanical force. t~c sensor because of the direct ~ ~ e z o e Z e ceffect.Fromtheoutputvoltageringing. ~iezoelectric ceramicscanbeemployed as stresssensors and accelerationsensors.17) output voltage @W (a) Gas igniter and (b) output voltage.158 fer 7 high voltage generated in a piezoelectric ceramic under applied mechanical stress can cause s ~ ~ and ignitethegas (Fig. Figure '7. multilayer the device detect can ~e-~mensional stresses. a rapid. 7. pulsed applica~onor by a more al. Therearetwomeanstoapplythe ~ n g One of the very basic applications of piezoelectric ceramics is a gas igniter.7 shows a 3-D stress number of quartzcrystalplates stler. 7.6(a)? ~c L of If youknowthe relations~pbetweenthelength L and the mech~ical resonance : uencyfr: fr a 1 I L. either by continuous increase.6(b). e. od is roughly e s ~ m a to d 30 p cor a resonance ~equency of ~ be leading to a length L = 30 mm. can you estimate the length data the ~ i e z o c e rrod in Fig. andthat 10 mm roughlycorrespondsto 1 0 0 canestimatetherodlength. From the expe~mental shown in Fig.6).

oltage of the piem- = Do sin cut provides the acceleration iezo-disk is given by 8sS ezoeiectric disk 0 sin a t Base Basic s ~ c t ~ of e accelerometer.~oeiectric Devices 159 Z 1 Y stre§§ sensor (by ~ § t l e r ) . r an . c ceramic disk ie sensor.

160 U rical ~ y r o s c o ~ e (by .

ctric € 3 e .

162 Chapter 7 ese m called the ~iezoeZect~c ~ ~ ~The number~of . . andthe d term denotes the energy ~ d &om el u mechanical energy or vice versa through the piezoelectric effect. 18 for h i and 6 for h e e number of independentparameters incre~ing crystallo~ap~c s y m m e ~ .1. k is defined by : (7. ~33'~ d3 1. . d3 q4E. C.23) k valuevarieswiththevibrationalmode(eveninsameceramicsample). Next let us in& S.inde~ndent e i o ~ parameters for the lowest s y ~ trigonal~crystal are 21 for Si*E. respectively. The number of no in case this is 10 (S 1'l .20) and (7.1( 1): k2 = (Stored mechanical energy Input electrical energy) I or k2 = (Stored electrical energy IInput mechanical energy). S 1 3E.. o n c e ~ i n g the C polycrys oled axis is usually denoted as the z-axis and the ceramic is tothisz-axis(Curie group (mm)).Section 2.21) are applicable : e S and E termsrepresentpurely m e c h ~ c a and electricalenergies (U l UEE). S1 zE. ~ Note that this definitionis equivalent to thedefini~on provided in Section 7.2). (7. can have a positive or negative value (see Table 7.

163 le 7. conditions Resonator shaw I Mnition kr x1=x2+ 0 x3* 0 XI# Q= 0 .2 Several shapes of the p i e z o e l ~ ~resonator and their e l ~ ~ o r n ~ h ~ c ic coupling factors. Elastic b n a v u d r. t3+0 Thick mode I I Width mode I ! / ' - .

a1 length tension mode (/E) : / nsion mode of the circul Y .

fol~owin~ y n ~ c ~ : e ~ ~ a ~ 1 volume element in .

and V the applied voltage. (7. the electrical impedance [(applied v o l ~ g ~ current) ratio] plays an ~ d u ~ important role. (7.0 2 p S1 p U = a2u/ax2 . Introducing Eq. which is t ly given by .E33LC is the ~ ~ t t i v i in ya l o n g i ~ ~ n a l clamped sample.166 2 X 0 Longitudinal vibration through the transverse piezoelectric effect (d31) in a rectangular plate. o is the angular frequency of the drive field. ~ubstituting p a general solution u=~l(x)eiO~+u. L the length.24). and the total current given by : is L L d312/sllE)Ez + (d31/sllE)xl] dx .(x)e-j~~ Eq. (7.26). the following solution can be obtained: adax = x1 = d31Ez [sino(L-x)/v + sin(ox/v) /sin(0Wv) . ("729) W e n thespecimen is utilized as an electricalcomponentsuch as a filter or a vibrator. the a d ~ t ~for e mechanically free samplecalculated tobe: ( l a ) = (inr) (rnzt) = = 00wWt) E33Lc[1 + (d312/ ~ 3 3 L c slE)(tan(0~/2v)/ ( m ~ / 2 v > l .31) where W is the width. i = j a w D3 dx = j a w [(E# 0 0 (7.27) Here. aD3/a t. (7.28). and is the density.30) - c the is Using Q.26) into Q. leads to a harmonic vibration equation: .28) Here. l (7. and allowing for XI=U/ x and E. (7. v is the sound velocity in the piezoceramic whichis given by v=l/. andwiththeboundary into condition X1 = 0 at x = 0 and L (sample length).lps11E./ x=O to the equal potential on each electrode). (7. t the thickness of the sample. The current flow into the'specimen described by the surface charge is increment.

the antiresonance stateis generated for zero admittance or infinite ce: The finaltransfo~ation providedby the definition. e.at an~esonance.33) On the other hand. resulting in the no capacitance change.On theotherhand. and the current cannot flow easily into the sample..28)] is illustrated in Fig. is The resonance and antiresonance states are described by the following model. The resonance frequency fRis calculated from Q.Piezoelectric Devices 167 (7.13. 7. first resonance frequency - (7.32) The piezoelectric resonance is achieved where the admittance becomes infinite or the impedance is zero.1 .(7. In the resonance state. aL/2v = (m-l/2) or or antiresonance states appear for t a n ( a ~ 2 v ) m (m:integer)]. (7.respectively. int~tive In a high electromechanic~ coupling material withk almost equalto 1.Thestrainamplitudex1 dis~bution eachstate for [calculated using Eq.andthecurrentcan easilyflowintothe device. for as a high k material the first antiresonance frequency fA should be twice large as the k.35) Resonan~e m=1 Lrtw coupling Antiresonance High coupling e 71 3 Strain generation in the resonant or antiresonant state. (7. Thus.31). and the ~ n ~ e n tfrequency is given by a l fR = v/2L = 1/(2L+ S1 1E . strain induced in the device compensates completely. the resonance = or 0 [i. large ~ o ~ j o nc~ Z i ~ a m ) ~ e strainamplitudesandlargecapacitancechanges(called induced. .

168 h a typical case. and~ 3 3are ) ~ described below: e soundvelocity v inthespecimen is o (refer to Fig. a ~ e general processes for calculating the s11E. the elastic com c echanical coupling factor k31 is coupling piezoelectric materials.3.14). using density p.where k31 = 0. 7. the an mentioned mode and becomes closer to material exhibits c h ~ g is c o m ~ n s a c ~ e t a ~ ~ r othec resonance frequency fR. following the available: a~proximateeq~ationis ~ fromtheresonance ~ ~ n e l ~ ~ o m e c hP i c ~ ~ " .

which has high m ~ e ~ ~ c e .70) and a high k mate~al (PZ~-PT crystal. 7.37) (7.38) co~esponds the mech~ical to loss. In con~ast.36) Figure 7.15 (b).k312 f (1 k3I2) = (~2f4)(Af f - (7. k33 = 0.14 shows observedim~edance curves for a typical k mate~al (PZT 5 = 0. Note single ad~t~~sonance n (7. equiv ent circuit for the ~ ~ ~ s o state~ c e the n of shown in Fig. vice for (a) the reson~ce ( ) and b .90). i P P I ~ ~ i v a l ecircuit of a nt the an~resonance states.

hard piezoelectric d.These echoes vary by in intensity accor~ng the type of tissue or body s~cture. For speakers or buzzers.16. A. Ultrasonic scannin~ detectors are useful in medical electronics for clinical applications ranging f o diagnosis to therapy and surgery. piezoelectricbuzzer is shown in Fig. the size l shape of a device are very impo~ant.170 Chapter 7 Elastic vibrator \ Piezoceramic U U Piezoelectric buzzer. there~y creati~g to images. devices with a rather low ~sonance consisting of two piezo~ ~ u e n are used (kHz range). and nondes~ctivetesting are typical applications. A liquid p~cular. both the vibrational mode and the w r m c and f bending the mode in a material must considered. rm Oneofthemost importantapplications is basedon ultrasonicechofield.Ultrasonicwashers. th applications For ator the p i e z ~ e ~ c )rather a piezoelectric thanlarge should a mechanical havehigh quality fac coe~lcient that is.20y21) Ultrasonic transducers convert electrical energy into mechanical form when generating an acousticpulse andconvert m ~ h energyc into an electricalsignal when ~ ~ detecting its echo. Examples are a b i m o ~ h cy ceramic plates bonded together. compact size and long life. In the use of m e c h ~ c a vibration devices such as filters or oscillators. be The reson &om 100 to than muchthat lower centimeter-size ranges sample of the thickness mode (100 kHz). 7. such as An ultrasonicimagerepresentsthemechanicalproperties . The sound source is made &om piezoelectric ceramics as well as magnetostictive materials. of the tissue. whichhas merits such as high electric power efficiency.ultrasonic ~ microphones for short-distance remote control and n d e ~ a t e detection.Thetransmittedwavespropagate into a bodyandechoes generated which travel back to be received the same~ n s d u c e r . m e d i is usually used forsoundenergytransfer. Ultrasonicwaves are now used in various fields. and a piezoelectric fork consisting of a piezo-device and a metal fork. audible by humans. such as sonar u r and fish finding. M piezoelectricmaterialswithahigh QM are preferable. P i e z ~ e r ~ ms c generally superior efficiency in in and size to magnetostrictive materials.

a high e l ~ t r o m e c h ~ c a l couplingcoefficient of the transducer.Further. ultrasound is one of the safest diagnostic imaging techniques. We can recognize anatomical structures in an ultrasonic image are easilydiscerned.The backing is added to the rear of the transducer in order to damp the acoustic backwave and toreducethepulseduration. constant is necessarytoenable a goodelectricalimpedancematchtothe system. broad The band wid^ response corresponds to a short pulse length. especially with tiny piezoelectric sizes. 7. resulting in better axial resolution. a lowplanarmodecoupling coefficient. This means we can follow rapidlymovingstructuressuch as theheartwithoutmotiondistortion.17 Basic transducer geometry for acoustic imaging applications. Figure 7. Useful areas for ultrasonic imaging include systems. the vascular imaging.Piezoelectricmaterialsareusedtogenerate detect ultrasound. electrical and impedance matching. piezoelectric material and backing layers.thefetus andabdominalorganssuch as liver and kidney.17 shows basic the ultrasoni~t r ~ d u c e r geometry.The sincetheorganboundariesandfluid-to-tissueinterfaces ultrasonic imaging process can also be done in real time. acoustic impedance matching. broadband transducers should be used medical for ultrasonic imaging.22) One or morematchinglayers are used increase to sound tr~smissionsintotissues. In eneral. In addition. g .it is possible to see inside the human body without breaking the skin by usinga beam of ultrasound. i. It does use not ionizingradiation like x-rays and thus is routinelyusedforfetalandobstetrical cardiac structures.171 density and elasticity. These of pulse echo transducers operate based on thickness mode resonance the piezoelectric thinplate. Three factors are importantindesigning broad band wid^ transducers. In brief. The ~ ~ u c ise r mainly composed of matc~ng. isbeneficialfor A largedielectric limitingenergiesbeingexpendedinnonproductivelateralmode. kp.

pro~ucin~ a rec is a modified linear so S iezoelectric body resonant vibrates its at absorbs consid another at ~ ~ u e n result~ c i in^ iezoelectric m a t e ~ ~ s .(a) Vi~rator I ~ r n ~ ~ t ~ ay type ultrasonic are various typesof tran dis~ete elementsto be in& ic focus in^ in the S the use of phase del A lin (or sector). lrectlon.

. m ~ e of vi~ratio s fits smaller size.173 ~ e ~ ~band~ c y e or to blo ~ i e ~ o emate~al l ~ ~ c is e about 5.6 mm.

in~rdigial acoustic waves can S on the plane surface of a piez~lectricplate. In SA^ transducers. CATV (Community Antenna Television) and (Video VCR Cassette Recorder) components. finger (i~Eer~igiEa~ electrodes provide the ability to sample or tap the wave and the electrode gap gives the relative delay. The energy carried by the SA^ is confined near the surface. synthesizers. An associated electsostatic wave exists for a SAW on a oelectric substrate. A SA^ filter is composed of a minimum of two transducers.20. 7.The material fora given device applications are SAW velocity. For example.174 Chapter 7 A swji3ce a c o u s ~wave (SAW).39) where vs is the ~A~ velocity and fo is the center frequency of the device.alsocalled ~ a ~ a y l e i gwave. is essentially a ~ coupling between longitudinaland shear waves. Surface be generated and by spatially periodic. A periodic electric field is when an RF source is connected to the electrode. piezoelectric coupling to a traveling surface wave. A schematic of a simple SAW bi~ r e c t i o n ~ is shown in Fig. analyzers navigators. Energy which is not associated with the received signal is absorbed to eliminate spurious reflection. energy conversion from an electrical to mechanical form will m ~ i m u m be when ~~~ (7. SA^ wavelength is on the same order of magnitude line dimensions as produced by photolitho~aphy the lengths for both short and long delays are achievable on reasonably si There is a very broad range of commercial system applications which include frontte end and IF ( I n ~ ~ e d i aFrequency) filters. The SAW velocity is an important parameter d e ~ ~ n i n g the center i m p o ~parameter for many applications is t e m ~ r a sensitivity. is applied to theelectrodehavingperiodicity. ages of SA^ technology are:23. Various materials are curren single-cry st^ SA^ material materials have different prop directionofpropagation. temperature f f l c i e n ~ c~ of delay (TCD). electromechanic~coupling . which allows electroacoustic coupling via a transducer.factor and propaga~on loss. filter A bi-directional transducer radiates energy equally from each side of the transducer. thus pe~itting source with a Wuency.If an f. d. The first-order temperaturec~fficient delay is given by: of .24) * (1)Thewavecanbeelectroacoustically surface and its velocity is approxi electromagnetic wave. t ~e the tempera~re stability of the center frequency of SAW bandpass filters is a direct function of the tempera~re coefficient for the velocity and the delay for the materi~ used.

41) S =2(vf-vm)/vf e wavevelocity and vm the velocity onthe metdliz ks2 relates to the ma~imum plications. so that the piezoelec~cfield associated with the wave is effectively short-circui The coupling factor. Propagation loss is one the major factors that e t e ~ i n e s of d insertion loss. which and t ~ e t e ~ n the ~ a c t i o ~band wid^ as a f~nctionof mini mu^ insertion -loss for a es al given material andfilter. marizes some impo~ant . . defined in terms of the change in SA^ velocity which is occurs when the wave passes across a surface coated with a thin massless conductor. al where z = L / vs is the elay time and L is the S propagation length. expressed by : ks2 is 2 (7.iezoe~ectric Devices 175 r-" "l I l" ~ u n d ~ e n tstructure of a surface acoustic wave device.ks2 . The s d a c e wave coupling factor.thevalueof bandwidth obt~nable the ~ o u nof signal loss between inputand output.

no electromagnetic-noise transforrner to start glow the of a ~uorescentb a c k .5 5 1. 1.8 0 10 c l -15 8. of their com act size in c o m p ~ s o n with the convention^ electroma~netic coilt r ~ S f 0 ~ erious problems found were initially in the m~hanicalstre (collapse heat nodaland the in point!) ~ e n e r a ~ o n .o 26 0. -74 -18 (110)-<001> 0.o A delay line can be forrned from a slice of glass such as Pb glass inwhich the velocity ofsound is nearly inde~ndent ceramic transducers are soldered on two metalli input transducer converts electrical the signal to a shear which wave travels through the slice.16 0 3158 4.l ~ p .SA^ material properties. is application has recently accelerated the development the piezo-transformer.5 5. of . ark Li N W 3 LiT Q Li2B49 ST-X 12wY . At the output transducer the wave is signal delayedby the length of time takento travel arou are used in colorW sets to introduce delay of ap a loyed in videotape recorders. input and output terminals a e f a b n c a ~ a r on e is changedthrough thevibrationenergytr ~ ~ e z o e l e c t ~ c t r a n s f Piezoelectric transforrners o~er.X 0. lap-top Recent computers with a liquid crystal display require a very thin. development the approach e as that for used fabricating ceramic actuators.

where t is the e r ratio is incre~ed e ~ ~ s f o (Fig.~ ~ s fwas e r by o proposed ~ C. variety of such transfo~ers investi~ate~. 7. A.22) in ~ e r to i n ~ e thee ~ voltage rise r ~ ~ o .42) with an increase of (L2I t). Figure 7. ultilayer type transfo~er by .177 i e z o e l e c ~ c ~ a n s fproposed by o~er the original p i e ~ o .p o l e d coexist inone parts 1 s~ndingwave wi a wavelen~ the sample to wavelength existing on both the in~ut (L1) and output ratio r ( ~ t er ~ t -iis~ ) ~ for the unloaded condi~on : ~~iven by * (7. z 6 ) Usage of thethirdorder l~ngitudinal mode is anotheridea to ist tribute the stress concentration.21 where two ~ e r e n ~ y .

(P7.23 (a).178 Chapter 7 UsingMason'sequivalentcircuitsfortwolengthexpanderbars.1) i l:N l " V I I 2 * ent c i r c u i ~for len . a length expanderbar (top and bottom swfkce with electric field ~ ~ n ~ c utol ther a direction of wave propagation is provided in Fig.surface and end electrded. 7. vbE). calculate the e q ~ v ~ e circuit for a Rosen type nt transfo~er.23. as shown in Fig.7.7. where A completeequivalentcircuitfor : 22i = /sinh ( L / @ .

7.11) 3 ~ k33. - (P7.3) a length expander bar In asimilarfashion.7.7.7.7) (P7.179 0 The ch~ctensticmechanicalimpedance 2 and theclampedcapacitance provided by: CO ~ i = p w t v b ' = w t ( p / s l l E 112 .the necessary parameters for electroded) with electric field parellel ~rection wave propagation are given to of by: (P7.9) (€37.6) (P7.8) 0 = p W t V b ~ = W t ( p / s 3 D) .10) NO = wt d33 / L ~ 3 = ( w a ) (&33T/~33D)1/2 (P7.7.7. and (c) the Rosen . ircuits for (a) one-end five length expander bar (surhce length expander bar (end electmded).7. (P7. 3 112 coo = wt &33T(1 k332)/ L.

n one end of the piezoelectric element is free lication a as s must be replaced by (L/2) voltage ratio for an ope^-circuit condition c L2) = n / L2 (p /S33 ng into account the relation: .

S .

182 Piezostrictof BST ~iectrostric~or PMN-PT ter 7’ Electric (kV/cm) field Electric -20-10 0 10 20 field (kV/cm) Electric -15-10 5 0 5 IO 15 field (kV/cm) (b) (a) PNZST Phase-change material -30 -20 -10 0 (kV/cm) (kV/cm) field Electric Electric field 10 20 30 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 ctive in .

which es unimo~h displacement. is n suf~cient some for applications. and 1o ) hi e l ~ t r o m e c h ~ ccoupling.18 MOVING P I E C E LEAF SPRING CONT La~hing relayusing a shape memo^ ceramicunimoh. This contrasts the with characte~sticsof the bimo~h which consists of multiple p i e z ~ l e c ~ c tic plates bonded together to gene^^ a large ~ n d i n g displacement of sev pm.Butthe al dis~lacement. tip a 150 pm (S Two of the most popular actuator designs are the mu1tilayers3’) and bimo~hs l 1 0 thin p i e z ~ l e c ~ c / e l ~ t r o s ~ c t i v e 0 es of low driving voltage (1 force ( 0 O N . butrelatively has low force (1 response time (1 ms) and genera~ve . pulse not a continuous voltage. ires a 4 ms voltage. the on order of 10 pm.

/ i m ' i Moonie / Typical designs for c e r ~ i actuators: mul~layer.I Multilayer ! U Single Plate L li . . c moonie and bimo Z-stack (1 0 layers) (extension) X-stack (10 layers) (shear) Y-stack (10 layers) (shear) ing ~ u l t i l a ~actuat er electric field d i r e c ~ o ~ .

requires a very hard i e z o e l ~ with a hig p ~c .to suppress heat genera~on. also an i n ~ g u onthe p i e ~ ~ eandthepower s u p p l ~ ~ 2" r ~ c )h suffers most f o strain hysteres rm thispurpose.Thepulsedrivem quickresponsewithacertainow ap~lication. Driving motor the at is rather than at resonance. .instance. X b ~lassificationof piezoelect~c/elec~os~ctive actuators.

186 displaceme Etectric field n-t (a) ent vibration of a bi scale with a unit of half of t Ink ribbon .

as demons 7.30 shows ~ansient vibrations o applied.8.187 actuators are very impo~antfor improving the 7. or ~ o n s i ~the longitudin m e c h a ~ vibration in a iezw er c~ b..30. the movementof to realize no vibrational ringing double hit~ng. rise The time is varied with a unit of To12. where To stands for that the overshoot and ringing o ~splacement completely suppress^ when the rise time is precisely adj is -device(i. width W and length L (bc< d y n ~ i equation: c n the followingd y n ~ i c e~ua~on: seud~step voltage. A 5 pm an hit a 2 mm steel ball up to 20 m using a flight actuator as se width.e.43) A flight a c ~ a t o r ent a d a steel ball.3).x) a d n . 7.forn = 21. using Laplace the z(t) as U(s.

X)/~X2' is ~ s u m e the ~ o ~ l o winitial conditions: s in~ u(t=O. ~u(t=O.x) = ~2U(S. = .x)/~t0.18 S1 p S2 U(s.x) = 0.

L) = (d31E0v2i4L) [t2 -2 (t -L/v)~] L <t <2Liv )[t2 2 (t -L/v)2 0 c t c Liv - + (t -2Llv)2] 2Liv c t . u(t. Thus.superi~posin~ d3 1 the onse to a pseudo-s orn= 1 . 0 c t c Liv For n = 2.

L) is again expandedas an infinite series: Figure7. the e~pansion series t e ~ i ~ t in finite t e ~ s . does not exhibitringing [see Fig.32(c)showsthedisplacementchangewithtime.7. entheappliedfield E* includes the term ( I + e-suv).32(b)]. U(s.Noteagainthatallthe curves are composed of parabolic curves and that the height of the overshoot 116 of is . l e to ia n ~ es ~ co~plete s~ppression i b r a t i o ~ l ~ n g i n g . o v f For n = 3.190 0 T 2T Transient displacement fora ~seudo-step voltage.

N elec~ostrictiveactuato~for B ~ ~ i n g l e rotor ss the blade angle provi tric strips. A slight .191 S found in a space truss S i ~ f o ~ a t i o n p r ~ e s s(F g in L~gh~eighted mirror retainers f3erel Tilt Pin Tie bar flexures flexures PMN actuators optical image c o ~ ~ c t i o n .

.

1 Video head A (R .

38). The magni~cationunit is based on a monolithic hinge with lever a magni~cation 30. A a on e of p i e z ~ l b i m o ~ h open ~ ~ c can and close theshutterin a ~lli-s~ond ough a mechanical wing rnechani~m. actuator displacement by 30 times. A sophis hinge monolithic element (b). resulting in an ~ p l i ~ displacement of 0.thickness are stacked. .5 mm and an energy of ed transfer e ~ c i e n c y greater than 50%.37(b)]. together with a sophisticated magni~cationmechanism [Fig. 7. 3 Closed state Open state era shutter mechanism using a piezoelectric b i m o ~ h actuator. iezoelectric c ~ e r shutter is currently the largest p r ~ u c ~ item (Fig.~~) ~ ~ c t u of e printer r a ) and a ~ f f e r e n t i ~ . 7.

. opens bypass then the oil route. ~pplying5~ V generates a displacement of about 50 hichismagnifiedby 40 timesthrough a piston pin and combination.5 mm thick 2 msecandtheresol of the u~down devi theroadroughnessisabout mm. as the d ~ p i n force of a shock g absorber an in auto ' ntrollabili~ s ~ b i lof a vehicle and i~ because road the roughness is e se of the electro~cally controlled shoc S stem is set to simul~neously. i n s ~ l e d on a it "Celcio ( ~ ~ ~ a lto n t e Lexus. is Figure 7.39 ~lectronic modulatedsuspensionbyToyota. pitching the rate toassmall as theconditi ed to as small as the condition Pi-lectric sensor Piemelectric multilayer actuator Piston Damping change VdW ." leading to better controllability. "soft"). .40 illust~atesthe o acceleration and pi~hing were m rate was also "hard. w ach on the road adjusting in the d~ping condition. Usually the force ("soft") so as to improve c o m f o ~ * * response of the sensor and actuator combination required. "%e actuatorismade of 88 layers of O S mm thickdisks.. Figure 7.39 shows the structure of the electronicall controlled shock absorber. disks. 7. internationally)" in 1989. The det~ting sensor is composed of 5 layers of 0. pushes plunger stroke the chang of the d ~ p i n force g down.e.19 aP S (Toyota Electronic Modulated Suspension). leadingthe to of the flow resistance (i.56) In general.

1 U~-down Acceleration .

of an ~ l ~ a s o nmotor. cQns~ctiQn of time. ic .S etic or s~~ercond~c~n~ mate~als.

hard brake and no backlash Excellent con~ollability Fine position resolution 3.40 cents perunit. Negligible effect from external magnetic or radioactive fields. Drooping torque vs.Horn 1 7. the se~conductor industry began to demand much more precise and sophisticated positioners which would not generate need the development of ul~asonic magnetic This field urgent noise. Quick response. Direct drive 2. and also no generation of these fields --- -- 8. Less durability due to frictional drive 10. Low speed andtorque high . motors. m ~ u f ~ ~ r m scurrently p r ~ u c i n g er piezoelectric buzzers at about . wide velocity range. 30 . Another advantage of ultrasonic motors over conventional el~~omagnetic motorswithexpensivecopper coils is theimproved av~labilityofpiezoelectric ceramics at reasonable Japanese cost. In the 1980s. Quiet drive 5 . speed characteristics . Simple structureand easy pr~uction process 7.198 . Let us summarize the merits and demerits of the ultr~onic motor: 1. Necessity for a high frequency power supply 9. Compact size and light weight 6.43 Ultrasonicmotor by Barth. High power Iweight ratio and high efficiency 4. with increasing chip pattern density.

so that the tip moves along the rotor face between A . the only duration A . Refresh your memory on the wave formulas. an intermittent . Therefore. properly. (7.t) = A COS kx COS at. ux = uo sin ( a t + a) (7.there are rotaryandlineartype motors. if and the bending deformation is sufficiently small compared with the length.44) be transformed as can up(x.199 ) ~lassification an les of Ultrasonic From a customer's point ofview.(7. they form a resonating structure.45) - - This leadsan to impo~antresult.43) while the propagatin wave is expressed as Up(X.> provides a -B uni~rectionalforcetotherotorthrough fiction. a propagating can generated wave be by superimposing two standing waves whose phases M e r by 90 deboth in time and in space. y = u1 sin ( a t + p.44) Using a trigonometric relation. and freely betweenB . of Thestanding-wavetype is sometimes m f e d to as a vibratory-couplertypeor a "woodpecker" type.44 shows a simple model proposed by T. If we categorize them according to the vibrator shape. and. the vibratory piece generates bending because of restriction by the rotor.47) which is an elliptical locus.46) is excited at the piezoelectric vibrator. where vibratory piece is connected to a piezoelectric driver a the tip portiongenerates a flat-ellipticalmovement. Take the x-y coordinate so that the x axis is normal to the rotor face. k (7. n-shaped.Twocategoriesarebeinginvestigatedforultrasonic motors from a vibration characteristic viewpoint: a standing-wave type and a propagating-wave type. the tip locus during the free vibration .t) = A COS kx * COS a t +A COS (kx M2)*COS ( a t ~ / 2 ) .> B. there are rod type. The standing wave is expressed by us(x.(7.> is representedby -A) x = uo sin ( a t + a).Figure 7. This principle is necessary to generatea propagating wave on a limited volumelsize substance. Eq. ) (7. because only standing waves canbe excited stably in a solid m e ~ u m finite size.> If the vibratory piece and the piezo-vibratorare tuned -A. When a vibration displacement.t) A COS ( x-at). ring (square) andcylinder types.therefore. Sashida6l) A vibratory piece is attached to a rotor or a slider with a slight cant angle 8.

\ l l l .I W' 'S.

ller l Al horn ler ~ l ~ a s o nmotor (a) and the ic motion the torsional of .

a p i e ~ o e l ~ ~ c cylinder ceramic for 7. vibration cylinder torsion was simple ultrasonic motor. (a) . As shown in Fig. driven When revolution of 600 rpm and a m ~ i m u m t o r ~ u1 of e eter er motor.d o ~ n torslona vibration^.47.^^) Since number the of components is process is muchsimplified. A com~act ultrasonic roto^ motor.202 r 1 \ ca "~indmill" motor with a dis~-shaped torsional coupler. has been devel at the Pennsylv~nia State University. Ceramic a torsional vibrator (Fig.the f a b ~ c ~ ~ nis price disposable becomes design feasible. the stator cons a p i e z ~ l e c ~ c and two concav~/convex ring metal e n d c ~ s with "windmill" a and slots bonded together.48).64) Using interdigital an type with electrode on the surface. 7. so as to n e ~ t e coupling ofthe u ~ . as tiny as 3 mm in eter er. a 4 5 O cant angle ch is applicable for a Jw-Cylinder (a) Piezoelectric cylinder torsional vibrator and its electrode pattern (b).

a forms an elliptical displacement.49). in As Tomikawa's rectangular plate motoris also i n t r i g ~ i n g 6 ~ ) shown in Fig. . that is. Figure 7. a torsional Langevin vibrator was combined with three multilayer actuators to generate larger longitudinal and transverse surface displacements of the stator. ) "his motor has been employed a precision X-Y stage. as well as to control their phasedifferen~e6~) phase change can change the rotation direction. Uehaproposed a two-vibration-mode coupled type (Fig.66) linear This motor is multilayer piezoelectric r and fork-shaped metallic legs as sho Since there is a slight difference in the mechanical resonance fiquency between two legs. The combination of thetwomodesofvibration chosen werethe1st longitudinal mode (L1 mode)and the 8th bending whose resonance frequencies were almost the same.2 kgf with a maximum efficiency of 20%.51 shows the characteristics of the linear motor. Thewalkingslidermovesin a way similar to a horse using its fore and hind legs when trotting. By applying voltages with a phasedifferenceof 90 degreestotheL-modeandB-modedriveelectrodes. 7. when driven at 98lcHz at 6V (actual power = 0.52. A test motor. The Uchino invented a m h near motor. 7.7 W .203 BOLT Two-vibration-mode coupled type motor. exhibits a m ~ i m u m speed of 20 c d s and a maximum thrust of 0. the phase Merence between the bending vibrations of both legs can controlledbychangingthedrive fkquency. 20 x 20 x 5 mm3 in dimension.

elliptical ~ o t i o n thesamedirecti in To Oscillator I O T 114 T 214 T 314 T i I ? I 1 T linear ultrasonic motor. 10 0 0 50 LOAD m (g f ) 1OQ m otor characteristics of the shape^ motor. . (a) cons egree phase ~ f f e of two~le ~ n V f P v > t- ) .

. Ass .. l linear motor as i l l u s ~ ain~ t ed at both ends of a steel s-sec~on..20 . ~ ~ h i and da Ueha et a.....

5 1 Usingthebendingvibration.8 mm) to slider. ringtypemotorswereinventedby be utilized. the c o n ~ cface of which is CO t ssionrodwithan app~op~ate Thetran force. h = 26. Thus. distance from the free endof the rod to thePO intoaccountthewavephase. was driven at a speed of 20 cm/s w problem with this type of motor is foundin its lo t a the whole rod ~ u s beexcitedevenwhenonly output.53. V = (E I / p A) d ~ .206 Horn( l: 4 ) Piezo brato or 20 4 Linear motor using a bending vibratio~. bythevibrationsourcepositionontherod.8 mm. 26.50) ) (7. because the lengthsof the stator arr as .. slider. madeof a steelc l ~ p e60 m~ i r waves.e. (7.thewavelength h canbeeasilychosenasshort several mm to satisfy a stable surface contact with the slider section areaA or the momentof inertia I of the ~ansmission 7.thevibration co~esponding one wavelen th h (i.

more sop~sticatedstructures are employed with respect to the ceramic poling and the mech~ical support mech~ism. and the traveling wave by (7.we can make a rotary type motor using a the bending vibration.When deform we the rod discussedintheprevioussection to make a ring by conn~ting two ends topologic~ly.52) Sincethetravelingwavecanbeexpressed waves as as a superimposition of two cos cot + A cos (ne . Two types of "ring" motor designs are possible: (a) the bending mode type and (b) the extensional mode t ~ p e . Assuming a vibra~on source of A cos cot at the point 8 = Q of the elastic ring. we can generate a ~ropagating wave in the closed ring with the profile of the original st~ding wave. a vibration source drives one positian of a closed ring (circular or co~espondin~the resonance of this to ring. When multiple vibration sources a e installedonthering.2) cos ( a t -W2). only a standing wave is excited. (7.displacementscanbeobtainedby r superi~posingall the waves (two waves from each vibration source).53) (7.t) = A cos ne cos a t .54) nce is m ~ n ~ in Seace n ~ . because the vibration propagates in two directions sy~e~cally from the vibration source and i n ~ ~ e r e n c e occurs. Using the superimposition principle. 7 ~ ) A l t h o u ~ hprinciple is similar the to the linear type. the nth mode s~nding wave can be expressed by u(0.

anon's I' U i U Vibration source positions for g~n~ratingpropa~ating a wave in a rin Slider Rotor Elastic nng / Rotor Felt Stator structure of Sashida's motor. .208 ightypercent of theexchangelensesin beenreplacedbythe ul~asoni nic motors done in the Uni of modi~cations Sashida's type.

The advan~gesof this motoroverthe e l ~ ~ o m a ~ motor c n e ~ are: conv~ntional 1. mec~anismsuch as rv0 sin ot v0 cos ot " Ground E " f =44 kHz Torque (gf cm > - otor characteristics of Sashida's motor.5 mm in thic~ness c shows S~hida's motor characteristics.5 mm in thickness.209 into 16 pos~~vely negati and ions so as to generate a 9th pe was c o m ~ of a brass ring s ~ 2.It the stator ring ich elastic can has many ma~nifythe S lens position can be S displacement improve and the with a screwmechanism. more s u i ~ b l e video for n motor and design tion no as with microphones). ng" motor for a camera automa~c is ins~lling ringmotorcompactlyinthelensfiame. with di c e r ~ i ring of 0. Silent drive dueto the ul~asonic ~equency and no gear mech drive * . .

In the case of a s t a n ~ n ~ motor. It is important to note that the stop pins which latch onto the stator teeth only provide high rigidity against the rotation. which are utilized as m ~ h a n i cswitches missiles.1 mN*m. Seiko I n s ~ m e miniaturized the ultrasonic motor to dimensions tiny as 10 mm n~ as in diameter basicallysame using the ~~nciple.however. A travelingwave.~ O ~ A L T POS I ION 0 I S P L A ~ ~ ~D I STR I B T I ON ~NT U I RADIAL DIR~CTION N (a) T o o t h . AlliedSignal ultrasonic devel motors ~ for laun~hin similar to Shinsei's. A driving voltage of 3 V and a current of 60 mA produces 6~ rev/min (no-load) with a torque of 0.55. special considerations are necessary.75) VI ( O T U POSl T ION UPT .7.~~) Figure 7. points wave the or lines %11p: generallysupported. In Fig.us.doesnothavesuchsteadynodalpoints or lines. atsushitaBlectricproposed a nodal line support method using a higher vibrationmode [see Fig.57(b)].73)Figure7.5 mm of thickness.thiscausesminimumeffectsontheresonancevibration. Tlt. where a wide ring is supported at the nodal circular line and "teeth" the maximum~ p l i t u d e circle to get larger revolution.A general problem encountered for these traveling wave type motors support of is the the stator.s h a ~ stator and (b) a higher nodal line for~ x i n g .57(a)shows the stator structure. . the stator is basically s u p p o ~ verygentlyalongtheaxial dimtion on felt so as not to suppressthebending vibration.58 shows the c o n s ~ c t i o n one of these small motors with a 10 mm diameter and a 4. 7.

.zoelectric Devices 21 1 OTOR. ' P P OP T ~~ R FOR !SIXTO ruction of Seiko's motor.

21 r7 SlON inn in^" type motor by To .

Analo~y l V V .

_.5 l ~ i ~ r atheof ~ t veloci io q u ~ factor i ~ ) reson~cesof a PZT .05 0 500 0 0.02 0.01 0.214 most suita~le method for achievingo~timum verthewhole vi~ration be ~ ~ driving the l ~ ~ o nmotor. 0. 20 10 0 0. for l i u ~ i~ c 000 40 30 1500 1000 kc. .1 0.

.S (d) mechanical quality factor Qm = ~ 2 A ~ -- -- -- 2. 4.2. m.224 . Piezoelectricfigures of merit: (a) p~ezoelectric strain c o n s ~d x = d E t (b) piezoelectric voltage constant E = g X g (c) e l ~ t r o m e c hcoupling factork ~c~ k2 = (stored m ~ h ~energy I~ i c input electrical energy) = d2 / E O € . re son^^ ( i j = 1..215 1. C l ~ s i f i c a ~ o nceramicactuators: of ~is~lacementActuator Technique Category aterials ve gid ~spl~ment ~ ~ sE l u c ~ r s ~ c t o r de eo motor drive Pulse ~ ~ ~ o n i c motor demerits of the u l ~ ~ o n i c motors: oft p i e z ~ l e c ~ c ment e o .. = 1. to resonance and an~esonancemodes are both ttance maximum minimum and correspond ~ ~ e s o n ~ c e . .k 6 m~h~cal ~son~ces. respectively.Piezoelectric equations: k.

216 ow to generate a traveling wave on an elastic ring: = n-th mode standing wave: u(8.1 Calculate the vibrator for (a) (b) electromechanic~ couplin~ factor follow in^ vibration mode: the Length extension mode Shear mode the p1 on (a) A multilayer a c ~ a t o r is .t) A cos n8 cos cot w n-th mode ~ a v e l i n ~ A propagatingwave whose phases differ b 7.

and the displacement curve was obtai and how to determine thek3 1d3 1 Qpvl values from the data.the ~ansient vibra~on correspondi mode (extentional. to a Applied Voltage CV) 7. verify . a r e c t a n ~ u l ~ i e ~ ~ l e c t r and p plate i the c ~ctuator (pinball machine). The stabili~ displacement and damping constant are obtain from which elastic the compliance9 piezoelectric cons~t.) is measured. ~ ~ s v e r ~ n e ~ a ~ v e ( Eo) is appli pulse xed rigidly at oneend. the ~ansient displacement was as a function of time. (6f = fA - - (b) Using a pulse drive technique. By apply in^ a step electric field piezoelectricsample. ~ n d i n getc. ve method is an alte~ative method c~aracte~stics.217 verify thatthe follow in^ approxim couplin~ piezoelectric material: k3l2 /(1 k312) = (7t2/4) (6f lfR).

7. I990 ~ l t r a s ~ n i c s . 7. (There wil 7. when the m ball is hit exactly vertically. ~c 1 14 (1982).218 other end is given by2ld3111Egv (v: sound velocity of independent of the length.15(b)]. .t) = A cos (28 c o n ~ g ~ a t i o n s beapplied t to mode of vibration. For the equivalent circuit of a piezoelectric ~ s d u at the a n ~ s o n a n c e ~ r intrinsic physical state [Fig. general principle for unimo~h ~ c ~ e . s modeu(8. 7. and is (b) Suppose this that velocity is ~ o u g h small ball a steel (mass: M) without loss. and discuss the nce between the two states. derive the relations of L and C to parameters such as p d. sE and the dimensions of the transducer. draw the ~splacement dis~bution for u(x) both the resonance and an~esonancestates.5 Fromthestraindistribution xl(x) for a low e l ~ ~ m ~ h coupling l ~ c a material pictured in Fig. Calculate the m ~ i height~of the steel ball.13.7 - Jaffe: ~iez~electric ~ r ~ ~ London: A ~ a d e Press C ics. 1 ~ y ~ ~ o s i u ~ . 7. Chapter 7 the ceramic). 697 (1990).

(1987).. Sonics ~ltrason. tee on Barium titan at^. New r ~ r ~ c i s i ~ n s i ~ ~ n n t ~ ~ l iltl Chief oo o o Edit. Smith: Proc.A.219 V?. A. . 23(3). elb bourne: ~ l ~ * Imaging and Analog Signal Processing. ic 755 Newham:Jpn. Campbell: S ~ Acoustic ~ Devices ~ Wave e and ~ ~Signal r i Processing Applications. To~ikawaand T. Takano: . XXX~-171-1067 (1983). . ~ufacturingTech.. Auld: A c o ~ t i c i eand Waves in Solids.Uchino: Ceramic Data ook '88 (Chap. Calif..Inst. Appl. no: IEEE ~rans.' 2nd ed. Academic Press (1989). SU-25. atthews: Su~ace Wave ~ilters. San Diego. . . 1989 IEEE ~ l t r ~ o nSymposiu~.U. (1989). Indust~al ( 1 990).:Ceramic Actuators). Tokyo (1988). York: Wiley Interscience (1977).187 (1980). J. C.

~izutani: J Appl. ..45) 7'. and Jpn. Phys. . Ota.~ ~ h i k a w a T. T. (1 985).

221 .

222 hapter Electric field on-linear polarizability of fenoelec various electrooptic and optical par^ . electrooptic coefficien uch than ntional larger the values crystals SUC (SBN) (see Table 8. dependingthe on c Some ition. . e x ~ p l e s typical An of es are shown in Fig.Noticethatthevalence of lanthanumion (3-t) inthea-site (2-t) generates the vacancy the b-site. hence.2 shows the phase d i a of the ~ b l . generally sparency a wavelength ge extending from the visible to infraredy and exhibit optical anisotropy with an applied electric voltage.~ 4 system. onwhich is indicatedtheelectrooptic effects m a ~ f e s for ~3 t~ variousphaseregions. problems still r e m ~ nin prep crystals and.1)¶which means that the voltage electrooptic shutteris much less for the PLZT. Figure 8.3. 8.manufact~ing c epolycrystallinemicros ctrooptic effectif it is si fenoelec~cs of specialinte are extraordin~ly large app~en material is in its so-called p electrooptic properties fenoelec~cs.x L a x ) ( ~ l ~ ~ y T i y ) l . of ~ e PLZT solid solution exhibits boththe Pockels ( p ~ and ) c effects. seful fe~oelectric electrooptic material tra~tionally from come the Ti)O3 they have in system.

[mol *h] PbZrO. elation ~ e t w ~ n PLZT compostion and s~cture and e l e c ~ o o p ~ c -20 -10 0 10 2( -20 -10 0 10 Electric field Electric field E [kVlcm] E [kVlcm] 2 c Pol~ization and b i ~ ~ n ~ e Anc as a ~ n c t i o n electric field E for P n e of . PbTi FE.Tat 10 20 30 application.223 PbZrO.

0 5."-A-A- -0 0- R D COEFFICIENT COEFFICIENT - BY C H H e a r t I i n o . .materials. 7km P 1 .35~3 5.12 Secondary electrooptic coef~cient KTa0.0 4.65~b0.07 m) El > \ 1.52 PLZT 8/65/35 ( ~ ~ = 3 ~ m ) 6.30 9/65/35 ( ~ ~ = 2 ~ m ) 2 9. of . Pockels (1st) and aterial ~mary electrooptic coefficient 0. 0 2. \ 1 1 .0 Grain s i z e [pm l rain size de~enden~e the electroo~tic coe~~cients.1 PL2X 10/65/35 ( ~ ~ = 2 ~ 1.0 3.

3 x 1.1 x 10-16x 1 x 10-3) .

veryhas 3 spindle-l small ~biguous b p e ~ n the cto l ~ ex ~ u field greater than 0. the b ~ ~ n g e n c e An is estimated by the summationof the linear and quadratic electrooptic effects4) An = [ .5 kWmm1s applied.al analysis of this peculiar phenomenon is based on the model the that crystal is composed of coexisting ferroelectric and paraelectric phase^. field of e response possible phenomeno1ogic.6). the domain walls within a certain region of the sample moves together. and and R represent theel coefficien~. such that micro-domains respond to the appli perative manner (See Fig.x(T)] 1 n3(r33 -r13) E/2+ x(T) n3 (8.3) r where n is the refractive index.5) Itis n o t e w o ~ y the stripe p that and bright domains (correspon~ng up and down p o l ~ ~ t i o n will not to s) ' . 8. the actual situation may not be so si as x(T) is also a function of the applied electric field E.226 5 ~ ~ n g e n celectric vs. the Even if ex~~men~l phenomenologically. respectively.^) Suppose that the volume fraction the paraelectric phasex(") is given by of an cumulated ~aussian distribution with 'respect to temperature. noth her more realisticdesc~ption found interns of a m is mechanism.

“apparent” secondary nodinear effects such as electros phenomena. . which occur without any hysteresis. Domain reversal mechanism in Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)03. The relaxor cry at poled easily when an electric field is a p p l i ~ aroundthe ~ a n s i t i ~ n eratur te depoled c o ~ l e t e l y without any remanentp o l ~ ~ a t i o n .y domain reversal. and that each domain area changes zero net pol~zation zero field.

2 ~ o ~ p o s i t i o xn .

e n = 2.12 0.x) 13 / Composition (x1 . I4 0.08 0.10 Ti Fraction x 0.16 tive in~ex a f ~ n c ~ QcQm~Qsitionx for (1 as ofn .49 of 0.

11) have been fkbricated using the light shutter principleg) The lenses consist of a pair of optically isotropic PLZT (9/65/35) sandwichedbetweentwocrossedpolarizers. To switch domains. Oneoftheearliestapplications is Ferpic(FerroelectricPicture er no^ Device). transmitted light The intensity increases with increasing applied voltage. a PLZT 7/65/35 ceramic plate is uniformly DC-poled laterally [see Fig.10(a)].10(c). AirForce to provide thermal and ashb blindness protection for aircraft personneL8) The goggle is basically a transverse-mode shutter an using i n t e r ~ g i ~surface l elec 8. the right and left PLZT shutters are triggered synchronously to each image frame.theregionswithremnantpolarizationnormaltotheplate are produce a bright image. by optimi~ingthefabrication optical transmit~cemust be achieved. Then.88Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)03-0. 1 PLZT eye glasses for stereoTV (see Fig.230 The data indicate that the 0. discs en zero voltage is present between the electrodes. 8. light will not be t r a n s ~ ~ e d . SandiaNationalLaboratoriesdesignedPLZTgogglesforthe U. Stereo TV images of an object are taken by two video cameras co~esponding the to two eyes and the signal from each cameramixed alternately to make frame. The writing voltage supply will then cause switching in these regions only. resultingain stereo image. . Viewin~reading memorized image is accomplishedby passing polarized light the ~ o ~ the Ferpic andan analyzer as shown in Fig.12PbTiO3 the potential to has be a better electrooptic ceramic than PLZT with high m~hanical toughness. storage achieved by is switching domains at points corresponding to the image's high-intensity regions. creating low-impedance regions in the photoconduc~ve film. and reaches a m ~ i m u m when a phase difference on) of 180° is i n d u d in the PLZT disc (at the half-wave voltage). and the other regions produce a dark image.S. a high-contr~ttransparency is placedin front ofthe Ferpic a d illuminated [Fig. g h a n a l y ~ r parallel. Figure 8. When viewing.10 shows the principle of the Ferpic?) Initally. 8.10 (b)]. 8.1 con~guration similar to that shown in Fig. for the is a right and left eyes. ~ g h e r however. 8. process.

(c) reading process using a pair of parallel polarhers. a .Electroo~tic Devices 231 VER POLA~IZER FERPIC ANALYZER (c) ~rinciple Ferpic: (a)initial DC poling. (b) writingprocessusing of f m i ~hotocon~uctivel .

2 left A stereo TV system using a pair of P current require men^ for high defin been proposed.dimension^ utilizing two-dimensional PL pment of a simple mass . One of the promisi one-dimensi*nallO) or two.

14(b) shows a picture of an ~ ~ s .n cal display: (a) a m a ~ se x e l ~ c o n ~~ ue a ~ o n (lox 10) ~ ~ r of a device in the figure rep re sen^ one inn e l ~ ~ Figure 8.35 mm. ayer thickness is about 0. . actual display.

8.16(c) (letter " F ) is generated on the screenel .6b. terminals of the device areaddressed as shown in Fig. The driving circuit for the display is shown schematicallyin Fig. . 8 1 ( ) the image appearingin Fig. 8.234 Chapter 8 I i Fabrication process for the two-dimensional PLZT optical display.16(a).

.235 Picture Vertical Electrode External l . rightness on a screen vs. (b) Top view photograph of a PLZT light valve array with external electrodes. Electrode d Vi Side View front T m 1 ew chema~c l ~ con~guration a (lox 10) matrix PL e ~ ~ e of e. Note that the half-wave voltage differs for these three lights. green or blue light. applied voltage for red.

10 . .2. V-§ V-6 v-7 v-l .23 1ms H-l H-2 H-3 H-4 H-§ H-6 H-7 W 8 W 9 W-l 0 v-3 V 4 .8.9.

1 CTO r n ~ ~ r o s s t a testsystem. a slitfocused on the s~reen is 1 ~ f f e ~ inn ~ combinations:(a) v t ~ t .lightthrough l~ ~ ~ .

light and leakage observed at vertically. (1) Explain the reason physically. accor~ngto the illumination wavelength.15.33 a d 2.2. (P8. = ( m " o 3 E32 (R11 =n. is (2) Taking into account the electrode gap of 0.1) L O mm (note that the surface depth mm is an inactive layer): 0. 3. oblique type cros & ~ n ~ on g applied voltage and the n u m ~ of continuous e l ~ t r ~ e s n the r ' address) (called combination type c onfig~ations necessary to eliminate is first in ligh In Fig.1) (1) Since half the wave voltage is provided Eq. light the required voltage differs: for shorter wavelengths. h o ~ z o n ~ oblique types. that is. 7 with lk 8. a smaller electric field required. which does the other hand. of - e half wave voltage is calculated from r . 8. E3 = 3. 0.e..1 - .There three different cr~sstuZ~ patterns: vertical. the maximum the tensity voltages for red.1' made by keeping vertical one te~inal monoc~omaticlight?) The was test (=P on el=@&) (i. and high Ground) applying v01 h o ~ z o n ~ t e ~ i(continuousplate-ugh nals el~trodes) simultaneously. respectively verticaland horizon~l crosstal~ i intensity. by (P8.1).18(a)-(c) for three ~ f f e ~input c r nt and bottom of figures ina pixel indicate the li ht inten the ON and OFF state.238 Chapt ~ r o s s ~was monitored on the 2-D display using the setup shown in Fig. 160 V for 150 blue. ho~zontally obliquely adjacent pixels. respectively.2. respectively.6 x [m2N2]) does not changesignificantlyfor e calculate the wavelength these thee lights.89 x n . green and blue light. 8. is obtained at V for greenand 1 osing that the ~ ~ c t i index n ( 2.55.49) and the e l ~ ~ o o p t c c ve = i R12)(3.4 mm. and a pat~ength given by (1. The results and a e shown in Fig.

modulation Phase by 1 hieved by applying a voltage of 0.4g3 x ( 3 . a On other as can the hand. 2.the light tends to bend toward high ~fractive-index side. Figures8. 3.3. imagine.9 = 630 [nm] (for red). h = 555 [nm] (for green). is Like an optical fiber.Theprinciple of the wave~ide shownschematicallyin Fig. The fabrication of of a planar type is easy. V with power consumption of S * * . 5 5 ~ 1 0 (3. but the device functionis close to t Thetransmittedlightintensity is easily m ~ u l by ~ aapplying a relatively low voltage.2.~O(a) and 8.r e ~ t i indexlayeron a by ve substrate.20(b) are typical planar and ridge type electrooptic waveguides. 8. (P8.3) Lightwaveguidescanbe f a b r i c a ~ deposit in^ a ~ g h . but the nonunifo~ dis~butionthe applied electric field is problem.239 h = 2.19. h = 418 [nm] (for blue). ridge you the type sophistic~ted manufacturin~ technology.6~x 10m16) x low3) ~) (0. so that the light should be confined in the narrow high refractive-index layer fabricated on the LiNbO3 single crystals are commonly used.

12) and l. A electrooptic new cerarnic 0. "he superior c h ~ a c ~ r i s t i cof s these materials are athribu p ~ m ~ i toythe easy poling of the e ~ ~ l e micro"dom~ns. . A newtypeofPLZTtwo-dimensionallightvalve.240 rod C Electrooptic waveguides:(a) plan~-type (b) ridge-type. Relaxorferroelectrics are widelyapplicablefor el~trooptic light valve/display applications. is one excellent example a design well-suit~d mass-produc~on of to at a low ~an~facturing cost. 4. Light waveguides can be f a b r i c ~ ~ ddepositing a high re by a subs~ate such as LiNb03. 3.fabric by a tapecasting technique.88Pb( g 12P~Ti~3 with high mech~ical toughness is one of the ~romisingnew mate~als fori for lifetime display applications. l f c ~ c 2.

md d e m e ~of the two ~ above elec ~onsider ~ire~ingence the S the and electric el^.1 Let us consider PLZT thin a film platewiththe follow in^ for lateral electric field an (l ht iscuss the merits config~ations.8. e l e c ~ o o p coef~cient ~c matrix for this sy .

Uchino: Proc.87 (1989). p. 3 . J Giniewicz. Chap. ls. J Kuwataand S. J T. IEEE.155 (1977).M. K.Glass:PrinciplesandApplications of Ferroelectrics and Related Materials.: Electronic Ceramics. Uchino: Ferroelectrics 94. Nomura: Ferroelectrics 2 iie and K. A. Clarendon Press. P.371 (1988). Oxford (1977). .57 (1975). Murano: Ceramic Transactions 1 ~ a t e r i a l sp.283 (1990). Murai K. h Appl.on . K. Uchino and S. IEEE Ultrasonic Sympl K. 1 . p. Uchino and T. (Kyoto)p. Uchino:CeramicsInternational 2 .Mtg. 604. 49th . Levinson edit.Komata: Proc. Lines andA. T. Kaminov: Trans. Marcel Dekker (New York). Cutchen: Roc. K. 309 (1995). Ferroelectric Mater. Uchino. Takasu: Inspec. 29 (1986). Tokiwa and K. E. Tokiwa. wata. 2.205 (1977). 1 L. K. h Appl.. Aerospace Medical Assoc. T.242 Chapter "he electrooptic coefficient matrix is given as E K. p. 0 K. K. New Orleans. .. Mtg.297 (1990). Annual Sci. May (1978). M. Kumada. K. 1st.7. F. I. Y. M. Ferroelectric Mater. Nomura: Proc. M. 2 . Kojima. and ~ h m ~ Ceramic a: Transactions 14 EZectro-Qptics and onl linear Optic ~ a t e r ~ a p. Kat0 and T. Kitta.

of 100 Ml - Mn 0. 10 100 200 300 Temperature (“C) esistivity as a function of temperaturc for several dopedBaTi03 PTC c e ~ c s ~ o p a nconcen~ations indicated near each curve.3 S semi conduct in^ with a resistivity i resistivity is drasticallyincreased. . t e r n ~ ~ around the Curie point.aTi03) is doped withlanthanumatlevels less than 0. . t are 243 . then it has been investigated intensively by e ~t Since 9.127 10 M 1MI CI. t ~ e PTC or P ~ C ~ was discovered in 1954. 1- e v cz t100k F ~ *# 10 k U l k l00 .and is referred to as the c o e ~ c ~of ~ e s i s t i v i ~ ~ e ~ e c t .1 showstheimpact of variousdopantsonthe eramic resisti as a function tempera~re.

244 esistivi~vs. Ce or Cd) or the T host s ~ c t u r e . t isovalent su~stitution d o ~ ~ t s t y have a highe ~ic~ly ions such as La. Since the t e m ~ r a ~ e Curie ~oint. §m. closely related with the Pb (resistivity curve ec is ex to e .

3 ..to .

was particles (m-type) ceramic barrier) (Schottky er ven is ge by the following equation: .246 -e Conduction band Ns Fermi level Grain 't/oundary Energy-level near diagram a grain bound^ of aTiO3.1. and that the low resistance at c is thus accoun T the ~ o t e n tbarrier due to the increasep e ~ t t i v as~ i~ in i elow the TC pe~ittivity falls.Q. acceptablemodel is an Inorder to explain the PTC or PTC phenomenon. the most Fig. but t ~ spontaneo e controlstheelectron concen~ationto (9.4.5: (x) = e =O (0 <11 <L) x (1x1 >L) .) lectronic properties in ceramics are strongly that a grain bou grain bound^. and that er is generated as shown dis~bution model represented in Fig. in illustrated the prop which initially 9. above Tc. = e ~ s 2 / 2 & 0 & ~ d . following ¶uestions: . Suppose grains possesses acceptor impurities. 9. where N is the concen~ationofdonor atoms d at the p e ~ i t t i E obeys th ~i~ &=C/(T-To).

p e ~ i ~ i v i EOE and electronic e. the p e ~ t t i v i t y is Curie te~perature =13OOC). - xplaintheresistivity c h ~ g by ons side ring e (a) Poisson's e~uation given by is I&o€ Taking into account (0 c 11 c L) x (P9.1. grain ~ u n d ~ n-ty t w ~ ~ occurs within a re . the ty charge escribe the potential @(x)by using the donor density S that change the in ( ) Describe b the barrier t ~ ~ k n eLs s Ns. surface acceptor density the density by donor s i g n i ~ c ~ t above ly (c) In se~conductive aTi03. ( barrier height e $0.2) a general solution @(x) = ( s~lution: - .Ch~ge densitydistributionnearthe semiconductive grains.

increases in height exp(-$ l to propo~on to e $0 / kT). and a u t o ~ o ~ chokes manufac ve n e y c o ~heater b for air . it increases s i ~ a ~ obelow n sistivity is (m' exp(l - n we consider the detection but also ications for these e r ~ heaters" have also been widely commerc c 9.6 ttles Figure and hair dryers.8 (b) ~ o n s i d e ~ n ~ n e u ~ a l i ~ a ~wenobtain charge o 9 arrier height e $0 is represent^ - E = C/ (T -TO).

discuss the c ~ e n vs. t~m~eratureh ~ a c t e n s ~ c a barium ita an ate^ PT c of . 9.2 honeycomb air heater for a hair dryer (photo cou~esy of The resistivity vs. I esistivityvs. t voltage relationship under * a ro con~ition qualitatively. te re ch~ctenstic a barium of ng into heat account generatio shown in Fig.7.

250 VOLTAGE AX ~ u ~ e vs. the cu~en~-voltage rela~on obeys Ohm's law (that is. p is almost . tvoltage relationship for a ~ n ~ titanate ~ i m e ini~al stage.

9. d ~ L capacitor is cornpos of rnany cubic core-shell units of a grain size n of ~ e l e c constant ~c ( kin thickness.aterials 25 1 P el of the grain ~ o u n layer capacitor. let us divide the sample into two regions: (W G2: is an ) of with a capacitor . and zero . half of the chess).10. calculate apparent constant the diel &app of this corn has an electrode area S and an electrode gap d.

I 61 c 2 (€S) ' 1 (6onductor included) ~ ~ edielbctric cons n t .l d .

stors.1 re1 voltage nt vs.9.2 . .

6-5. Newnham: "St~cture-~rope~y elations Electronic in Ceramics." aterialsEducation. Comp. Soc. "Misterious Stones. Mfg. Andrich: Appl.1) 2) 3) eywang: J. E." J. Amer. Vo1. 123 (1965-66). E. 4) . Electr. urata Catalog. Ceram. 26.

10.there composites: 0-0.3-12. where m stands for the connectivityof an active phase (such as PZT) and n for are 10 types of phasic an inactive phase (such as a polymer). 1-0.. a honeycomb-shaped PZT contains the 1-dimensionally connected polymer phase. i n ~ ~ u c the conce t of " ~ ~ ~ ~ e c classifyi ~ ~ ' ' ed PZT:polymer composite s~ctures.1 .Piezocomposites c o m ~ s e d a of I polymer-matrixcomposite is osite are high coupling factors.Ingeneral. in and a 3-1 composite. while a 1-0 composite has Phase 1 connected along the composite hasa structure in which E T rods (1-dimensionally connected) are arranged in a 3-dimensionally connected polymer matrix. 3-3. A 1-3 cubes. mechanical on with a low mecha~cal quality factor ve ceramic and a agnetoelectric effect magnetic field. 2-0. in A 0-0 composite. 255 . it is called "1".1 conside~ng a two-phase connectivity each of phase is identi . is depicted as two ~ t e ~ a t i n g hatched and ~ ~ h e z direction. A diphasic composite is identified with this notation with two numbers m-n. 2-2 indicates a s ~ c ~inrwhich ceramic and olymer sheets are S e and a 3-3 is compos^ of a jun frame e m ~ d d e d i polymer. if a phase is self-connected only in z direction. for ~ ~ v Newnham et al. itis called "3". and z directions. match in^ to water or human tissue. . if a phase is self-connected all .. for example. as illus~ated Fig. in x.

2 rl "0 -0 2..0 3-0 1 " 1 21 - 3 " 1 2-2 tify the connectivity of .

ha 1 S .

following the linear A dramatic inmechanical enh the strength trend depicted lO. if no chemical reaction occurs at the interface between the carbon fibers and the polymer.Y ut refers to an . le and the s ~ c t ~ e 1 effect observed in a ~ 2 ~ 3 : e p o x y c o m ~ o s i t e . along a rod i. p ~ e t e r U and 2 Supposethat Y and 2 followconvex and concavetypesum s .buttheaveragedvaluein or a ~ o m p o sduesnutU1 i~ ~ nor is it lessthan U2. This effect is called a ’ ’eflec?.volumefraction of Phase 2 foracase of Y1 Y2.e. A expansion al for for ep the ceramic. i. (showing a convex relation as depicted in Table a e mixedin a polymer matrix ~~~n r nother interesting example is an WCin epoxy with a relatively high pac ~ 2 exhibits 3 semiconductor-m ~ a ith i n c r e ~ i n ~ temperat~e..’’~ ~ example is a fishing rod. in Table of the rod is achieved adding by carbon fibers in orien~tion. a light-wei~h~tough material.e. The v ~ a t i o n may exhibita con~ave aconvexshape. where carbon 3-1 and 3-0). The d e n s i ~ oa com f should be an average value with respect to volume fraction.. ~ ) alue of the output.l(a).

The details of these materials will be : next section.effects. leading to theene era ti on of a ch~ge/voltage the piezoelectric effect in ~icrographof a transverse section of a uni-directionally Solidified rut3 of m i x t ~ e ma~netostrictive of CoFe2O4 and piezoelectric BaTiO3. with an excess of Ti02 (1.2) . the combination value Y E will exhibit a maximum at an inte~ediate ratio of phases. A an .2) "his mate^^ a Z magnetostrictiveCoFe2O4 and piezoelectric BaTi03 mixed sintered together.4 shows the magnetic nce of the magnetoelectric effkct in an arbitrary unit meas~ed room at n a magneticfield is appliedonthiscomposite.%).%).cobaltferrite generates magnetostriction. c a eflect. and E pe~ittivity). Four finned spinel dendrites are observed in cells (x 100). This is called a ' ' c o ~ ~ i n a t i o n eflect. Figure 10.5 wt." a ~ g n e t o e z e c t ~ ct e ~ based on this concept.we can expect for the composite output 2 with an input X. respectively. finally e ~ via BaTi03. completely newfunction is m for the composite structure." Certain piezoelectric cer~c:polymercomposites exhibit a combination property of g (the ~iezoezectric voltage c o ~ t a n twhich is provided by d (d piezoel~tricstrain ) k constant. When Phase 1 exhibits an output Y with an input X.S wt.1 (b).3 shows a micrograph of a transverse section of a unidirectionally solidified rodof the materials with an excess of Ti02 (1. as illustrated in Table 10. which is ~ s f to barium titanate as stress. 2 with . Figure 10. and Phase 2 exhibits an output an input Y.

2 sive s e n s ~ ~ s for .

0 140 3-0 120 73 40 13 52 85 30 90 " 20 80 .~~1)(10-3~~~ 7:9 3-1 3-3 81.S onse of (103k~~-3) (GPa) 833 P constant c o n s t ~ t d33 c33 E3 (10"2CN") (10-3. 250 90 .0 3. i 2000 40 4 3 110 20 1 ZT:.3 19 3 00 00 7 280 ..~ilicone 3.

On an external stress is applied to the composite. of "he piezoelectric forthe1-3composite m listedinTable10.togetherwiththoseof a e composite with 3-3 connectivity. A linear relation between the p e ~ i t ~ v i t y the and volume fraction lV is almostsatisfied. measured with a Berlincom d33 meter.6 shows the p i e z o e l ~ ~ c coefficients for a I?ZT-Spu~s epoxy composite with 1-3 connectivity.1) where h is the volume fraction of phase 1 (piezoelectric). top planes are rigid electrodes. Thus.3) Figwe 10.262 1 A l 3 composite of I?ZT rods and polymer. the elastically S will support most oftheload. E * . - and bottom (10. d33* = ld33. This discrepancy may be due to incomplete poling of the rods. Similarly. while thed coefficient remains constant.andtheeffectivestress is drasticallyenhanced inversely propo~onal the volume fraction. A forthiscomposite. but are only about 75% of the d33 value of the PZT SO1A ceramic.themeasuredd33*values are n. for the composites.resultingin a dramatic increase833" decreasing in with fractionPZT. In conclusion. thepiezoelectric g coeffkient canbeenhancedby twoordersof mag~tudewith decreasing volume fraction of T .2. larger induced electric fields to larger g* cons^^ are expected: (10.

the field induced strain exhibits large hysteresis and creep due to the viscoelastic property of the polymer matrix.70-0. k33 (0. - . The heat generated by f e ~ ~ l e hysteresis in the piezoceramic cannot dissipated easily due to the very c ~ c be low thermal conductivi~ the polymer matrix.ceramic stiff with a low density. * Although the PZT composites are very useful for acoustic ~ s d u applications. ?he ~ c ~ e s s . quality factor and the poaibility of making ui arrays nd d by simply patterning the electrodes. mechanical flexibility. approaching almost the valuethe rod-mode e l e c t r o m ~ h ~ c a l of coupling. good matching to water or human tissue. composite Piezo materials especially are useful underwater and for sonar medical ultrasonic di transducer applications. replacing the in by dense.80) of that c e r ~ c . soft polymer. c ~ care must be taken when using them in actuator applications. Under an applied DC field. related to the generation of heat.lowacoustic ce.m o d e e l e c ~ ~ e c h ~coupling of the composite can ex&the cal kt (0.40-3. which results in rapid of de~adation of pie~oelectricity. that is. 6 ) The acoustic match to tissue or water ayls) of the typical piezoceramics (20-30 Mrayls) is significantly improv when they are inco~orated forming a composite structure. broad bandwidth in combination with a low mechanical.263 "he advantages ofthiscomposite are high couplingfactors.50) ofthe constituent ceramic. 2000 4001 P m volume fraction (%) Volume fraction dependence of the permittivity E and the p i e z o e l ~ ~ c constants d33 and g33 in a 1 3 P ~ : p o l y m e r composite. More serious problems a e foundwhenthey m r driven under a high field.

= &3*&0 l&3eo E3 + 2V 2&3so E3. S33 ~ h i c h are e stress. and the elastic complia~ odes are common and E3 is c 3= fore. . PZT (Phase 1) Qolym6r (Phase2) (a) P ~ ~ l e l C o ~ e c t i v i ~ Series (b) Connectivity in iphasic composites S. x3.the strain. p ~ ~ (c) e f f ~ ~ v e p i e z o e l ~ c ~ c v o l ~ ~ e c ~ f ~ c i e n t 3.4 8 (b) eff~tive i e z ~ l d33* cc~ ~ c i e n t .

(P10.2.2.2.~) - - x3* = [(lV 2s33 ld33 + 2V 1 s33 2d33)/(1V%33 + 2V ls33)] E3.~) be ex3 must strain c given by the follo~ing e~uation: the a v e ~ g x3* e strain is 1 v (1x3 x3*) lIs33 = 2 v (x3* 2x3) l2s33. (P10. (P10.6) iezmlectric c o n s ~is t 33* = (1V 2s33 Id33 + 2 v Is33 2d33) 4333) EO ( h l&3+ 2V 2&3)].2.3) (P10.Phases 1 and 2 are inde~ndently free: (P10.8) 1 .2.

and a general case 0 < n 1 co~esponds a con~gurationden to more n.10 shows ~ e the ~ ~ p e r i m e n ~ l l y e ~ p e~ i t t i v i ~ d ~ n * ( d33* c 2 d31*) = coef~cient PbTiO3: for chloropr~ne rubb ~eoretical ~ e s ~ ) c of PbTiO3 (l be less than 1 (that volume the en fkaction IS. n ap s 1 (that is.5) + (1 -a)n)1'2 + a31 e volumefraction of 1~ ase 1 is givenby (10.a ) ~ ( a ( ( + 1-a)n) + a31 a/[1 .266 L 0 t 20 40 60 . thickness rubber the ~ o u n d along thinner a the Pb z direction and thicker along the x and y action. the dimensions). 80 I 1 Relative pe~ittivityplotted as a function of volume fkac~on PZT of p0wder:polyureth~e ~ b compos r ~ cube model. F i ~ 10. n ~ g ~ a t i chang on w ~ c typically involves rolling and calendering. h = a34a + (1-a)n) .a (a d3 1 *= Id3 1 [a2(a + (l-a)n)]/[a + (1-a)n( l € 3 ~ & 3 3 ) ~ * (10. parallel and series d33* = 'd33 [a3(a + (l-a)n)]/[a + (l-a)n(l&3~&33)] / [1 .7) S model. e case n = 1 co~sponds the to cu . sphere model.

10.wherePZTpowders mixed in a binder solution. 13) As shown in Fig. 12) 3-1and3-2 composites canbefabricatedbydrilling holes in a PZT block. and finally ceramic. In addition to this drilling method. only P types do. the asticSpheres)methodwasproposed. S types exhibit larger dh and gh values than . The 3-1 and3-2 composites show PZT large dh and gh values. back~lled with epoxy.11. an extrusion method also beenusedto f a b ~ c a ~ honeycomb.267 Phase 1 (b) a (l-a)n a (l-a)l * Unit cell m ~ ~ cubes model. e d 1 -a)m con~gurationfor a Q-3 composite according to 3-3 composites were first fabricated the replamine method. drying. general. replicathe of negative structure was by i n ~ ~ u c i n g slurry into the a PZT the negative template. burning out the wax. and themixture is ' orted an alternative method. that involves piling thin up in a 3-dimensionally connected array. there a e two types of r c o n f i ~ r a ~ o n s c o ~applied to these composites: parallel[P] and series [S].A negative replicaof a by natural coral structure with 3-3 connectivity was made of wax.lO) In oder to make highly porous PZT skeletons.

500 0 n 0.2 0. I volume fraction I V E lOOL volume fraction 'V (b) .8 .4 !a . J 0.6 1 0.

(10.8) .

270 P Carbon Polymer Z ceramic " Piezoelectricity Conductivity flexibili~ on black composite for vl~ration PVDF Weighing I II PLZT C B II composites. Fabrica~onprocess of c F .

This eli~inates use of external resistors. 10.16)Figure10. and therefore.14shows the relation between the damping time constant and the volume PL2T:P~~F ~ Z T : composites.13illustratesthefabricationprocess.themostrapidvibrationaldamping. A and ~ ~ ~ F p e r ~ n ~ g ecarbon in of black the volume percentage of about 7% carbon black exhibited the minimum damping time constant.Notethatthe PLZT with a higher elec~omechanical coupling k shows a larger dip (more effective) in the ping time constant curve.wherethecarbonpowder link start to be generated.12). ~exible composites can be useful in practice.ceramicsaredifficulttoassembledirectlyinto a mechanical ence.theceramicpowder effectively forms a series circuit with the carbonblack. The conductivity changes by more than 10 orders of magni~de a certaincarbonfractioncalledthepercolationthreshold. ime c stantvs.volume erc cent age of carbonbl minim~mt~meconstant (quic . so that the vibrational energy around is dissipated. n ~ properlyselectingtheelectricalconductivity of thecomposite.27 1 Being brittle andhard. the addition of small electrical conductivity of the composite is greatly changed by &I: By ~ o u of carbonblack. When a composite of polymer. the Figure 10. piez~eramicpowder carbon and black is faixicated (Fig.

(c) effective piezoelectric voltage coefficient 833". The principle of mechanical d ~ p i n g : material.7 (b).2'12 1. composites: 1-3 The effective piezoelectric o e ~ c i e n ~ 'and c d* where lV is the volume fraction of Phase 1 (piezoelectric). 2~ bottom electrodes are rigid enough to prevent su ~ansverse~ i e z ~ l couplingbetween has e ~ ~ c small. (c) mechanical flexibility l 3. 10.1 kindspiezoelectric Two of materials. poled 1 as compose a composite in a series c o n ~ ~ r a t i o n shown in Fig. calculate the following physical o p e ~ e pr . combination effect. (3) product effect. m e volume Eraction is f~ : (Iv + 2~ = 1). (2) (b) good acoustic impedance a t c ~ n g m with water and human tissue. (b) effective piezoelectric d33* coe~cient. and 2. (1) Vibrationis trans mi^^ to the piezoelec~ic (2) Vibrational energy is converted into electrical energy (AC voltage) the piezoelectric effect. . Composite effects: (1) sum effect. . 4. (3) If a proper resistor is connected. (a) effective dielectric constant &3*. the energycon anicalenergy is (5) Damping takes place a manner that the impedance a t c ~ n 'm along the 3-axis 10.

electric the field. s33 which are strain. +*[I.9 (1 = m = 1. below shown d Electrode ( )Series ~onne~tivity b ctures for p y r o ~ ~ ~ materials. )the striss. 3. P 10. res~cti~ely. stress. b 1 I I * " . and are rigid enoughtoprevent ~ s s u m e thetopandbottomelecttodes that surface ben~ng. 10. the the and the elasticcompliance.~ ) n ) ~ 2 ~ 3 3 - j/[a2&33+ (1-a)n. thatthe transve~estressbetween and ne~ligibly small. x3. az(a + ( l ."which i ~ 'of ic ~is~ibution cubes with res d in Pig. the compliance. x3. OCT. s33 which are ex~ansioncoef~cient. ops fromthe " r n ~ f cubesmodel. 3. displacement.3 as composites as prim^ p ~ ~ l e c t r cwffici ic rwlectkic effect is anticipat~in a com osite ce inthermalexpansion cwfficien~ S this secondarypyroelectriceffect p~allel series connections. tric .1&331 4 31 = * 9 1 [a2(a + (~-i)n)l/[a (l-a)n(l&33/2&3~)1 + a/[l-a (a + (1-a)n)llz a31 + .Use the p a r ~ e t e ~E3. strain. X3. The volume fraction is l V : U( l V + 2 a r ~ e t e r sT. 'n j ~ 1. r e s ~ t i v e l y .

3 K. Biggers..9) R. Nomuraand R. Newnham et al. Schulze and J. Cross (1 978).328 (1987). Soc. Miyashita et al. IEEE Ultrasonic Symp. K. 1 K. E. catalog (1994) W. (1 979). A. 27 (1986). . E. Res. Bull. 81 (1982).Phys. ~ e w n h J Amer.. Biggers and R. E. €7-6. H. R. 24. Gouda. Jpn. ~: . P Skinner.A.A. Int'lEdition n . R a ~ a c h a n ~ aJ :Ceram. Soc.A.: Mater.Uchinoand T. S. H. and L. L.A. V. Smith: Proc. . J Appl. 397 (1980). Sumita.Shrout. Tsunooka: TechnologySoc. Jpn.755 (1989). new^^ and A. (1982). Jpn. Safari. "'89. Newnham . L E. 1 . Uchino. Banno and T. W. E. R. Pauer: IEEE Int'l Convention Record. Soc. . 2 . K. Uchino. 1-5(1973).Uchino:SolidStatePhys. Ishii: J Ceram. R. p. E. 24-2. Newnham: Sensor Technology 2.Kobe.: Ferroelectrics 27. M. W.Banno: Meetin Int'l 6th Proc. E. p. . M. E. D. J V. Cross and W.525 (1978). 1985). Klicker. A. ACX Company catalogue: Passive Damping Y. Cerm. Suppl. K. Newnham. (1981) Materials Systems Inc. T. Suzuki. S . R.

In the author's opinion. acceleration sensors). the In case of the light sensor. ferroelectrics be canutilized various for applications. and composite materials. ed for optical displays. ferroelectrics a : strong only in the fields where no other replacement material exists.have studied the n d ~ e and ~ s ~ n applications of ferroelectrics. ferroelectric memories. money and expertise and a much longer development period than t the areasidenti~ed the most promising. piezoelectric devices. including high pe~ittivity dielectrics. High p e ~ i ~ i dielectric thin film v i ~ can survive in S . viewpoint of commercialization. owever. thin Of course. Ferroelectric devices may fail to be developed wheno m ~ ~ t imaterials already exist. the following will be promising areas in the very near future: (1) Electromechanical devices (piezoelectric actuators. this is not meant to discount the other areas of potential development. have to but failed ialized most in cases. but commercializationferroelectric of memory ( unce~n because of the variability of the coercive fieldof the material. Therefore. it is anticipated that these other fields of application will q u i r e a higher i n v e s ~ e n in time. (2) Thin film hybrid sensors (pyro-. and (3) Electrooptic devices (light wave-guides. ?&'hat will be the next ~romising market for ferroelectric devices? As we have seen. c ve n we see again. electrooptic devices. film hybrid displays). ultrasonic motors). PTC materials. Magnetic devices popular memory are for applications. as . followed by $ezoelectric vibrators such as Gzzers and speakers. pressure. pyroelectric devices. sales are relatively low. Among the other classes of devices. for semiconductive materials are superiorferroelectricsresponse to in sensitivity. capacitor dielectrics dominate at present.

in the future. 1.2 .2 / * U . 0.

arket share of f e ~ ~ devices by Japanese m l ~ ~ c .

European deve~opmen~ a littl are the unit^ States. Brother I n d u s ~T . S u m m ~ ceramicactuator develop men^ c o m p ~ n g United of the ~ilitary-oriented product Vibration suppressor ~ P ~ C A ~ O ~ Space structure ilitaryvehicle Up-sizing (30 cm) ass-consumer product ~icro-motor Positioner Office equipment Camera Precision machine Automobile own-sizin~ (1 cm) Lab-equipment product cro-motor sitioner Vibration suppressor Labstage/stepper Airplane ~utomobile ydraulic system ~ n t e r m e ~ isize at~ (10 cm) ~urleigh AlliedSignal S Tokin C o ~ o r a t i o ~ Philips Siemens Hoechst CeramTec Ferropem hysik Inst~mente Canon Seiko Inst~ments . andtheyseemtohavebeensearchingfora applications.p r ~ on c ~ orderof tens and m u the Piezoelectric ink jet p~nters (Epson) piezoelectric and th ber of are etc.278 hapter 11 machi~ng-relat~ ~cromotors. it is dif~cult estimate the sales~ o u n t Among the current needs of the Navy to .) incre~ing disclosed . aeroservoelastic controland cabin noiseheat vibration cancellation devices. prop ise cancellation deviws. and of the .Thedevicesizesatthetrial manufact~ng stagerange m generally around 10 cm. e markets in the United States are limited to military and defense applications.Air Force: smart aircraft skins. while the quires helicopter rotor twis~ng. smart submarine skins. piezoelectric camera shutters olta C ~ e r a ) auto and S in cameras (Canon). ~ y ~ o p h o n e actuators. In Japan. rinters dot-m (NEC) and pang c o ~ e r c i ~ i z ~~ s .

sales projected to reach $10 billion. If these are installedinfinalactuator-relatedproducts. but t r tou~hness. . $300 million and $150 million. a bright future is anticipated in many fields of application.when it is for electrooptic devices. I n c ~ ~ i n g ~ ~ ~ i size enhances the magnitudeof the f i e l d .the hand. The potential and range of applicationferroelectric for materials have ~ghlighted the previous section. and * Porosity must be eli~nated completelyfromthesinteredceramic. or donoracceptor-~pe. fine powders from made wet che~cal processes such as co-precipi~tion sol-gel willbe required. "soft" the S exhibits larger strains and less hysteresiswhendrivenunder a high electric kWmm). ultrasoni on ystematic stu~ies thehighelectricfield and stress evices are also eager1 awaited.respectively4)The total may sales become equivalent to those of the capacitorindustry. The ue grain size should some of the characteristics such optimized application. On the other hand. there in still remain various problems to resolve before their full commercial potential can be realized.catnera-relateddevicesand ul~aso~c motors in 2005 in Japan are estimated to reach $500 million. when itis morethan 94%. owever. le to a very small hystere~c and a large m loss a small AC electric field (that is. e reproducibili~of the dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics of a ependsstronglyon grain size.~ d u ~ polarization and strain. Onother acceptor dopi S "hard'' characteristics. and drive/control techniques. for each e. Of particular concern are the issues of reliability and durability. ~ o r ~and ii ~ s ~ ont tent. porosity does not aRect the ~iezoelectric strainbehavior s i g n i ~ . produces r e m a r ~ b l e h ~ g e s in c Since donor doping provides characteristics. device designs. Let us consider the reliability issue with respect to materials. Thetipdeflection of a even unimo~h from material not made based does change porosities for less than ng. aging effect is very ing effect arises o ~ a n tnot many investiga~ons .uture of Ferroelectric Devices 279 Theannualsales of ceramicactuatorunits. have o factors: depoling and ~ e s ~ c t i o n . as well as the compositio strength. Thus.

p popular silver electrodeshave a seriousproblem o f ~ g r a t i o n under a high electricfield andhigh h u ~ d i t y actuator. 'we need to ceramic introd~ce or h requires a sinte~ng tempera~e as e sintered at low t e m ~ r a have ~e veloped for actuators. shows an 1 3 such "intelli~ent" e actuator is controlled utilized as an AE sensor. Lif~time predictionorhealth monito~ng systems using failure detection ~ ~ q u e s are also i m p o ~ fort ~ some devices7) Figure 1 .) DC is asort of activation energy andn is a characteristic ~ ~ e t e r . trode layeris another ~roblem multilayer typesas we1 for o e ~ ~ adhesion. ceramicelectrodes. . a d electrodeconfigurationswithviappress the internal stress concentration which initiates s lifetime is extended with decreasing layer~ i c ~ ehassnot yet been clarified.compositeelectrode m a t e ~ ofsa metal c e ~ colloid. in and o ~ beovercomewiththeuse of a silv~-palla~um (ormore alloy Cu ce i n e ~ ~ n s i ~ e actuators. electroop~c m ~ m applications.as a multilayerpiezoelectricactuat obeys an empirical rule+) ( 11 1.

28 1
~ctuation Feedback (2) Breakdown d ~ t e ~ i o ~

I
Control voltage

Strain sensor

0 0
U U

00
o n
D

U

0 a n
U 0 0

n u

O

Co~puter-controlled ower supply

~ntelligent actuator system with both position detection feedbackm e c h ~ s m s .

e

Strain gauge

c o n f i g ~ a ~ othe of n

intern^ electrode for

an intelligent

actuator.

A special internal electrode con~guration with a strain gauge config~ationh s a
proposed to increase the reliability of multil~yer piezoelectric actuators.*) in Fig. 1 1.4, straingaugeconfiguredelectrodepatterns a e inserted every r at ten

282

hapter 11

internal layerof a multilayer actuator. In an electric field cycle n o ~ a l l y applied to the device, the resistance change corresponds to the transverse p i e z o e l e c ~strain ~ induced in the device. However, if crack or del~nation occurs in the actuator, an abno~ally large resistance change is monitored. Thus, this electrode con~guration (2) can be used for both feedback detectors (1) and shown in Fig. 1 1.3.

Ferroelec~ic devices generally have quick responses. owever, when a sharp pulse or step-like voltageis applied to a device, an unstable output ringing tends to occur just after the voltage is applied. This occurs even in capacitors and electrooptic devices, where it is sometimes called " s c r e ~ n g " because the of sound it some~mes generates. It is caused by a piezoelectrically or electrostrictively induced mechanical
re son an^.

In addition to the unstable output, pulse driving the ferroelectric generates very large tensile stresses inthedevice,sometimeslargeenoughto initiate cracks.Insuch cases, a compressivebiasstressshouldbeappliedtothedevicewith cl~ping mechanisms suchas a helical spring ora plate spring.

p is occasionally obse~ed, ating electric ~ e l d ,that iezoelectric a licationssuch as piezoelectric t r a n s f o ~ e ~ ultrasonicmotors. and e is duetotheimbalance ~ t w heatgeneration,basically ~ n hysteresis loss, and heat dissipation, e t e ~ n e d the device size d by (i.e., surface area).9) Itis necessary to selecta suitable duty ratio for the so as to produce a tempera~re no greater than40°C rise
As far ashigh power ultrasonic transducers and motors c o n c e ~ e d , o ~ e r in~ o n are a the an~esonance modehasbeen proposed.l0) Ultrasonic motors have conventionally operated the in resonance the mode, at so-called "reso ver,themechanical re son^^ stateatthe "an~esonance~' higher Q and lower heat genera~on than observed for onance," where admi ving, in contrast to high This means that a conven~onalin ultrasonic device.
l '

ture research and development should focus

uture

283

cont~ning lead. Pb-free single crystals, such as BaTiO3 and K ( T a , ~ ) O 3 , will studiedvigorouslyinthenearfuture, p ~ c u l a r l yin thefields of medical automobile applications. Safetysystems,whichcanbothmonitorthefatigueorsymptomoffailure of materialsldevices and stop the equipment safely without causing serious problems,, . A str~n-gaugeinternal electrode config~ation for multilayer piezoelectric actuators is a good example ofa future safety system.

en closely involved with 60 ferroelectric devices for more than 25 years. During these developments, the author has been a professor, a vice presi an R&D center deputy director ora s ~ n d i n g auditor at several universities private and comp~ies both in Japan and the United States. In this last section, the author wishes to describe his personal philosophy on ow to ~ e v e Z o~estseller devices,especially in the area of smart materials and s ~ c t u r e s . ~ i m p o ~ ~ t younger to is sort of "how-to"is,theauthorbelieves,muchmore researchers than practical knowledge about devices.

responded to a ~uestion r. AGO Morita, formerpresidentof S O W ~ o ~ o r a t i o n , , from a journalistconcerningthelack of creativity on theparts ofJapanesehers by saying "Japanese researchers are good at chasing and imitating the original idea for commercialization,buttheyingenerallackcreativity."Mr.Moritasuggestedthat ould be thee types of creativity with respect to Research & Development at : T h e U.S.people are focusingonly on tec~nologicalcreativi~. Butthe ~ r creativi~ n n ~ ~ people must understand there are two more creativities; o ~ ~ c t ~ r ~ e tc i e a t i v ~which are equallyi m p o ~ nfor commercial success." rn ~ ~, t atsushita Panasonic's famous color TV technology (black color resolution), for example, has indeed been transferred c Philips, they could even the though idea suppo~ng technolo~ies. shita, on other the han the after idea an intensiv -year development on it. reader (you!) to decide which company is at a her level with respect to ever,apparentthatonlysushita o b t ~ n e d large a Table 11.2 s u m m ~ z e s three impo~anttypesofcreativity to be implemen~d the gy,, each which will be described inher detail in of following sections.

284

rl

S

of crea~vity research and development. in

oduct Planning

~rea~vity

-S p e c i ~ c a ~ o n

itivity, size, power^ n

(3

arke~na~vity ~reg

.~ d v e ~ s e m e n t .

(a)

() b (c)

hoose your ~usto~ers, arrow your focus, md ominate your market.

will consider the details this concept accordin of

by solving the following example

Met" (a personal hygiene system, forcle )is a big hit in Japan, t in the United States.

28

both

Japanese toilet ~ a ~ i l i t y hygiene s y s t e ~ such as bath shower an

to leu^ the culture

286

hapter 11
Pr~uction

NG

OK

~ua~~ty

"All check for m l t r iiay

-us

NG OK NG Q a i y ult u e check for mass-~roductionn s"No "

-Japan

Difference between basic trends in quality control for military use m~s"consumer products. is t us consider asa good example Toshiba light bulbs, Toshiba one of the largest n Japan. The light bulbs typically have an a v e ~ g e lifetime of quality control curve has standard deviation ofA 10%( 1 8 ~ a production lots happen to be of a little better qualit lifetime of 2400hr, what happen? will A company executive mention might ba of the division. this For kind of mature i n d u s ~ ~ the number field, total is almostsaturated,andthis 10%longerlifetimetranslatesdirectlyto a 10% in annual income. Therefore, "too high quality" must be strictly e l i ~ n a t e d massfor consumer products.

-

Of course, Toshiba has the technological capability to extend the bulb's lifetime. the reader has a chance to visit Japan to look for light bulbs,2400 hr-lifetime bulbs be however, to find the price can be f o ~ n d shops. The reader should not su~rised, in exactly 10%higher than the usual 2~ hr bulbs. A final comment: sometimes, even a famous Jqanese consumer-pr~uctcompany NASA Space may c o n ~ b u t e ~ l i ~ / g o v e ~ m e napplicationssuchasthe to tal Shuttle program. The main reason for this is to obtain a ce~ficate high ~u~~ of for that com~any'sproduct, leading to a very effwtive adve~sementalthough the development effort will not bring significant profit directly.

~ a t c h ~enerul the Social~ r e ~ s
~ a r ~ also exhibits trends, which reflect cultural ch~acteristics,and,hence, et maygradually ordrasticallychangewithtime. ~e considerherechangesinthe Japanese market trends, which must fully understood beforean industry can expand be its market in Japan. A s u m m is shown in Table 11.3. Japanese people use "four ~ Chinese character words" to express these trends, as shown at the bottom of Table 11.3.12)

b a n " .V. which video game system Nintendo used to be a the be~inningof the 1970s. . prototype Game Boy did not technologies. but utilized the cheap 8-bit chips with vvell-know key to this big hit was its ability to fit a social trend. Computer --~ i n t i n g Communication period time. "beau~ful. _ _ . " --T.own brand apparel commun. eavier 1960s Thicker Longer Larger 1980s ~ighter nner Shorter Smaller --Ship m a n u f a c ~ n g --Steel industry --~uilding cons~ction --Power plant (dam) --Printer. a to realize thehest st degree of fab~cation c c ~ ~ y . once into 1980s.) the was a university student. In the 2 ~ 0 s the . most the functions time suc Since of basic asethemat a verylowprice. most se i n ~ u s ~ e s became and sought the miniaturization of ith electronics or CO ltrasonic motors have been utiliz ezoelectric actuators." and to f i ~ l y attract the kids' attention.287 13 Japanese market trends over time.most the popular dep~ents my in etallurgy sity(for manu el platesand ships) and engineering (for build in^ power p1 p r ~ u c i n gthebigger owever." "amusi "tasteful.S. Air conditioner -Taste~l Creative --Cellular phone (private --" C u l ~ ecenter. _ _ ". game ell. Camera --TV. . technologiesinsemiconductordevices. when most of the Japanese a major se~conductor chasingthe U." and "cre by in ten do. "amusement. company had a large number of failure ranked %bit chips (the Jap that had l!).

4.fter choosing a suitable customer. ~ o m p the e ~ total scores. and select the hi~her ly use a scoring sheet to identify the developmentt ~ g ~ A . we will start to n ~ o w development focus. ossible applicatio~s. our e follow in^ s u m m ~ z ea proced~e n ~ o w i n s for ssible application fields.findthesim ocess with thefollow in^ E x ~ p l e on in which we can most easily utilize nts for the life~meof office continuous opera~on morean 3 months or 101 for ~ m a ~ i how many pictu ne ow to score 1s shown in Table 11.sample of t .

2 c o r i table for ~ e ~ i c e s . ~~ 0 1 2 12 12 0 1 1 0 1 2 0 1 0 1 erit 1 0 x1 2 Q x1 2 x0 1 2 x0 1 2 x0 1 0 1 x2 Q 1 x2 Q 1 x2 0 x1 2 Q 1 x2 0 x1 2 Q x1 2 x0 1 2 6) ~ e s i ~ n 7) ~ro~uction ~uantity 8) maintenance service Q x1 2 0 x1 2 Q x1 6 10 .

The name "positioner" was also used in the mechanics fields. O t h e ~ i s e ~ conven~onal u t . the and remaini of w ~ c his f ~ te~nology l toi electricians ~ an interdisciplin~ field.290 Mer identi~ingthetarget. cost. an alternative so these countri~s. g line having ten workers c o ~ e s ~ to na ~ o asing a robot is to start a facto^ in one of . this is not a bad name &om a physics point of view. A typical one-task robotc S$) is enough to hire one worker in some c o u ~ such s ~ ~ robot.~ d . Refer to the rough price calculation presented in Table e profit for ratio - en the reader's companyis t h i n ~ n g about s ~ n ag will need to consider if a tape-casting system really or usually recommends the ins~llation a ~ p e . od com~any considers p ~ c h ~ i a g n price. labor costs. c o m p ~ e d 3 4% for chemical industries. however. C ac they we= i~itiallynamed the author d e v e l o ~ O " multilayer "dis~lacement transducers.c ~ t i of the c nt exceeds 1 million pieces per year. we need to considera suitable adve~sement price range.~ n d ~ ~ t h should be employedby hiring several manufacturinga s s i s ~ t s . it was not attractive to the customers. wedevelop the products ~ c o r to g follo~ing ~ the technology andproductplanning creativity considerations." Of course.S. and g or selecting a suitable for a de device is very i m ~ o ~ n t . ( " p i e z o e l ~ ~ c " ) . etc. discussing at the this colleagues half "piez~lectricac~ator"was selected. as with ns. At the same time. we can estimate the maximum raw mate~als' 11. m the a p p r ~ p ~ t e price a p ~ i c u sales l~ price on the i n ~ u category: s ~ 10% inelectronic have rela~velyhighprofitabilitysuchas . So. ~~~~ After with rporation.

uture of Ferroe~ectric Devices

29 1

Price calculation sample. ~ o ~ e r c iprice al 100 (must be comparable to equivalent things)

25 50 anufac~er's price (varies depen~ng the circulation route) on 10 materials Raw 8t Labor cost 10 8t Profit 5

-

ec

There are two~fferent approaches in exercising technology creativity: to find a new ~nctional effect or material and to achieve a high performance or figure of merit. These are typically called "research" and "development," respectively. New ~ n c t i o n ~ e ~ is often an i m p o ~ nfactor in discovering a new function in a material. e ~ ~ ~t i ~ 01 mer, PVDF, which A ood exam le canbefoundinpiezoelectric Anotherexampleth cting ceramic discover^ ~e are told that every researcher has lucky chances" inhisher life to discover new "3 things (a ~aditional Japaneseproverb).owevermost o le do noteven reco these chances and lose their chances. Only the can really find the new phenomenon. A Japane a person who develops a ~ d e l y - c o ~producti has the chance to bec e ~ ~ ~ general manager;a person who develops two products for the company is gu to be a vice resident; and a person who contributes more than three can be prom to president. From this illus~ationthereadercanunderstandhow d i ~ c u l it is to t develop an actual bestseller product. The personality and aptitude of the researcher arc, of course,. also important factors here. Why don't you try the following Example Problem 11.4 to assess your ability to experiences e ~ n ~ p i ~ ?

292

First, familiarize yourself with the contents of this page as much as possible in one minute.

Testpicture.(Notethatthisarticlewasrandomlycitedfrom academicjournal.)

an

293

Second, answer True or False for the following sentences:

S

article is printed on p.15 an academic journal. of

wears a dotted-design tie. Solution

ENTS:
Aptitude our Score
4

be

to bandon dream a your

You be can good a engineer. ou fit to a ~anager/sales engineer. an engineer.

erson who aims to be an engineer tries to remember the written content first. If answerquestions(1) and (2) correctly, must you recognize your^ n is also expected, because it belongs directly maynotrememberhis tie,to whichyou
* *

see it only when you try to."

he author usually unconventional asks questions a of

job inte~ieweeto our

any stairs a couple minutes ago. of seen a p ~ e s ~ traffic signal just before entering the company a n U remember an illus~ation a walking man lit up in blue? Is of he w a l ~ n g toward the left or toward the right? e second question, most of the interviewees recognize the illus~ation, the but erstothe w ~ ~ direction M e r remarkably,Whentheansweris n g "I don't mber," we usually suggest he r e t u ~ home. Even when the answer is corre 5076, "left," if the answer is given as a guess and the correct answer probability is may be hired for a management position. Only when the correct answer arises from a nal confident memory, will hire him asa ~ r o ~ e ~ s i oengineer. we

294
Ifyoumissedtheabove t r e chances,whatshouldyoudo?Quitresearch?The he following example is dedicated to the unlucky reader, who, like the author, missed those lucky chances. We can still research using a more systematic way, for example, by using our int~ition.The author is malcing use of (1) secondary effects and (2) scientific analogy.

(1) As is well known, any phenomenon h sprimary and secondary effects, whicha m a sometimes recognized as linear and quadratic phenomena, respectively. In electroopticdevices,thePockels and Kerreffectscorrespond to theprimary this In materials, these Secondary effects, as you leaned in textbook, actuator correspond to the piezoelectric and electrostrictive effects.

en the author started actuatorresearchin the middleofthe 197Os, precise "displacementtransducers"(weusedthisterminology initially) were required in a Space Shuttle program, in particular for " d e f o ~ b l e mirrors," for controlling the optical pathlengths several over wavelengths. Conventional piez~lec~c PZT ceramics were plaguedby hysteresis and aging effects under large electric fields; this an opticalpositioner. Electros~ction,which is the was aseriousproblemfor secondary electromech~cal coupling observed in a c e n t r o - s y ~ e crystal, is not ~c affkcted by hysteresis or aging. The response should be much faster than the time required for domain reorientation in piezoelectric~ferr~lectrics. addition, electric In poling is not required.
owever, at that time, most the people believedthat the secondary effect would of be
a minor effect, and could not provide a larger contribution than the primary Of effect.

course, this may be true in most cases, but, the author's group actually found that telaxorferroelectrics,suchastheleadmagnesium n i o b a ~ - b ~ esolid solutions d exhibit enormous electrostrictions.

(2) roba ably most of the readers are familiar with shape memoryalloys, which can revertratherquicklybacktotheirinitialshapewhensubjectedto the heat of a cigarette lighter. basic The principle is a"stressor ~ m p e ~ ~ - i n d phase ' uc~ ~ ~ s f o ~ a tfromn austenite to martensite phase. The author tried i o the to consider nu' i an analogous case among the ferroelectrics. Yes, we have an ttelec~c-field dd phase transition from an antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase. This type of phase transition should be much quicker in response and more energy efficient theoretically. After this speculation, we started to investigate zirconate based a n t i f e r r ~ l ~ ~ c s lead intensively, and discovered the "shape memory effect" in ceramic actuator materials.

The concept of compositeeffects is very useful, p ~ c u l a r l yforsystematically 10, a improvingtheproperties and figure of merits. As welearnedinChapter combination effect can provide improved figure of merit g ( &E) in piezoelectric an = P2T:polymer composites.

Future of Ferroe~ectric Devices

295

Product effects are more attractive. Philips' magnet~lec~c material is a g example, which can be employed as a simple magnetic field monitor. The authork photos~ctive materials were also discovered along a similar line of reasoning. "he following anecdote citedfrom R&D Innovator13) will be of interest.

I'vemadeabreakthroughthatcouldleadtophotophones deviceswithout electrical connectionsthatconvertlightenergydirectlyintosound.Perhapsthisdiscoverywill helpcommercializeopticaltelephonenetworks.Italsocouldallowrobotstorespond directly to light; again, without a need for wire connectors. Where did I come up with the idea for this light conversion? Not with the sunlight shining through my office window, and not outside feeling the warmth of the sun, but in a dimly lit Karaoke bar. akindoftransducerthatconverts electrical I'vebeenworkingonceramicactuators energy to mechanical energy at the Tokyo Institute of Technology when the trigger for "thelight-controlledactuator"wasinitiated.In1980,oneof my friends,aprecisionmachine expert, and I were drinking together at a Karaoke bar, where many Japanese go to enjoydrinksandourownsinging. We callthisactivityour"after-5-o'clockmeeting." My friend studied ~cromechanisms as millimeter-size walking robots. He explained such that, as electrically controlled walking mechanisms become very small (on the order of a millimeter), they don't work smoothly because the frictional force drops drastically and the weight of the electric lead becomes more significant.

--

--

--

Afterafewdrinks,itbecomeseasiertoplay"whatif?"games.That'swhenheasked, "What if you, an expert on actuators, could produce a remote-controlled actuator? One that wouldbypasstheelectricallead?" To manypeople,"remotecontrol"equalscontrolby radio waves, light waves, or sound. Light-controlled actuators require that light energy be transduced twice: first from light energy to electrical energy, and second from electrical energy to mechanical energy. These are "photovoltaic" and "piezoelectric" effects.
A solar cell is a well-known photovoltaic device, but it doesn't generate sufficient voltage to drive a piezoelectric device. So my friend's actuator needed another way to achieve a photovoltaic effect, Along with the drinking and singing, weenjoyedthese intellectual challenges. I must have had a bit too much that night since I promised I'd make such a machine for him. But I had no idea how to do it!

While my work is applied research, I usually come home from scientific meetings about basic research with all kinds of ideas. At one of these meetings, about six months after my promise, a Russian physicist reported that a single crystal of lithium niobate produced a high electomotive force (10 kVlmm) under purple light. His talk got me excited. Could this material make power the supply the for piezoelectric actuator? Could directly it produce a mechanical force under purple light? I returned to the lab and placed a small lithium niobate plate onto a plate of piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate. Then I turned on the purple light and watched for the piezoelectric effect (mechanical defo~ation).But it was too slow, taking an hour for the voltage to get high enough to make a discernable shape change.

296

ter

Then the idea hit me: what about making a single material that could used for the sensor be I placethephotovoltaicandpiezoelectriceffectsina single andtheactuator?Could ~ y m m e tcrystal? After lots of trial and error,I came up with a tungstate-doped material ~c made lead of lanthanum zirconate titanate responded to that wellpurple light. It has a large piezoelectric effect and has properties that would make it relatively easy to fabricate. makeadeviceoutofthismaterial, I pastedtwoplatesbacktoback,but:placed them in opposite polarization, then connected the edges. I shined a purple light to one side, which generated a photovoltaic voltage of 7 kV across the length. This caused plate on that side to expand by nearly 0.1% of its length, while the other (unlit) side contracted due to the piezoelectric effect thr~ugh photovol the 20 mm long, 0.4 mm thick whole fromlight. this device the For displace~ent was 150 pm, the and response was speed l second. fast This and significant response was pretty exciting.

the

emembe~ng promise to my friend, I fabricated a simple "light-driven micro wal~ing the machine?"withtwobi-platelegsattachedtoaplasticboard. hen lightalternately i~adiated each leg, the legs bent one at a time, and the machine~ o v e d an inchworm. like t moved without electric or leads circuits! was 1987, That in seven after years my promise. busy with my "toy"; but not too busy to attend "after-5-o'clock -clubarea.In1989,at my favoriteKaraokebar, end who worked for a telephone company. e a photo-acoustic device perhaps as a solu fiber communication. ~ e e t i n ~in " s Tokyo's

--

pho light a technology e to t r ~ svoice ~ t data fiber rapidly. and optics been advancing has l i ~ t the stechnology, optical signal since phone mech~ical movement via electrical energy.

--

conve~ed light from energy to

--ear speaker the

throu~h lasers

--

opticalcommunication. ell, what's my message for you, dear reader? To find a noisy not necessary; but what is necessary is listening to others outside your particular research area: for instance, basic researchers or people with specific, applied objectives.

scovering"monomo milartotheabove. ciety of Japan, theauthor lectric single crystal due to the t to replace some of the

* . outthereasonsfor find ability to overcome them. 3. such as portable personal will computers. The developed Aura by C of the monomo~h modifications. tors:strongsocial technologyto provi p nologies also is inn rtant in ~nding"seeds" for attelle's predic~on attelle regularly reports on top ten for2 ~ listed: 14) is ~ . ~ new the molecular will new. a personinthe p r ~ u c planningdivisionin t a expired O willexpire soon. and communications. If the social nee& still exist.long-lasting.p e r f o ~ materials for use in ~ce transportation. and som in ~ finally b e thickness.highlyportableenergysources. power electronic devices of the future.developing a monoli actuator. there r ost impo~antly. personal and diagnostics will lead to preventive treatments cancers.includingfuelcellsand batte~es. of disease and cures for specific Super m a t e ~ ~ Computer-baseddesignand m ~ u f a c t u of n ~ materials at s. r esses were becausetherelatedpatents likely be a good business o any is to r e e x ~ n e 10- theauthorusuallysuggeststo d research. computers. p genome Genetic-based identification anmapping. . althou~h fabrication process is their original work. It used was first. energy. 2. level mean h i ~ h . Compact.

high-definition T ." ~ucational gamesandcomputerizedsimulations will meet the sophisticated tastes of computer-literate s~dents. e s p ~ i ~in y l . 5. Note that there is a very high possibility of using ferroelectric devices. 6. 10. Interactive. too weak to move something with s u ~ c i e n tmechanic^ ef~ciency. a variety of fuels.7). and ~g-deliverysystems that will precisely parts the such target of body.~ i e ~ o e l ~ ~ ccompatible with silicon technology will much thin films be more focused upon m i c r o . as duce thesideeffectsof chemotherapy targeted specifically to cancer cells to nausea and hair loss. -- 9. A major bre~throughfor V American television manufacturers --and a major source of revenue --that will lead to better advanced computer modeling and imaging. Digital. fax telephone.e l ~ ~ o m e c h a n i c ~ s y s An ul~asonic ~ms. sensors. 6. F u ~ e down-sizing of actuators will be r such as bloodtestkits and surgicalc Systems ( ~ E ~have) S currently been developing rapi force itself is. fabricated on a silicon membrane. equipped to operate on will be able to select the most appropriate one based on driving conditions. "Edutainment. Cost-effective "smart systems" integrate will power. 8 and 9. Hyb~d-fuel vehicles. Smart vehicles. is .will include aging creams that really work.15) Even this prototype motor can generate a torque thee to four of magnitude higher than an equivalent size silicon motor. 2. Anti-aging 7 products 8. Medical treatments that will use highly accurate sensors to locate problems. 11. Electronics mi~atu~zation personal use. rotary motor as tiny as 2 mm in diameter. the areas. and computer that contains a hard drive capable of storing ail the volumes found in their local library. that on rely genetic information slow aging to the process -. 4 5.~ v e n a c ~ a t o r in the previous section a promising andi id ate for micro-robots. 3. wireless data centers in for a pocket-size unit will provide users with a machine. m ~ u f a c ~ r i nprocess g from 1. controls. in general. and will even~aily control the These systems beginning to end. definitely be required forsub-~llimeter devices. The p h o t o .is a good e x ~ p l (see e Fig.298 Chapter 11 4. the weight of the electric wire c o n n ~ t i n g powersupplybecomes the s i ~ n i ~ c a nandremotecon t. As the size of m i n i a t ~ e robots/actuators decreases.

thic by so that it couldbe driven by 250 V (this voltageis generated in a power supply conventionally used for stroboscopic lamp). ~ d Some engineers believe that lowering the drive voltage of a piezoelectric actuator is owever. we recognized that we needed an additional 100 V power supply.6. as 2 mmindiameterfabricatedon a to consider a suitable research and development pace so as to introduce new and products not too early. But. which would cost more than a couple of dollars. when we tried to c o m m e r c i ~ it.5. the author collaborated with COPAL to develop piezoelectric camera shutters a bimorph structure.7 ~ ~ a s o nrotarymotorastiny ic silicon membrane. Does the reader know the available battery voltages? The answers are 1. we needed to change the birnorph design. Thus.24 (automobile applications) and 250 V. this is not really true for portable equipmentone considers the if available battery voltages. 'I'hree years prior to the co~ercializationis a good target for ferroelectric the device The field. 12. 3. company changed their development pace from 5 to 3 years several yews ago. but not too late either. a The reader needs to collect the necessary f o ~ a ~ on the specifications: in on *sensitivity *size *lifetime *availablepower supply . c o ~ e r c i a the~"Taurus" successfully.we initally used conventionally commercialized bimorphs i~ driven at around 100 V.effoelectfic Devices 299 c electrode e .

3 consi~ering glass cosmetic bottles in the s ~ i t c ~ e . ent ~ e ~ e n in e~ e v e l o ~ ~conc c es .

~sonlc motors. group took the pe with a single actuator element. de and ems is illustratedin Fig. using a ~ropaga~ng-wave motorwith type me groups moved to a more complex opposite approach. 11. * evelopme~tconce .301 of componen~ in the system. e actuator is a ve and ~ m i n gfx ood e x ~ p l e desig~de case of ul piezo-ac~ators two PO and motor with 4 piezosimpli~cation.8.

temperat~e characteris~cs. (l) (2) . Reliabili~ devices of electrode materials. Reducing components €or~iniaturization an . product effect d. pyroelectric (3) devices. T ~ ~ n o l o g i c a l creativity serendipity. failure detection techniques c. analogy. mar~eting and creativities choose your customers. specifications 5 .302 hapter 11 l Applications of ferroelectrics -high p e ~ t t i v i t y dielectrics. developing speed. Resent market shares of ferroelectric devices --US $2 ( l ) capacitors (2) piezoelectric devices (3)t h e ~ s t o r s 3. (4) piezoelectric devices. narrow your focus and dominate your maket. electrode designs. Adding components for higher~nction b. Reliability issues of ferroelectric devices: a. Directions of smartsystems -a. Drive techniques -pulse drive method. Bestsellerdevices -t plannin~. c. Reliability of ceramics repr~ucibility of ceramics. (6) C materials. (5) electrooptic devices. ferroelectric memo~es. agin of b. Product planning creativity seeds and needs. high power technique -- -- 4. heat generation mechanism. layer thickness dependence. electric field and stressde~ndence properties. and (7) composite materials.

J"AS (1995). Ceram. K. D. Hiroshima: P ' ' the in ~eeling Consumer Era (1996). ~o. A. Jpn. Abe. Soc. K. Kanbe. E. . Soc.K.2ndInt'lConf.. December issue (1984). MA (1996). Soc. Jpn. Nomura:Jpn. C. December issue (1990). 49th Solid State Actuator Study Committee.Uchino and J.. ndianapolis. .Uchino:Amer.. Zheng.IntelligentMaterials. Brooks. K. Treacy and F.MA (1996). 79.p. M.April (1996). Ceram. Acoust. AnnualMtg.9thInt'l.mechanic^ Systems. R. W.Ferroelectrics.9 6 . J. deVries: J. Uchinoand S.Symp. K.319(1995). Wiersema: ~iscipline of Market Leaders. Addison-Wesley Publishing. and Soc.Future of Ferroelectric Devices 303 9.A b u r a t ~ K.Soc. Iuuwer ni~ Academic Publishers.p. J. S ~ 1 ~ . M. Phys. K.Uchino:Proc. . J.. T ~ ~ a s h i Yoshikawa.3 7 .Ceram. U08 (1982). J. Amer. 3193 (1996). Jpn. Appl. . S. (E).Nagata: Proc. S. 235 (1993). 1 K. 2 . Tomikawa: J. on J Brill 8z Associates (1995).Aburatani:Proc. S.Uchinoand H. Aoyagi. 1248 (1994). N.Appl. Hirose and Y. Ceram. Uchino: Piezoele~tricActuators and ~ l t r ~ o Motors.Proc.

This Page Intentionally Left Blank .

90.106 coercive field.221 grain boundary layer . 1 16 diffusephasetransition. l 8 cut-and-bond method. 15 1 photostrictive . 81. 68 anharmonicity. 1 . 68 Coriolisforce.-250 -..abnormalgraingrowth.149 e~ectric displacement. 1 13 deformable mirror. piezoelectric . 62 depletionstate.2 electronic modulatedsuspension. 158 direction cosine. 255 . 183 damped capacitance. 221 effect.13.2 poling. ceramic . 18 Curie-Weissconstant. 139 efficiency. 18 Curie-Weiss temperature. 279 critical particle size. 105 ceramic electrode material.connectivity. 166 electrocaloric effect. 63 domainreorientation. 105 loss. 221 bulk --. 1 electromechanicalcouplingfactor. 258 I material. 97 cofiring. 8. 84. 194 double hysteresis curve. 257 --- cymbal.269 . 280 chipcapacitor. mechanical . 67. 160 converse piezoelectric effect. $9 donor. 1 12. 3 polarization. 92.61 doping effect.159 acceptor. 223 305 --------- --------- --- --- . IO material.18 Curie-Weiss law. 8 1 . 182 dipolereorientation-related polarization. 184 birefringence. 10 antife~oelectrics. $9 -al impedance. 74 ---effect. 64. damping effect. 13. 279 ~ielectric. 67 combinationeffect. 67. 255 converseelectrostrictive effect. l 13 columbite. 2 direct piezoelectric effect. 61 dot-matrixprinterhead. 84. 119 drain. 71 absence of hysteresis. 38 doctor blade. 105 constant. 162 electronicpolarization. 123 D-TGS. 77.devices. 3. 194 cantilever.-. 62 acoustic impedance. 168 ~ a m ~ e 269 r. 10 coprecipitation. 19 1 degree of hysteresis. 74 Cole-Cole relation. 238 Curie temperature. 13.-105 -. 243 bimorph. camerashutter.. 87 crosstalk.160 creep. 295 accelerometer. 146.158. 48 DRAM.116 relaxation. 67. 279 alkoxide.121 depoling. l10 digitaldisplacementtransducer. 74 domainpinning effect. 7. 78 ceramic capacitor. 18. 255 157. 221 device. 269 Debye dispersion.47 barium titanate (BT).61 aging.195 electrQQ~tic. 2.

280 €%AM. double curve. 279 lightvalve. 110 monolithichingelevermechanism.197 gate. 74 internal electrode. vacuum . 42 --.-14. 123 grain growth.138 intelligentmaterial.48 . 169 Ferpic. 64 highpermittivitycapacitor. 230 ~erroelectric. 57. 71 ordinarywave. 250 green sheet. 48 1 degree of . 46.187 lattice vibration. 224 Landautheory. 150 memory device. 175. non-volatile .105 hubblespacetelescope.306 Index electrostriction.259 maximum Geld-induced strain.2 ' ic polarizability. ----tive effect. 38 Laplacetransform. 46. 194 monomorph. 63 half-wavevoltage. 181 lifetime.-119 MFSFEiT. 269 non-volatile memory. 67 P-E hysteresis.147 equivalent electric circuit. 183 noisecancellation. 1 interdigitalelectrode. 5 longitudinallyclampedpermittivity. 126 normalgraingrowth. 1 . 6 zig region. 100.. 9. 269 mechanical impedance. 15 1 mechanical quality factor. grain boundary layer capacitor. 66.-1 19 -. 84 multilayer. 74 gyroscope.221 heatgeneration. 172 first-order transition.71 . 153. .5 lead zirconate ( ) 182 E SO. 221. 269 inchworm. 47 n-shaped linear motor. 185 elliptical locus.16 -. l 10 err e€fect. 14.16 extra-ordinary .108 hydrostaticpressuremodel. 124 FEiT. 3 t - relative .-tive effect.of antiferroelect~cs.-3 .. 119 volatile . 14. 239 local field. 47 impedancematching. 187 oxide-mixingtechnique. 119 multidomain monodomaintransition model. 62 mechanical damper.62 . 66 MOSFET.of electrostriction. 73.128 microdomain.15. -. 6 Madelungenergy. 74. 119 filter. 166 Lorentz factor. 62 maximumstrain. 88 ysteresi~. 121 ionic crystal. 2 ionicpolarization. 104 moonie. 196 infraredimagesensor.197 frictionalcoating. 160 --- 9 --- lead zirconate titanate ( E T ) . 233 lithiumniobate. 1 ferroelectricity. 158 "hard" piezoelectric. 203 p e ~ a n e n dipole. 10 converse --. -3 .116 microscopiccompositionfluctuation. 126 frictionmaterial.18.139 infraredlightsensor. 74 inversion state.199 energytransmission coefficient.erovskite 18 --.2 anti47 DRAM. 183 mo~hotropicphaseboundary. 81. 40 float electrode. 7 1 abnormal .191 hybridsubstrate. 101 magnetoelectricmaterial. overshoot.

138. 200 olariz~tion. piezoelectrictransformer. 10 direct effect.185 . 172 retardation. ionic . 243 --. 193 PVDF. 88 surface acoustic wave. 182 shear stress. 222. 246 second-ordertransition. m~imum. 63 sol-gel method.63. 67. 83 standingwavetypemotor. thinlthickfilm. 185. 145 actuator. 1 13 smartness. l 85. 1. 57. 145 figure of merit. 13 1 ---figure of merit. 177 stereo TV . 90 Pockelseffect. 221 relativepermittivity. 4 coefficient. spontateous . 230 strain.-167 -. 3 relaxorferroelectrics. 19 1 shapememory effect. 176 plate-throughdesign. 93 product effect. 1 l positioner. 260 rattlingionmodel.. 4 Poisson'sequation.Index photoconductivefilm. 181 P2T:polymer composite. 145 --. 1 --. 181.material. 16? anti. l .phenomenon. 296 PMN. 4 -. 68 spontaneouspolarization. ''Soft" . 157 torsionalcoupler. 145 voltageconstant. 300 smartmaterial.-62 principal . 153. 158 high power .thermister. 14.. 225 PZT. 158 principalstrain.133 --- . polarization reversal. 295 photovoltaic effecct. 230 photostrictiveactuator. 93. 2 electonic . 108. 57. 180 devices. strontiumtitanate. 131 PZN.. resonatingdisplacementdevice.-63.-3.64 .27 . 135 --. 185 pressuresensor. 3. 74 ten so^. 15. 1 1 . 185 -. 295 ~iezoelectrjc.97 -. 1 1 . 70 Skanavi-typerelaxation. 167 reson~ce/antiresonance method. 248 --- --- sensor. 1 17. 201 --. 161 converse effect. 174 tape-castingmethod. 23 reduction of . 18 sputtering. 187 pulse width modulation (PWM). pulsedrivemethod. equation. 259 propagatingwavetypemotor. 125 sum effect. 181. 16 rigid displacement device. 145 strainconstant. 39 servo displacement transducer.-2 -.responsivity. 77 sintering. 4. 257 surface tension. 295 photostrictive effect. 18 spontaneous strain. 185 resonator. . 5 "soft"piezoelectric. 224 307 --- ----- ----- ----- --- --- F T . 300 softerror. 67. 9 electric field induced . 82. . 57 dipole reorientation-related .material. 161 resonance.. 228 point group. 84. 282 Schottkybarrier.-2 . 168 r~sonance mode. 46. 247 Poisson'sratio... 279 resonance frequency. 30 shim. 155 reliability of device.-2 -. 1 3 l devices. 120 soft phononmode. 156. 199 step-upratio. 280 PLZT. 214 pulse-drivemotor.-9 . 152 "hard" . 185 safetysystem. 156 pyroelectricity. 109 refractive index.

199 volatile memory.199. 232 ~chida-Ik~a model. 205 -. 170 unhamonicity. -. 24 VCR head tracking actuator. "woodpecker" type . 10 unimorph. 66 vibratory-coupler type. 192 vibration mode..-200. 93 propagating wave type . 16 1.-199. 35 transformer.-199. "surfing"type .308 Index tr~sfomationmatrix. 173 trivialmaterial. 176 trapped-energy filter. 1 19 wave guide. 201 . ultrasonic transducer. 1 two-dimensional display. 199 zero point drift. 77 unitary matrix. 201 -. 239 "~oodpecker" type. 165 vibration velocity. 205 standing wave type . 280 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful