Education

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Education (disambiguation).

School children sitting in the shade of an orchard in Bamozai, near Gardez, Paktya Province, Afghanistan.

Students at the Technical University of Sofia, Bulgaria

Students in Kagugu Primary School ofRwanda.

Student participants in the FIRST Robotics Competition, Washington, D.C.

Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training, research, or simply

through autodidacticism.[1] Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts.
Contents
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  

1 Etymology 2 The role of government 3 Systems

o o o o o o o o o o o 

3.1 Curriculum 3.2 Preschools 3.3 Primary schools 3.4 Secondary schools 3.5 Autodidacticism 3.6 Vocational 3.7 Indigenous 3.8 Anarchistic free schools 3.9 Alternative 3.10 Special 3.11 Education through recreation

4 Systems of higher education

o o o o       

4.1 University systems 4.2 Open 4.3 Liberal arts colleges 4.4 Community colleges

5 Technology 6 Adult 7 Learning modalities 8 Instruction 9 Theory 10 Economics 11 History

o 

11.1 Modern times

12 Philosophy

o o   

12.1 Criticism 12.2 Purpose of schools

13 Psychology 14 Sociology 15 Developing countries

o o     

15.1 Development goals and issues 15.2 Education and technology in developing countries

16 Internationalization (Globalization and Education) 17 See also 18 References 19 External links 20 Videos

[edit]Etymology
Etymologically, the word "education" is derived from the Latin ēducātiō (―A breeding, a bringing up, a rearing") from ēdūcō (―I educate, I train‖) which is related to the homonym ēdūcō (―I lead forth, I take out; I raise up, I erect‖) from ē- (―from, out of‖) and dūcō (“I lead, I conduct”).[2]

[edit]The

role of government

A right to education has been created and recognized by some jurisdictions: Since 1952, Article 2 of the first Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the right to education. It does not however guarantee any particular level of education of any particular quality. [3] At the global level, the United Nations' International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1966 guarantees this right under its Article 13.[4] Throughout history various governments have made it illegal to educate children privately or at home. Various totalitarian regimes, for example, have mandated indoctrination through propaganda in the Hitler Youth and propaganda in education under various communist regimes.

[edit]Systems

School children line, in Kerala, India

Systems of schooling involve institutionalized teaching and learning in relation to a curriculum, which itself is established according to a predetermined purpose of the schools in the system. Schools systems were also based on people's religion giving them different curricula.

[edit]Curriculum
Main articles: Curriculum, Curriculum theory, and List of academic disciplines

School children in Durban, South Africa.

In formal education, a curriculum is the set of courses and their content offered at a school or university. As an idea, curriculum stems from the Latinword for race course, referring to the course of deeds and experiences through which children grow to become mature adults. A curriculum is prescriptive, and is based on a more general syllabus which merely specifies what topics must be understood and to what level to achieve a particular grade or standard. An academic discipline is a branch of knowledge which is formally taught, either at the university–or via some other such method. Each discipline usually has several sub-disciplines or branches, and distinguishing lines are often both arbitrary and ambiguous. Examples of broad areas of academic disciplines include the natural sciences, mathematics, computer science, social sciences, humanities and applied sciences.[5]

and in many countries. around 1842. It is a nursery school. Some education systems have separate middle schools. with the transition to the final stage of secondary education taking place at around the age of fourteen. Globally. Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first 5–7 years of formal. The true purpose behind kindergarten is ―to provide a child-centered. and theater. structured education. and moral nature with balanced emphasis on each of them. intellectual. and sometimes within. primary education consists of six or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six. countries. dance. [6] [edit]Preschools Main article: Preschool education The term preschool refers to a school for children who are not old enough to attend kindergarten. but it generally occurs at about eleven or twelve years of age. Primary schools in these countries are often subdivided intoinfant schools and junior school. shapes and colors and designs when they begin their formal education they will be behind the children who already possess that knowledge. it is compulsory for children to receive primary education. counting. preschool curriculum for three to seven year old children that aimed at unfolding the child’s physical.[citation needed] While children who do not receive the fundamentals during their preschool years will be taught the alphabet. Teacher (priest) with class from the outskirts ofBucharest.Educational institutions may incorporate fine arts as part of K-12 grade curriculums or within majors at colleges and universities as electives. around 89% of primary-age children are enrolled in primary education. are mostly referred to as primary schools. In general.‖[7] [edit]Primary schools Main article: Primary education Primary school in open air. The division between primary and secondary education is somewhat arbitrary. Schools that provide primary education. most countries have committed to achieving universal enrollment in primary education by 2015. . The various types of fine arts are music. and this proportion is rising. although this varies between. Preschool education is important because it can give a child the edge in a competitive world and education climate.[8] Under the Education For All programs driven by UNESCO.

but is generally around the seventh to the tenth year of schooling. Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. schools for this period.In India. secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs during adolescence. "post-secondary". to prepare for higher education or to train directly in a profession. The exact meaning of any of these terms varies from one system to another. selective tertiary. Depending on the system. university. or a part of it. to the optional. or "higher" education (e. or vocational schools. lyceums. comprehensive primary education for minors.g. [edit]Secondary schools Main article: Secondary education Students working with a teacher at Albany Senior High School. Elementary schooling consists of five years of primary schooling and 3 years of upper primary schooling. New Zealand Students in a classroom at Samdach Euv High School. gymnasiums. out of which children receive elementary education for 8 years. In the United States. vocational school) for adults. . middle schools. Canada and Australia primary and secondary education together are sometimes referred to as K-12 education. may be called secondary or high schools. Cambodia In most contemporary educational systems of the world. compulsory education spans over twelve years. colleges. and in New Zealand Year 1–13 is used. The purpose of secondary education can be to give common knowledge. It is characterized by transition from the typically compulsory. The exact boundary between primary and secondary education also varies from country to country and even within them. Various states in the republic of India provide 12 years of compulsory school education based on national curriculum framework designed by the National Council of Educational Research and Training.

president). [edit]Indigenous Main article: Indigenous education Indigenous education refers to the inclusion of indigenous knowledge. This proved to be beneficial for both employers and employees. Autodidacticism is a contemplative. the emergence of electrification). in the form of public schools.S. scientist. for the improvement in human capital caused employees to become more efficient. fee-paying schools.The emergence of secondary education in the United States did not happen until 1910. Tadao Ando (architect). absorptive procession. Some autodidacts spend a great deal of time reviewing the resources of libraries and educational websites. often unrelated areas. and an autodidact is a selfteacher. high schoolswere created. with a curriculum focused on practical job skills that would better prepare students for white collar or skilled blue collar work. One may become an autodidact at nearly any point in one's life. caused by the rise in big businesses and technological advances in factories (for instance. and Leonardo da Vinci (engineer. [edit]Autodidacticism Main article: Autodidacticism Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) is self-directed learning that is related to but different from informal learning. Vocational education may come in the form of an apprenticeship or internship as well as institutions teaching courses such as carpentry. mathematician). which themselves have an even longer history. In order to meet this new job demand. Often in a post-colonial context. grammar schools or academies date from as early as the 16th century. George Bernard Shaw (playwright). the growing recognition and use of indigenous education methods can be a response to the erosion and loss of indigenous knowledge and language through the processes of colonialism. Srinivasa Ramanujan (mathematician). Notable autodidacts include Abraham Lincoln (U. agriculture. [edit]Vocational Main article: Vocational education Vocational education is a form of education focused on direct and practical training for a specific trade or craft. autodidacticism is "learning on your own" or "by yourself". While some may have been informed in a conventional manner in a particular field. that required skilled workers. medicine. In a sense. architecture and the arts. models. or charitable educational foundations. engineering. Charles Darwin (naturalist). and skilled employees received a higher wage than employees with just primary educational attainment. Michael Faraday (chemist and physicist). methods and content within formal and non-formal educational systems. In Europe. it can enable indigenous communities to ―reclaim . Thomas Alva Edison (inventor). they may choose to inform themselves in other. Furthermore. which lowered costs for the employer.

and can refer to an emphasis on free speech and student-centred education.[citation needed] Nevertheless. This may include not only forms of education designed for students with special needs (ranging from teenage pregnancy to intellectual disability). Gallaudet) set the foundation for special education today. also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative. improve the educational success of indigenous students. alternative schools. Howe. and from free education where 'traditional' schooling is made available to pupils without charge. homeschooling and autodidacticism vary. scholarly. or philosophical orientations. the meaning of the "free" of free schools is not restricted to monetary cost. The open structure of free schools is intended to encourage self-reliance. those who were disabled were often not eligible for public education. information. Alternative education may also allow for independent learning and engaging class activities. and personal development. is a broad term that may be used to refer to all forms of education outside of traditional education (for all age groups and levels of education). These early physicians (people likeItard. and knowledge are shared without hierarchy or the institutional environment of formal schooling. but also forms of education designed for a general audience and employing alternative educational philosophies and methods. and a sense of community. Free schools often operate outside the market economy in favor of a gift economy. critical consciousness. Seguin. [10] [edit]Special In the past. children.[citation needed] [edit]Alternative Main article: Alternative education Alternative education. Free school students may be adults. but often emphasize the value of small class size. others are more informal associations of teachers and students dissatisfied with certain aspects of traditional education. and in so doing. This organisational structure is distinct from ones used by democratic free schools which permit children's individual initiatives and learning endeavors within the context of a school democracy. While some have strong political. which include charter schools. These alternatives. or both. close relationships between students and teachers.and revalue their languages and cultures.‖[9] [edit]Anarchistic free schools Main article: Anarchistic free school An anarchistic free school (also anarchist free school and free skool) is a decentralized network in which skills. They focused on . Alternatives of the latter type are often the result of education reform and are rooted in various philosophies that are commonly fundamentally different from those of traditional compulsory education. independent schools. Children with disabilities were often educated by physicians or special tutors.

individualized instruction and functional skills. his labour and his leisure. Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate andpostgraduate education. Tertiary education generally results in the receipt of certificates. diplomas. He hardly knows which is which. these are sometimes known as tertiary institutions.[14] Education through recreation is the opportunity to learn in a seamless fashion through all of life's activities.[13] Educationalist Lawrence L. or post secondary education. Higher education generally involves work towards a degree-level or foundation degree qualification. as well as vocational education and training. 1932).[15] [edit]Systems of higher education Main article: Higher education The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. who was also an early proponent of life-long learning. also called tertiary. or academic degrees.P.[12] In the early 20th century. his education and his recreation. Colleges and universities are the main institutions that provide tertiary education. third stage. the concept was broadened to include young adults but the emphasis was on physical activities. Special education was only provided to people with severe disabilities in its early years. best described the modern concept of education through recreation in the following quotation "A master in the art of living draws no sharp distinction between his work and his play. but more recently it has been opened to anyone who has experienced difficulty learning. Higher education. Enough for him that he does it well. To himself he always seems to be doing both."(Jacks. his mind and his body. In most developed countries a high proportion of the population (up to 50%) now enter higher education at some time in . Jacks.[11] [edit]Education through recreation The concept of education through recreation was first applied to childhood development in the 19th century.[15] The concept has been revived by the University of Western Ontario to teach anatomy to medical students. such as a high school or secondary school. is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school providing a secondary education. He simply pursues his vision of excellence through whatever he is doing and leaves others to determine whether he is working or playing. Collectively.

elearning alone is currently growing at 14x the rate of traditional learning. like Yale University. and social services activities. Universities are generally composed of several colleges. U. Although some open universities do already offer conventional degrees such as the Open University in the United Kingdom. and it includes both the undergraduate level (sometimes referred to astertiary education) and the graduate (or postgraduate) level (sometimes referred to as graduate school). Michigan. like the University of Virginia. U. U. they can be public and State governed. U. Virginia. universities can be private and independent. CTU in Prague. for many reasons such as it's superior efficiency and results compared to traditionalist methods. Open education is generally significantly cheaper than traditional campus based learning and in many cases even free.[16] Open education is fast growing to become the domiment form of education. Higher education is therefore very important to national economies. Princeton. Caltech. [edit]University systems Lecture at the Faculty of Biomedical Engineering.[19] The conventional merit system degree is currently not as common in open education as it is in campus universities.Penn. In the United States. Edinburgh. and as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy.their lives. like thePennsylvania State System of Higher Education.[17] Cost of education has been an issue throughout history. or they can be independent but State funded. University education includes teaching. It has been called the biggest change in the way we learn since the printing press. and a major political issue in most countries today. both as a significant industry in its own right. [18] Many people despite favorable studies on effectivness may still desire to choose traditional campus education for social and cultural reasons. Many large university institutions are now starting to offer free or almost free full courses such as Harvard. Due to the popularity of open education these new kind of academic certificates are gaining more . MIT and Berkeley teaming up to form edX Other universities offering open education are Stanford. [edit]Open Higher education in particular is currently undergoing a transition towards open education. Washington. research. Johns Hopkins. Duke. Currently many of the major open education sources offer their own form of certificate.

and provides new ways to engage students.[citation needed] There has been a culture forming around distance learning for people who are looking to enjoy the shared social aspects that many people value in traditional on campus education that is not often directly offered from open education. Technology offers powerful learning tools that demand new skills and understandings of students.respect and equal "academic value" to traditional degrees. Computers and mobile phones are used in developed countries both to complement established education practices and develop new ways of learning such as online education (a type of distance education). and Smith College.[20] Many open universities are working to have the ability to offer students standardized testing and traditional degrees and credentials. in contrast to a professional. such as Virtual learning environments. John's College.Reed College. meetups and movements such as UnCollege. [edit]Community colleges Main article: community colleges A nonresidential junior college offering courses to people living in a particular area. The proliferation of computers also means the increase of programming and blogging. [edit]Liberal arts colleges Saint Anselm College. A liberal arts institution can be defined as a "college or university curriculum aimed at imparting broad general knowledge and developing general intellectual capacities. a traditional New England liberal arts college.[22] the term is more commonly associated with Universities in the United States[citation needed]. One such tool are virtual . Examples include St. including Multimedia. Also technology is an increasingly influential factor in education. Carleton College. [edit]Technology Main article: Educational technology One of the most substantial uses in education is the use of technology."[21] Although what is known today as the liberal arts college began in Europe. or technical curriculum. vocational. This gives students the opportunity to choose what they are interested in learning.[citation needed] Examples of this are people in open education forming study groups.

the Internet. such as radio and television. in both formal and non-formal settings. store. virtual manipulatives are dynamic visual/pictorial replicas of physical mathematical manipulatives. broadcasting technologies (radio and television). most accessible and therefore most dominant delivery mechanism in both developed and developing countries. suggesting comparable. due to limited infrastructure and the attendant high costs of access.[26] In addition to classroom application and growth of e-learning opportunities for knowledge attainment.[25] Older ICT technologies. Motivation and retention counselors. Web-based visual representation of a dynamic object that presents opportunities for constructing mathematical knowledge" (Moyer. have for over forty years been used for open and distance learning. and manage information. along with faculty and administrators.‖[24] These technologies include computers.[27] The use of computers and the Internet is in its infancy in developing countries. create. and telephony. & Spikell. Usually. There is increasing interest in how computers and the Internet can improve education at all levels. Virtual manipulatives can be easily accessed on the Internet as stand-alone applets. which allows immediate feedback tests and classroom discussions. Emerging research into the effectiveness of virtual manipulatives as a teaching tool have yielded promising results. can impact the potential academic success of students by provision of technology based experiences in the University setting. which have long been used to demonstrate and teach various mathematical concepts. which are an "interactive.[23] American students in 2001. educators involved in student affairs programming have recognized the increasing importance of computer usage with data generation for and about students. if these are used at all. although print remains the cheapest.[citation needed] Technology is being used more not only in administrative duties in education but also in the instruction of students. Bolyard. One example is the Audience Response System(ARS). various technologies are used in . allowing for easy access and use in a variety of educational settings. 2002). Technology is also being used in the assessment of students.manipulatives. The use of technologies such as PowerPoint andinteractive whiteboard is capturing the attention of students in the classroom. in a computer fundamentals class taking a computer-based test Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are a ―diverse set of tools and resources used to communicate. disseminate. In short. and in many cases superior overall concept-teaching effectiveness compared to standard teaching methods.

is the practice of training and developing skills in adults. broadcast radio and television. It takes on many forms. It is also sometimes referred to as andragogy (the art and science of helping adults learn). bookkeeping and many more are now available to students through the Internet. tablets.combination rather than as the sole delivery mechanism. [edit]Learning modalities . real estate license. laptops. television and.mp3 players. A number of career specific courses such as veterinary assisting. established in 1969 as the first educational institution in the world wholly dedicated to open and distance learning. etc. Wiki sites are another tool teachers can implement into CAL curriculums for students to understand communication and collaboration efforts of group work through electronic means. or adult education. ranging from formal class-based learning to self-directed learning and e-learning. Classrooms of the 21st century contain interactive white boards. online programming.[29] Similarly. recorded audio and video.[30] The term "computer-assisted learning" (CAL) has been increasingly used to describe the use of technology in teaching.[citation needed] Teachers are encouraged to embed these technological devices and services in the curriculum in order to enhance students learning and meet the needs of various types of learners. the Indira Gandhi National Open University in India combines the use of print.Adult education has become common in many countries. the Kothmale Community Radio Internet uses both radio broadcasts and computer and Internet technologies to facilitate the sharing of information and provide educational opportunities in a rural community in Sri Lanka. still relies heavily on print-based materials supplemented by radio.[28] The Open University of the United Kingdom (UKOU). To make knowledge and self improvement a lifelong focus as opposed to the more traditional view that knowledge and in particular value creating trade skills are to be learned just exclusively in youth. [edit]Adult Main article: Adult education Adult learning. medical billing and coding. With the boom of information from availability of knowledge through means of internet and other modern low cost information exchange mechanisms people are beginning to take an attitude ofLifelong learning. For example. in recent years. and audio conferencing technologies.

Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University.[39] Guy Claxton has questioned the extent that learning styles such as VAK are helpful. Kinesthetic: learning based on hands-on work and engaging in activities. It is currently fashionable to divide education into different learning "modes". and how this affects the way individuals respond to each other within the learning environment. Auditory: learning based on listening to instructions/information. the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Keirsey Temperament Sorter[34] focused on understanding how people's personality affects the way they interact personally. particularly as they can have a tendency to label children and therefore restrict learning.Students in laboratory. The learning modalities [36] are probably the most common:    Visual: learning based on observation and seeing what is being learned. Dunn and Dunn[31] focused on identifying relevant stimuli that may influence learning and manipulating the school environment. Based on the works of Jung. at about the same time as Joseph Renzulli[32] recommended varying teaching strategies.[37] recent research has argued "there is no adequate evidence base to justify incorporating learning styles assessments into general educational practice. There has been work on learning styles over the last two decades. depending on their preferred learning modality."[38] A consequence of this theory is that effective teaching should present a variety of teaching methods which cover all three learning modalities so that different students have equal opportunities to learn in a way that is effective for them.[40][41] [edit]Instruction Teacher in a classroom in Madagascar . Howard Gardner[33]identified individual talents or aptitudes in his Multiple Intelligences theories. Although it is claimed that. The work of David Kolb and Anthony Gregorc's Type Delineator[35] follows a similar but more simplified approach. different teaching techniques have different levels of effectiveness.

for example. and standards for conducting the process of education. Studies from the United States suggest that the quality of teachers is the single most important factor affecting student performance. or professors. there is the behaviorist theory of education that comes from educational psychology and the functionalist theory of education that comes from sociology of education. and they primarily teach only their specific discipline."[47] Likewise. but these evaluations have been criticized for being counterproductive to learning and inaccurate due to student bias.Instruction is the facilitation of another's learning.[44] [edit]Theory Main article: Education theory Education theory can refer to either a normative or a descriptive theory of education. . Hakha."[45] In the second case. Instructors in primary and secondary institutions are often called teachers. norms. teachers must be highly qualified. mathematics. and that countries which score highly on international tests have multiple policies in place to ensure that the teachers they employ are as effective as possible. It provides the "goals. Myanmar . In the first case.[48] [edit]Economics Main article: Economics of education Students on their way to school. a cultural theory of education shows how the concept of culture can be used to organize and unify the variety of facts about how and what people learn. Instructors in post-secondary institutions might be called teachers. it means "an hypothesis or set of hypotheses that have been verified by observation and experiment. depending on the type of institution. science and history. .[42][43] With the passing of NCLB in the United States (No Child Left Behind).For example. and they direct the education of students and might draw on many subjects like reading.Chin State. a theory means a postulation about what ought to be."[46] A descriptive theory of education can be thought of as a conceptual scheme that ties together various "otherwise discrete particulars. instructors. writing. A popular way to gauge teaching performance is to use student evaluations of teachers (SETS).

[49] Empirical analyses tend to support the theoretical prediction that poor countries should grow faster than rich countries because they can adopt cutting edge technologies already tried and tested by rich countries. This work has motivated a large number of studies. generally related back to the work of Jacob Mincer.[53][54] Economists Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis famously argued in 1976 that there was a fundamental conflict in American schooling between theegalitarian goal of democratic participation and the inequalities implied by the continued profitability of capitalist production on the other. a country's ability to learn from the leader is a function of its stock of "human capital". However. Therefore. technology transfer requires knowledgeable managers and engineers who are able to operate new machines or production practices borrowed from the leader in order to close the gap through imitation.[52] on how earnings are related to the schooling and other human capital of the individual. Recent study of the determinants of aggregate economic growth have stressed the importance of fundamental economic institutions[50] and the role of cognitive skills.[51] At the individual level.[55] [edit]History Main article: History of education Nalanda ancient center for higher learning. The chief controversies revolve around how to interpret the impact of schooling. but is also controversial. there is a large literature. .It has been argued that high rates of education are essential for countries to be able to achieve high levels of economic growth.

When cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond the basic skills of communicating. trading. Adults trained the young of their society in the knowledge and skills they would need to master and eventually pass on. China. Oral language developed into written symbols and letters. founded in 1088.Plato's academy.D in India. The history of education according to Dieter Lenzen. the university attracted scholars and students from as far away as Tibet. and schooling. and Persia. "began either millions of years ago or at the end of 1770".[56][unreliable source?] At its peak. etc. A depiction of the University of Bologna. eventually followed.[citation needed] The first large established university is thought to be Nalanda established in 427 A. The evolution of culture. Story-telling continued from one generation to the next. formal education. mosaic from Pompeii. . In pre-literate societies this was achieved orally and through imitation. Schooling in this sense was already in place in Egypt between 3000 and 500BC. gathering food. president of the Freie Universität Berlin 1994. Greece. religious practices. The depth and breadth of knowledge that could be preserved and passed soon increased exponentially. Italy.. and human beings as a species depended on this practice of transmitting knowledge. The first university establishments in the western world are thought to be University of Bologna (founded in 1088) and later Oxford university (founded around 1096). Education as a science cannot be separated from the educational traditions that existed before.

Matteo Ricci (left) and Xu Guangqi (right) in the Chinese edition of Euclid's Elementspublished in 1607. Chartres .[57] The city of Alexandria in Egypt was founded in 330BC. In Western Europe after the Fall of Rome. In the West.Socrates. Some of these ultimately evolved into medieval universities and forebears of many of Europe's modern universities. While the Roman Empire and its new Christian religion survived in an increasingly Hellenised form in the Byzantine Empire centered at Constantinople in the East. The city hosted such leading lights as the mathematician Euclid and anatomist Herophilus.[58] In the East. Confucius (551-479). Inspired by the admonition of his mentor. Plato was the Classical Greek philosopher. the church established Cathedral schools in the Early Middle Ages as centers of advanced education. Initially the sole preserver of literate scholarship in Western Europe.[58] During the High Middle Ages. and translated the Hebrew Bible into Greek (called the Septuagint for it was the work of 70 translators). was China's most influential ancient philosopher. of the State of Lu. Japan and Vietnam. Greek civilization was subsumed within the Roman Empire. mathematician and writer of philosophical dialogues who founded the Academy in Athens which was the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. constructed the great Library of Alexandria. became the successor to Athens as the intellectual cradle of the Western World. the Catholic Church emerged as the unifying force. but his Analects were written down by followers and have continued to influence education in the East into the modern era. whose educational outlook continues to influence the societies of China and neighbours like Korea. the political scientist Aristotle. Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC. Plato and his student. Western civilization suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in AD 476. helped lay the foundations of Western philosophy and science. He gathered disciples and searched in vain for a ruler who would adopt his ideals for good governance. prior to his unjust execution that "the unexamined life is not worth living".

which allowed works of literature to spread more quickly.Cathedral operated the famous and influentialChartres Cathedral School. UNESCO has calculated that in the next 30 years more people will receive formal education than in all of human history thus far. extending from the Iberian Peninsula in the west to the Indus in the east and to the Almoravid Dynasty and Mali Empire in the south.Johannes Gutenberg developed a printing press. The medieval universities of Western Christendom were well-integrated across all of Western Europe. Due to population growth and the proliferation of compulsory education. [edit]Modern times Nowadays some kind of education is compulsory to all people in most countries. Islamic science and mathematics flourished under the Islamic caliphate established across the Middle East. religion. The Enlightenment saw the emergence of a more secular educational outlook in the West.[59] and Saint Albert the Great. encouraged freedom of enquiry and produced a great variety of fine scholars and natural philosophers. Missionaries and scholars also brought back new ideas from other civilisations — as with the Jesuit China missions who played a significant role in the transmission of knowledge. including Thomas Aquinas of the University of Naples. Elsewhere during the Middle Ages. and culture between China and the West. Robert Grosseteste of theUniversity of Oxford. translating Western works like Euclids Elements for Chinese scholars and the thoughts of Confucius for Western audiences. Around 1450.[61] [edit]Philosophy Main article: Philosophy of education . The Renaissance in Europe ushered in a new age of scientific and intellectual inquiry and appreciation of ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. an early expositor of a systematic method of scientific experimentation. science. The European Age of Empires saw European ideas of education in philosophy. a pioneer of biological field research[60] The University of Bologne is considered the oldest continually operating university. arts and sciences spread out across the globe.

its central subject matter is education."[63] As such. and the relation between education theory and practice. epistemology. and/or analytic) to address questions in and about pedagogy. or results of the process of educating or being educated. philosophy of education is a "the philosophical study of education and its problems. [edit]Criticism . forms. That is. As an academic field. education policy. as well as the process of learning. to name a few.axiology and the philosophical approaches (speculative. and its methods are those of philosophy". andcurriculum. prescriptive. the values and norms revealed through upbringing and educational practices.John Locke's work Some Thoughts Concerning Education was written in 1693 and still reflects traditional education priorities in the Western world.. it might study what constitutes upbringing and education.[62] "The philosophy of education may be either the philosophy of the process of education or the philosophy of the discipline of education. drawing from fields of metaphysics.. it may be part of the discipline in the sense of being concerned with the aims. the limits and legitimization of education as an academic discipline. aims.[64] For example. methods. it is both part of the field of education and a field of applied philosophy. and methods of the discipline. or it may be metadisciplinary in the sense of being concerned with the concepts.

"Modern education means handing down the customs of the minority. whereas practitioners in schools or school-related settings are identified as school psychologists. and rooting out the customs of the majority. However in early age the focus is generally around developing basic Interpersonal communicationand literacy skills in order to further ability to learn more complex skills and subjects.[66] Satisfying personal curiosities (Education for the sake of itself) and desire for Personal development.[67] [edit]Psychology Main article: Educational psychology A class size experiment in the United States found that attending small classes for 3 or more years in the early grades increased high school graduation rates of students from low income families. the effectiveness of educational interventions. .Chesterton said."[65] [edit]Purpose of schools Main article: Education theory#Normative theories of education Individuals purposes for pursuing education can vary. the psychology of teaching. Although the terms "educational psychology" and "school psychology" are often used interchangeably.[68] Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings. After acquiring these basic abilities education is commonly focused towards individuals gaining necessary knowledge and skills to improve ability to create value and a livelihood for themselves. Educational psychology is concerned with the processes of educational attainment in the general population and in sub-populations such as gifted children and those with specific disabilities. and the social psychology of schools as organizations. researchers and theorists are likely to be identified as educational psychologists. to "better oneself" without career based reasons for doing so are also common reasons why people pursue education and use schools.

In universities. [edit]Developing countries . departments of educational psychology are usually housed within faculties of education. [edit]Sociology Main article: Sociology of education School children in Laos The sociology of education is the study of how social institutions and forces affect educational processes and outcomes. special education and classroom management. educational technology. & Raley. The understanding of the goals and means of educational socialization processes differs according to thesociological paradigm used. bearing a relationship to that discipline analogous to the relationship between medicine and biology. education is understood to be a means of overcoming handicaps.[44] Education is perceived as a place where children can develop according to their unique needs and potentialities. Blazek. curriculum development. In fact. organizational learning. Learners can also be motivated by their interest in the subject area or specific skill they are trying to learn. Educational psychology both draws from and contributes to cognitive science and the learning sciences. achieving greater equality and acquiring wealth and status for all (Sargent 1994). By many.[69] The purpose of education can be to develop every individual to their full potential. and vice versa. including instructional design. Educational psychology in turn informs a wide range of specialities within educational studies. 2006). possibly accounting for the lack of representation of educational psychology content in introductory psychology textbooks (Lucas. learner-responsibility education models are driven by the interest of the learner in the topic to be studied.Educational psychology can in part be understood through its relationship with other disciplines. Learners may be motivated by aspirations for progress and betterment. It is informed primarily by psychology.

There is economic pressure from those parents who prefer their children to earn money in the short term rather than work towards the long-term benefits of education. Indigenous governments are reluctant to take on the recurrent costs involved. and a lack of evidence and advocacy for the issue. A study conducted by the UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning indicates that stronger capacities in educational planning and management may have an important spill-over effect on the system as a whole.[clarification needed]  partners should commit to a long-term investment in capacity development.World map indicating Education Index (according to 2007/2008 Human Development Report) [edit]Development goals and issues Universal Primary Education is one of the eight international Millennium Development Goals.   strategies must be context relevant and context specific. organizational and individual levels that could be based on some foundational principles:  national leadership and ownership should be the touchstone of any intervention.[clarification needed] they should embrace an integrated set of complementary interventions.[72] Sustainable capacity development requires complex interventions at the institutional.[70]Additionally. towards which progress has been made in the past decade. while working towards some short-term achievements. an immature aid architecture. .[71] Furthermore.[70] Securing charitable funding from prospective donors is one particularly persistent problem.  outside intervention should be conditional on an impact assessment of national capacities at various levels. demand in the developing world for improved educational access is not as high as foreigners have expected. though barriers still remain. Researchers at the Overseas Development Institute have indicated that the main obstacles to receiving more funding for education include conflicting donor priorities. though implementation may need to proceed in steps. Transparency International has identified corruption in the education sector as a major stumbling block to achieving Universal Primary Education in Africa.

000 primary and high schools with computer equipment.[74] started with the support of former American President Bill Clinton. There are charities dedicated to providing infrastructures through which the disadvantaged may access educational materials.Russia has more academic graduates than any other country in Europe. . the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) has launched an "e-school program" to provide all 600.[73] An International Development Agency project called nabuur.com. The laptops were widely available as of 2008. They are sold at cost or given away based on donations. for example. a group out of MIT Media Lab and supported by several major corporations. chart does not include population statistics.) [when?]  Removal of a certain percentage of students for improvisation of academics (usually practiced in schools. The OLPC foundation. In Africa. learning materials and internet access within 10 years. has a stated mission to develop a $100 laptop for delivering educational software. after 10th grade) [edit]Education and technology in developing countries The OLPC laptop being introduced to children in Haiti Technology plays an increasingly significant role in improving access to education for people living in impoverished areas and developing countries. (Note. the One Laptop per Child project. uses the Internet to allow co-operation by individuals on issues of social development.

[76] Though the system can have variations in local.[79] The global campus[80] online. In 2004. regardless of whether one system is considered better or worse than another. Programs such as the International Baccalaureate have contributed to the internationalization of education. In Europe.India is developing technologies that will bypass land-based telephone and Internet infrastructure to deliver distance learning directly to its students. This facilitates the globalization of education.[75] [edit]Internationalization (Globalization and Education) Education is becoming increasingly international. The system has also promoted the global rules and norms of how the school should operate and what is education. for example. the Soros Foundation[78] provides many opportunities for students from central Asia and eastern Europe. experiencing a different way of education can often be considered to be the most important. [edit]See also Education portal Schools portal University portal         Informal learning Schools Universities Unschooling UnCollege Progressive education Glossary of education-related terms Index of education articles . Also. allows free access to class materials and lecture files recorded during the actual classes. Mass schooling has implanted the fundamental concepts that everyone has a right to be educated regardless of his/her cultural background and gender differences. regional. Some scholars argue that. The most represented case is the spread of mass schooling. the similarities — in systems or even in ideas — that schools share also enable the exchange among students at all levels which are also playing an increasingly important role in globalization process. led by American universities. a communications satellite providing access to educational materials that can reach more of the country's population at a greatly reduced cost. the Socrates-Erasmus Program[77] stimulates exchanges across European universities. and country level. enriching element of an international learning experience. the Indian Space Research Organization launched EDUSAT.

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