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TheDeepEcologyMovement: A Review
tric "resource" approach to the environmental crisis. The revolutionary ecocentric ideas of Henry David Thoreau, John Muir, and Leopold either
Although Aldo Leopold recognizedthe significanceof ecology much earlier,callingit "the outstanding discoveryof the twentiethcentury,"it was not until the 1960swith the rise of the Age of Ecology that the widerpublic becameawareof the scienceof ecology and its relevanceto environmental matters. During that period the foundationswere laid for a religiousand philosophical revolutionof the firstmagnitude.As G. TylerMillerobserved: "The ecologicalrevolutionwill be the most all-encompassing revolutionin the history of mankind." WarwickFox added that deep ecologists were to contributing "a 'paradigm shift' of comparable to significance that associated with Copernicus."Thatnew philosophical challengewas directedat the pervasivemetaphysicaland ethical anthropocentrism that has dominated Western culture with classical Greek humanism and the Judeo-Christian traditionsinceits inception. ' It is generally acknowledged RachelCarson'sSilentSpringushered that in what can appropriately called the Age of Ecology. Her attack on be pesticidescoincidedwith increasing publicawarenessof the extentof pollution and the overallenvironmental destruction that had takenplacesincethe SecondWorldWar. Carson'sindictment pesticideuse confirmedgrowing of doubts concerning the technological ability of humans to manage the "resources" the planetsuccessfully. also challenged of She anthropocentrism: "The 'control of nature' is a phrase conceivedin arrogance,born of the Neanderthalage of biology and philosophy, when it was supposed that natureexistsfor the convenience man."'2 of Given the state of environmental deterioration the early 1960s, the by administration John F. Kennedywas about to launch the third major of conservation effort of the century(the firsttwo occurredduringthe administrations of the two Roosevelts). Secretaryof the Interior Stewart Udall signaledthat effort with the publicationof The Quiet Crisisin 1963. Like SilentSpring,it too was a best sellerand outlinedthe "conservation"crisis. Althoughtherewas no extendeddiscussionof Aldo Leopold, in a footnote Udall observedthat SandCountyAlmanacwas the one book that pointedto "a nobleelegyfor the American earthand a plea for a newlandethic." Udall's book, however,reflectedthe dominantAmericananthropocen-
.ecophilosophers. ." He attempted."White claimedthat we will have a worseningcrisis "until we rejectthe Christian axiom that naturehas no reason for existencesave to serve man.Udall did point to changingattitudesin or the 1960stowardsthe naturereligionsand "land wisdom" of the American Indians: "Today the conservationmovement finds itself turning back to ancientIndianlandideas. This "ecocentric"religiousapproachaccountsfor their culturalsuccess for thousandsof yearsand can providemodernhumanswith historical modelsfor the human/Nature relationship.Because"modernscienceand technology arepermeated withorthodoxChristian arrogance towardnature. We are recovering a sense of reverence for the land. urban-industrial societies have failed to emancipate themselvesfrom essentiallyChristianideas.106 ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW SUMMER werenot understood wereignored. White's article was reprintedin several anthologies. Francis"triedto substitute idea of the the equalityof all creatures.and Leibniz)wereall philosophizing withina Christianmatrix."St. GarrettHardin's provocative . Francis whom he considered "the greatest spiritual of in revolutionary Western history. includinghuman domination overnatureand a beliefin perpetual progress.weredevelopedwith the specificgoal of conquering nature. brought the anthropocentrism issue into dramatic focus as the basis for the environmental debate.Modernscienceand the direction of technological society.to the Indianunderstanding we arenot outside that of nature. the anthropocentrism classicalGreekhumanism of (Plato and Aristotle)had alreadybeen absorbedinto Christiandoctrineand was exerting independent an influence.accordingto White.He furtherarguedthat the ideologies that shaped modern.and anthropologists now agree that primal societies throughoutthe world practiceda spiritual "ecological"way of life in which everything was to be respectedin its own right.. White argued in a 1967 articlethat orthodoxanthropocentric must assumea largeshare Christianity of the responsibility the environmental for crisis as a resultof desacralizing nature and producing a world view (metaphysics)that sees humans as separatefrom and superiorto nature. Jr.And by that time."3 Many environmental historians. Another radicalstrain in White's analysiswas his claim that Western cultural ideas of the domination and control of nature had shaped the development and thrustof modernscienceand technology. Along with other deep ecology classics of the 1960s.4 Lynn White. but of it.to disuadehumansfromthe idea of dominating natureand to "set up a democracy all God's creatures.6 White'sessay reacheda wideraudiencewhen it was republished the in Sierra Club Bulletin and discussed in approvingly Paul Ehrlich'sThe Population Bomb."5 of ClarenceGlackenreinforcedWhite's analysisby pointingout that the of architects the scientificrevolution(Bacon. .Descartes.includingman." White's solutionto the environmental crisiswas to suggesta returnto the ecological egalitarianism St.That argument challengedwidely held opinions about the supposed"objectivity"and culturalneutrality theoretical of science.
""I Paul Shepard'sessay. Even before Whitepublishedhis provocativeessay.He pointedto the unnaturalChristianseparationof humansfrom natureand proposedSt. were willing to follow White in St. . was developed . advocating move to the "futureprimitive" "ecosystem a and people"waysof life by the 1970s. however. CarrollPursellcalledthis a move "from conserby professionalbiologists and ecologists relyingon their scientifictraining and experiences.Whiteclaimedwith somejustification havecreated to "thetheologyof ecology. . advocating Francisandecologicalequality.'0 RaymondDasmann.The Canadian."Since the publicationof his first book in 1967. and Ecosystem Sciencemayyet arise. Few." was anotherlandmarkin the critiqueof Westernanthropocentrism.12 Ecologists have continued to provide philosophicaldirection for this revolutionin thinking.He characterized ecology as the subversive scienceor subject:"the ideologicalstatus of ecology is that of a resistance movement. arguedagainstthe He Taoism . Buddhism.1987 GEORGE SESSIONS 107 essay. what had begun as anotherwave of the conservationmovement had turnedby the late 1960sinto a radicalcritiqueof the basic assumptions of modernWesternsociety. 8 Thus."9 Much of this radical critique.' For their part. Shepardhas been one of the most provocativethinkersin the developmentof the emergingecological world view.andthe Zen Buddhist visionof harmony with nature. Influencedby the Zen Buddhist views of Alan Watts.combinedecological insightwith a critiqueof Westernanthropocentrism. Christiantheologians and scientistseither denounced White'sthesis or reexamined their own religiousbeliefs and values. many theologiansnow advocate a less exploitiveattitudetoward naturereferred as "stewardship"-that has much in commonwith the orthodox to position of conservationists. "The Tragedy of the Commons. Throughthis period the widely read anthropologistLoren Eiseley also was focusing attention upon the narrow anthropocentrism and environmentaldestructiveness of modernman.Its Rachel Carsonsand Aldo Leopolds are subversive.Accordingto John Milton. Sheparddiscussedthe differentmetaphysics resulting from an ecological perception."As a consequence. as the womb from which a humanitarian-oriented Human vation to ecology. if any. additionto the literature social criticssuch as Huxley in of andOrwell. Conferences wereorganizedand receivedwide presscoverage." a philosophicaland ecological sophistication of the anthropocentricposition. Francisas the patron saint of ecologists.Zen taught that "there is really no distinctionbetweenthe " organism its environment.a self-professed Zen Buddhist.John Livingston. MarstonBates had chided professionalphilosophersfor "dallying in their academicgroves" when the need for a new ecologically-based philosophywas imperative. "Ecology and Man.who wrote influentialbooks from a broad social was perspective. also appeared in these anthologies. And FrankEglerproposeda newworldview and called Human Ecosystem Science: "I look to Hinduism.
. and intuition.emotion." In effect. H.the development an ecologicalperspective of continuedmainlyin the writingsof literaryfiguressuch as D.St.Ehrenfelddiscussedthe failure of viewing the world in terms of resourcesand referredapprovinglyto CharlesElton's ecocentricand religious reasons for protectingecological diversity.George Santayanaattackedthe anthropocentrism of the dominantWesternphilosophyand religionand called for a new "noble moral imagination"that would extend the democraticprinciple "to the animals. of course. of Therewerealso forewarnings GeorgePerkinsMarshand John Stuart by Mill.to inanimate nature.108 ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW SUMMER treatment plantsand animalsprimarily humanresources. At the beginningof the twentiethcentury. His system influenced Goethe and other writersof the EuropeanRomanticmovement.now understoodas a natureoriented. in the development a worldview drawnpartly of " fromecologicalprinciples-in the so-calleddeepecologymovement. The lattercould see no ultimatevalue in conqueringnatureand called for a "stationarystate" in populationand economics.' 3 In TheArroganceof HumanismDavid Ehrenfeldleanedheavilyon the writings GeorgeOrwellin developing powerfulcritique anthropocenof his of tric humanismand the failure of modern technology." More recently. Lawrence. Nonhumanspecies. Muirand at Santayana the beginningof the twentiethcenturywerechallenging America to developan ecocentric philosophyand a newecologicalway of life.haveintrinsic valueand the rightto existwhichis "the firstand foremost argumentfor the preservationof all nonhumanspecies.Spinozahad attemptedto undercut the materialistic scientismof Hobbes and the mind-bodydualism and dominationof naturethemesof Descartesand to establishinsteada holistic nonanthropocentric pantheism. '4 The emergence the Age of Ecologywas.Neil Everndon. they claimed. PaulEhrlich claimed "themainhopefor changing has that humanity's presentcoursemay lie .heavilyindebtedto of earlierwriters. Emerson.countercultural force alignedagainstthe riseof the narrowly scientific industrialsociety. That countercultural force took shape in Americain the Transcendentalism Whitman. During the rise of modernsciencein the seventeenth century.Livingston's of as colleague. Anneand Paul Ehrlicharguedin 1981for the ecologicalnecessityof vast expansesof unmanagedwildernessas species habitat. from an ecological standpointthere are no discreteentities. RecentlyEverndonhas critiqued anthropocentric "resourcism" developeda phenomenological and approach to philosophical ecology.pointedout that the idea of interrelatedness goes beyondthe usualscientificsenseof causalconnectedness. In the late of nineteenth century. He arguedthat the exclusiveemphasisupon reason has divorcedus from the crucial survival functionsof instinct. Franciswas unique for attemptingto divertmainstream Christianityback to a position of ecological equality.to the cosmos as a whole.JohnMuirmovedawayfromthe subjectivism Romanof ticism and Transcendentalism arrivedat the major generalizations and of ecologythroughdirectexperience ecologicalinterrelatedness.'5 After the FirstWorldWar. and Thoreau. . .
He urged academicphilosophyto constructa new ecological world view as an alternative anthropocentrism.John Rodman.Jr.and urged academicphilosophyto take the human-nature relationshipas its centralconcern.and Snyder-who prepared soil for the Age of Ecologyand gave the ' it a wideranddeeperperspective. and Orwell. The philosopherWallaceMatsonhas remarked that "greatphilosophy is reflectionafterthe fact.Australia. otherAmerican philosophers theologianswereadvocatingan and ecologicalworld view based on the organismicphilosophyof Alfred North '9 Whitehead."in a . from the Zen Buddhismof Huxley. "I At a Universityof Georgiaconferencein 1971. and from the antiutopiansocial critiquesof Huxleyand Orwell. Zamiatian claimedin defending wilderness "the separation man from natureis imperfectso that of ' that a separation occurred. Elsewhere."6 long as manmightrecognize has A greatdeal of creditfor developingthe newecologicalworldview must go to the professionalecologistsof the last twenty years. And behindtheir efforts stood the toweringfigureof Aldo Leopold. GreatBritain. Poets from T.and calledfor a "greening"of philosophers. In discussingthe significanceof the antiutopiannovels for the human-nature to relationship. offered a critiquein 1973of the anthropocentrism both classicalGreekand modernphilosophy.. the samemeeting." By the early 1970sthe critiqueof anthropocentrism began to bear fruit as effortsbeganindependently professional by in philosophers the UnitedStates. to atomism.compared withthe Copernican for it revolution.1987 GEORGE SESSIONS 109 RobinsonJeffers.Colwellcomparedthe ecologicalsignificance of the philosophies Spinozaand John StuartMill and suggesteda move in of the direction of Spinoza. WaylandDrewreferred an earlynovel by the Russian.EugeneOdum At andWilliam Blackstone urgedthe adoptionof Leopold'secological conscience. Watts. and JosephWood Krutch. S.and Norway to articulatethe emergingecological world view. and Snyder."The Rightsof Non-HumanNature. Radicalecologistssince the 1960s havegainedinspiration from Thoreauand Muir. PeterGunternoted that ecology and environmentalism were movementstowardsholism and organicism. was one of the firstto discuss ecophilosophical issues in a systematicway. He assessedthe implicationsof the ecological revolution modernsociety.and EdwardAbbey havecarriedon this tradition.The dichotomybetweenwild natureand the technological societyis sharplydrawnin his book.EugeneZamiatian.Rodof mansponsored majorconference. This markedthe beginningsof the rise of ecophilosophyand deepecologyas carefullydevelopedphilosophical positions. In the UnitedStates.Huxley. But we must also look to the literary criticsand naturalists-fromThoreau Muirto Jeffers.More recently Alan Watts. and mechanism. The politicalphilosopher.ThomasColwell. it is the effort of thoughtfulmen to makesenseof the worldonce againafterthe old picturehas becomeno longerbelievable.GarySnyder. Eliot to ArchibaldMcLeishwarnedof the "diminishment of man" as a resultof industrialsociety. Aldous Huxley.
Since then Rodmanhas writtena series of brilliant papers including a typology of ecophilosophicalpositions.California.20 of Duringthe sameperiodHwa Yol and Petee Jung also begandeveloping an ecophilosophybased on the work of Martin Heidegger and Eastern philosophy. ecophilosophy. Michael Zimmerman followedwithan examination Heidegger's of critiqueof Westernphilosophyas the foundationfor the subjectivist technological mentalityand the drive to dominate nature. Heidegger had called for a new way of thinkingthat would "let beingsbe.consciousness) considered be the only intrinsicgood. accordingto a Zimmerman. The Spinoza scholar.his last energiesweredevotedto nuclear disarmament campaigns. togetherwith paperswrittenby Australian National Universityfacultymembers.2'Anotherhallmarkwas the appearanceof the journal Environmental Ethics in the spring of 1979. The international debateon environmental ethics.22 In Australia. John Passmore. The meetingprovedto be a major stimulusfor the developmentof ecophilosophyin the United States.resultedin considerable interestin ecophilosophyamong Australianscholars.RichardRoutley(now Sylvan)and Val Routley (now Plumwood)." Zimmerman continuedto develop has Heidegger's thoughtalong ecologicallines. That is.belittled and diminished humansand also involveda kind of arrogance the face of in nature-"an arrogancethat is intelligibleonly if the doctrineis seen as a residue of the Christianaccount of this species' peculiar relation to the Creator.deep ecology. ecofeminism.He warnedof the "vast social disaster"that would resultfrom the anthropocentric philosophiesof KarlMarxand John Deweywhich "tend to regardeverything nonhumanas mereraw material.and the critiqueof animalrightshas been carriedon withinits pages. the rest are to of natureis valued only to the extent to which it contributesto essentially humanstatesof consciousness. Passmore and the Routleys were opponents in this .Passmore'sbook. states of mind (feeling. In England. It was.110 ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW SUMMER 1974 at Claremont. the internationally known philosopherand historianof ideas.later faulted contemporary Westernethical theory for its anthropocentrism."Unfortunately."He askedwhethernaturecould be "farmedby humanbeings for their comfort and pleasurewithout any restrictionother than the comfort and pleasureof futurehumanbeings?"Hampshire proposedinsteada more cosmicSpinozistic worldview in whichecologicallydestructive wouldbe acts prohibited exceptionless by norms. Hampshire thought. Stuart Hampshire. Modernethics. view of the world as a storehouseof raw materialfor the enhancementof man's power.Russell did not developthese ideas further.with many leadingecophilosophers participating.the world-famous philosopherBertrand Russellpointedin 1945to the dangersof valuingscienceprimarily technologicalpowerover as nature.producedthe first major work in ecophilosophyin 1974. and an alternativeto the standard ethicalinterpretation Leopold'slandethic. a critiqueof the animal rights position.
and Ian McHarg..a new religion" of ecology.Pierre Teilhardde Chardin. whereinhumans are free to modify and manipulatenonhuman nature without any concern for the intrinsic value of other species and ecosystems. Routley questionedwhether the three main Western human-nature views mapped out by Passmore-the despotic. He mentionedthat severalecologists-as well as LynnWhiteand VictorHugo-were callingfor "a new ethics.it ethic of the Leopoldian was necessaryto move to a unique environmental type.to Plato and the postPlatonicphilosopher. So to perfect nature is to humanize it.. one that the Routleys thought could be "as tough. Passmore rejectedthe sacrednessof nature. and both Passmoreand the Routleys are part of that tradition. Australianphilosophyhas a strong secularand positivisticcaste to it. humanswereto be stewardsor farmmanagers for this "goodly farm of the lower world.was wrappedup with the "mysticaltotalistic illusion" and led to political authoritarianism.23 John Passmorewas motivatedto write his book largely as a defense againstthe claimsof the radicalecologistsof the 1960s.He and endorsedthem as the West's uniquecontributionto a sound contemporary .As developedby the seventeenth-century humanist."24 Passmorethought the two models of the human-nature relationshipthe "stewardship" "man perfectingnature"views wereconverging. of Passmoretracedthe second view. becauseit was an attitude incompatible with the Westernscientifictradition.Val Routley claimedthat the "WesternDomination Assumption" was at the basis of the three positions Passmore had outlined. He also pointedout that Aldo Leopold"was one of the firstto suggestthat the West now standsin need of a 'new ethic'-an 'ethic of conservation." The Routleys and Paul Taylor have recentlyprovided devastating of and critiques anthropocentrism the ideaof humansuperiority.Bertrand Russelland AlbertEinsteinto the contrary.as elsewhere." Passmoreclaimedthat the third view came to full floweringwithin the idealist metaphysicsof Hegel and from there was incorporatedinto the thinkingof Marx.RichardRoutleyarguedthat a mere "extension"of existinganthropocentrichumanistethics to the nonhumanworld would be inadequate. practical.took the form of a shallow anthropocentric versus a deep ecological approachto environmental problems. man perfecting nature.RichardRoutleycalled this "humanchauvinism"and "species bias.and man perfecting nature-could be modifiedto do justiceto ecologicalrealities. stewardship."'Passmore rejectedthe "man as despot" view which he claimedhad been the predominantinterpretation the Book of Genesis..Sir MatthewHale.Passmoretracedto Stoicismandto Aristotle'sviewthat "natureis at its best when it fulfills men's needs.lamblichus. rational and secular as prevailing Western ethics. the stewardship. Passmoreand the Routleys disagreed primarily overthe need for a new environmental ethic. a new metaphysics. HerbertMarcuse." The thirdview. Passmore also rejected any metaphysical "philosophy of wholeness"which. Thus. he claimed.1987 GEORGE SESSIONS 111 debate. the ecophilosophical debate in Australia.
Its objective.26 Arne Naess arguedthat "the emergence ecologistsfrom their former of relativeobscuritymarksa turningpoint in our scientificcommunities.But their messageis twisted and misused. The working out of such a metaphysics is. Naess claimedthat the experiencesof ecologists and others associatedwith wild nature gave rise duringthe 1960sto scientificconclusionsand intuitionsthat wereamazingly similar.. Gandhi.Arne Naess. "The Shallow and the Deep.. when there were demonstrations against the dammingof riversin Norway. deliveredhis lecture.ecologicalegalitarianism specieshave an equal right to live (all and blossom). that continued.Philosophyis the mostgeneralforumof debateon fundamentals. of Naess's majorwork in ecosophywas publishedin Norwayin 1976and later translatedinto Swedish.the principlesof diversityand symbiosis.... of Naess also claimedthat "insofar as ecology movementsdeserveattention theyareecophilosophical ratherthanecological:" Ecologyis a limitedsciencewhichmakesuse of scientificmethods."25 The first Norwegianecophilosopherwas Peter Zapffe who developed what he called a "biosophy" in 1941."The long-range "deep" movement proposinga majorrealignment our thinkingabout humans was in and natureconsistentwith an ecologicalperspective. But it was not until the 1960s. who acceptas validthe of widernormsandvaluescharacteristic the DeepEcologymovement.for ways and formsof life. .was anthropocentric parochial-"the health and and affluenceof peoplein the developedcountries." ecologicalfield The worker"acquiresa deep-seatedrespect. It is clearthat thereis a vast number peoplein all countries. and movement into existence. pragmaticreform approach.and the philosophy . While certainlyon the scale of Passmore's Man's Responsibility for Nature. in my judgment. These included the awarenessof the internal interrelatedness of ecosystems."It was in the contextof this Norwegian environmental milieuthat the distinguished philosopherof scienceand linguistics.. Long-RangeEcology Movements." to the Third World Future Research in Naessboth described definedthe deepecology Conference Bucharest.SigmundKvaloy's1974papercontainedone of the ecophilosophy first uses of the word "ecophilosophy." The shallow movementis a shortterm. .the most important task whichlies aheadof philosophy.an anti social-class position. Ecosophy is Naess's version of deep ecology. or even veneration. it is little known outside Scandinavia and is only now being publishedin English.. . . Passmore backed away from that narrow "We do need a 'new' metaphysics anthropocentrism: whichis genuinelynot anthropocentric.in his view. are Theyexpressa valuepriority systemonly in partbasedon results(or lack of results)of scientificresearch. concernedmainly with the of symptoms environmental diseasesuchas pollutionand resource depletion. In 1975.it is inspiredby the scienceof ecology." the principles local autonomyanddecentralization.Naess claimed.the appreciation ecologicalcomplexityleadingto the awareness of of the "humanignorance biospherical of relationships. The significant tenetsof the Deep Ecologymovement clearlyand forcefullynormative.112 ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW SUMMER approachto nature.
29 While philosophers debate and refine the principles of deep ecology. The distribution of these papers was widespread throughout the international community of ecophilosophy scholars and. Liberty Hyde Bailey. John Passmore announced that it is now customary dividethe familyof "ecophilosophers"-thatlimitedclass of to philosopherswho take environmentalproblems seriously-into two genera. Naess continues to refine ecosophy and exhorts professional ecologists to take deep ecological stands. Activist organizations such as Greenpeace and Earth First! have adopted deep ecological and ecocentric principles as their guiding philosophy. Although Leopold seemed to have understood the magnitude of the ecological perspective-calling it "the outstanding discovery of the twentieth century"-he described it primarily in terms of an ethical and .27 During the period 1978-1981. its overall ideas and ways of life are being implemented in the everyday sphere. and deep ecology has been far-reaching. are finding the deep ecology platform congruent with their social and political aims. ecophilosophy."3' Nash discussed the influence of Darwin. And Dolores LaChapelle helps to reintroduce earth rituals among contemporary peoples. the "shallow"andthe "deep.1987 GEORGE SESSIONS 113 of Spinoza and is derived from the norm of universal self-realization. by 1983. rocks. and Asian philosophy on Leopold. ecological. Nash traced the development of modern American thought on wilderness from Thoreau and Muir to the scientific. plants. and ethical thinking of Leopold and the statement of the secular and scientific "land ethic. Others compared his thought with Zen Buddhism. The availability of Leopold's ideas was greatly increased with the publication of Roderick Nash's Wilderness and the American Mind in 1967." For contemporary environmentalists only science had the prestige to convince a society of the validity of the ecological perspective. Muir. and ecosystems-he called for the "rights of rocks" and for "rounding out the American [ethical] revolution. originating in West Germany and now spreading throughout the world. Naess and Sessions (in April of 1984) drafted a more neutral deep ecological platform designed to appeal to a great many people coming from different philosophical and religious persuasions. Deep ecology scholar and poet Gary Snyder is one of the main links to the international social movements known as bioregionalism and reinhabitation.30 Aldo Leopold's influence on the thinking of radical ecologists and the development of environmental ethics. Schweitzer."28 Drawing upon Naess's original paper. And Green political parties. Nash became the major proponent of Leopold's thought and-following Leopold's analysis of the development and "extension" of ethics from humans to animals. California sociologist Bill Devall and philosopher George Sessions further developed the shallow (or reform)/deep ecological distinction and used it as a basis for classifying and describing the various ecophilosophical positions.
Peter Ouspensky. 32 Earlyin his careerLeopold wrote of the Earthas a living organism. and providesthe key to the "subversives' natureof ecology.Leopoldseemed to envisionthe shift from an anthropocentric an ecocentricworldview: "we to are only fellow-voyagers with other creaturesin the odyssey of evolution. man was "only a memberof the biotic team."34 Accordingto Aldo Leopold. in Rachel Carson's criticismof the "control of nature. and a mountain." and in FrankEgler'sview that "natureis not only morecomplexthan we think.a view inspiredby readingthe Russianphilosopher." An ecologicalview. he Correspondingly. referred an "ecological to conscience.33 Leopoldalso claimed that "theconqueror is eventually role self-defeating." Leopold defined to "landhealth"in termsof naturally evolvingprocesses dynamic in equilibrium.Leopold claimedthat this "conversion"or "gestalt shift" took place when he was involvedin killingone of the last wolvesin Arizona. In deference to the prevailingscientific mechanistic view.114 ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW SUMMER esthetic revolution.a and wolf. the biotic mechanism so complexthat its workingsmay neverbe fully is understood.Susan Fladerbelievesthat orthodoxscientificcolleaguesmay have dissuadedLeopold from publishinghis views. EcologistsWilliamMurdochand JosephConnellpointed out: "We submitthat ecologyas such probablycannotdo whatmanypeople expectit to do.That concepthelps providea basis for restoringdamagedenvironments.trainedin the anthropocentric resourceconservation ideology of Gifford Pinchot and had authoredthe ground-breaking textbook in "game" management. He used undamaged wilderness a base line to gaugethe healthof humanas occupiedecosystems." leads to the conclusionthat "the less violent the man-madechanges. "the combinedevidenceof historyandecology." rather thanan "ecological consciousness. .he alternated between referring the landas a "mechanism" to and as a collective "organism.33 Leopold'sformulation the land ethic-"A thingis rightwhenit tends of to preservethe integrity.." This emphasisby modernecologists strikesat the heart of the Westerndominationassumption." The shift for Leopold to ecocentrismwas a tributeto his open-mindedness and sensitivity.challengesthe main tenets of modern science. but it is morecomplexthan we can think." But Leopold's awarenessof ecological relationships him beyondthe reigningscientificorthodoxyto an organisled mic understanding an almostmysticalsenseof thinkinglike a muskrat." Leopold's deep experientialcommitmentwas evident in his referenceto "thinkinglike a mountain." That humility in the face of the ultimate mystery of the universeand naturalprocessescan also be found in the writingsof Loren Eiseley. the greater probability successful the of readjustment" the ecologicalpyramid. and beauty of the biotic community'- . it cannotprovidea set of 'rules'of the kindneededto manage the environment. of Thatis a clearanticipation whatBarryCommoner of calledthe ThirdLawof Ecology [Nature Knows Best]: that "any major man-made change in a naturalsystemis likely to be detrimental that system..he had been." a deeper At level.stability.
and bioregionalism? deep ecologicalmovementhas developedthe implicationsof what it would meanto be a "plainmember citizen"of the bioticcommunity. The beginningsof the movement coincidedwith the increasingprofessionalism environmental of ethics.ethicalhierarchiesversusan egalitarian versusan position.the rightsof ecofeminism. have advocateda move in the directionof "ecosystempeople" Viewed in one way. AnimalLiberation.and the differencebetweenthe and New Age/AquarianConspiracy Deep Ecology." a By viewingthe world throughthe eyes of a muskrat. As will be evident. and Holmes Rolston III in an importantarticle broughtmodern ethicalconceptsto bearon the development an environmental of ethic.There is criticismof Baird of Callicott'soverly"holistic"interpretation Leopoldthat seemsto discount in the importance the individual the ecosystem.37 A numberof developmentshave emergedas "cutting edge" issues in that can roughlybe describedas environmental ethics versus ecophilosophy an ecologicalmetaphysics. AustralianPeterSingerpublished highlyinfluentialbook. Among professionalphilosophers tendency .WouldLeopold.animalrightsethicaltheorizing overallecologicalworldview. riseof the "new the physics" and its relationto ecophilosophy. world view.36 wildlifeas a standard management WhetherLeopoldenvisionedthe majorchangesneededto bringmodern industrialsocietiesback into line with ecological realitiesremainsan open question.1987 GEORGE SESSIONS 115 capturesthe ecocentricorientationof the ecological perspective." Most of of of the philosophicaldiscussion of Leopold has focused on the technical the aspectsof his ethicaltheory. One also wonderswhat he would think of the extensive manipulationof tool. reinhabitation.It implies intrusiveapproach alteringnatural to and a prudent.Jon Molinehas attempted of to weaken the "direct holistic" interpretation suggestingLeopold was by proposingan "indirectholism" not intendedfor case by case application. He would of throughthe also be shockedat the wholesaledestruction forestecosystems clear-cutting "management"practicesof the United States Forest Service.38 Rolston discussedLeopold's "land ethic" as the paradigmatic example of an ecologicalethicand pointedto the problemof movingfromthe factual statements ecologicalscienceto the formulation the "landethic. or ontology of being.conservative. his in 1975. and in Ecophilosophers recentyearshavetriedto refineand furtherdevelop Leopold's ethical and philosophicalapproach."one comes to an awarenessthat all beings have a telos or good thatis to be respected. minimally ecosystemsfor humanuse.or by "thinkinglike a mountain.these issues overlapto a considerabledegree. like RaymondDasmannand othercontemporary ecologists. the ways of life. to John Rodman attributesa deeper ecological interpretation Leopold by suggesting shift awayfrom the theoreticalformulationof the "land ethic. Leopold questionedthe narrowmaterialvalues and the ideasof progressof modernsocietyand attackedthe excessiveuse of economiccriteriain makingdecisionsaffectingthe environment.He would be appalled at the extent to which economics has become almost totally dominantin the anthropocentric society of the 1970sand 1980s.
ethical hierarchies established are with humanshavingthe highestdegreeof intrinsic value.As Stuart Hampshireand others point out.40 The ecologicalrevolutionhas challengedmodernWesternethicseven in its adequacyfor human-to-human relations. a resultof theirhighlyspecialized As training. Nonhumansare allowedor "awarded"intrinsicvalue to the degreeto which they are thought to possess those traits. using Aristotle'sethics as an example. modern Western ethicaltheoryreflectsthe anthropocentric worldview and. have developedtheir positions by a process of "ethical extension. the phrase"ecophilosophy"bringsto mind a new specialized type of philosophy. as most philosophers are unawareof the significanceof the emergingecologicalworld view. Hampshire comparedthe telos (or self-realization) has theoriesof Aristotle .Tom Reganhas recentlyarguedthatonly humansand higher mammalshave rights. all other forms of life have no importanceother than their instrumental value to humans. Having given up the traditionalroleof philosophy cosmologyand socialcriticism."39 in The leadinganimal liberationtheorists. as such. morality must be groundedin practices designedto promotea humantelos.Peter Singerand Tom Regan. While the activist wing of the animal rights' movementhas awakenedthe world to the abuse of animals.Paul Tayloravoidsmost ethicalhierarchies arguingfor a biocenby tric world view.116 ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW SUMMER has beento view the environmental challengeas one of developinga rational anddefensible ethicof the environment. Animal rights' theoristSteve Sapontzishas pointedout that this would be a morallybetter worldif predators wereeliminated.becauseit lacksa conceptionof humantelos or idealof character. For some.But that position is still an "extension"of modernethical theory. In keepingwiththe contemporary metaphysics isolatedindividuals.That line of criticismcontendsthat the concept of "rights" is a fiction. of the emphasis is upon the ethical value of discrete atomistic individuals (humanand non-human)which often results in conclusionsthat are profoundlyunecological. vegetarianism claimedto be the only morally defensible is position. and Deep ecology theorizing basedon the metaphysics Spinozaor versionsof Buddhism of has fewer problemswith the issue of the relationshipof the individualto the whole. the theoretical base remains wedded to anthropocentrism fails to reachan ecologicalperspective. Accordingto Maclntyre. Therefore. thus avoiding many of the gaffes committedby animal rights'theorists.arguesagainstany kind of holism. and fails to see inherentworthin nonlivingnature.happiness)are claimedto be of sole intrinsicvalue. perpetuatesan arbitrary "arrogance the face of Nature. pleasure.The problemof the relationof the individualto the whole (ecosystem)providesthe main stumblingblock to that kind of theorizing.Mentalstates or characteristics possessedby humans(rationality." thus remaining withinthe moderntradition.For example. For many.the philosophicalcommunityviews "environmental ethics" as another form of "practical"or "applied" ethics.StuartHampshire and Alisdair Maclntyreargue that the system belittles and diminishesthe dignity and potentialof humans.
Carson combined scientific in training biologywithemotional sensitivity to the ecologicalworld.He asked: "Do we needto shift to moralizing orderto find a satisfactory in metaphysics of environmentalism?" theirpart." Rational thinking is linear. For Heidegger.A few yearslaterTheodoreRoszakreferred the rise to of ecofeminism a "returnof the Goddess. Heidegger wouldagreewithMaclntyrethat moralbehaviormustbe rootedin a profoundunderstanding what it meansto be human.4' in to of Misunderstanding deep ecology has resultedfrom assumingthat its goal is to producean ecologicalethic in the senseof modernWesternethics. caring). whereas "ecological awareness arisesfrom an intuitionof nonlinearthinking. He suggestedthat Spinozawas an opponentof moralism. even though its groundworkcan be traced to others.ontology precedes of ethics.is a result of overemphasizing masculineside and our neglectingthe feminine (intuitivewisdom. Michael Zimmerman also argues that Aristotle's conception humantelosis too anthropocentric. an ethical not theoryto be defended rational by argument. Rachel Carson.or lettingbeingsreveal themselves waysappropriate theirown possibilities. he points out.and she led the wayin politicalactivism. GeneviveLloyd examinedSpinoza's philosophy from an ecological standpoint and concludedthat the ethics of the systemwereanthropocentric. The masculineemphasisupon scientific method and rationalanalyticalthinking.he claimed.the telos of humankindinvolves learningto treat beingsotherthan merelyas objectsfor our purposes."And FritjofCaprahas pointed as to the patriarchal dominance overboth womenand naturein Western culture since Biblical times. developeda model of human telos that is more ecocentric."The environmental crisis. synthesis. deepecologistsstill use ethicalvocabuFor lary such as "rights"and "obligations"without subscribing the modern to technicalphilosophicaltheories attached to those words. nurturing. ecological awareness.Arne Naess also believes Spinoza'sideal to be fruitfuland has described what he calls the "ecological self"-a self that identifies not only with other humans.1987 GEORGE SESSIONS 117 and Spinoza and finds the latter to be superior. but also with non-humanspecies and ecosystems. Ecofeminist .42 It is significantthat the Age of Ecology stems from the efforts of one woman.43 and MartiKheelhas recentlycriticizedboth animalrights'theoryand holistic interpretations Leopold's ecological ethic as versions of masculine of rationalethical theory. therefore. "has led to attitudesthat are profoundly antiecological. Naess describes ecological egalitarianism an intuition experiencedby those in the deep as ecologymovement. The term ecofeminism was coined by the French writer Fransoise in d'Eaubonne 1974. She claims that animal rights' theorizinghas produced ethical hierarchieswith humans at the apex. On the other hand. But Naess arguedthat Spinoza does not have an ethical system in the modern sense. ecological holistic theories result in a dualistic hierarchyfrom the other directionin whichecosystemshave morevalue than individuals. of Martin Heidegger.
McLaughlin arguesthat the scientificimage holds no ontological or epistomologicalprimacyover other views of nature. andWittgenstein." The purely formal or abstractmathematical characterization natureoffered by modernphysics of presents instrumentalized an imagethatappears totallymanipulable humans. to Severalecofeministshave criticizeddeep ecology becauseit is the productof male thinkers.Alternateimages (such as the "interconnected web" images of deep ecology and nonconceptualBuddhism)are superiorto the scientific.she calls for an integration emotionand reasonin addressing of those issues.118 ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW SUMMER holistic thought.47 to "Science. and this image makes moral limits on the human manipulationof nature appear irrational. exclusiveuse of reason in ethical theorizingis a The malepreoccupation whichleadsto hierarchical thinking.Parallelswith the ecologicalsenseof interrelatedness also have been pointed out.MorrisBermanhas recentlyoutlinedand endorsedthis criticism from LewisMumfordand TheodoreRoszakto that of Husserl. Othershave pointedto problemsin the deep ecologicalinterpretation the relationof of the individual the whole(ecosystem). and intercommunication. of Hinduism.45 The new ecologicalworld view challengesmodernWesternethics and calls into questionthe metaphysics the modernworldview. McLaughlinpoints out.Heidegger. Behavioris based on attitudes.world economic markets. FritjofCapra of showed how the atomisticmechanicalview of seventeenth-century physics has been replaced in the twentieth century by a metaphysicsof energy transformation similarin manyways to the Easternmetaphysics Taoism.and Buddhism." -then "modernscience and technologyenter decisivelyinto the formationof the humanimage of the world. that is a of misunderstanding the intuitionof biocentricegalitarianism."48 of . but as WarwickFox and others have pointed out. by This ethics is one of dominationand exploitation.but that issuestill needsclarification.You see. Capraremarked: think what [the new] "I physicscan do is help to generateecologicalawareness.has changedthe picturesomewhat.44 Someecofeminists havecriticized deepecology for developinga rational ethicaltheory. in my view nowthe Western versionof Taoismwill be ecologicalawareness. Kheel claims.referring it as a culturalconstruct. goes beyond dualismsand hierarchies a to position of ecocentricequality." When that pictureis coupled with the desacrilization natureof natureas a commodity."46 Criticism the objectivityof the modernscientificworldview has been of mounting." If we are to evaluatethe scientificimageon the basisof its pragmaticsuccessin manipulating nature.caring. to we are led to believe that "the world of physics and chemistryis the 'real' world.Otherwritersrecognizethe obvious similaritiesbetweenthe two positionsand worktowarda commonunderstanding. Othershavepointedto the culturalassumptions modern of science.according McLaughlin."AndrewMcLaughlin argued."generates imageof nature an as devoid of meaningor value. Butevenin the newphysicsviewof reality.Therefore."McLaughlin contends. The rise of the "new physics. we mustconcludethat it is an environmental failure. and "might lead to more joyful and sustainable patterns beinghumanwiththe Earth.and a "thirst for power over nature.
Experience as in termsof gestaltsalso eliminates subject/object. fact-value to dichotomies which modernvaluetheoryhas dutifullyconformed. Naess distinguishesbetween the world of gestalts that humans live in and the abstractconceptualtheoriesof modernscience. is the last phaseof classicalscience.The holisticcybernetic thinkersof the 1980sare too becoming abstract.also typicalof modernWesternethics. involves a change in our understanding ethics."and the other. JeremyRifkin claims that some New .1987 GEORGE SESSIONS 119 WarwickFox and J. a sensuous. fact/valuedichotomies. is based upon the subject-object distinction. enviand ronmentalists developers differlargelyin termsof opposinggestalts." accordingto Berman. BairdCallicotthave claimedthat the metaphysics of the newphysicscanprovidea foundationfor a deepecologicalworldview."52 What has been called the New Age/AquarianConspiracymovementis largely inspired by the writings of R.Berman believes. distinguishes livingapproach process. "The realissue. capableof being bent to any reality. Fox drew"cross-disciplinary parallels"betweenthe "seemlessweb" viewsof Zen Buddhismand the statementsof physicistssuch as David Bohm while emphasizing that deep ecology is basedupon deep intuitionsthat go beyond the empirical dataandtheoretical principles the sciences. Morris Bermansideswiththe latter. He promotes gestaltperception an adequatefoundationfor deepecology.andhavenot fullyovercome "mechanical he the philosophy.And the positivist fact-valuedistinction. BairdCallicott.49 of The metaphysical revolutionin physics. "the one. an abstractformcharacteristic to of many philosophicalspokesmenfor "the New Age. is not mechanismversus holism. to and "falls prey to the same philosophicalproblemsthat plague modern science."Cybernetic holismdispenses with matter." It is "abstractand formal." and appears be "value-free. now in a moreappealingform. Modern Westernethics of assumesthe classicalidea of discreteatomisticindividuals." The latter." Berman betweentwo typesof holism. but "whetherthe philosophical systemis embodiedor disembodied.Fromthis perspective.situational."Callicottconcludesthat "the centralproblemof modernclassicalmoralphilosophy-the problemof either managingor overcomingegoism-is not solved by the moral psychology implicated ecologyso muchas outflanked. "a total vision of reality that circumscribesan entire world.according Berman.Both are highlyanthropocentric have an unquestioned and faith in high technologyand a belief that the destiny of humansis to managethe evolutionaryprocessesof the Earth. or in gestalt perception.The new physicsundermines both those views: "Quantum theorynegatesthe subject-object. McLaughlin Naess and turn away from abstractscienceto the experiences the everydayworldin of the nonconceptualZen Buddhist image.accordingto J. BuckminsterFuller and Pierre de Chardin. and Callicottturn to the holisticmetaphysics the of new physicsas a basis for an ecologicalworldview.Fox."50 in But Arne Naess arguesthat moderntheoreticalscience has become so abstractthat it cannot be understoodas describingreality." to Cybernetic holismprojects. claims.5 1 WhileCapra.
he argues." an integration ecologywithspiritual of psychology. to whichgoes beyondfact/value. By 1908. Muirtriedto influence President Theodore Roosevelt duringa visitto Yosemite in 1903.and Santayana. according Stephen to Toulmin."' The new physics. resultsin a spiritualtransformation the Earthfor humanpurposes. Whilelip serviceis paid to ecologicalideals. and the modernversion of the human dominationof the Earth. subject/objectdistinctions. Reverential thinking. Although he has been criticalof the more extremeversionsof genetic manipulation. New Age ideology is in manywaysantiecological.The new cosmology and theology of nature.providesa new opportunity developa soundcosmology. a "sanctuary.Instead. Skolimowskiargues. UsingJohnMuirandlimnologist Evelyn Hutchinsonas examples."but humans are the priests of the sanctuary. he argues that the cosmology and natural religion of the future will be 55 essentially alongdeepecologicallines. The New Age versionof stewardship humans sees as actingas copilotsof Spaceship decisionsfrom Earth. For him the world is sacred. The end of the firstwaveof "deepecology"can be datedfairlyprecisely.That markedthe beginningof the first conservation movement in the UnitedStates. Saint Franciswas an isolated thinker.120 ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW SUMMER Age plannerswant to eliminate evolutionaryprocesses in order to bring about Algeny-the genetic manipulationand developmentof all life on Earth. is alreadydevelopingbased on the popular movementsof "green philosophy" and "white philosophy. Pointingto the distinction betweenanthropocentric nonanthropocentric and environmental approaches.Evolution has culminatedin humans and that has resulted in a graded hierarchywith humansat the top.the secondconservation movementwas institutedduring . and but no sharpdivisionscan be drawnin the realworld.makingmanagement information gathered throughvast computercommunications 53 systems. urging a returnto an animistic ecologicalegalitarianism the thirteenthcentury. Muir. a countercultural surge of nature-oriented thoughtdevelopedin the eightenthcenturywith Rousseauand the Romantic poetsandculminated America in withthe deepecological thoughtof Thoreau.As a resultof the rise of in the scientific/technological world view. and convertedthe natural world itself into a mere 'thing' or 'object. HenrykSkolimowski comes as close as anyoneto articulating the New Age vision in a systematicway.It is obviousthat of the deep ecological intuition of ecocentricegalitarianism and respect for natural ecosystems failedto influenceNew Age thinkers.Toulmin claims that ecology as pure scienceand ecologyas socialphilosophycan be abstracted separated. Muir was being shunned and Roosevelt turned to the anthropocentric views of Gifford Pinchot and the scientific/technological resourcemanagement developmentof natureas a humanresourceand and commodity.Descartes and his successors"set humanityover against nature. Toulminbelieves.54 has A soundcontemporary cosmologyfailedto developafterthe seventeenthcentury scientific revolution.
H.56 What might have been a "third" conservationmovementunder President John F.Jeffers. 1972)."in DeepEcology:An Anthology. Jeffers.April 21-24.philosophers other and academics havebeen "doingtheirhomework" the UnitedStates.Canada. the stage is set for the appearanceof another majordeepecologymovement. RachelCarson. and Aldo Leopoldwastakingshape. Lynn White. 194-204." Most major environmental organizationsfollowed suit.University Denver. Watts.AnselAdams.And during the Age of Ecology of the 1970s. Eiseley." Environmental Review9 (Fall 1985)."Ecological Consciousness Paradigm and Change. duringthe 1970sand 1980s.and environmentalism graduallybecameinstitutionalized. Schultzand J.DC. That movementrelied heavily upon the writingsof Muir.popularizing wildnatureand the ideasof Muir. Donald Hughes (Washington.Jr. "Chemical Fallout:RachelCarson's SilentSpring.113.RobinsonJeffers. TheQuietCrisis(NewYork.. TylerMiller.Radioactive Fallout. Fora reaffirmation thispoint.CA. Huxley. Environmentalism gradually moved in ever shallowerchannelsresultingfinally in the antienvironmentalbacklash the Reaganadministration. 2RachelCarson. "Deep Ecology:A New Philosophyfor Our Time?" TheEcologist 14 (1984).Congresspassed environmental legislation. of see StanSteiner.1987 GEORGE SESSIONS 121 the administration FranklinD. 1963).The Vanishing White Man(NewYork. the SierraClub.and elsewhere. 'Stuart Udall. See also Ralph Lutts. and Snyder. of But as we haveseen. The "deep" aspect of environmentalism mergedtemporarily with the antiwarmovement the "hippie"counterculture and protestsin the late 1960s. underthe leadershipof DavidBrower. ed. RobertC.and the Environmental Movement.58 Notes 'G. bioregionalism. Greenpolitics. 1985). Lawrence.publishedinfluentialexhibitbooks in the 1970s." in Ecological Consciousness: Essaysfrom the EarthDay X Colloquium. "co-opted. to a large extent. ecofeminism.activistgroupslike EarthFirst!. 1976). in Norway. but was most influential withthe generalpublicas a resultof the scientificecologicalwritingsof Aldo Leopold.and a possiblecoalitionwith the antinuclearmovement. Kennedyand InteriorSecretaryStewartUdall turned into a second deep ecological movementand a questioningof anthropocentrism. The deep aspect of environmentalism peakedshortlyafter EarthDay in 1970. 1981). It was duringthis periodthat of the deepecologicalthoughtof D. BarryCommoner. "Shallow and Deep Ecology: A Review of the Philosophical Literature. and was. Replenishthe Earth:A Primerin HumanEcology (Belmont. Abbey. With the rapid risewithinthe last few yearsof reinhabitation. .GreatBritain.and an intellectualfoundation for a deep ecologicalworldview is now largelyin place.and NancyNewhall.Australia.24. 261. of 1980. 391-462. 1962). ed.WarwickFox. bureaucratized."7 But the "greening" of America did not occur. 206.For other attemptsto describethe Age of Ecology see George Sessions.and Paul Ehrlich. Michael Tobias(SanDiego.and Sessions. Silent Spring (Boston.210-25. Roosevelt.
reprinted EarthFirst!6 (1986). ArchetypeWest:ThePacificCoastas a Literary Region(Berkeley.122 ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW SUMMER "The AmericanIndianas MiscastEcologist. 'PaulEhrlich.TheMachinery Nature(NewYork. DifferentKindof Country A (NewYork."'TheEcologist and 6 (1976).Whitehead.. TX. Helfrich.Ecology and Religion: Towarda New Christian Theologyof Nature(New York.NeilEverndon.1982).EcologicalConsciousness. One CosmicInstant:Man'sFleetingSupremacy (New York.214-17.and Glacken.andPaulEhrlich.1984). 1969). 67-82. J. 1972). Livingston. 1973). TheFirmament Time(New York. Donald Hughes.20-21. The of of 1981).see Del IvanJanik. 1967)."Ecology and Man: A Viewpoint." TheInvisible in Pyramid. (New Haven. ed. Fallacyof Wildlife The Conservation (Toronto. Jr.1981)."in The Subversive Science:Essays Toward Ecologyof Man.ThePathlessWay: JohnMuirandAmericanWilderness (Madison.ed.Frank Egler. 1983). 1968).Shepard. "Raymond Dasmann.1978). Manin theLandscape: HistoricViewof theEsthetics Nature(Boston. "3JohnA.MI. in Schultz. 'LynnWhite." in Schultzand Hughes. 1967). of "Paul Wienpahl.and DavidBarash. The Way of Science:A Philosophyof Ecology theLayman(NewYork. Ecological Consciousness.June 8.TheDestrucF. and Loren Wilkinson..The A of TenderCarnivore the SacredGame(New York. 89 "Paul Shepard. Bill Devalland GeorgeSessions(Salt Lake City. 'Clarence Glacken.September1977.Shepard. The Forest and the Sea: A Look at the Economy of Nature and the Ecologyof Man (NewYork. "David Ehrenfeld. 1986). tion of California (NewYork. 1963)..ThePopulation Bomb(NewYork. Extinction: Causesand Consequences theDisappearance Species(NewYork. "Special Issue: American IndianEnvironmental History. "Forthe literary contribution the Age of Ecology."Environmental Review9 (Summer 1985). "American Institutions and Ecological 'See J.ed.John Rodman. 1968). and NatureandMadness (SanFrancisco.NatureConservation. 1970)."Journalof Religion 4 (1980).see John Carmody."TheEcologistas ZenMaster.and RichardWhite. 49. "Historical Rootsof OurEcologicCrisis.George Santayana." Ontario Naturalist (1972).17-18.1976)." North AmericanReview 263 (1978).Traceson the Rhodian Shore:Natureand Culturein Western Thought from Ancient Timesto the End of the EighteenthCentury (Berkeley.TheLastHorizon(NewYork." TheEnvironmental Crisis. 1979). 1983). BairdCallicott. of andEiseley.Jr. "Western Process Metaphysics: Heraclitus. FromConservation Ecology:TheDevelopment EnvironmenW."Traditional American IndianandWestern Attitudes European Toward Nature. Leo Marx. 1926). 1960).ed.Earth Keeping:ChristianStewardship of Natural Resources (Grand Rapids. 440-58."in FutureEnvironments NorthAmerica.1203-7.Jr. "ProcessTheologyand Environmental Issues. Calvin Martin.and Spinoza. Huxley. 1970). "ManAgainstNature: Outmoded An in Concept.Dasmann. and Everndon.George Sessions."Science155(1967). The Arroganceof Humanism(New York.see Time..Shepard.ed.J.JohnCobb. of FraserDarlingand John P. F. 1978). 1973). 'FuturePrimitive.ed.Jeffers. 1970)."NationalParks. Milton(GardenCity. 'Carroll Pursell. andLivingston." Environmental Ethics 4 (1982). "Ecological Resistance: JohnStuartMilland the Caseof the Kentish Orchid." in Deep Ecology: Living as if NatureMattered.andMichael Cohen. Philosophers theEarth:Conversations of with Ecologists(New York. For contemporary Christian ecologicaltheorizing.48-52.and Dasmann. 1966). The Natural Alien: Humankind Environment and (Toronto. 196-97.and Snyder. PaulShepard DanielMcKinley an and (NewYork. 1980).169-72.Jr. at the Claremont Schoolof Theology. 1985).See also Glacken. American Indian Ecology (El Paso. 16-20. HaroldW.ed.1985). "MarstonBates.RobinAttfield. to of tal Concern (NewYork. "Beyond Ecology. Eiseley(NewYork."in Hughesand Wilderness. 1983)."TheLastMagician. "Environmental to Consciousness ModernLiterature: in Lawrence. 186-215."Reflections the on Man-Nature Themeas a Subjectfor Study.LorenEiseley."paperpresented to the AmericanPolitical ScienceAssociationmeeting. 1965).p. Shepard. Anne and Paul Ehrlich. 1960). 'Forpresscoverage the "Theologyof Survival" of conference hostedby JohnCobb." for American Midland Naturalist (1973).Thinking and Animals(New York. Windsof Doctrine:Studies in Contemporary Opinion(New York. 1970.The Radical Spinoza (New York.. .William Everson. 293-318. TheEthicsof Environmental Concern (NewYork.See also JohnMiltonin AnneChisholm. and Dasmann. 1973).
and Rodman. "Ecophilosophy Newsletter. Scherer (Englewood Cliffs.ed.GA."AttitudesTowardNature. "Is Therea Need for a New Environmental Ethic?"Proceedings. and 1987)." in The Search Absolute Valuesin a ChangingWorld(New York. (Cambridge."Streams Environmentalism. 1975). and as 25John Passmore. '"Wallace Matson. 17-28. 245-58. Sayre(South Bend. "CriticalNotice of Passmore'sMan's Responsibility Nature.299-322. Wilber and (NewYork.Devall. 1970).andCharles Birchand JohnB. "The Shallow and the Deep.see "Ideological of RootsNurture Growthof Environmentalism.3-26.See also CharlesHartshorne. 1987). 99-131. 2"See Devall.197-218." in Natureand Conduct.Mysticismand Logic (1917."NorthAmerican and Review260 (1974). "Implications Heidegger's of Thoughtfor Deep Ecology."New YorkReviewof Books 19 (1973). PublicandPrivateMorality in ed.82-92. Colwell. A New History of Philosophy(New York. 2:253. Peters (NewYork. Cobb."The Essenceof Religion.Russell. DonaldWorster. 1979). S." MoralPhilosophyand the Twenty-First in ed. 827-28. RobertCahn.Sessions.1961). 1978). Long-RangeEcology Movements:A Summary.Varna. 27Arne Naess.. 20John Rodman.PerennialPhilosophy.Michael Zimmerman." Australasian for Journalof Philosophy53 (1975). 1957).Ecology. "TheDolphinPapers." Inquiry16(1973).Rodman."NorthAmerican Review (1974). "Toward Heideggerian a Ethos for RadicalEnvironmentalism."Moralityand Pessimism.reprint. Rodman. Jr. Dennon (London. 259 "Four Formsof EcologicalConsciousness: ResourceConservation-Economicsand After." 1976. R. 23John Passmore. 22Bertrand Russell. and West.and "IntrinsicValue" in Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcityand ed." Bill of unpublished manuscript (1979).26-33. "Spinoza. 1945). ed. 83-131. Goodpasture and K."TheDeepEcologyMovement. R."Bucknell Review20 (1972). vol. 1974).New York. Recentpapers by Naessinclude"A Defenseof the DeepEcologyMovement. 1974)." Ethicsand theEnvironment.Deep Ecology.1987 GEORGE SESSIONS 123 "'For further discussion the rootsof the Age of Ecology. 1. "The for Liberationof Nature?" Inquiry(Oslo) 20 (1977)." Conservation Foundation Newsletter (Washington.95-100. 2"Sigmond Kvaloy. Nature'sEconomy:TheRoots of Ecology(SanFrancisco."in Tobias. 1979). 10-31.and Paul Taylor. Lifestyle:EcosophyT (Cambridge. Rodman. 24Bertrand Russell.David Griffen. The Liberation Life:Fromthe Cellto the Community of (Cambridge."in TheBasic Writings Bertrand of Russell. "SomeImplications the EcologicalRevolution the Construction Value.1973.Bulgaria. 'The conferencepapers are in Philosophy and Environmental Crisis. Stephen Fox. NE. for 1978).49-78. 788-89. "The Ethicsof Respectfor Nature. "Whitehead's Contribution a to Theologyof Nature. 64 19-43.Jr." Environmental Ethics 5 (1983). 1985)."Againstthe Inevitability and of HumanChauvinism.RichardRoutley. NJ.and Arne Naess. Devall. IN. 265-70. and Deep Ecology." TheModernSchoolman (1986). Blackstone (Athens." Environmental Ethics3 (1981)."Identification a Sourceof Deep EcologicalAttitudes. Egnerand L. 1977).1986). and Zimmerman."The DeepEcologyMovement: Some Philosophical Aspects."Ecophilosophy Ecopolitics. Val Routley." paperpresented Reminding at Conference.. see AppendixA in Devalland Sessions. CA (July 1979)."American Behavioral Scientist24 (1980)."TheEcological Crisis:A Philosophic East Perspective.Footprintson the Planet: The Search an Environmental Ethic (New York." of for of in HumanValues NaturalScience. "ParadigmChange in PoliticalScience. ed.The World I SeeIt (NewYork.For a of diagram EcosophyT. Century. Community. DC.24-29. Thomas I.Rodman. Michael Soule(Boston.unpublished manuscript.A History of WesternPhilosophy (New York. 1978).1981).ed. 494." NaturalResources Journal20 (1980). ErvinLaszloand JamesB.George II Sessions."Bucknell Review20 (1972). 1968).ed. Attigand D. as 256-70. 1983).171-85. BeyondHumanism: Essaysin the Philosophyof Nature (Lincoln. T." Environmental Ethics6 (1984). FifteenthWorldCongressin Philosophy. 1949)."Theory Practice theEnvironmental and in Movement.Deep Ecology..25-44. . Diversity. John Muir and His Legacy: The American ConservationMovement and (Boston.San Rafael.reprinted Hampshire."Philosophical Inquiry8 (1986)."(1979)."FourForms of Ecological Consciousness in Reconsidered. K.Man's Responsibility Nature: Ecological Problemsand Western for Traditions (New York. 2See HwaYol andPeteeJung. AlbertEinstein.and StuartHampshire. Richard Val Routley. WilliamT.
"Shallowand DeepEcology."Environmental Ethics8 (1986). Deep Ecology. and Hargrove.1986). QuickDivorce.93-109." both in Environmental Ethics 1 (1979).A SandCounty Almanac (NewYork.2-10. 1977). "The 1984deepecologyplatform. in 170-81. Earth Festivals(Silverton.DeepEcology. "Animal Liberation". "TheDeepEcologyMovement. Mahayana to 1978). Sand County Almanac. Earth Wisdom (Silverton. ed. "6For criticismof the manipulation wild animals by wildlife biologists. Hessing(Boston."Environmental Ethics4 (1982). "Some Fundamentals Conservation the Southwest. 1967)." Environmental Ethics 2 (1980).Playing and of God in Yellowstone: The Destruction ofAmerica's First National Park (Boston. 1971). Jon Wetlesen(Oslo. 1985). For a defenseof wildlifemanagement criticism deepecology. 291-92." Environmental Review9 (Fall 1985). "A Commentary.1985). Callicott." Tobias."EcologicalConsciousness (1981). EarthFirst!. The Closing Circle: Nature. "ThroughSpinozato Mahayana Buddhism. Moline.and J. 1978)." "Gary Snyder. Wilderness and the American Mind (New Haven."OsgoodHall LawJournal22 (1984). S. Rodman. BairdCallicott. WendellBerry. Two Theories of Morality (Oxford. Baird Callicott. Snyder. 1977). see Alston Chase.61-67.Jon N.and SethZuckerman. J."EnvironmentalEthics 7 (1985). ed. 1980).andNaess. "All About Ecology. 1978). Ecological Ethics and Politics." in Western Man and Environmental Ethics: Attitudes Toward Nature and Technol- ogy.Eugene Hargrove. Respect for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics Liberation of Nature?". 3tJ. 41-45.Sale. Jonathon Porritt. 1984). Wes Jackson."Sierra (1987). Dwellers in the Sacred. 72 Rocks Have Rights?"CenterMagazine10 (1977).129-30. Stewardship. 1980)."New Directions. "RoundingOut the American Revolution:Ethical Extensionand the New Environmentalism. "Spinoza and Ecology. J. "Animal Liberation and (Princeton. 1964-1977. The Real Work: Interviews and Talks. McCloskey.1987)."Elementsof an Environmental Ethic. canbe foundin on DevallandSessions. The Way of Science."Hume'sIs/OughtDichotomy the Relation Ecologyto Leopold's and of LandEthic. and bioregionalism." in A Companion Sand CountyAlmanac. FritjofCapra see and Charlene Spretnak. 1973). Seeing Green: The Politics of Ecology (London. 381-424.Callicott. The Old Ways (New York.and Aldo Leopold. and "FourForms Ecological of Consciousness Reconsidered. Nash.CO." "Peter Singer. "Is Therean Ecological Ethic?"Ethics85 (1975).see Rodman. ed."Environmental Ethics7 (1985). "Aldo Leopold. 1949). Freedom of Mind and Other Essays (Princeton. 40Fora critique of animal rights from an ecological perspective. William Scott McLean(San Francisco. and Bruce Coleman(San Francisco. Barry Commoner.69-73. "Aldo Leopoldand the MoralCommunity. 204-5. and Nash. Tom Regan (New York. IanBarbour (Reading. 1975). "See J. "TheSplendor the Wild:Zenand Aldo Leopold.ed.Holmes Rolston III. "Hwa Yol Jung."Review of H." Environmental Ethics 1 (1979)." in SpeculumSpinozanum. Callicott.and LaChapelle. 3Roderick Nash. Hampshire.and Naess. "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair. MA."AtlanticNaturalist of 29 (1974). After Virtue: A Study in Moral . Green Politics: The Global Promise (New York.71-81. Man and Technology (New York. "TheSearch an Environmental for Ethic.3-4."The Ecologistas Zen Master".ed. 131-48.TheCasefor AnimalRights. "The Forest for the Trees: Can Today'sEnvironmentalists the Difference?" Tell MotherJones9 (1986).Barash. "Do "Egler. 1971). Sessions. Nash.withextensive comments eachpoint. Alisdair Maclntyre.214-17." Age Monthly Review (Australia. 4Stuart Hampshire. Mark Sagoff.Arne Naess. 1986). to ed. KirkpatrickSale. see Morgan of Sherwood.or Through Buddhism Spinoza?"in Spinoza'sPhilosophyof Man. Snyder. "EcologyWidensthe Circle.and WilliamMurdockand Joseph Connell. "Leopold. March 1983). 311-38." in Meeting the Expectations of the Land: Essays in Sustainable Agriculture and Land: The BioregionalVision(San Francisco.197-209.124 ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW SUMMER "ReformistEnvironmentalism. "Living There. See also Paul Taylor.and John Passmore."On Teaching Environmental Ethics. 365-72.Animal Liberation(New York.99-120."TheEnd of American Wilderness. CO. Baird Callicott. 1984). 1976)."Reviewof Tom Regan. "Good Wild ed.For Greenpolitics."and Susan of in Flader." in Mattersof Life and Death." HumboldtJournal of Social Relations6 (1979). "The Environmental Ethics:BadMarriage."Environmental Ethics 3 (1981). BairdCallicott (Madison.163-74. Dolores LaChapelle.
The Turning Point. "Self Realization: EcologicalApproachto An Beingin theWorld. Sale. 1987). NY. GeorgeSessions. Wilderness the and "Raymond F." "J.135-49. 1980). "Fox. 1983). "Environmentalism."Inquiry28 (1985)."TheMetaphysical Implications Ecology. The Turning Point: Science. "TheCritique Natural of for Rightsandthe Search a Non-Anthropocentric "Fritjof Capra and R." both in Inquiry23 (1980).DonaldDavis. The Reenchantment of the World (Ithaca. "Spinoza'sEnvironmental Ethics. "Self Realization MixedCommunities Humans.DeepEcology. For the split betweenMuir and Pinchot and Roosevelt.301-16.Intrinsic Valueand Deep Ecology: A Replyto Warwick Fox. 1982). 283-88. 1972). Berman."Inquiry22 (1979). "ArielSalleh. "Intuition. "Capra.and Naess. Eco-Philosophy: Designing New Tacticsfor Living (Boston. 293-319.151-62."Intrinsic Value. Feminism. (NewYork. Society. 142-44." Environmental Ethics 9 (1987). "For a discussionof the Romanticsand the rise of ecology. Psychology 26 (1986). Declarationof a Heretic (Boston.293-325." TheEcologist14(1984).15-30. 44 '7Morris Berman." in The Holographic Paradigm and Other Paradoxes..1987 GEORGE SESSIONS 125 "2Genevive Lloyd. "Conservation. "The World of ConcreteContents.Arne Naess. Cohen.Quantum Theory". and "AndrewMcLaughlin. DeepEcology.249-72. Wilber (Boulder. Rifkin. "The Liberationof Nature:A CircularAffair. 1981). 1981). K. Marilyn Ferguson." Journal of Value Inquiry 19 (1985). Cheney.3-20. 1982).andCallicott." Environmental Ethics6 (1984)."45-51. "JeremyRifkin."Deeper thanDeepEcology:TheEco-feminist Connection. "Feminism. 237-62.40-42.and University. Person/Planet: The Creative Disintegration of Industrial Society (New York.Jr.Nature'sEconomy. Naess. and Nash. The Pluralist and Possibilist Aspect of the Scientific Enterprise (Oslo." Environmental Ethics9 (1987).TheAquarianConspiracy (NewYork.see DevallandSessions." and Arne Naess. The Return to Cosmology: Postmodern Science and the Theology of "Henryk Skolimowski. "Arne Naess." TheHumanist (1984). "Berman. The Spiritual Dimension of Green Politics (Berkeley."Reviewof Skolimowski's Eco-Philosophy."unpublished Jim and manuscript.Forcriticism New of Age andecology. See also American Mind. 417-28. See also Berman. Green Politics. and 1985).201-3.see Nash. Environmental Conservation 1 (1974). 1986). Dasmann."Cybernetic Dream. 129-40. and the Rising Culture Basis for Moral Behavior. of University Wisconsin. "The Forest for the Trees"." Environmental Ethics 7 (1985). ed. and Fox. 44MartiKheel. 21-44."Environmental of Ethics8 (1986).TheBodyof History(NewYork. 24-51. Counter-culture." Environmental Ethics6 (1984). Nature(Berkeley. "DeepEcology:A NewPhilosophyfor OurTime.Bears. Karen Warren. 1981).Murdoch March1986. Theory(South Bend.and Separate Realities. Australia. "The Tao of Physics Revisited. . John Muir and His Legacy. and Charlene Spretnak. Naess. Co. Michael Zimmerman. "Imagesand Ethics of Nature.1986."Journalof Humanistic mental Ethics.231-41. "Environmental Ethics and Spinoza'sEthics: Commentson GeneviveLloyd's Article. 1978). 43-53."The Cybernetic Dreamof the 21st Century. see Worster. 1982). Weber. Algeny (New York. BairdCallicott.and Don Marietta. IN."Eco-feminism DeepEcology.Sheepand in of Wolves. Fritjof Capra.MichaelZimmerman." "Stephen Toulmin.339-45." Environmental Ethics 7 (1985). the Futureof American and Society. 40-49. "Ecosophy: The Seduction Sophia?"Environmental of Ethics8 (1986). 133-37. Capra and Spretnak."RobyMemorial Lecture. Wilderness and the American Mind. The Pathless Way.and EnvironMakingConnections. "Feminism and Ecology: 43TheodoreRoszak. 229.