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STEEL SEMINAR Rak 83.

140 Basic Design of Multi-Storey Buildings

TRAUNINGER DANIELA 63837U

BASIC DESIGN OF MUTLI-STOREY BUILDINGS

Trauninger Daniela Student number: 63837U

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STEEL SEMINAR Rak 83.140 Basic Design of Multi-Storey Buildings INDEX OF CONTENTS:

TRAUNINGER DANIELA 63837U

INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 3 HISTORY................................................................................................................................ 4 TYPES OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS................................................................................... 5


The Shear Frame System...............................................................................................................5 The Shear Truss and Frame System ..............................................................................................7 The Shear-Truss Frame with Outrigger and Belt Trusses ...............................................................8 The Framed Tube...........................................................................................................................9 The Bundled Tube System ...........................................................................................................10 The Trussed Tube System ...........................................................................................................10 The Superframe ...........................................................................................................................11

COMPARISON OF THE DIFFERENT SYSTEMS................................................................ 12


Cantilever efficiency .....................................................................................................................12 Economy aspects .........................................................................................................................12

MIXED SYSTEMS ................................................................................................................ 13


Material combinations: steel-concrete mixed system ....................................................................13 System combinations ...................................................................................................................13

DESIGN CONSIDERATION WITH ULTRA-HIGH RISE BUILDINGS.................................. 15


Consideration of Perceptible motion .............................................................................................15 Seismic design considerations......................................................................................................15 Design parameters .......................................................................................................................16

CONCLUSION...................................................................................................................... 17 TABLE OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................... 18 REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................... 18

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STEEL SEMINAR Rak 83.140 Basic Design of Multi-Storey Buildings

TRAUNINGER DANIELA 63837U

INTRODUCTION
Throughout the history of architecture, there has been a continual quest for height. It began with the pyramids through the cathedrals of Europe until today the skyscrapers. You can also create skyscrapers due to the reason of small ground areas, but ego and grandeur play also a significant role in building this huge constructions especially in the tallest buildings of the world this was always one of the main reasons. But we couldnt get so high in the early past. It was only in the late 1800s where new technology allows to live and work in colossal towers, hundred of feet above the ground. One of this new technology was due to the usage of steel in tall buildings. It is the major material for high rise structural systems due to its compression strength and stiffness. Therefore it produces systems which are less massive and consequently more space efficient. Also the ductility of steel makes it to an essential building in respect to seismic considerations. Since the construction of the Eiffel tower architects recognized the elegancy of exposed steel and therefore often use steel without cladding. In recent times also the usage of steel with glass is widely used and is characteristic for modern architecture. But with the usage of exposed steel, also the solving of other problems like fire and corrosion protecting has developed. In this report I will look at the innovations that made these incredible steel structures possible. I will explain the design and function of skyscrapers as well as the problems of this huge buildings. .

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STEEL SEMINAR Rak 83.140 Basic Design of Multi-Storey Buildings

TRAUNINGER DANIELA 63837U

HISTORY
In the end of the 19th century the architects began to design high rise buildings as a result of the development of the high-speed elevator. The earliest tall buildings were of solid masonry construction, with thick walls of the lower stories to support the upper floors. In order to provide thinner walls the architects began to use cast iron in conjunction with masonry. This was followed by steel-frame constructions, in which the iron frame supported the floors and the masonry walls were put between the frames for wind stiffening. The next step was to make a system where the masonry walls were less massive and the metal frame supported also the walls and the wind loads. It was the evolution of the joints from semi rigid to rigid in making the steel frame to an effective lateral load resisting system. The best example for this innovation is the Home Insurance Building in Chicago which was built in 1885 and was therefore the first high-rise building made of steel. In the 1890s the steel frame was formed into a completely riveted skeleton which was fully rigid and supported all the structural loads. The exterior walls were only serving like a curtain. In the beginning of the 20th century many high rise buildings were built, a good example is the New York Skyline which had already lot of tall steel buildings at this time. An outstanding example is the Woolworth Building which was finished in 1913, and was at this time the highest building in the world with 241m (58 stories). Due to the world war and economic depression the further development was stopped for almost a quarter century and started again in the middle of the 20th century. It was characterized by larger open spaces with longer spans and a well organized core. Due to the Mesian influence in the 1950s and 1960s the structural system was characterized by a Vierendeel frame construction as a modular system and it also incorporates many refinements in the joints. Many forms of bolted and welded connections where developed, which were either semi-rigid or fully-rigid. With the attempt for still higher buildings with longer spans the Vierendeel frame gets inefficient in relation to the costs. This led to a development of structural systems with higher efficiency for lateral load resistance. Many different systems where developed for different heights. The main proponent of this design was Fazlur Khan. He developed a system chart for different heights and designed for example the John Hancock Centre and the Sears Tower. In this time there was a really structurally orientated architecture and is therefore also called the structuralist phase. It is characterized by simple rectilinear prismatic forms with flat tops. In the last decade there has been a huge amount of different architectural design trends. One trend goes in the structural direction, in other trends the aesthetic aim is of more importance and a third trend considers more the requirements for a good living quality. Also the combination of different building materials has developed, as for example steel combined with concrete. As a consequent of the extremely large three dimensional frame problems also computers are widely used nowadays. But we are not at the end of the skyscraper history today, architects have still the effort for higher and higher buildings.

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STEEL SEMINAR Rak 83.140 Basic Design of Multi-Storey Buildings

TRAUNINGER DANIELA 63837U

TYPES OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS


The most important item in considering tall buildings regarding to their structure is its lateral load resistive function. The lateral system which consists of columns, beams, bracings and walls are working together to resist the lateral forces due to wind. The lateral system is also designed to carry gravity loads and provide lateral support for other subsystems. This subsystems which consist of floor slabs, floor framings and also vertical members are carrying only gravity forces. Lateral loads produce transverse shears overturning moments and lateral sway This forces increase with the height of the building in different dimensions. The transverse shear increases linearly, the overturning moments as a second power of height and the lateral sway as a fourth power of height. This means that the lateral sway is the most sensitive and therefore most important parameter when considering tall buildings. Due to this reason the lateral system has to be very stiff. Following types of lateral systems are used: Shear Frame Shear Truss Shear Truss-Frame Shear Truss-Frames with Outrigger and Belt Trusses Framed Tubes Bundled Tubes Trussed Tubes Superframes THE SHEAR FRAME SYSTEM STRUCTURAL SYSTEM Shear frames are Vierendeel frames with rigid connections for moment resistance. The joints are placed in two orthogonal directions to resist the wind forces from all directions. This systems are usually very regular and not of great height. Each frame has to resist its proportion of wind shear. This means that the strenght of the systems depends on the stiffness of each element. The frames are mostly regularly spaced in both directions and create a rectilinear grid pattern which affects the appearance of the whole building. The span dimensions are usually 6-9m.

Fig. 1 shear frame

BEHAVIOUR The lateral deformation of the shear frame consists of two factors: 1. 80-90% shear sway (sideways racking of the frame) 2. 10-20%: overturning of the entire building resulting in shortening or elongation of the columns
Fig. 2 deformation of frame under lateral loads

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STEEL SEMINAR Rak 83.140 Basic Design of Multi-Storey Buildings

TRAUNINGER DANIELA 63837U

This means that the shear sway has to be minimized. The shear deflection n can be approximated by the equation

E n =

V n hn V n hn + 12 K cn 12 K g n

n ....... shear sway factor

n hn

E ......... modulus of elasticity Vn ...... ..total horizontal shear in the frame, nth story

hn ........ height of the nth story K cn .. sum of column stiffness l c h at the nth story
K g n .. sum of girder stiffness l g L at the nth story
Fig. 3 frame behaviour

The equation shows that shear sway is caused in equal parts of columns and beams if both stiffnesses are the same. Normally the span is 2-3 times more than the height of a floor and therefore the moment of inertia of the beam has to be 2-3 times higher in comparison with the column. This means when the span increases, stronger beams are needed. We can also see that the story sway is directly proportional to the frame shear. Therefore larger beam properties in lower stories are required as the height increases. And exactly this are the basic sources of ineffeciency in frame buildings. To diminish this problem you have to consider the height to width ratio. Wider buildings allow larger heights and are therefore more efficient. Another ineffeciency are the moment connected rigid joints because they are very expensive to fabricate. Especially welded joints are very time intensive and you have to make them in situ. But they have to be used if the full capacity of the members needs to be developed. Bolted end connections are used if only 50% of the fully capacity is required and are for this reason only semi-rigid. Fully rigid joints can be obtained in using continuity plates which distribute the beam flange force into the web of the column. This kind of connections have to be welded and bolted.
Fig. 4 bolted end connections Fig. 5 rigid connection with continuity plates

EXAMPLE Old Colony Building, Chicago.

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STEEL SEMINAR Rak 83.140 Basic Design of Multi-Storey Buildings THE SHEAR TRUSS AND FRAME SYSTEM

TRAUNINGER DANIELA 63837U

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM The development of the shear truss system is associated with the development of the building core. This cores are for stiffening the construction and they are also service elements for elevators, stairs, toilets, mechanical rooms, This cores can be centralized or sideways and they are used for vertical trusses to be placed in the core. The trusses can be placed behind the elevators, stairs, etc. where they dont disturb. Banks of elevators are used for trusses. One bank goes for example up to 15 stories and two banks up to 30. As the number of banks increases also the number of trussed cores increases and therefore the stiffness.

Fig. 6 trussed frame with centralized core

The vertical trusses behave like a cantilever under lateral loads which develop tension and compression in the chords. The shear forces are resisted by the diagonal elements. The truss diagonalization can have different forms each of them has other advantages and disadvantages. The K and V forms are common because the diagonalization do not participate so much in carrying gravity loads and can therefore be designed for wind forces without consideration of gravity forces. In the other forms the gravity loads dominate the design of the braces. It is also important to consider that braces in the long direction prevent flexibility in response to doors, windows, corridors, .... and are therefore often omitted. BEHAVIOUR

Shear trusses alone can provide all the lateral load resistance up to 20 stories, after this height they need other resisistive elements which help for support.

Fig. 7 frame-truss deformation

Shear trusses combined with shear frames produce a shear frame-truss interacting system. The lateral stiffness of this combined system ist due to the combination of the linear shear sway of the frame with the parabolic shear sway of the truss. This means that the truss is restrained by the frame in the upper part of the building while in the lower part the truss restrains the frame. Normally this combinations are in this way that the core of the building is built up of shear trusses and on the exterior there are the shear frame cores as described before.

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STEEL SEMINAR Rak 83.140 Basic Design of Multi-Storey Buildings

TRAUNINGER DANIELA 63837U

THE SHEAR-TRUSS FRAME WITH OUTRIGGER AND BELT TRUSSES STRUCTURAL SYSTEM In this system the shear truss and the shear frame are linked more directly together. This happens by a system of outrigger trusses from the cores which are joined with the belt trusses around the building in the exterior frame. Mechanical levels are generally in the plane of the outrigger trusses due to the otherwise useless space in this levels.

Fig. 8 shear truss frame with outrigger and belt trusses

BEHAVIOUR The first stiffening effect is following: the truss deforms into a cantilever form. This rotation of the truss causes axial forces at the outrigger levels and this development of axial forces reduces the sway and overturning moments as shown in figure 9

Fig. 9 outrigger-truss deformation

The second stiffening effect is due to the belt trusses on the facade frame which resist against lateral loads. The degree of stiffening depends on the number ot outrigger trusses. An example for design is every 20 to 25 stories because mechanical stores are generally arranged at this heights. Also skylobby levels and public spaces are possibilities for belt trusses. If only one truss is used, the most effective location is around the mid height of the building. EXAMPLE Milwaukees first Wisconsin center, Wiscinson

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STEEL SEMINAR Rak 83.140 Basic Design of Multi-Storey Buildings THE FRAMED TUBE

TRAUNINGER DANIELA 63837U

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM The framed tube is an adoption of the shear frame concept, in which the beam and column stiffnesses are increased dramatically by closer column spacing and increasing the in plane member depths. Due to this the frame is transformed into a cantilever framed tube fixed in the ground because each facade acts nearly like a solid wall and is therefore most efficient in resisting wind forces. This kind of system has an important effect on the facade architecture due to the regularity of the grid with large in-plane member depths. The window places are fixed between the grid. Often this kind of system is clad in stone or metal. BEHAVIOUR The cantilever effectiveness depends on the proportion of the shear frame part of sway deflection compared to the total. The total deflection is the sum of the shear frame deflection and the cantilever deflection due to column shortening and elongation. The shear frame deflection should be less than 25% of the total sway so that the predominant deformation is that of a cantilever as shown figure 12
Fig. 10 sway behaviour of a framed tube

The more the distribution is similar to a fully rigid box, the more efficient the system will be as a cantilever. This is shown in the next Figure. In a solid rigid box the distribution of axial forces due to overturning is uniform over the flange length and triangular over the web length. If the solid wall is now transformed into frames, shear frame deformations are developed due to bending, shearing in beams and columns and joint rotation. This effect reduces the cantilever stiffness and is called shear lag effect. Therefore it is important to minimize this shear lag in making the columns spaces smaller as it is done in the framed tube.
Fig. 11 framed tube bahaviour

This means if the column spaces decreases, the tubular efficiency increases. But in real design this effeciency has to be compared with higher fabrication costs in closer spacings. The members need to be welded at the joints to develop full rigidity and continuity and are therefore expensive to fabricate and erect. To reduce the amount of site erection there are framed tube tree elements which can be welded in the shop. This trees are than erected by bolting at points of reduced moments as shown in figure 14
Fig. 12 joints in framed tubes

There are various shapes of framed tubes although the most efficient shape is the square and the triangular shape is the least efficiency. EXAMPLE World Trande Center, New York 23.03.2004 Seite 9 / 18

STEEL SEMINAR Rak 83.140 Basic Design of Multi-Storey Buildings THE BUNDLED TUBE SYSTEM STRUCTURAL SYSTEM If the tube size is made smaller in relation to its height, than the system has a higher cantilever efficiency. This was figured out by a study shown in figure 13

TRAUNINGER DANIELA 63837U

Fig. 13 study of cantilever efficiency of tubular structures

Therefore it is more efficient to construct the overall shape as small tubular cells and bundle them. This bundled tubes have very high cantilever efficiencies and are therefore most suitable for ultra-tall strctures. The cells often rise to different heights. This bundled tube concept allows longer spans and therefore less weight. The system can have a variety of shapes and combinations and therefore allows freedom in architectural and structural planning. EXAMPLE This concept was developed for the Sears Tower, Chicago in 1974 and is therefore the best example. It was with 442m the highest structure until the Taipei 101 in Taiwan was built which is still under construction. The bundled tubes in the Sears Tower are composed of 23x23m cells and nine cells are bundled together. The column space is 4.6m, the column width 1m and the beam depth 1.07m. In the mechanical floors they also built diagonals between the columns in the form of three belt trusses. THE TRUSSED TUBE SYSTEM STRUCTURAL SYSTEM In the trussed tube the efficiency of the cantilever is improved by using of diagonals which intersect at the same point at the corner column. Due to this, the system can resist lateral forces by axial forces in its members rather than by bending of members. The design of the diagonalization varies from X-bracings of the whole building to only C-bracings at the corner of the building. An clearly advantage of this system is, that wider column spaces as in normal tubes can be used and therefore there is larger space for windows. This structural system also affects the architectural expression a lot.
Fig. 14 trussed tube

EXAMPLE AND BEHAVIOUR This system was first used in the 100 story high John Hancock Center, Chicago. And I want to explain the behaviour of the trussed tube with this example. The diagonally braced frame is acting like a bearing wall where the gravity loads are uniformly distributed among columns and the lateral loads produce an uniform flange axial force and a triangular web axial force. The vertical loads placed at the top are redistributed at each diagonal-column intersection to obtain uniform distribution at the base.

Fig. 15 load distribution in trussed tube

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STEEL SEMINAR Rak 83.140 Basic Design of Multi-Storey Buildings

TRAUNINGER DANIELA 63837U

To produce this load distribution a horizontal tie is necessary to restrict the horizontal spreading of the building due to horizontal forces in the diagonals. This main ties are at the intersection of the X braces which is than the main tie. There are also secondary ties at each intersection of the diagonals and columns. The X bracing is 20 stories high and there are 3 stories between the secondary ties. This means that the wind is mainly restricted by the ties and the columns and diagonals carry mainly the gravity loads. The connections have therefore only been welded by the ties and the columns and diagonal connections were bolted. The shear frame sway in this system is less than 20% of the total sway due to the bracings. THE SUPERFRAME STRUCTURAL SYSTEM In this system the columns are only spaced close together in the corners and all gravity loads are transferred through diagonal trusses to this columns. This forms a kind of portal frame which is composed of vertical legs on each corner of the building and are connected by horizontal elements each 12-20 stories. This provides a system with openings on each facade and a atrium in the middle. The advantage of this system is the flexibility of space where each space can have its own function and inserted into a superframe. This means that office and apartment types can join together which is in the other types of high-rise buildings impossible. The second advantage is that the portals allow daylight to come into the building.
Fig. 16 superframe

The structure has also a huge effect on the exterior architecture, but there are many possibilities of arrangements. For example the diagonalization can have the form of a X-braced form as in the picture above while the other possibility is to make a form like a diagonal grid. BEHAVIOUR The structural efficiency depends on the concentration of columns at the corners. Each column leg has to be very stiff in its own plane. Therefore the legs take the form of a diagonalized truss chords which need strong horizontal connections to make them work as a cantilever. EXAMPLE Parque Central Torre Este, Caracas, Venezuela

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STEEL SEMINAR Rak 83.140 Basic Design of Multi-Storey Buildings

TRAUNINGER DANIELA 63837U

COMPARISON OF THE DIFFERENT SYSTEMS


CANTILEVER EFFICIENCY Fazlur Khan developed as described before a system chart for high-rise buildings. In this system chart the efficiency of the structural system was linked to how good the system was in resisting lateral forces. The Vierendeel shear frame resists lateral loads primarily by bending of members and therefore represents the lowest cantilever efficiency. Due to this fact it is placed at the beginning of the system chart. The system chart of Fazlur Khan has always been expanded when a new system has been developed as shown in figure 17
Fig. 17 new system chart

If new systems were developed they have been added to the system chart. As you can see the interacting system of shear frame and truss are used for buildings up to 40 stories. Since 90% of the high-rise constructions are in this height range, the truss-frame combination represents therefore the steel system most used in tall buildings. The trussed tube has the highest cantilever efficiency. And the Superframes which are not in this chart have similar efficiencies as the tubular forms. ECONOMY ASPECTS The quantity of steel which is required for different types of systems can be used to describe the economy and efficiency of the system. Historic datas were put into charts which compare the height and the steel weight as you can see in figure 18.

Fig. 18 chart for different systems of steel weight versus height

The line for the shear frame system can be approximated by the equation Ws = 0.00386 H + 0.3590 Ws ..... steel weight

H ..... height of the building The line for cantilever systems (tubes, superframes) can be appriximated by the equation

Ws = 0.00286 H + 0.4561
When compare both equations the unit steel weight for shear frames with height is about 1,35 times the cantilever system. This will be even higher if the shear frame buildings would exist also in the range of 40 to 110 stories range as indicated in the blue line. Considerable scatter in the datas is due to the individualities of each building. The figure also shows that the trussed tubes are of higher efficiency as the framed tubes and the bundled tubes lie between.

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STEEL SEMINAR Rak 83.140 Basic Design of Multi-Storey Buildings

TRAUNINGER DANIELA 63837U

MIXED SYSTEMS
MATERIAL COMBINATIONS: STEEL-CONCRETE MIXED SYSTEM Composed systems are very efficient because they combine the advantageous properties of either structure. The advantages of concrete are the rigidity and the ability for many different forms. The advantages of steel are spanability which allows lighter floor elements and the high strength which results in smaller size member. 1. the composite tubular system it combines the reinforced tube on the exterior with steel framing in the interior. This system can be used up to 305m and has the potential also for taller buildings. 2. the concrete core braced system consits of a concrete core in the interior combined with an exterior steel framing. The concrete core provides vertical shafts for elevators, stairs and mechanical uses and also acts as the cantilever for lateral loads. The exterior steel frame only resists gravity forces.This provides a great flexibility for architectural shaping of the exterior. This system is normally used only up to 50 stories but it has the potential also for taller buildings by connecting more concrete cores together like a tube as it was built in the Republic Bank of Dallas for example. Another possibility is to use outrigger trusses which link the concrete core and the steel frame together to improve the cantilever efficiency. 3. concrete tube in tube system only the floor framings are in steel and all other components are made of concrete. SYSTEM COMBINATIONS In each project are different problems and therefore there is no unique solution for all cases. For this reason buildings are often combinations of different systems to suit the demand of each system. I will explain this situation on different examples which were construct in the past. THE CROCKER CENTER, LOS ANGELES It consists of two towers of different height. Each tower is a bundled frame tube system. Due to the site conditions the shape of the tubes resulted in a square and a triangular form. As a reason of this unsymmetrical form large torsional resistance was required.
Fig. 19 Crocker Center, Los Angeles, California

ALLIED BANK TOWER, HOUSTON The shape of this building is formed by two quarter circles framed tubes placed anti-symmetrically about the middle line. In addition to the framed tubes, there are two shear trusses at the interior used. This trusses were linked to the tubes by outrigger trusses. The tower has a size of 299m.

Fig. 20 Allied Bank, Houston, Texas

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STEEL SEMINAR Rak 83.140 Basic Design of Multi-Storey Buildings

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THE BANK OF CHINA BUILDING, HONG KONG This system is based on diagonalized triangular prisms which are linked together by fascia megadiagonals. They used a concrete encasement in members and joints which creates a composite steel-concrete medium to transfer the shear forces at the joints.

Fig. 21 Bank of China Building, Hong Kong

BANK OF SOUTHWEST, HOUSTON This system consits of megacolumns in the corners with a truss that goes through the building. Therefore the columns act as a chord of the truss which is quite large to provide the required stiffness. The truss transfers the vertical loads to the exterior columns. The trusses itself are in 2 directions to resist the wind forces.

Fig. 22 Bank of the Southwest, Houston

Also trussed and framed tubes are often combined together. It could be in this way that the framed tube is at the exterior and the trussed tube at the interior or in the reverse direction that the framed tube is inside. To decide which system is better, depends on aesthetic criterias as well as on space criterias.

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STEEL SEMINAR Rak 83.140 Basic Design of Multi-Storey Buildings

TRAUNINGER DANIELA 63837U

DESIGN CONSIDERATION WITH ULTRA-HIGH RISE BUILDINGS


CONSIDERATION OF PERCEPTIBLE MOTION The main problem with ultra high rise buildings is that the motion of the whole building can also be recognized by the occupant although it is not dangerous for the construction. Therefore some dynamic factors have to be considered when planning such a tall building. This are lateral stiffness mass mechanical damping aerodynamic shaping of the building The increase of stiffness is costly after a certain point and may not practically be used. The increasing of the mass has also a very good effect. Increasing of the mechanical damping will reduce the perceptibel level of acceleration. Composite systems have a higher mass and also a good mechanical damping and are therefore mostly used for extremely tall buildings. Naturally mechanical damping can be increased by using artificial damping systems. The next parameter is the aerodynamic shape of the building. In this connection there are two parameters important: the drag parameter and the vortex phenomenon. To reduce this two parameters some architectural rules has to be considered: the shape of the top should be a pyramidal from rather than a flat top to avoid vortex holes at the top and through the whole building reduce the drag relief of the corners and the whole building make the system more aerodynamic. Also concentrations of columns in the corner of the building are useful to increase the cantilever effect and therefore decrease the lateral sway of the building. This is due to the transformation of the interior column loads to the exterior where they can increase the exterior wind resistant and also assist in resisting wind uplift forces. SEISMIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS The forces due to seismic motions are as important as the wind and gravity forces. But in contrast to this externally applied forces, seismic motion generates internal forces due to vibration of the building. Therefore the mass, size, shape and dynamic properties of the building are very important parameters to determine how well the system performs under seismic motion. This means in addition to strength and stiffness also the ductility of the building is very important. Steel is a very ductile material and is therefore well suited for seismic resistance. The joints are ductile if they can absorb large deformations. SHEAR FRAME In moment resisting Vierendeel frames the joints and members can reach full plastification and dissipate maximum energy and are therefore often used for seismic systems. This is indicated by formation of plastic hinges in beams. SHEAR TRUSS A shear truss can be made as a seismic resistant system if the braces are eccentric as shown in figure 23 so that the beam link produce full plastification of the member and therefore plastic hinges in the beam. This system can be used alone or in combination with the shear frame. This combined system is very efficient for midheight range and is therefore extensively used.
Fig. 23 eccentric braced frames

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STEEL SEMINAR Rak 83.140 Basic Design of Multi-Storey Buildings

TRAUNINGER DANIELA 63837U

FRAMED TUBE SYSTEMS In this system the proportionality of the beams and columns in the frame has to be in this way that the formation of plastic hinges are produced first in the beam. This contrasts with the need for stiff beams for a high cantilever efficiency. Therefore the design needs to be balanced between this two requirements. It is also possible to increase the column strength by using higher grade of steel or by encasement of the columns with concrete. TRUSSED TUBES Due to the major diagonals this system hasnt got a good ductility and is therefore not used for seismic zones. DUAL SYSTEMS In a dual system a ductile moment resisting frame is combined with a non-ductile or less ductile element. The shear truss and frame interacting system is for example a dual system. Another possibility is to join a ductile frame tube with a shear truss. In practice it is important to understand the whole system to combine the required rigidity with the ductility. Also computer programs are often necessary to verify the ductility behaviour of the three-dimensional system. DESIGN PARAMETERS BUILDING DEFLECTION Is measured by the drift of the building. Inter-story drift =story deflection / story height building drift = lateral sway at the top of the building / building height This first order drifts range from approximately

1 1 to under a 50 year wind. 450 600

It is very important to know the drift of the building for determining how much movement the exterior cladding and other members have to withstand. ACCELERATION The building deflection is directly associated with the perception of motion from occupants and therefore with the building acceleration. This accelerations depend on the dynamic behaviour of the building under wind forces. It is very difficult to determine this accelerations and there are different kind of testing methods used. An example is the wind tunnel testing. SECOND ORDER EFFECTS This effect causes additional lateral movement of the building due to gravity loads. If we take for example a steel building with a first order drift of 1 500 than the second order drift is in the range of 20-30% of the first effect. UPLIFT If a building is to stiff it causes so much overturning moments to create uplift in the foundation. Most of the foundations have only a limited uplift capacity and therefore some extremely stiff systems cannot be used. To reduce this problem it is recommendable to transfer the gravity loads from interior columns to the exterior columns to counteract the uplift forces. BUILDING DIAPHRAGM The lateral loads should be distributed to the lateral systems by floor diaphragms. This diaphragms should be directly connected to columns, beams and to the wind resistive elements. The diaphragm stresses in a normal building are quite small and can be resisted by the floor slabs. It could only be critical if there is a large opening in the diaphragm such as a large atrium.

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STEEL SEMINAR Rak 83.140 Basic Design of Multi-Storey Buildings

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CONCLUSION
As we can see there were always developments to make the buildings higher and higher. And also today the worlds tallest title passes regularly form skyscraper to skyscraper. There are more than 50 buildings that would break the current record. Some of them are already in construction and some of them are only theoretical at this time. Some engineering experts say that the limitation of height is not really a matter of technology, the real limitation is money. Super tall buildings would require extremely strong materials and strong bases which is always a matter of money. Additional there is a problem with the elevators. You would need large banks of elevators for such tall buildings. Passengers who want to go to the top would take an elevator halfway, get off and than take another elevator the rest of the way. So experts are divided about how high we can really go in the near future. But all in all the engineers wont impose an upper limit. Future technology could lead to sky-high cities which can house millions of people. But the real question is if this goes really in the right direction? As we can see in the evolution of the last century the buildings now reach a high which is in my opinion scary. It might be nice that this kind of buildings show the progress of the technology but they also show that this technology dont takes consideration of the human needs. Because I dont think that anyone can feel really comfortable in such an impersonal building.

Fig. 24 evolution of high-rise buildings

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STEEL SEMINAR Rak 83.140 Basic Design of Multi-Storey Buildings

TRAUNINGER DANIELA 63837U

TABLE OF FIGURES
Fig. 1 shear frame 5 Fig. 2 deformation of frame under lateral loads...............................................................................5 Fig. 3 frame behaviour....................................................................................................................6 Fig. 4 bolted end connections.........................................................................................................6 Fig. 5 rigid connection with continuity plates ...................................................................................6 Fig. 6 trussed frame with centralized core ......................................................................................7 Fig. 7 frame-truss deformation........................................................................................................7 Fig. 8 shear truss frame with outrigger and belt trusses..................................................................8 Fig. 9 outrigger-truss deformation...................................................................................................8 Fig. 10 sway behaviour of a framed tube ........................................................................................9 Fig. 11 framed tube bahaviour ........................................................................................................9 Fig. 12 joints in framed tubes..........................................................................................................9 Fig. 13 study of cantilever efficiency of tubular structures .............................................................10 Fig. 14 trussed tube......................................................................................................................10 Fig. 15 load distribution in trussed tube ........................................................................................10 Fig. 16 superframe .......................................................................................................................11 Fig. 17 new system chart..............................................................................................................12 Fig. 18 chart for different systems of steel weight versus height ...................................................12 Fig. 19 Crocker Center, Los Angeles, California ...........................................................................13 Fig. 20 Allied Bank, Houston, Texas .............................................................................................13 Fig. 21 Bank of China Building, Hong Kong ..................................................................................14 Fig. 22 Bank of the Southwest, Houston.......................................................................................14 Fig. 23 eccentric braced frames....................................................................................................15 Fig. 25 evolution of high-rise buildings..........................................................................................17

REFERENCES
Patrick J. Dowling, John E. Harding and Reidar Bjorhovde Constructional Steel Design: An International Guide ELSEVIER APPLIED SCIENCE, LONDON and NEW YORK, 1992 www.emporis.com www.skyscraper.com Stahlgeschobau Grundlagen, Bauen mit Stahl Multistorey buildings, University of Bretoria

23.03.2004

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