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SUDESH SRIVASTAVA” “INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT C.S.J.M. UNIVERSITY, KANPUR” In the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of The degree of Master of Business Administration (MBA)
I hereby declare that Training research report on “CONSUMER SATISFACTION LEVEL AT KIRLOSKAR LTD WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE IN MACHINERY SECTOR” NEW DELHI is a factual report of my own research work undertaken towards partial fulfillment of the degree of management. The facts and figures presented here is correct and true to best of knowledge & belief.
VISHAL AWASTHI MBA- FT (2011-2013)
Jeevan Tara Building, 5 Parliament Street, Connaught Place New Delhi, DL 011 23742538
CERTIFACATE This is to certify that vishal awasthi student of M.B.A. (2011-2013) I.B.M. OF C.S.J.M. UNIVERSITY ,KANPUR has prepared a summer internship project report on “CONSUMER SATISFACTION LEVEL AT KIRLOSKAR LTD.” In partial fulfillment of two years full time M.B.A. programme of C.S.J.M. UNIVERSITY, KANPUR. This project work has been undertaken under my supervision and found satisfactory. Date:- 03.08.2012 Place:- New delhi Ramesh Shankar (sales officer) Delhi Zone Kirloskar ltd.
Sl no 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Titles Page no
Introduction Industry profile Company profile About Kirloskar Company Need for the study Objectives of the study Research Methodology Analysis and Interpretation Hypothesis Cross Tabulation Findings Suggestion Conclusion Bibliography Questionnaire
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Executive Summary Executive summary The research title to study the “Customer satisfaction level at kirloskar ferrous industries” At KIRLOSKAR FERROUS INDUSTRIES LTD helps to identify the customer satisfaction of KFIL (PIG IRON) products on consumers. The reasons for selecting this as project title are to know the attitude of the customers towards KFIL products. to identify the impact and so understanding the 5 .
The company should aware of this element. And also I came to know the customer satisfaction is the very important towards the company product customers are the back bone of the company and while preparing the product the company should have to maintain quality.customer’s satisfaction is a very difficult and vital task for the organization towards KFIL products. pig iron. their work and they are responding quickly to customers their top level peoples in the administration 6 . DG(diesel generator) etc… . and sufficient price of the product to the customers And I also studied about ORGANISATION of KFIL (KIRLOSKAR FERROUS INDUSTRIES LTD). quantity pricing and in time is the most important to the company. By this study I come to know how industrial buying behavior and the customers satisfaction levels towards the KIRLOSKAR (PIG IRON) product. Today’s competitive scenario understanding customer satisfaction has been receiving increasingly importance and it has become one of the most important tasks for the successful organization. It also helps the elements which help the company to create the awareness and build image of the company and it will increases maximum sales of the Kirloskar products are like engine body. So in that I studied every department of the administration how they maintain organization. This study also helps to know the company satisfaction level towards customers and I come to know what are the strategies implementing for improving sales and the company maintaining quality &quantity.
INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION “ORGANIZATION”. This could be achieved only when one will go through the real practical experience. as the name suggests it is an organized system or body of people. To understand the function of any organization practically there is a need to come out of the theoretical study and to have a look on the real organization to analyze and compare the theory with the practical. 7 .
If the company follow 8 . Overall it helps in knowing learning and to study any organization closely. its policies. And along with this I studied Customer satisfaction with kirloskar products most of the thing I came to know while done the project and customers are very important as we it is the main aspect of the company. its function.Organization study helps to know the real picture of the organization. technology used by the company. Organizational study helps to learn the new methods. It enhances the knowledge about the company and its competitors and the technique /strategies adopted by them to meet there competition. methods and more over to understand whether our theoretical aspects are really implemented by any company or not. The customers are back bone of the company the companies people should aware while before they survive product to the customers By this project I come to know the customer should satisfy with products and we should provide quality and good service to customers. procedures.
INDUSTRY PROFILE INDUSTRY PROFILE: 9 .
glass and timber for steel is presently standing at between 2 and 5 percent of steel consumption. Calculating that portion of the reduction in the specific consumption of the steel that is due to the use of other materials is extremely difficult. Hence India is one of the largest producers of steel in the world. Goa. As demand for steel is one the rise we can expect good rise in the consumption. Earlier to the Government liberalization and de – licensing policies in 1991–92. the two Pig Iron producers were TISCO and SAIL. The steel industry has harvested to the bitter fruit of this excessive optimism in the firm of overextended capacities throughout the world. However.3 billions which is more than 1/4th of the world’s reserves. They used to produce basic grade Pig Iron which contains less silicon content 10 . Steel is not without lots of company in that regard. aluminum. Another important influence on steel intensity is the replacement of steel by other materials. there was manly two Pig Iron produces in the Indian market. which are key elements in building the infrastructure steel in universal intermediate and ahs very strong forward end backward linkages hence steel industry has become one of the core sector of the economy. There is a significant scope for economic development. This will lead to considerable demand for steel. the iron ore reserves are mainly found in the states Orissa. Though India is one of the largest steel producers. Rajasthan and some parts of western Maharashtra. engineering and automobile sectors. Karnataka. estimates made by the International Iron and steel Institute would seem to indicate that for all of the Western industrialized countries the rate of substitution of materials such as plastics.India is gifted with large quantity of Iron ore with a high ferrous content. Bihar. which means there will be focus on the infrastructure. It has a very low percepts consumption of steel in comparison with other developing and developed countries. globalization of economy in the process. which is the crucial raw material for producing the steel. This will be focus on the infrastructure. India is fortunate in having intensive iron ore deposits with reserves estimated at 10. With the help of liberalization. Madhya Pradesh. Further the average iron ore content of Indian ore is above 60% in India. As it’s main applications are in the construction. Andhra Pradesh.
Goa. Lanco. Sisco (Southern Iron and Steel Co. So when this is to be used by the foundries they have and Ferro silicon for the conversion to foundry grade also the availability quantity of Pig Iron to the foundries was very much limited because only of ISCO and SAIL were looking after all the foundries in India. Sese. many private sectors started. These all Pig Iron producers started producing mainly foundry grade Pig Iron. Sathavana. 11 . ltd). TATA group in collaboration with Korf Brazil started supplying mini blast furnace of 250 cubic meters.when conversion to foundry grade Pig Iron. Producing Pig Iron among them. When blast furnaces were available. Kirloskar are main. After the liberalization and de-licensing policies of government and private sectors showed keen interest in the Pig Iron manufacturing units that to in the production of foundry grade Pig Iron. Meco. Uni Metal. Usha Ispat.
COMPANY PROFILE COMPANY PROFILE 12 .
118 Million Iron ore available within 20 Kms.000 tones per year. Grade Basic Grade & Castings 1992 Branches Constitution Total Investment Trade Mark Capacity of the Unit Infrastructure facility : : : : : 27 Branches in all over India Wholly owned by “Laxman Rao Kirloskar”. Product Range : Manufacturing of Pig Iron in 3 Different Grades. 1433. 240 Crores initially “KIRLOSKAR” 3. Bevinahalli. : Following Own land about 200 acres Plant & machinery worth Rs. Name of the Organization : Year of Establishment Address : KFIL : KFIL NH-13. Foundry Grade & Castings S. Near Hitnal.G. Koppal . 00.COMPANY PROFILE AT A GLANCE. Koppal – District.Hospet Road. COMPANY PROFILE 13 .
planned and administered the township. Driven by his faith in human ability. Laxmanrao banded together 25 workers and their families and succeeded in transforming the barren expanse into his dream village.It has now been more than a century since the Kirloskar story started. who admired and respected Laxmanrao Kirloskar. pump and engine. A highlight of the early history of the group is Kirloskarvadi. In the 100 years and more that we have been in existence as a family and as an organization. Laxmanrao Kirloskar set foot on 32 acres of barren land strewn with cacti and infested with cobras. We started with an aim of becoming the pioneers in fields in which our country needed innovation. A model factory-village created by Laxmanrao and his band of dedicated workers.Kulkarni. we've been seminal to Indian agricultural and industrial development. Ramuanna. K. Shamburao Jambhekar doubled as engineer and all-round healing man. Two months later. became a manager. treasurer and 14 . the plough soon became an icon of reform and revolution. when the Kirloskar were being ousted from Belgaum to make room for a new suburb.K. Sensing this need. From this steadfast belief was born the iron plough. Laxmanrao's brother. The founder and the first factory village The Kirloskar story starts with Laxmanrao Kirloskar. the first Kirloskar product. offered the latter all the land he needed in Aundh state. In January 1910. Which is why our group history can in many ways can be considered a history of the economic and industrial revolution in India. We gave India its first iron plough. Originally intended as an essential aid to agriculture. they found themselves in dire need of a place to live and work. A man who believed that an understanding of one's environment and reality was essential to the manufacture of path-breaking industrial implements. an unsuccessful student. inventions that were devised from the need of the hour and went on to become signs of the time. the founder. India's first industrial township. the Raja of the princely state of Aundh.
Mr. sugarcane crushers and pumps. 1910-1946 .Kirloskar Chillers Pvt. Such was our founder's faith in the human being that. was established. 15 . 1946 .the fodder cutter and the iron plough. Iron plough was the first product. Tukaram Ramoshi and Priya Mang. (Established in 1996 as Kirloskar McQuay Pvt.) Present generation is the 4th generation of Kirloskar. 2006 . and was incorporated in 1920. diesel engines. K. groundnut shellers. Kirloskar established the Kirloskar Group. Ltd. and hand pumps In 1946. 1992 . became the trusted guards of Kirloskarvadi! The first Kirloskar Group Company Kirloskar Brothers Limited (KBL) . farm hand pumps were launched. both convicted dacoits. To power these machines.In a display of great versatility. implements. 1957 .the first Kirloskar venture at Kirloskarvadi was to become the base for all of the Kirloskar Group's subsequent enterprises. It began as the only Indian company with its own standard products . Was established. which competed with the British products. Anantrao Phalnikar. groundnut shellers. Mangeshrao Rege was the clerk and chief accountant. was established. coal gas generators and electric motors were developed at Kirloskarvadi.Kirloskar Pneumatic Co. KIRLOSKAR GROUP HISTORY 1888 .Kirloskar Ferrous Industries Ltd. and also the group's flagship company.Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. As India's largest manufacturer of pumps and valves. KBL lends its strength and expertise to every new venture of the Kirloskar Group. L. manufacture of water pumps for irrigation started. KBL also manufactured groundnut shellers. Ltd. Ltd. successfully handling the group companies. KBL then shifted its focus to fluid handling and control.Odd jobs man.farm implements.Various products like sugarcane crushers. which were to usher in a new economic order in the Indian industry. 1910 -Factory set up in Kirloskarwadi to manufacture sugarcane crushers. Company today is known as Kirloskar Brothers Ltd. a school drop-out flowered into an imaginative engineer.
Screw Centrifugal. EngineBearings&Valves. Refrigeration Projects. Reciprocating. Centrifugal Chillers. Valves. Compressors Kirloskar Pneumatic Company Ltd. Screw Chillers 16 . Ltd Reciprocating Chillers. Gearboxes. Diesel Engines. Traction Gears. Flake Ice Plants Kirloskar Chillers Pvt. Anti Corrosion Products Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd.Kirloskar Group Companies KIRLOSKAR GROUP BUSINESS: KIRLOSKAR BROTHERS LTD Turnkey Projects. Hydro Turbines. Compressors. Centrifugal Pumps.
Kirloskar Ferrous Industries Ltd. Connected through a network of state and NH for transportation of raw materials and finished goods. To ensure the desired quantity of raw materials and cost effectiveness in operation. Uninterrupted raw materials source availability like metallic iron ore and water. De-licensing and liberalization policies of the government. Demand of accuracy of castings capable of being machined in CNC machine in single pass. KFIL was conceived around 1992 triggered by the following factors:1. KFIL simultaneously went for PIP. in Hospet Bellary region and thus located the plant near Hospet. Keeping this in mind K group came up with idea of founding KFIL with the experience and expertise available in the group in field of foundry business. Rapid growth in automotive and farm mechanization sectors. It may be noted that region is located on the banks of Tungabhadra River. Only foundry in Asia with backward integration of liquid metal. 3. Is the youngest company in K-Group is a large-scale industry to begin operations in rural and industrially backward district of Koppal. 17 . A modern plant set to deliver castings of international quality to deliver the highest levels of customer’s satisfaction. 5. High volume demand for castings from the above sector. Demand of the thin walled casting with less machining allowance. 4.KIRLOSKAR FERROUS INDUSTRIES LIMITED (KFIL). It took advantage of abundant availability of Iron Ore. 2. With this KFIL enjoys the following advantages in the castings production.
N. Mnudewadi. C. 18 . Mr. Jamenis. Commercial Production of Grey Iron Casting ISO – 9002 Certification QS 9002 Certification ISO 14000 Certification ISO/TS 16949: 2002 Acquired Solapur Foundry from Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. Sanjay. Atul.G. G. A. A.K.A.Kirloskar Mr.R.Panicker AUDITORS Mr. Mr. Singhai.C. BANKERS • State Bank of India. DYNAMIC PEOPLE OF KFIL Mr. S. C.V. Gumaste Managing Director Chairman BOARD OF DIRECTORS Mr.Kirloskar Mr.Inamdar. R.Tadas.S. Mr.Tikekar.P. (Chartered Accountant). Mr.Bhagwat. Mr.V.C. S.KFIL TIMELINE: 1994 1994 1995 1995 2001 2002 2005 2006 Year of inception Commercial production of pig Iron from Mini Blast Furnace I. COMPANY SECRETARY Mr.
year 2009-10 To reach a company level sales of 1000 crores and profit of 10% by year 2011 KFIL Values Customer orientation. Bank of Maharashtra.000mt/annum To maintain a company level sales of 700 crores for. IDBI Bank UTI Bank ICICI Bank NATURE OF BUSINESS CARRED: The company manufactures the Pig Iron in three different grades. 1. Iron Ore. Limestone. To improve foundry capacity utilization to manufacture 1. Coke & Dolomite is the raw materials for the manufacturing Pig Iron. KFIL Mission To enhance pig Iron manufacturing to 500000MT/annum. Machine tools 4. 00. Coke is imported from China. diesel engines. electric Power 3. Casting and Ploughs 2. Compressors pumps. VISION MISSION VALUES & QUALIY POLICY OF THE KFILKFIL Vision “To be a world class product leader through the state-of-art manufacturing technologies and processes”.• • • • • Bank of Baroda. 19 . Engines and components. by Calibrated Iron-ore brought from mine owners in the Hospet & Bellary Iron-ore belt within the distance of 50 kms.
5S. Teamwork. Responsible corporate neighbors. KFIL is also committed to improve the quality of work life of its employees through improved work practices. ABOUT KIRLOSKAR COMPANY 20 . Positive Attitude. Work for WINWIN agreements. Safety. Integrity. Vendor development (Critical link in the business). Respect for individual. Concern for Quality. Process and Product excellence. Information sharing. Development of Human Resources through Trust. Making Continual Improvement. Cost. Result Oriented. Innovative. QUALITY POLICY KFIL is committed to achieve total customer satisfaction through adoption of state of art manufacturing technology and processes with continual improvements. Kaizen.
USD No.000 MT.ABOUT KIRLOSKAR COMPANY Year of establishment: 1992 Sales turnover 2008-09: INR--------------Million.000 MT Captive Power Co-generation – 7 MW(2 Steam Turbines) 105 Million 21 . of employees: 2000 Castings-Hospet: 60. Solapur: 24.
50. Total Area: 7. 40. Only Foundry in Asia with backward integration to liquid metal.Mtrs Kirloskar Ferrous Industries was born with the unique advantage ☻ Kirloskar Ferrous Industries Limited is located on the belts of Tungha Bhadra Reservoir in Karnataka and near the rich Iron ore belt of Hospet –Bellary range near Koppal Town on NH –63. Covered Area: 3.000 Sq. Power: Captive power generation through the use of 2 No Steam Turbines and Diesel Generating Sets.Location: Bevinahalli Village 20 Kms from Hospet town.000 Tones/Year One of the main product of the company is pig iron PIG IRON Pig iron is the basic input for making iron casting which finds its application in steel industry & other sectors of the economy. It can also be used in the change mix of the electrical are furnaces (EAFs) as a partial substitute of melting scrap. India. 300 Kms north of Bangalore city. Pig iron mainly classified into tow glades. Karnataka State. ☻ The Kirloskar group has had a long and close relationship with the foundry business group units specializing in the manufacture of high Quality ferrous and non-ferrous castings. 20. ☻ Accumulated through experience and expertise of the group in the field of Foundry business.000 Sq. Total power generation capacity 26 MW Installed Capacity: 2. Basic glade (which is used for making steel) Foundry glade (which is used of manufacturing iron casting) 22 .Mtrs. which has Global capacities to meet High Volumes Consistently.
CARRARO. Amtek Menon & Menon. Nelcast. The integrated steel plants (ISP) are the major supplier of pig iron. SWARAJ ENGINE COMPETETORS: Major Competitors DCM Engineering. Glade which is used of manufacturing special steel India’s share in the total global exports is 4. Seeing the potential demand many mills in USA such as NUCOR. Ashok Iron Works. RAJKOT ENGG. Growth trend in India’s pig iron sectors Pig iron production in India was totally in the domain of the integrated steel plants especially SAIL & RNIL. PUNJAB TRACTORS LTD ENGINE:KIRLOSKAR OIL ENGINES. LAXMI MACHINE WORKS. Ennore Foundries.E.14% in 1997-98. The major thrust is to “Drive Down Cost” to retain competitive edge. The technology focus in FY07 has been on improvements in the areas of Quality 23 . ASSOCIATION. MUKAND LTD FOUNDRY AUTOMOBILE: MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA. The major supplier of pig iron in domestic market. NORTH STAR CASCADE STEEL & MAC STEEL is switching over to pig iron production.T. SRIRAM PISTONS & RINGS LTD. MARUTI UDYOG LTD. The total production of pig iron to 500 M.g. developed nations accounts for 45% of the total production. KALYANI STEELS LTD. PRODUCT PROFILE KFIL products are in the beginning of the value chain. TEXMO INDUSTRIES.Global scenario of pig iron The demand for pig iron in the international arena has seen sharp rise. TRACTOR: ESCORTS.51% in 1996-97 & the same increased to 7. TAFE. MAJOR BUSINESS PARTNERS PIG IRON • ELECTROSTEEL CASTINGS. Throughout the liberalization policy new private companies have entered into pig iron industry. MENON PISTONS LTD. Ghatge Patil. It contributes up to 90% of the pig iron supply. SIMPSON. PUNJAB TRACTORS LTD. TELCO.
• Investment Casting The company’s products are used in the following industries.Cost Productivity Process Products Iron Castings Cylinder Blocks Cylinder Heads Housings Axle & Transmission parts 27. • S.G Iron. 2007 5 Property o f Casting:• Grey Iron. PARTICULERS Textiles Pumps Automobile Pipes Engines Fans Agriculture Others PERCENT 12% 11% 26% 12% 6% 3% 10% 20% T e x t i le s P um ps A u t o m o b i le P ip e s E n g in e s Fans A g ric u lt u r e O t h e rs 24 .
Kirloskar Kenya Ltd.Pune 411003 (INDIA). The main production unit of the company is situated in Bevenahalli which is surrounded by the rich resources. Philippines. AREA OF OPERATION The area of operation of KFIL is global.. Kenya. Indo – Malaysia Engineering Co. KFIL Address: Village Post Dist State : Bevenahalli : Hitnal (Pin 583234) : Koppal : Karnataka (INDIA). OVERSEAS COMPANIES • • • follows. Malaysia Kirloskar Industries. KFIL main office address is as RIGISTERED OFFICE Laxman Rao Kirloskar Road. Khadki . The main and subsidiary branch of the company is as under. water. it has its branches in other countries also namely. Company has got different kinds of customer varying between with high or low range of silicon contents. The exact address is as follows.The above table represents the basic of products differentiation and the list of industries where these products are used. INFRASTRUCTURE Foundry Plant : Partial view of Foundry Area & Surroundings 25 . human resources and a transportation facility. Mainly products are differentiated on the basis of silicon compensation. Chemical composition of the product is the reason for production for different kinds of products. in terms of raw materials.
ABB make Press Pour Furnace with 7 tons holding capacity Casting of Pig Iron Mould Shop: George Fischer makes high pressure moulding machine and auto mould handling system.Melting: ABB Make Holding / Melting Furnaces: 3 crucibles & 2 controls Capacity: 30 tons holding capacity. each. Type of moulding machine: Air Impact Plus Speed: 70 moulds per hour 26 .
And their aim is to provide good and quality employees to company while I studying the organization in KFIL the company adopt a team learning process to create a strong knowledge 27 . 20 liters and 15 liters Casting cleaning : George Fischer designed Special Purpose Shot Blast machine Hansger type shot blast machine FUNCTIONAL DEPARTMENTS AREAS • • • • • • HUMAN RESOURCES PRODUCTION PURCHASE FINANCE MARKETING QUALITY ASSURANCE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT This is very important to every organization they believe in the process of empowerment for success. Core Shop: Cold Box Core Shooters: Core Shooter capacity: 40 liters Number of core shooters: 20 nos. Sand Plant with capacity of 110 tons per hour with mold ability controller. Core setting mechanisms: 2 nos.Box Size: 1250 X 900 X 400 / 400 mm. Shell Core Shooters: Capacity: 40 liters.
Competitive compensation. Recogniz Organizational Structure of the Company The organizational structure of an enterprise would depend upon its size. The company may change its structure according to the needs and suitability. Finance. product manufactured and its functional divisions. Development of personnel to create knowledge tank and a learning base to defeat competition. and HRD&A etc also assists him. safety knowledge. Marketing. Creation of good working environment and shared accountability for quality. Managing Director (CMD) is held responsible for formulating and implementing the Policies. The organizational structure may be flexible.base and it will easy to face work load for employees. participation & involvement to effectively deal with negative residues. Different functional department heads like Production. and Adoption Develop Develop Defining Empowe Encouraging teamwork. benefits and remuneration based on results is the company policy today and focus in the future. In KFIL the Board of Directors is having the major position in the company.They Provides maximum opportunity for personality development. A satisfied employee is an unadvertised asset of a company. Procedures and rules with the assistance of Board of Directors appointed by the Government and various financial institutions. 28 .
HRM & GA Manager of Environment Manager of Safety Sr. Officer of Cattering Civil Engineer AssistantOfficer Sr.Each functional department heads are assisted by the Assistant Managers.M. Assistant 29 . There is always coordination between all functional departments through horizontal communication.Manager -Admini Engineer of Environment Sr. Officer HR & IR AssistantEngineer Assistant Officer Officer of HR & IR Assist Officer Sr. Manager of GA Manager of HR Manager of PMU Dy. ORGANIZATON STRUCTURE: G.
Human Resources department coordinates all other departments and helps them to work effectively.Company has taken care of employee’s welfare by providing accommodation medically and medical reimbursement to self and family subsidized canteen facility to all employees. In KFIL [HRM & GA] constantly take care for each employee right from his induction to his performance recognition. 30 . free transportation to their residence to the work place. Only machine cannot perform all the work. This department performance all those functions which creates a sense of belongingness among all the workers. personnel department required to guide the people at work and organize them to achieve the best result. Company is having officers. Company plans to increase turnover per employee through: Increase production Increase productivity Maintain/ improve quality Cost efficiency Adhering to timely suppliers Reduction in wastages Innovations. they need the assistance of human who is key for their operations. club members of their facilities meet and participating in various activities of recreations. The various functions performed this department are: Recruitment Selection Interview Placement Wage & salary administration Training & development Performance appraisal Promotion and transfers. A part from this is also maintains a cardinal relationship between others industries.
Fluxes are then feeded into the furnace by means of the electronic weighing system. PIG IRON PLANT (PIP) 31 . quantize. The company main product is PIG IRON it producing by using the raw materials such as iron ore.And all those functions which helps to motivate the employees and which leads to increase their morale. coke. dolomite. and fluxes such as limestone. KFIL also boasts of a record of projects completion of electing the first MBF with in 18 months and second MBF within 9 months. PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT ABOUT PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT As I studied in the organization one of production department is most important in KFIL. and manganese are pre-requisite quantity of iron ore. coke.) Brazil has helped KFIL to design and develop a product and it producing more than 500 MT of Pig Iron worlds over. KFIL is among the first in India to adopt this state of art technology with computer controls to produce consistent quality of Pig iron. As studied the company innovates new technology from KTS (KORF Technological Sidervrgica Ltd.
There are 2mini blast furnaces (MBF) functioning in the KFIL for manufacturing or Pig Iron by adopting fallowing procedures by help of MBF the company producing production Production process showing in the below diagram. low machining allowance. This also meets the requirements like reduced wall thickness. Consisting of load cell. Dolomite. dolomite. Limestone. and fluxes such as limestone. above all receptive dimensional accuracies. Iron Ore. Maruti Udyog Ltd. and Mahindra & Mahindra.. They supply castings in the domestic market companies like KOEL. coke. by seeing this picture you can understand production process of the company Pig Iron Plant 32 .Pig iron is produced using raw materials such as iron ore. Coke &.. Fluxes are then feeded into the furnace by means of the electronic weighing system. coke. batching controller and programmable logic controllers. and manganese are pre-requisite quantity of iron ore. PIG IRON The raw materials for the manufacturing pig iron are. Pig Iron is produced through MBF`s. Punjab Tractor Ltd. In KFIL the state of art technology in foundry is adopted to meet the high volume of demands of automotive and farm mechanization sector. FOUNDRY PLANT Foundry business is the core expertise of the group. Simpson. TATA Engineering Locomotive Co. quantize.
LUDHIANA.TRUST OUR PIG IRON TO CAST YOUR REPUTATION K F I L NETWORK (PIG IRON). and supplier background. FARIDABAD. Coke is imported by China because the required specification and quality of china coke matches with KFIL product specification. And the KIRLOSKAR having good dealers network overall in India those are BELGAUM. quality. NAGPUR. Dolomite. it includes those materials which support directly to the production process they are . Lime stone. AHMEDABAD. COIMBATORE. BANGALORE. KOLKATA. The KIRLOSKAR head office in HOSPET . DELHI. The factors considered by the purchase department are price. PURCHASE DEPARTMENT The purchase department is one of the most important in every industries especially in kirloskar it needful because of the company purchasing row material in bulky. HYDERABAD. Manganese ore And in purchase department broadly divided into four types 33 . Sponge. Purchasing means buying the raw materials from vendors or suppliers to produce end products of an industry. and COIMBATORE. KOLHAPUR. JAIPUR. AHMEDABAD. KOLHAPUR.Iron ore Metallurgical coke. QAZ/BHQ.and it having there are four branches in India Those are DELHI. VIJAYAWADA. RAJKOT.
PROCESS Flow OR PURCHASE PROCESS. 34 .MATERIAL BULK PURCHASE CONSUMERS SPARES STATIONARY Mission of the purchase department “To ensure the availability of the right quality at right time with right place”.
P Existing Vendor ? Yes Float Enquiry No Source Vendor Quotation Approve Vendor Create Vendor Negotiation Finalize Vendor No Vendor Master Existing Vendor ? Yes Amend Purchase Order O Yes Import ? No Purchase Order PO Supplier I FINANCE DEPARTMENT 35 .
Funding Activity Internal audit. Finance department deals with various functional activities of the organization.The finance department is also important to the every organization and as I studied in organization the KFIL maintaining accounts with update and in finance department most of the dynamic persons are working. KFIL`s finance department functions are as follow: • • • • • • Preparation of master budget. Payment and cash management. the whole organization activities will be ruined. Preparation of final accounts. Maintenance of accounting records. The books of records of KFIL is maintained by fully own built software system If this department is not well operated. MARKETING DEPARTMENT 36 .
Pricing.their dealings with customers . 3. Promotion and Distribution of products. These activities collectively called as 4 Ps in Marketing. Pricing: 37 .The marketing department is mainly it useful for getting profit by the way of selling the products and also it focus on the activities of Marketing products. Foundry Grade Pig Iron. Products: The Company has following products in its Product Line. And I highly concentrated on marketing department because of the marketing department is interesting and they implementing the new strategies for increase the sales of their company products .convincing & clarifying STRATEGIES • • • • • • Maintaining quality leadership On – Time delivery Strong dealership network Customer orientation Customer driven Performance tracking of competitors The marketing department is mainly focus on the activities of Marketing products. 2. As per the company mission the direction of achieving the marketing team they are putting maximum effort for increase of sales and realization for the company’s product while meeting the customer’s requirement to their all round satisfaction”. Marketing department is mainly focus on the activities of Marketing products. These activities collectively called as 4 Ps in Marketing. Pricing. These activities collectively called as 4 Ps in Marketing. Pricing. Promotion and Distribution of products. Spheroid Grade Pig Iron. Basic Grade Pig Iron. Promotion and Distribution of products. They are: 1.
It is also called as Basic Price. People prefer this company Pig Iron because the following reasons: a. If the transport is undertaken by the company then boarded price is calculated according to sites mentioned in receipt. 2.e. 100/. where as others supply with range between i. The company has come across different Prices terminologies. Test Certificates are issued with every load d. Fixed Chemical Composition c. The company has left the opinion of transporting Pig Iron to the Buyers site to the Buyer. So one can buy the Pig Iron at the Company’s Site or can order. Price of this company pig iron are comparatively more when compound to competitions. Recorded Price = Basic + Freight + CED (Central Excise Duty) A discount of Rs. High Quality b. Almost 0% impurities & slag mix up If customer demands for 2.25% silicon etc.The name “Kirloskar” itself is the mark of quality for the customer. Then the company will supply exactly with this proportion. even with this more price also the company has succeeded in reaching top market share holding position in the Pig Iron market & Foundry.PMT is given to the regular and bulk buyers. Basic Price = Production Cost + Profit Production cost includes both variable cost and fixed cost.25% silicon.. They are: List Price Discount Allowance Payment Periods Credit Terms List price is nothing but the selling price. 38 .
The company brand name helps in attracting customers. almost 98-99% pure molten metal is obtained while as in it is 97% size is almost comfortable for feeding into less opening firmness. Pune. Pig iron is also sold on credit as one of the promotion tools to attract customers. Faridabad. Mumbai. Nagpur. and they are using first level and second level distribution channel i. Bangalore Hyderabad. Credit time depends on areas (less credit period is for North Zone) and order they give. 100 PMT. Each dealer will get Rs. Coimbatore. Agra Chennai. Manufacture to consumers. Credit notes are given to these dealers for their commission.In this company. Solhapur Ahmedabad. the company has divided its market into 7 Zones: Zone A Zone B Zone C Zone D Zone E Zone F Zone G In the KFIL Karnataka Andhra Pradesh Maharashtra Gujarat Rajasthan Delhi Tamil Nadu Belgaum. Rajkot. Promotion The company has appointed number of dealers throughout India for its marketing purpose. Zodhinoor. Pig Iron is melted once.e. From the above points is clear that the company is not using any mark penetrating pricing strategy to penetrate the market instead it is using skimming price strategy. Mudurai Structure of the Marketing Department 39 . Surat Jaipur Delhi. Shimoga. Distribution: The company has got distribution network spread allover India in form of dealership and also through company’s employees. Manufacture to dealers and consumers. Vijaywada Kolhapur. as commission for the pit iron is sells.
product manufactured and its functional divisions. So in the kirloskar ferrous industries ltd company has build excellent structure of the marketing department and every body has their won responsibility about their work In the marketing department there is one department head and under this there are three senior managers i e Branch manager.Departme nt Head Branch Manager Marketing Manager Dispatch Manager Line Head Line Head Assistant Assistant Assistant Assistant The organizational structure of an enterprise would depend upon its size. Marketing manager. The organizational structure may be flexible. Dispatch Manager. Under Marketing manager and Dispatch Manager having each both of them and finally there are two assistant each under line head This is the brief introduction about marketing department structure QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT: 40 . The company may change its structure according to the needs and suitability.
Quality objectives: The following are the objectives of quality assurance department. They are as under: A] Customer Satisfaction: Maximization of customer satisfaction by consistent supply of quality casting and pig iron. The company is also committed to improve quality of work life of its employees through improved work practices.The company is committed to achieve total customer satisfaction through adoption of state of the art manufacturing technologies and process with continuous improvements. B] Supplies Quality Assurance: provide technical support and guidance to our suppliers through quality assurance programmers to ensure highest quality of purchased materials suppliers it is a critical link in company quality system. 41 .
So many industries are providing good service and quality to the customers.Need for the study Need for the study: Customer satisfaction level is the factor which has got its own importance in the industrial marketing. And 42 . A better satisfaction level to the customer means it is a good image of the company.
quantity. price. In the field like steel companies (KFIL) where there is a tough competition to create a better satisfaction level brand image in the minds of the customers. to the customers until they satisfy with product. So the companies should have to provide better service. So this study helps to find out the attributes and satisfaction level of the customers which helped the company to provide better service to customers 43 . quality.company image is one of the most important for growth.
To determine the customer satisfaction level towards the KFIL products. 2. To know the factors to improve the quality of the KFIL products. To know the factor which influence the customer to purchase the KFIL products. To understand the customer perception towards KFIL products. 44 . 4.Objectives and Research Methodology Objectives of study: 1. 3.
The respondents will be chosen according to the convenience and also I collected data by the way of their personal contact no and e-mail ID. Sampling Plan: (i) Customers of KFIL (pig iron) product.. Questionnaire. Research Approach: Research Instrument: Survey method. Requesting to them for provide data regarding what I asked question them to grant interview. Tele phonic& mail survey. No other aspect other then customer satisfaction is included in the study 45 . Data processing: A number of tables to be prepared to bring out the main characteristics of the collected data. journals.Research Methodology The study is carrying at “KIRLOSKAR FERROUS INDUSTRIES LTD. The secondary data will be collected from various books. Research: Data Source: Descriptive research. (ii) Sampling Procedure: Contact Method: Mode of collecting data: Sample Size: Convenience sampling. The data will be collected through the primary and secondary source. (i) Primary data (ii) Secondary data. reports (both published and unpublished) etc. 50 1Sample Unit: Limitations of the survey: 1.
2. 3. The sample of size of 50 consumers may not necessarily represent the customer behaviour of the whole population. 46 . The survey was conducted in Bevinahalli which does not represent the customer satisfaction in other cities.
47 .Analysis and Interpretation Analysis and interpretation 1.
Since how many ye ars you are using pig iron product? Frequency 5 years and more 50 Percent 100.0 Valid Since how many years you are using pig iron product? 5 years and more INTERPRETATION: The above table and chart shows the customers are using pig Iron product since 5years.0 Valid Percent 100. 2. 48 .0 Cumulative Percent 100.
49 .0 100. Few of the customers buy the KFIL product by considering the company image.0 28. This is thing customer kept in mind about company. 3.0 Valid Quality Company image Total Which factor influenced you to buy the KFIL product? Qualit Company y image INTERPRETATION: The above table and chart shows overall Quality is the major factor which influences the customer to buy the KFIL product.0 100.0 Valid Percent 72.0 28.0 Cumulative Percent 72.Which factor influe nced you to buy the KFIL product? Frequency 36 14 50 Percent 72.0 100.
0 100. 50 . Tick the below attributes based on the customer satisfaction level.0 Cumulative Percent 60.0 100.0 40. 4. only from KFIL? Ye N s o 40.0 100.00 % 60.0 40.Do you buy the product.00 % INTERPRETATION: The above table and chart shows overall the majority of customers buy the products by KFIL only and the remaining customers buy from other companies.0 Valid Yes No Total Do you buy the product.0 Valid Percent 60. only from KFIL? Frequency 30 20 50 Percent 60.
00% 14.0 Cumulative Percent 8.0 100.0 14.00% INTERPRETATION: The above table and chart shows the Most of the respondents are highly satisfied with the quality of the company.0 14.0 100.0 78.0 100. 51 .0 Valid Quality Very high High Average 8.0 Valid Percent 8.0 78.00% 78.Quality Frequency Very high 4 High 39 Average 7 Total 50 Percent 8.0 86.
0 52.00% 36.0 64.0 100. 52 .0 36.00% 52.0 Valid Percent 12.Price Frequency Very high 6 High 26 Average 18 Total 50 Percent 12.0 100.0 36.00% INTERPRETATION: This table and chart shows the majority of the respondents say that the price of the products of KFIL is high compared to other company products.0 Valid Price Very high High Average 12.0 Cumulative Percent 12.0 100.0 52.
Se rvice Frequency High 3 Average 35 Low 12 Total 50 Percent 6.00% 24.0 100.0 100.0 Valid Service High Average Low 6.0 Cumulative Percent 6.00% 70.00% INTERPRETATION: This table and chart shows the overall service provided by the KFIL is average according to the majority of the respondents.0 100.0 70.0 76. 53 .0 24.0 70.0 Valid Percent 6.0 24.
0 Valid Availability High Average Low Very low 6.0 100.0 100.0 100. 54 .0 Cumulative Percent 6.0 Valid Percent 6.0 70.Av ailability Frequency High 3 Average 32 Low 4 Very low 11 Total 50 Percent 6.0 22.0 78.00% 22.0 64.0 8.0 8.00% INTERPRETATION: The above chart shows overall the products of KFIL are not abundantly available.00% 64.0 22. 5.0 64. They are available in less quantity.00% 8.
0 100.0 18.0 100. Are you satisfied with KFIL product? Yes No 9 41 INTERPETATION: The above table and chart shows overall majority of the respondents are satisfied with the KFIL products.0 18.0 Valid Yes No Total 5.0 Valid Percent 82. 55 .0 Cumulative Percent 82. 6.0 100.Are you satisfie d with KFIL product? Frequency 41 9 50 Percent 82.
0 40.00% 60.0 Valid If yes.0 26. How much are you satifie d with KFIL product? Frequency Very highly satisfied 7 Highly satisfied 13 Satisfied 30 Total 50 Percent 14. How much are you satified with KFIL product? Very highly satisfied Highly satisfied Satisfied 14.0 100.0 60.If ye s.0 60. 7.0 100. 56 .0 100.00% INTERPRETATION: The above table and chart shows overall the customers of KFIL are satisfied with the quality of product.00% 26.0 Cumulative Percent 14.0 Valid Percent 14.0 26.
why? Frequency Quality 5 Service 14 Price 7 Availability 24 Total 50 Percent 10.0 Valid If no.0 28.0 48. 8.If no.0 38.0 48. why? Quality Service Price Availability INTERPRETATION: this chart shows the main reason for the respondents who are not satisfied with KFIL product is non availability of the product.0 100.0 100.0 52.0 14.0 100. 57 .0 14.0 Cumulative Percent 10.0 28.0 Valid Percent 10.
00% INTERPRETATION: While surveying most of the customers are ready to purchase the products of KFIL in the near future.In future will you continue to purchase KFIL product? Frequency 21 29 50 Percent 42.0 Valid Yes No Total In future will you continue to purchase KFIL product? Yes No 42.0 100.0 58.0 58.0 Valid Percent 42.0 100. 58 . 9.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 42.00% 58.
0 Valid Percent 92.0 Valid Yes No Total Do you suggest others to purchase KFIL products? Yes No 8.00% INTERPRETATION: While surveying majority of the customers say that they will suggest others to purchase KFIL products.0 100.0 8.00% 92.0 8.0 100.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 92. 10. 59 .Do you sugge st othe rs to purchase KFIL products? Frequency 46 4 50 Percent 92.
0 50. 60 .00% 50.00% 28.0 100.0 28.0 Valid If no.0 Cumulative Percent 16.0 22.0 50.00% INTERPETATION: The reason for not suggesting others to purchase KFIL products is die to inconvenient of service.0 Valid Percent 16.0 50.0 6. 11.00% 6.0 100. why? Low quality Not satisfied Others Inconvenient of service 16.If no.0 6.0 28.0 100. why? Frequency Low quality 8 Not satisfied 3 Others 14 Inconvenient of service 25 Total 50 Percent 16.
0 Valid Percent 8. do you agre e with this? Frequency strongly agree 4 Agree 29 Neither agree 13 nor disagree Disagree 4 Total 50 Percent 8.00% 26.0 66.0 100.0 8.00% INTERPRETATION: Most of the customers agree that KFIL has made purchasing easier and convenient.0 58.0 58.0 Cumulative Percent 8.0 100.0 26.0 Valid KFIL made your purchasing easier and convenient.0 100. 61 . 13.0 8.0 92.00% 58.KFIL made your purchasing easier and conv enie nt. do you agree with this? Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree 8.00% 8.0 26.
0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 8.0 Valid How do you rate the overall performance of the company? Very high High Average Low 6.0 6.00% INTERPRETATION: The above table and chart shows the Majority of the customers have rated the overall performance of the company as average.0 50.0 94.0 100.00% 50.0 100.0 36.0 50.0 36.00% 36.How do you rate the ov e rall pe rformance of the company? Frequency Very high 4 High 18 Average 25 Low 3 Total 50 Percent 8. 62 .00% 8. 12.0 44.0 Valid Percent 8.0 6.
0 70.0 100.0 30.0 24.0 100.In which aspe ct do you think KFIL has faile d to me e t your e xpe ctations? Frequency Service 3 Price 12 Availability 35 Total 50 Percent 6.0 100.0 Valid Percent 6. 63 .00% INTERPRETATION: This table and chart shows the customer’s respondents feel that KFIL has failed to meet the availability of the products on regular basis.0 24.00% 70.00% 24.0 Valid In which aspect do you think KFIL has failed to meet your expectations? Service Price Availability 6.0 Cumulative Percent 6.0 70.
Testing of Hypothesis 64 .
more than 85% of the customers are respondent they are satisfy with the KFIL products.0504 = -0.82 = PH0*QH0 N = 0. H0. There for.5952 >-1.85 0. H0 < 85% H1.64 ZCAL>ZTAB value Accept H0 Reject H1. H1 > 85% Testing of hypothesis at 5% level of significant N=50 P0=85% p =82% = 0. less than 85% of the respondents are satisfied with the KFIL product.15 50 = 0. more than 85% of the respondents are satisfied with the KFIL product.85*0.Testing of Hypothesis 1) Objective: To determine the customer satisfaction level towards the KFIL products.5952 = -0.82-0.0504 ZCAL = P –PH0 STD Error = 0. 2) To know the factors to improve the quality of the products Q0=15% Standard error 65 .
85*0.5736 -2. more than 55% of the customers respondent the KFIL product is good 66 .15 50 = 0.85 0.72-0.0504 = -2.64 ZCAL<ZTAB value AcceptH1 Reject H0 There for.72 Standard error = PH0*QH0 N = 0.5736<-1. more than 85% of the respondents are considering quality of the product QH0=15% 3) To understand the perception towards the KFIL H0.H0.0504 ZCAL = P –PH0 STD Error = 0. less than 85% of the respondents are considering quality of the product H0 < 85% H1. more than 85% of the respondents are considering quality of the product H0 > 85% Testing hypothesis of 5% level of significant N=50 PH0=85% p=72% = 0.
0704 = -1.44 = PH0*QH0 N = 0. QH0=45% Standard error 67 .64 ZCAL>ZTAB value Reject H0 AcceptH1. less than 55% of the respondents says KFIL product are good. less than 55% of the respondents says KFIL product are good.H0 > 55% H1.5625 <-1.55*0. There for. H1 < 55% Testing of hypothesis at 5% level of significant N=50 PH0=55% p =44% = 0.55 0.0704 ZCAL = P –PH0 STD Error = 0.5625 -1.45 50 = 0.44-0.
Cross Tabulation Cross Tabulation 68 .
out of 50 respondents 41 responts are satisfied with the products of KFIL and in 41 there are 39 respondents suggest others to purchase KFIL products and respondents have shown their interest to suggest the brand name of KFIL to others as they are highly satisfied and only 2 customers respondent is that they donot suggest others to purchase the products.21 respondents say that company performance is average and 3 respondents say that the companies overall performance is low.18 respondts believe that company performance is high. through the cross tabulation 46 respondents suggest others to purchase KFIL products.Are you satisfied with KFIL product? * Do you suggest others to purchase KFIL products? Cross tabulation Count Do you suggest others to purchase KFIL products? Yes 39 Total Are you satisfied with KFIL product? Total Yes No 2 41 No 7 46 2 4 9 50 From the above survey table through cross tabulation we come to know that. in 46 respondents 4 respondents agree that overall performance of the company is very high. Do you suggest others to purchase KFIL products? * How do you rate the overall performance of the company? Cross Tabulation How do you rate the overall performance of the company? Do you suggest others to purchase KFIL products? Total Yes Very high 4 High 18 Average 21 Low 3 Total 46 No 4 18 4 25 3 4 50 From the above survey table I came to know. 69 .
FINDINGS FINDINGS: 70 .
Quality is the major factor which influences the customer to buy the KFIL product. 71 . Few of the customers buy the KFIL product by considering the company image. While survey through questionnaire most of the customers respondent about quality. The company is trying to upgrade technology in order to cope up with other industries. The service provided by the KFIL is average according to the majority of the respondents. The majority of the respondents say that the price of the products of KFIL is high compared to other company products. The products of KFIL are not abundantly available. The customer’s perception towards KFIL is average. They are available in less quantity. They are not satisfied with the price and availability as well as the service provided by KFIL. Most of the respondents are highly satisfied with the quality of the company product.
The Company should reduce the price of its products in order to increase the sales. The company should set the proper quotations of price with regard to competitors prices.
The company should produce abundant goods in right quantity and quality at the right
time. There should be no deficiency of products using latest technology and should follow the principles of TQM so as to get yhe best quality products with few defectives.
The customer’s perception towards KFIL (Kirloskar Ferrous Industries ltd) has to be
improved and enlarged by increasing the public relations,publicity and advertisements.
The Company should provide good quality service to the customers and should retent the
customers trust and faith.
The overall performance of the company has to be effective and efficient to attract the
customers and to increase its sales.
The company should build the good relationship with customers and they need to improve
communication between the customer’s Majority of the respondents are suggesting to improve the quality of the service provided by KFIL. According to the customer requirements they have to increase the production.
The company may take some positive actions to improve availability and service, they can
keep qualified dealers . The company should try to upgrade technology in order to cope up with other industries.
The company should take care of the complaints from the customers and accept suggestion
and develop customer care service.
It was an wonderful experience for me to work with KFIL, from the project I learnt about the marketing tactics used by KFIL.. KFIL is a reputed organization which has developed its goodwill in the market to compete with other (company) famous brand. It has to adopt modern technology in the production process and can do better marketing compared with others. It has to increase the rate of commission payable to its agents or dealers or retailers. Bevinahalli is functioning well for the social as well as economical improvement of the rural population. To survive in the market the company needs to adapt an aggressive marketing policy as of competitors. Last but not the least I would like to conclude KFIL as good organization to work as well as to interact with people. All the workers and members of the union nicely motivated me. The KFIL retailers and wholesalers co-operated well and supported me in completing and making this project a successfully.
Bibliography Bibliography 76 .
com www.www.com consumer behavior 77 .google.kirloskar.
QUESTIONNAIRE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CUSTOMER SATISFACTION LEVEL 78 .
Do you buy the product. Other than KFIL. Tick the below attributes based on your satisfaction level. which companies product you will prefer? 1] 3] 2] 4] 6.AT KIRLOSKAR FERROUS INDUSTRIES LTD Sir/Madam Name and Address Company: ____________________________ Contact person details: Name: Contact no: E-mail ID: 1. 79 . only from KFIL? Yes [ ] NO [ ] If No. how did you come to know about KFIL (pig iron) product? Dealers [ ] Others [ ] Competitors [ ] Users [ ] 5. If from KFIL. Specify ___________________________________ 4. Which factor influenced you to buy the KFIL product? Price Service [ [ ] ] Quality Company image [ ] [ ] 3. Since how many years you are using (pig iron) products? Last 1year [ ] 3-5years [ ] 2-3years [ ] 5years &more [ ] 2.
why? Low quality Others [ ] [ ] Not satisfied [ ] Inconvenient of service [ ] No [ ] 12. how much are you satisfied with KFIL product? Very highly satisfied [ ] 9. In future will you continue to purchase KFIL products? 11. Are you satisfied with KFIL product? Yes [ ] No [ ] 8. b) service [ ] ] d) Availability [ No [ ] Highly satisfied [ ] Satisfied [ ] 10. do you agree with this? Strongly Agree Agree Neither agree or Disagree Disagree strongly Dis agree 80 . If no.Very high Quality Price Service Availability High Average Low Very low 7. Do you suggest others to purchase KFIL products? Yes [ ] If no. KFIL made your purchasing easier and convenient. Why? a) Quality c) Price Yes [ ] [ [ ] ]. If yes.
What would you like to recommend for the improvements in Kirloskar ferrous industries? Thank you 81 . In which aspect do you think KFIL has failed to meet your expectations? a) Quality c) Price [ [ ] ].13. b) service [ ] ] d) Availability [ 15. How do you rate the overall performance of the company? Very high [ ] High [ ] Average [ ] Low [ ] Very low [ ] 14.
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