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Teacher: Aaron D. Alder Date of Presentation: November 21, 1996 Class: Linguistics 577 Location: Brigham Young University Proficiency Level: High Intermediate/Advanced Age Level: College/College Prep Estimated Time of Lesson: 10 minutes Teaching Point/Objectives:
Students will learn about adjective clauses. Students will practice using subject and object pronouns in adjective clauses. Student will be able to identify the noun that the adjective clause is modifying.
Overhead projector Transparencies Erasable marker
Learning/Teaching Activities 1. Pre-Assessment/Warm-Up: (1 minute) a) clause: A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb. (transparency) Ask the students to define a clause and give examples. Explain that a simple sentence is a clause. Give examples. b) independent clause: An independent clause is a complete sentence. It contains the main subject and verb of a sentence. (It is also called a main clause.) Ask the students to define an independent clause and give examples. Explain that an independent clause is any clause that can stand alone -- it makes sense all by itself. c) dependent clause: A dependent clause is not a complete sentence. It must be connected to an independent clause. Ask the students to define a dependent clause and give examples. ⋅ Explain that a dependent clause cannot stand alone. Explain that there are many kinds of dependent clauses, but we want to specifically talk about one type of dependent clause, the adjective clause.
2. Introduction: (1 minute)
Jones. Jones. which. a noun or pronoun. a) The book which is on the table is mine. Jones. What part is the adjective clause? What does it modify? 4. underlining each of the adjective clauses and showing which noun or pronoun they modify. Contingency Plan: a) If the students are having difficulty understand adjective clauses. Ask the students to define an adjective clause.Adjective Clause stretcher (Picture cards) The instructor gives the first student a picture card who begins by saying perhaps e. Ask the students if they can guess how they might make one sentence out of two. The second student has to attach an adjective clause. which. e. The car is red. Jones. 3. Practice/Evaluation: (3 minutes) a) The House That Crack Built (transparency) Have the students work in small groups. Presentation: (3 minutes) a) Using Subject Pronouns: who. a) The man who(m) I saw was Mr. Depending on the ability .Adjective clause: An adjective clause is a dependent clause that modifies a noun. 5. identifies. What part is the adjective clause? What does it modify? ii) The book is mine. what (transparency) i) I thanked the woman. What part is the adjective clause? What does it modify? b) The book that is on the table is mine. (An adjective clause is also a relative clause. or describes. What part is the adjective clause? What does it modify? b) The man that I saw was Mr.g. i) Model: And these are the tears we cry in our sleep that fall for the baby with nothing to eat. The car is red. a) I thanked the woman who helped me. What part is the adjective clause? What does it modify? Note: A subject pronoun may not be omitted b) Using Object Pronouns: who(m). do the following oral exercises: i) GAME . It is on the table. that (transparency) i) The man was Mr.a word that modifies.) (transparency) Ask the students what an adjective is -. And so on through the class. What part is the adjective clause? What does it modify? c) The man I saw was Mr. or gives further information about a noun. It describes. What part is the adjective clause? What does it modify? b) I thanked the woman that helped me.g. that is parked on the beach. It limits or makes clearer the meaning of the noun or pronoun. I saw him. She helped me.
what I thanked the woman. dependent clause: A dependent clause is not a complete sentence. which. Jones. The instructor can widely vary the game. It must be connected to an independent clause. I thanked the woman who helped me. Jones. REVIEW clause: A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb independent clause: An independent clause is a complete sentence. Paragraph must have 10 adjective clauses. INTRODUCTION adjective clause: An adjective clause is a dependent clause that modifies a noun. I saw him. 2. It describes. Using Subject Pronouns: who. For example. identifies. Jones.of the students. b) The man was embarrassed who said the Utes would win. The man who(m) I saw was Mr. Assignment: a) Write 10 sentences with adjective clauses using current issues. The man I saw was Mr. I thanked the woman that helped me. She helped me. The book is mine. It is on the table The book which is on the table is mine. c) The man was angry who lost the election. or gives further information about a noun. The man that I saw was Mr. 6. Self-Evaluation: OVERHEAD #1 1. which. i) Model: a) The plane crashed that was hijacked in Italy. the instructor may wish to limit the game to one sentence with an adjective clause per card. 7. Underline all adjective clauses and indicate the noun which it modifies. d) IPO. Jones . that The man was Mr. The book that is on the table is mine. It contains the main subject and verb of a sentence. the classroom could be divided into two teams and score could be kept. Using Object Pronouns: who(m).s are the investment most people want to buy.
Taylor. The children that are on the bus are going to visit the museum. smoking the Crack that numbs the pain. adjective clauses and appositives. will give you a much greater sentence variety within which to accomplish your writing objectives. My grandparents were married there. raised by the Farmers who work in the heat and fear the Soldiers who guard the Man who lives in the House that crack built. Note the variety of ways in which the following two sentences can be combined. The church is old. It is possible to combine the following two sentences to form one sentence containing an adjective clause: The children are going to visit the museum. Two additional structures. The church which my grandparents were married in is old. The church where my grandparents were married is old.com Adjective Clauses At a certain point in your writing in English. "The House That Crack Built. and they are all correct. . that rules the Street of a town in pain that cries for the Drug known as cocaine. or complex. fleet and elite. compound. C. They are on the bus. First. (1992). | adjective clause | In the sentence above. The children who are on the bus are going to visit the museum. The children on the bus are going to visit the museum. This page contains a small amount of information about adjective clauses along with just ten very difficult exercises. we will define what adjective clauses are and how they work. bought from the Boy feeling the heat.Note: A subject pronoun may not be omitted OVERHEAD #2 And these are the Tears we cry in our sleep that fall for the Baby with nothing to eat. you should be able to identify every sentence you write as simple. An adjective clause is a dependent clause that modifies a noun. The church in which my grandparents were married is old. Some other sentences can be combined into a sentence using adjective clauses in a variety of ways. chased by the Cop working his beat who battles the Gang." San Francisco: Chronical Books Advanced Composition for Non-Native Speakers of English http://eslbee. born of the Girl who's killing her brain. made from the Plants that people can't eat. there are two other ways to write the sentence correctly using the second sentence as the adjective clause.
the adjective clauses are underlined. not including the commas will more often be right than wrong. Third. Make adjective clauses of the second sentence in every case. .) 3. IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT PUNCTUATION Managing simple. students can perhaps more readily recognize when a period is required. These sentences are actually the hardest I could find (in the sense that you need to know ALL the rules in order to get them all correct). Indiscriminate use of commas is a hard habit to undo in my experience. compound. Thus. making adjective clauses of the second sentence is harder because it requires knowledge of all the "rules" of writing adjective clauses. All answers are correct. like forgetting a period at the end of a sentence. a Google search of "adjective clauses" and "quiz" yields over 385 hits available here. The church my grandparents were married in is old. 2. and complex sentences. my Spanish speaking students have a natural tendency to write long sentences using many commas inappropriately. will be counted wrong. so please follow the directions carefully. Note the use of the word "in" and how and where it is used. non-essential information should generally be avoided in academic writing. at least in the short essays required for these composition classes. (Obviously. any of these sentences could be written using the first sentence as the adjective clause. I believe it is easier to learn to apply commas later when they are required than the other way around. There are some specific rules when punctuation is permissible or required around adjective clauses (when the information in the adjective clause is non-essential information). however. Therefore do not use commas around adjective clauses. for those interested in more information about writing adjective clauses. Spell correctly! This quiz is "graded" by computer. In the sentences above.The church that my grandparents were married in is old. By not using commas around adjective clauses. 1. First. Second. Are you ready to take the quiz? This quiz is very difficult. at least for one semester. Do not use commas in any of the completed sentences. in my composition classes. Take the QUICK QUIZ now! Finally. I insist that students NOT use commas around adjective clauses for several reasons. so any spelling mistake or punctuation error. however. and then adding adjective clauses into the mix can result in some confusing situations regarding punctuation.
” . a race of twenty-six miles. takes a lot of training. or which or an adverb such as when. An adjective clause is simply a group of words with a subject and a verb that provide a description.” Søren Kierkegaard “Never go to a doctor whose office plants have died.StudiesInAustralia." . that or who . www. Eco-friendly cars that run on electricity save gas. Running a marathon. is not very healthy.Erma Bombeck Ads by Google Product information. Students who are intelligent get good grades.such as which. Free for your webshop or ERP system. Here are several examples of sentences with the adjective clauses underlined: Pizza.” . that. 2. where and why. More than 2000 brands supported.Albert Einstein “Those who do not complain are never pitied.icecat. which are lost.com Turning Adjective Clauses into Phrases An adjective clause with a subject pronoun . giving a description or more information. they need to be set off with commas. which most people love.can also be shortened into a phrase.Jane Austen “People demand freedom of speech to make up for the freedom of thought which they avoid. whom. "He who can no longer pause to wonder and stand rapt in awe is as good as dead. The people whose names are on the list will go to camp. Fruit that is grown organically is expensive.Examples of Adjective Clauses Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns. Adjective Phrase: The books lost are not really necessary. I enjoy telling people about Janet Evanovich whose latest book was fantastic.com Adjective Clauses In Action Adjective clauses do not change the basic meaning of the sentence. I know someone whose father served in World War II. The people waiting all night outside the Apple store are trying to purchase a new iPhone. In some cases. Making noise when he eats is the main reason why Sue does not like to eat with her brother. Ads by Google Study in Australia Contact an Education Provider Today Ask for Information on Scholarshipswww. You can shorten an adjective clause in two ways: 1.Facebook.biz Create a Facebook Profile Find & Share A Wide Variety Of Facebook Applications. when they provide more information into a sentence. The clause starts with a pronoun such as who. The kids who were called first will have the best chance of getting a seat. Omit the subject pronoun and change the verb to the form ending in "ing. . Sign Up Now! www. Grandpa remembers the old days when there was no television. Omit the subject pronoun and verb. are not really necessary." Here are some examples of how to create an adjective phrase: Adjective Clause: The books.
(The adjective clause is underlined. Adjective Phrase: The girl running is my best friend. which consists of $100. was given to him on Monday. Adjective Phrase: His share of the money.000. Example: Intelligent students understand adjectives. Adjective Clause: The girl who is running is my best friend. consisting of $100. the goal of an adjective clause is to add more information to a noun or a pronoun. .000. Adjective Phrase: Something smelling bad may be rotten. (The word "intelligent" is an adjective because it describes the noun "students. You can add the information by including a few more words or by changing the adjective clause to a phrase. Adjective Clause: His share of the money. was given to him on Monday.") But adjectives are not always single words. Sometimes they are clauses: Example: Students who are intelligent understand adjectives. It is an "adjective" clause because it describes the noun "students. Remember. Adjective Clause: Something that smells bad may be rotten. let�s remember that adjectives modify (or describe) nouns and pronouns. Adjective Clauses First.") Remember A clause is a group of related words with a subject and verb.
are introduced by dependent signals. so that won�t impress most members of the opposite sex�only English majors. They are called relative pronouns because they relate the clause to something in the sentence. If you want to be considered cool and impress members of the opposite sex. it will be OK just to remember this: Adverb and adjective clauses are both introduced by dependent signals. OK. There are only five words which introduce adjective clauses. but sometimes they don�t. Adjective clauses. Just be aware that these dependent signals can sometimes do other things.) Let�s look at a couple of examples: I love sentences which extol the virtues of English teachers. a cocktail waitress or a rock singer. But don�t worry your noggin about that now. If you find yourself not caring a hoot in a far country about that. just remember that there are only five dependent signals which introduce adjective clauses. but those signals are different. Example: How did you come up with that? ("That" doesn�t introduce a clause. If you happen to be in love with a botanist. remember this: Subordinating conjunctions introduce adverb clauses and relative pronouns introduce adjective clauses. It identifies something. like adverb clauses. And now the good news (finally!).Remember bAdjective clauses are always dependent clauses. If you really want to know. They are: Who Whom Whose Which That A Word of Caution: Sometimes these words function as dependent signals. . OK. it is a demonstrative pronoun. .
I love sentences which extol the virtues of English teachers.(The adjective clause is underlined. the adjective clause is underlined and modifies the subject "students.") If you are well fed. But we have two subject verb combinations�"book/was" and "I/borrowed"�so we know we have two clauses. (We don�t see any dependent signal do we? But we know we have two clauses because we have two subject-verb combinations�"grade/was." The subject is "which" because it stands for "sentences. Let�s look at these sentences a little more closely. Dependent signals which introduce adjective clauses perform a double duty. and psychologically at peace with yourself." The object is "whom. double duty dependent signals. you have no doubt come to an astonishing realization.) . well rested. (The verb of this clause is "extol.") Students whom I admire want to become English teachers. so adjectives will always modify subjects or objects. (No dependent signal here either.") The book I borrowed was full of grammatical wisdom. I call these little devils (sorry." "I/received. Therefore.") Remember A noun is a subject or an object.") Students whom I admire want to become English teachers. Again. the double duty dependent signals which introduce adjective clauses are: Who Whom Whose Which That But what about these examples? The grade I received was a shock. It modifies the object "sentences. I mean these relative pronouns). They introduce the clause and they also function inside the clause as a subject or object." The subject of the clause is "I. (Again. (The verb of this clause is "admire.
it just provides a gossipy. editorial comment about it. is laughed at by the students. (Once again. The adjective clause identifies which ones he likes best. (Once again. ) Anyone who reads all of this will go away happier and wiser.) There�s only one more thing about adjective clauses that you need to know. Mentally insert it. "What in the Sam Hill is the difference?" you say. don�t set if off with commas.) . It is this: Some adjective clauses are like gossip. The writer doesn�t like all English teachers equally well. It doesn�t identify the English book. who wears old fashioned ties. Set these off with commas. Examples: My English teacher. (The adjective clause is underlined. and the sentence will be easier to analyze. they provide additional detail about someone (or something) whose identity we already know. ever understood.) Now take a look at these: The English teachers that I like best forget to go to class. It doesn�t identify the English teacher. (Here�s the point. ever forget it.Look at them now: The grade [that] I received was a shock. which is a monument of boredom. Put commas around those. so don�t put commas around it. Sometimes the dependent signal [usually "that"] is implied.) My English book. It�s not gossip. it�s essential information. (This isn�t pure gossip any longer. (So try to contain your joy!) Some adjective clauses need to be set off by commas and others don�t. and I�m going to explain it so that you�ll never. it just provides a gossipy sort of detail about him. The book [that] I borrowed was full of grammatical wisdom. It�s something you�ve never. the adjective clause is underlined. this clause identifies who will go away happier and wiser. Because it helps identify. Set this clause off with a comma. is used mainly as a door stop. Now here�s the part you�ve never understood�non-restrictive clauses need commas and restrictive clauses don�t.
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