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Punmia

RETAINING WALL

A retaining wall or retaining structure is used for maintaining the ground surfgaces at defrent elevations on either side of it. Whenever embankments are involed in construction ,retaining wall are usually necessary. In the construction of buildins having basements, retaining walls are mandatory. Similsrly in bridge work, the wing walls and abutments etc. are designed as retaining walls , to resist earth pressure along with superimposed loads. The material retained or supported by a retaining wall is called backfill lying above the horizontal plane at the elevation of the top of a wall is called the surcharge , and its inclination to horizontal is called the surcharge angle b In the design of retaining walls or other retaining structures, it is necessary to compute the lateral earth pressure exerted bythe retaining mass of soil. The equation of finding out the lateral earth pressure against retaining wall is one of the oldest in Civil Engineering field. The plastic state of strees, when the failure is imminent, was invetigated by Rankine in1860. A Lot of theoretical experiment work has been done in this field and many theory and hypothesis heve benn proposed.

**18.2 TYPE OF RETAINING WALLS
**

Retaining walls may be classified according to their mode of resisting the earth pressure,and according to their shape. Following are some of commen types of retaining walls (Fig) 1 2 3 4 Gravity walls Cantilever retaining walls Counterfort retainig walls. Buttresssed walls.

a. T- shaped

b. L- shaped

A gravity retaining wall shown in fig 1 is the one in which the earth pressure exrted by the back fill is resisted by dead weight of wall, which is either made of masonry or of mass concrete . The stress devlop in the wall is very low ,These walls are no proportioned that no tension is devloped any where, and the resultant of forces remain withen the middle third of the base.

The cantilever retaining wall resist the horizontal earth pressure as well as other vertical pressure by way of beending of varios com

A coomon form of cantilever retaining waal .vertical pressure by way of beending of varios components acting as cantilever s.

5 25000 230 13.00 18 30 100 0.DESIGN OF T SHAPED CANTILEVER RETAINING WALL with sloping back fill Hieght of cantilever wall from ground level = Unit weight of Earth = Angle of repose = Safe Bearing capacity of soil = Coffiecent of friction = Concrete M20 wt.33 30 16 1.94 4000 8 mm F 300 @ c/c 3730 2.58 3000 3730 8 mm F 170 @ c/c 1000 730 540 90 @ c/c 10 mm F 210 @ c/c 200 270 2100 Key 300 x 200 mm 1200 mm 300 mm 200 12 mm F 120 @ c/c 1200 mm F 160 @ c/c 8F 300 2100 300 900 300 Reinforcement Summary STEM :Main 100% Reinforcement upto 50% Reinforcement upto 25% Reinforcement upto m 2.in .co.94 Distribution Tamprecture TOE :Main Distribution HEEL :Main Distribution 12 mm F 180 @ c/c 12 90 Out side Earth side mm F @ c/c pk_nandwana@yahoo.58 m 1. of concrete sst Steel fe 415 N/mm2 2 scbc 7 m N/mm Nominal cover = b Surcharge angle Founadation depth = Stem thickness Footing width DESIGN SUMMARY At footing 0 mm Toe width 900 mm At top Heel width 200 8 mm F b Surcharge angle 12 mm F 360 @ c/c 8 mm F 160 @ c/c 12 mm F 180 @ c/c 12 mm F 3.00 m KN/m3 Degree KN/m3 N/m 3 N/mm2 mm Degree m 300 @ c/c 3000 1.94 m Top 8 8 mm F 170 @ c/c 12 mm F 360 @ c/c 12 12 12 8 8 12 8 10 8 mm F@ mm F@ mm F@ mm F@ mm F@ mm F@ mm F@ mm F@ mm F@ 90 180 360 160 300 120 170 210 170 mm c/c mm c/c mm c/c mm c/c mm c/c mm c/c mm c/c mm c/c mm c/c 3730 2.58 1.

33 or say = 0.30 Kxy x H12 Maximum Bending momentat B = 2 Hence the horizontal earth pressure is PH= P cos b = = = 3. Normal practice is to provide b between 0.5 2 Diamension of base:sin b Sin F = x 13.00 18 30 100 0.5 M 415 30 16 1.38 b = = = 4.60 x 4.38 .a) x (1+3 a) = cos b b = 4.276 0.904 x 0.30 m for design purpose Hence width of heel slab = 2.30 .00 x 0.289 7 / x 7 3 7 + 230 = 0.4 to 0.0.00 = m 2.40 Hence Provided b = m The wall will be unsafe against sliding.cos2 b -cos2 f = 0.913 = = 0.0. This will be made safe by providing a shear Key at base .29 Ka 0. 0.13 m (1-a) m ( 1 .38 0.961 .0.40 .20 m Let the thickness of base be = H/12 = 4.92 cos b . = 0.33 m*c m*c+sst j=1-k/3 = 1 R=1/2xc x j x k = 0.0.DESIGN OF T SHAPED CANTILEVER RETAINING WALL Hieght of cantilever wall from ground level Unit weight of Earth Angle of repose Safe Bearing capacity of soil Coffiecent of friction Concrete Steel Nominal cover Surcharge angle Founadation depth 1 Design Constants:.87 tanb = 0.20 = 0.00 x .5 This width is excessive.49 x 2.00 The base width is given by Eq.70 m consider 1 m length of retaining wall 0.33 x 0. of concrete 3 = 7 N/mm = 13.7HKa 0.in .38 x 18 x( 3.961 x = m 2.49 )x( 1 + 1.40 = 1.17 m Provided toe slab = 1.6 2.7 y H 2.96 = 45 = kN 46. Width of toe slab = a x b = 0.96 x 0. Taking maximum value of H = 0.90 m 3 Thickness of stem:Heigth AB 4.1.49 )x 0.7 x 18 x 4.75 b is given by eq.For HYSD Bars g q0 m fe b = = = = = = = = = = 3.289 = 0.33 13.00 .6 H .70 )2 2 0.cos2 f For surcharge wall.0.49 Eq (1) 0.92 cos b + cos2 b .40 b = 0.75 Kn-m = 46.00 m kN/m3 Degree kN/m3 = 2 18000 N/m = 20 mm Degree m 25 N/mm2 Cocrete M = 20 2 = #### N/mm sst = scbc = m k= = 2 230 N/mm wt.75 = 0.0.75 x pk_nandwana@yahoo.904 x 0.co. The ratio of length of slabe (DE) to base width q0 100 1 = 1 a = 2.46 ) The base width from the considration of sliding is given by Eq.7 x 4.5 cos b = Cos F = 0.15 ( 1 .289 = 0.0.961 + 0. Ka cos b b = H x (1.96 0.00 / 12 = 0.

46 > 2 87. a nominal cover of = 60 .M.40 kN -m2 Pressure p at the junction of stem with toe slab is 67.40 total MR 26.99 p = 67. at B = PH x 4 Stability of wall:- Length of heel slab Height H2= H1+Ls tan b Height H Earth pressure p= 2 = = = 2.26 m = 61.70 x 25 w2 1/2 x 0.14 m < 0.06 = 0. To make safe against sliding will have to provide shear key Pressure distribution net moment SM = 215.64 6x 0.40 Heel b b 2.38 21.90 x 3.913 x 1000 Keep d = = 250 + 60 = 310 mm 250 mm and total thickness Assuming that 12 mm F bar will be used.5 PH 59.5 = 5.44 kN = P sin b 61.14 67.co.S.83 x force(kN) = 18.30 0.29 = = 18 2 0.1.32.96 + = 1.255 1.5 x mSw F.6 = 54 mm Reduce the total thickness = 200 mm at top so that effective depth of = 140 mm 45 x 1000 tv = = 0.64 6 6 Sw b 2.89 m 3.5 kN 3 3 55.64 lever arm Moment about toe (KN-m) 1. against over turning = 215.89 = 2.11 x 3.96 PV = 59.40 x = .96 m 4. at H/3 and hence Pv .18 = 1.89 .64 6x 0.40 b b 2.in .6 120.27 kN-m2 2.40 3.71 120.S.64 0.18 N/mm2 > tc even at mimum steel 1000 x 250 B. The calculation are arrenged in Table Detail w1 1 x 0.20 0.40 x 0.38 x 0.84 x 0.90 215.70 = 45.40 toe kN -m2 Pressure p1 at 6e 120.31 = 0.40 Pressure p' at the junction of stem with Heel slab is Hence safe Hence safe Hence safe pk_nandwana@yahoo.55 x 1. from toe is b SM = 128.04 kN P is acting on vertical face IG.70 + 3.04 120.70 x 25 w3 1 x 2.28 = 17.89 kN-m 61.8 x 4 3 = 87.44 Hence not safe .99 < 100 SW = 1= x 1= 2..30 x 25 = = = = w4 w5 Total resisting moment Over turning \ = 215.89 87.20 x 3.7 = 128.01 17.7 kN-m Hence safe 1 x 0.2 1.14 32.(2) Ka x y x H2 x( 4.H1 3.085 6.50 x BM 10 6 Effective depth required = = = 247 mm Rxb 0.89 x 0.01 < 1.(1) 18 = Pv = Sw = Over turning moment Mo = F.55 < 100 SW = 1+ = x 1+ = 2.20 = 50.91 40..55 .41 1.84 x 0.06 m = 2.84 kN .40 = 0.4 Eccenticity e = 2 2 Pressure p1 at 6e 120.4 x = 120.09 = 18 62.00 x = 55.26 )2 Its horizontal and vertical component are PH = P cos b = 61. will act the vertical line Let W 1 w2 w3 w4 Full dimension wall is shown in fig 1a weight of rectangular portion of stem weight of triangular portion of stem weight of base slab weight of soil on heel slab.95 2.18 kN-m \ Distance x of the point of application of resultant. against Sliding = = = 1.

05 + 42.90 x 0.69 x 0.55 .y.y.63 = \ 39.55 - 67.70 + 3.38 x = ( 3.55 .05 x 1.27 . on horizontal unitarea = Ka.913 x 1000 Keep effective depth d = = 210 + 60 = 270 mm 210 mm and total thickness Reduce the total thickness to = say = 0.14 x 12 x 12 = 113 mm2 3.50 = 60.H1.7.90 = 54.y.05 kN-m2 under D And at under E = 50. at E 39.If alternate bars of stem reiforcerment are are bent and continued in toe slab.00 m from B kN (H1+2xH2)xb (H1+H2)x3 = = 3.50 x( 60.The weight of soil above the toe slab is neglicted .08 kN Acting at 0.H1 per unit inclined area.y.23 1000 x 270 39.63 m 60.96 0.00 x 60.tan b \ Vertical component of this.p' = 67.05 42.69 x = 0.sin b Similarly. Earth pressure at B.14xdia using 12 mm bars A = 4 4 120 Spacing A x1000 / Ast 113 x mm \ = 1000 / 896 = Hence Provided 120 mm c/c 12 mm F bar.90 x 3.99 2.H1 .96 3 1 x 25 = x ….904 x 210 1000 N/mm2 < tc even at mimum steel BM x 106 = = 896 mm2 sst x j x D The reinforcement has to be provided at bottom face .y x b1 tan b x sin b 2 18 0.287 x 2 0.30 x 1 x 1.09 x 10 6 230 x 0. @ 45 x 12 = 540 mm Let us check this reinforcement for development length Ld=45 F = Providing 30 mm clear side cover actual length available = 1200 30 = 1170 mm 1170 > Hence safe 540 270 + 200 0.in .77 ) x 1. at b to horizontal.27 m 200 mm or 0.96 = x 3. Area = P D = mm2 4 4 1000 x 50 mm c/c = 178 mm say = 170 \ Spacing = 282 6 Design of heel slab :1.20 x from E = = 0.59 kN-m2 5 Design of toe slab:The upward pressure distribution on the toe slab is shown in fig 1b .(I) ….(II) Hence total force due to vertical component of earth pressure is (H1+H2) = Ka.70 + 3.86 kN This Act at 0.20 = 61.F.00 x 25 = 7. Thus two forces are acting on it (1) Up ward soil pressure (2) Down ward weight of slab Down ward weight of slab per unit area = 0.12 Distribution steel = x 1000 x = 282 mm2 2 100 '2 2 3.45 m from B .09 x BM 10 6 = 207 Effective depth required = = mm Rxb 0.7. at E = 0.77 + 3 B. 0.77 kN-m2 Total force = S.09 kN-m = 61.28 vertical earth pressure is = 1.96 )x 0. sin b.co.27 Total weight of heel slab 6. Vertical component of earth pressure intencity at C =Ka.50 = 42.69 kN 42.14 x ( 8 ) Using 8 = 50 mm F bars.90 x 3 Down ward earth pressure 4 upward soil pressure 2 x 18 = 62 KN say = 0. at B = Ka. down ward weight of soil Total weight of soil over Heel Acting at = Three force act on it 2 weight of heel slab 3.45 m from B pk_nandwana@yahoo.tan b.40 x 0.70 2 + 0.90 x 0.32.20 m at edge tv Ast = = 61. area available = 1/2 628 mm2 (see step 7) x 1256 = 2 = 3.M. Earth pressure intencity at b = Ka.455 63.77 + 2.H2 tan b.70 + 3.50 kN-m2 Hence net pressure intensities will be = 67.

on slab.39.20 m at edge 200 mm or 59.67 x 1000 tv = = 0.38 x 2.67 kN 0.904 x 250 '2 3.14 x ( 10 ) Using 10 mm F bars. x B.M. at B =( = = = x = N-mm2 This is much lessthan the B.M.F.41 kN = 0. Area = P D = = 78.08 .41 ) 1.M.41 = 29.45 )+( 6 15.52 x 3.73 m = 18 x( 3.41 m from B 3 6.F at B = pcos b = H12 H1 = = 0. However.F. mm F at Bottom Hence Provided 5 bars of 10 5 x 79 % of steel provided = x 100 = 0.97 BM x 106 x 10 = Ast = = 366 mm2 sst x j x D 230 x 0.73 )2= 47.i.90 = x 32.08 kN-m 3 = 250 + 60 = 310 mm 250 mm and total thickness 0.59 2 54. Hence revised H1= 4.15 % 1000 x 270 shear force 29.1) Hence Safe If tc > tvhence safe here 0.14 1/2 x( 54. Area = mm2 4 4 1000 x 50 mm c/c = 174 mm say = 170 \ Spacing = 288 Nomber of Bars = Ast/A = 366 / 79 = 4.14 N/mm2 Beam Ht.00 0.00 + x 0.52 PH 47. Take the reinforcement into toe from a distance of 45 450 mm to the left of B and end should x 10 = 45 x D = hook 210 + 270 0.14 x ( 8 ) P D2 Using 8 = = 50 mm F bars.66 say = 5 No.08 x 10 6 Ast = BMx100/sstxjxD= = 1137 mm2 230 x 0.5 mm2 4 4 1000 x 78.140 The effective depth d' at section is = 140 x h (where h In meter) H pk_nandwana@yahoo.in .904 x 210 29.y 2 S.12 Distribution steel = x 1000 x = 288 mm2 2 100 '2 3. as that toe slab. Between A and B some of bars can be curtailed.45 )-( 39.59 + 54.99 0.41 x 7 Reinforcement in the stem:We had earliar assume the thickeness of heel slab as = While it has now been fixed as 0.73 = 59.Total upward soil pressure Acting at \ \ Total force 63 B.14 N/mm2 < tc even at mimum steel 1000 x 210 '2 2 3.00 ka. reducing it to 200 mm at edge 270 d= 210 6 15. at B = 3 Keep effective depth d = Reduce the total thickness to = S.90 x 32.co. at B 0. Area = = = 113 mm2 4 4 1000 x 113 = 99 mm say = 90 mm c/c \ Spacing = 1137 113 Actual AS provided = 1000 x = 1256 mm2 90 Bend these bars into toe slab.67 x 1000 Shear stress t v = = = 0. Sufficient devlopment length ia available. Cosider a section at depth below the top of stem + 250 .18 > 0. 1000 x 210 Permissible shear stress for 0.27 m only.5 mm c/c = 214 mm say = 210 \ Spacing = 366 Hence provided these @ 210 mm c/c at the top of keep slab. mm and D mm. to serve as reiforcement there.18 N/mm2 (See Table 3.e.86 x 0.97 x 10'6 + 32. we keep the same depth.x beam wt.99 )x 0.30 m 0.27 kN = 3.59 + S.99 = 63.45 )+( 39.14 x ( 12 ) P D2 Using 12 mm F bars.15 % steel provided t c = 0.

Area = 4 4 1000 x 50 \ spacing = = 164 mm say = 160 mm c/c at the inner face of 306 wall.371 x ( 140 + 29.'(1) H =( Ast d )1/3 Hence where Ast' = d' = Ast' d' h = Ast d H1 reinforcement at depth h effective depthat depth h Ast' 1 h 1 d' 1/3 if Ast = 1/2 Ast than = x \ Ast = 2 H1 2 d Subsituting d = 255 mm and d' =( 140 + 29. Hence stop half bars the remaining bars \ by 1.58 m..49 x h ) .73 255 4 x h = 0. If we wish to curtailed half of the remaining bars so that remaining Ast' 1 remaining reinforcement is one forth of that provided ar B .38 x x 3.371 x ( 140 + 29.94 m. the bars should be extented by a distance of 12 F = 12 x 12 = 144 mm Or d = 250 mm whichever is more beyond the point.5 x h H1 x = \ \ h = 4 255 x H1 4 d x 140 x 29. Noting that if the effective thickness of stem w=are constant.58 m below the top .73 or 1/3 x h =( 140 + 29. Hence curtailed half bars at at height of \ 2.5 x h) .(2) Ast 4 1/3 1/3 h 1 d' x 140 + 29.12 Distribution reinforcement = x 1000 x 255 = 306 \ mm2 100 '2 3.co. . h = 2.in .467 x ( 140 + 29.5 x h 1/3 h = 3.19 0.50 % steel provided t c = 0.d' Now As = Ast 140 + H3 d' 250 .52 x 1000 tv tc (see table 3.19 m 0.73 x 2 255 x h = 0.83 0.06 say = 11 No.30 > 0. the bars should be extented by a distance of 12 F = 12 x 12 = 144 mm Or d = 250 mm whichever is more beyond the point.3 N/mm2 (See Table 3..14 x ( 8 ) P D2 Using 8 = = 50.19 < \ N/mm2 1000 x 250 Nomber of Bars = Ast/A = 1137 / 113 = 10..19 Distribution and temprechure reinforcement:Average thickness of stem = 310 + 200 = 255 mm 2 0.24 mm2 mm F bars.h = h = This can be solved bytrial and error.50 % 1000 x 250 Permissible shear stress for 0. we have = Hence from ….5 x h )1/3 .83 .5 x h ) we get 140 + 29.94 m below the top of the stem .0.52 kN = 0.140 3.25 = 2.01 h Howerver.5 x h h = 3.(3) 1/3 = m 0. h = 2.h = 2.(4) 1/3 2.Howerver. mm F at Bottom Hence Provided 11 bars of 12 11 x 113 % of steel provided = x 100 = 0. Continue rest of the bars to the top of the stem Check for shear:Shear force = Ast = reinforcement at depth H1 d = effective depthat depth H1 2 18 kayH 2 47.along its length for tempreture reinforcement provide = mm bars = 300 mm c/c both way in outer face 8 p= pk_nandwana@yahoo.5 x h )1/3 .467 x ( 140 + 29.25 = 1.00 0..5 x h) .73 2 2 = 47.1) Hence Safe If tc > tvhence safe here 0.5 x h 1/3 H1 h = x 2 255 x 1/3 140 x 29.1) = = 0.

5 x 67.38 = 2. permitting F. Now size of key = 300 x 310 mm Actual force to be resisted by the key at F.53 x cos b 2.74 kN 18 ` Sliding force at level GJ = 0.S.5 x 133.27 KpP = 1/Ka= 1/ 132.53 )2x 0.(2) = 3.34 = Hence safe N/mm2 Since concrete can take this much of tensile stress.S. Keep width of key 310 mm (equal to stem width) it should be noted that passive pressure taken into account above will be devloped only when length a1 given below is avilable in front of key .8 Design of shear key:The wall is in unsafe in sliding.30 = 12.96 kN 133. = 1.mSW = 1.64 )1/2 \ a1 = Actual length of the slab available = DE = 1.03 x 150 x 1000 Bending stress = 1/6 x 1000 x( 300 )2 0. 1.22 kN Weight of the soil between bottom of the base and GJ = 2.22 .42 x( 4.74 1.64 x 50.in .5 Hence safe PH 67.00 or PH ….46 0.20 m 0.03 x 1000 = 0.0.40 x 18 x 0.5 x 133.5 m Sw+Pp 0.60 120.487 m Hence satisfactory.60 + 39.38 x x 4.5PH .5 is = 1. Let u sprovide ashear key 300 x 310 Let Pp be the intensity of passive pressure devloped in front of key this intencity Pp depend upon the soil pressure P in front of the key Pp = 0.5 = = = 1.46 kN/m3 = \ total passive pressure Pp = Pp x a = 132. provided minimum value of a = 300 mm.22 However. F where (45 + F/2) = a1 = a tan F = a tan x 45 + = a kp shearing angle of passive resistance 2 a1 = 0.113 N/mm2 \ shear stress = 300 x 1000 34.co. no special reinforcement is necessary for the shear key pk_nandwana@yahoo.30 x = 39.96 = kN Refer force calculation table \ SW = against sliding we have Hence equilibrium of wall.3 x ( 2.03 kN 34.58 > 1.961 = 67.64 + 12.60 = 34. and hence shear key will be provided below the stem as shown in fig.

59 m 32.00 3.90 heel C 0.00 D E W2 B 0.0.20 b Surcharge angle A 0.40 m 67.20 E W2 B 0.90 C 0.55 Toe b= P= 50.20 b Surcharge angle A H= 4.30 Toe b= 2.30 D 2.30 D 2.20 b Surcharge angle A 0.55 .70 m 3.99 a1 a D1 e Pp = 50.00 m H= 4.20 toe 1.70 m 3.00 m H1= 3.27 Kpp C1 Kay(H+a) 67.27 2.40 P= 54.00 E W2 B 0.00 3.40 0.70 m W1 W1 W1 ab 1.90 C 0.40 1.00 m H1=3.

12 mm F @ 90 C/C 8 mm F 310 Heel Toe 200 Foundation level 12 mm F @ 120 c/c 1200 310 300 8 mm F @ 170 c/c 900 Earth side Face Reinforcement Detail Outer side face Reinforcement Detail @ 170 c/c #REF! 10 mm F @ 210 C/C 200 ` .58 ` 8 mm F @ 300 c/c 1.00 m 8 mm F 3.S.L.0.20 Earth side Face 8 mm F @ 300 C/C b Surcharge angle A Outer side face 12 mm F @ 360 c/c 8 mm F @ 160 C/C 2.70 @ 160 c/c 12 mm F @ 180 C/C 8 mm F @ 300 c/c mm F @ 300 c/c 8 N.94 H= 4.

.

mm F c/c mm F c/c .

4 0.4 0.98) M-30 9 (9.904 1.606 0.914 0.5 13.916 0.811 0.997 0.329 0.5 4.903 1.329 0.289 0.89 1.1.289 0.698 0.464 0.4 0.33 0.0 7.214 1 0.867 0.253 0.127 0.0 14.0 Kg/m2 300 500 700 850 1000 1150 1300 1450 1600 (N/mm2) 2.916 1.429 0.867 1. VALUES OF DESIGN CONSTANTS Grade of concrete Modular Ratio M-15 18.33) M-25 11 (10.904 1.33 0.4 0.67) M-20 13 (13.2 1.18 13 93.89 1.0 12.599 scbc N/mm2 m scbc kc jc Rc Pc (%) kc (b) sst = jc 190 Rc N/mm2 Pc (%) (c ) sst = kc jc 230 N/mm2 Rc (Fe 415) Pc (%) kc (d) sst = jc 275 N/mm2 Rc (Fe 500) Pc (%) (a) sst = 140 N/mm2 (Fe 250) .5 16.0 1.44 0.Table 1.254 1.8 M-25 3.329 0.904 1.916 0.332 0.914 1.0 5.18) Table 2.33 7 93.329 0.985 0.289 0.714 0.244 0.684 0.253 0.46 M-35 8.6 M-35 4. PERMISSIBLE DIRECT TENSILE STRESS Grade of concrete M-10 1.0 11.904 1.867 0.916 1.904 0.4 0.33 0.736 0.867 2.3 1.18.4 0.6 0.0 M-20 2.653 0.53 M-40 7.9 1.867 1.33) M-35 8 (8.98 8.0 M-40 4.11 0.33 0.289 0.643 0.2 M-30 3.11) M-15 19 (18.253 0.289 0.867 1.866 0.253 0.159 0.433 0.025 0.0 11.734 1.391 M-30 9.289 0.8 0.0 8. MODULAR RATIO Grade of concrete Modular ratio m M-10 31 (31.306 0.506 0.4 Tensile stress N/mm2 Table 1.5 93.5 10.994 1.867 1.11) M-40 7 (7.33 0.0 Kg/m2 250 400 500 600 800 900 1000 1100 1200 (N/mm2) -0.474 1.322 M-25 10.15.732 0.0 10.1 1.329 0..2 M-15 2.628 0.33 10 93.904 0.502 0.89 1.4 in kg/m -60 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 2 Table 1.329 0.816 0.857 0.5 93.253 0.579 0.916 0.0 5.722 0.33 0.89 1.0 9.89 0.23 M-20 13.0 6.11 11.0 8.89 1.534 0.67 5 93.253 0.314 0. Permissible stress in concrete (IS : 456-2000) Grade of concrete M M M M M M M M M 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Permission stress in compression (N/mm2) Permissible stress in bond (Average) for 2 Bending acbc plain bars in tention (N/mm ) Direct (acc) (N/mm2) 3.214 0.16.

56 0. Maximum shear stress tc. Development Length in tension Grade of concrete M 15 M 20 M 25 M 30 M 35 M 40 M 45 M 50 Plain M.45 0.25 0.25 1.5 Table 3.8 M-25 1.53 0.18 0.05 250 1.max M-15 1.S.00 1.55 0.50 2.23 0.6 M-20 1.S.46 0. Facor k Over all depth of slab 300 or more k 1.60 0.08 28 2.75 Permissible shear stress in concrete tc N/mm M-15 M-20 M-25 M-30 M-35 M-40 0.2.57 0.60 0.36 0.45 0.2 M-45 1.24 26 .4 Table 3.10 225 1.35 0.39 0.51 0.3 M-50 1.44 0.20 0.2 29 1.6 58 0.55 0.49 0.49 0.58 0.9 M-30 2.63 2 < % % % % % % % % % % % % Table 3.6 36 1.23 0.48 0.28 45 1.50 0.20 0.75 2.52 0.00 2.22 0.3 M-40 2.32 0. Permissible Bond stress Table tbd in concrete (IS : 456-2000) Grade of concrete M-10 -tbd (N / mm2) M-15 0. Bars kd = Ld F tbd (N / mm2) 0.9 M-30 1 M-35 1.5.29 0.41 0.46 0.96 60 1.42 0.8 M-25 0.30 0.1 32 1.44 40 1.4 25 H.15 200 1.44 0.57 0.34 0.31 0.51 0.47 0.6 M-20 0.51 0. Bars kd = Ld F tbd (N / mm2) 0.31 0.37 0.3 27 1.23 0.62 0.6 0.50 0.76 33 1.4.53 0.52 0.18 0.55 0.1 M-40 1.20 0.37 0.3.40 0.Y.42 0.max in concrete (IS : 456-2000) Grade of concrete tc.30 Table 3.56 0.D.9 39 1 35 1.23 0.54 0. Permissible shear stress Table tc in concrete (IS : 456-2000) 100As bd % % % % % % % % % % % % 3.44 0.58 0.1.25 2.51 0.62 0.38 0.20 175 150 or less 1.44 0.2 M-35 2.49 0.00 and above % 0.00 275 1.8 44 0.22 0.92 30 2.44 0.19 0.31 0.37 0.40 0.75 1.42 0.25 1.45 0.44 0.51 0.Table 3.42 0.44 0.15 0.50 1.57 0.49 0.

866 0.956 0.866 0.342 0.500 0.921 0.000 1.466 0.934 0.951 0.391 0.985 0.961 0.577 0.445 0.358 0.906 cos 0.839 1.940 0.819 0.819 0.344 0.276 0.927 0.924 0.287 0.732 2.643 0.309 0.573 0.384 0.766 0.268 0.707 0.404 0.423 tan 0.966 0.946 0.259 0.Value of angle Degree 10 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 sin 0.574 0.707 0.422 0.326 0.424 0.192 1.306 0.174 0.325 0.292 0.643 0.145 .906 0.407 0.364 0.700 0.766 0.375 0.500 0.176 0.428 1.

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