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Are You Confused?



Ms Shashi Sareen, Sareen,

Head, Head Quality Aditya Birla Retail Limited

What do we understand by GHP/ GMP & HACCP Where do the confusions arise? Implementation of GMP & HACCP in export & domestic sector some experiences d ti t i

GMP/GHP Allpracticesregardingthe conditionsandmeasuresnecessaryto ensurethesafetyandsuitabilityoffoodatallstagesof ensure the safety and suitability of food at all stages of thefoodchain HACCP A system which identifies, evaluates and controls hazards which are significant for food safety Food Safety Management Systems A holistic system of controls that manage food safety in food business. Includes GHPs; HACCP; management systems elements & policies; and traceability/ recall systems

Primaryproduction Establishmentdesign&facilities location,premises& rooms,equipment,facilities i t f iliti Controlofoperations Establishment:maintenance&sanitation Establishment: maintenance & sanitation* maintenance&cleaning,pestcontrol,waste management PersonalHygiene* healthstatus,illnesses,personal cleanliness,behaviour,visitors Transportation d i T t ti design,use&maintenance & i t Productinformation&consumerawareness identification,prodinfo,labelling,consumereducation identification, prod info, labelling, consumer education Training

ll d h d l d An internationally accepted methodology to reduce and manage risk A preventive system for food safety that addresses chemical, chemical physical and biological risk Treats the T t th production of f d as a t t l continuous d ti f food total, ti system, assuring food safety from harvest to consumption 7 Principles & 12 Steps

d d l Conduct a h hazard analysis Determine the CCPs Establish Critical Limits Establish a system to monitor Control of the CCPs Establish the Corrective Actions to be taken when monitoring indicates that a particular CCP is not in control Establish Procedures for Verification to confirm that the HACCP System is working effectively Establish documentation concerning all procedures and records appropriate to these Principles and their application

HACCP 12Steps
Assemble HACCP Team Describe Product Pre -Steps Identify intended Use y Construct Flow Diagram Onsite Confirmation of Flow Diagram List all potential hazards associated with each step, conduct a hazard analysis & consider any measures to control identified hazards Determine the CCPs Establish Critical Limits for each CCP Establish a monitoring system f each CCP bl h for h Establish Corrective Actions Establish Verification Procedures Establish documentation & Record Keeping



Pre requisite progs which provide basic envt & operating conditions for production of safe food & are a prerequisite to a successful implementation of HACCP
GMP manufacture & process controls & includes supplier ; p ; q p ; y control; specifications; calibration of equipment; traceability & recall; equipment designs where conditions for food safety can be achieved, maintained & monitored; lighting & ventilation systems; storage conditions; control of operations y ; g ; p GHP system/ measures for maintaining hygiene & sanitation & include personal hygiene & employee health conditions, maintenance of plant & eqpt hygiene including food contact surfaces, pest control, waste disposal, water quality, quality toilet & hand wash facilities prevention of cross facilities, contamination


GMPthroughoutthefacility HACCPprocessspecific LowriskhazardscontrolledthroughGMP Low risk hazards controlled through GMP ManyhazardscontrolledthroughGMP HACCPtakescareofsignificanthazardsnotcontrolled byPRPs/GMPs Alltheprerequisiteprogrammes tobeinplace beforeembarkingonaHACCPprog

GMP including GHP outline the measures to be taken to ensure that premises, equipment, transport and employees d not contribute to or b l do b become f d safety food f hazards Codex 4th revision stresses that Prerequisite programmes to HACCP including training should be well established, fully operational & verified in order to facilitate the successful application & implementation of the HACCP system

Hazard Analysis Identificationofpotentialhazards&inexecutionofa hazardanalysis,therisksareassessedforlevelofcontrolto beimplementedforcontrolofhazard

Basis likelihoodofoccurrence&severityof Basis likelihood of occurrence & severity of consequences Risk Analysis SPS Agreement Article 5: Countries must establish SPS measures on the basis of an appropriate assessment of the actual risks involved & if requested make known the involved, &, factors taken into consideration, the assessment procedures used & level of risk they determined to be acceptable. Codex Risk Analysis 3 components : risk assessment, risk management and risk communication

RiskAssessment Identifytheimmediate,interim&longtermeffecton humanhealth Covershazardidentification,hazardcharacterization, , , exposureassessment,riskcharacterization RiskManagement Toestablishappropriatemeasuresofcontrolto prevent,reduceorminimisetherisks RiskCommunication Todeterminethebestwaytocommunicatethe informationtoaffectedpopulations

4.CCPs SomeIssues
CCP step at which control can be applied & is essential to prevent (from introduction in product) or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce to acceptable levels

Absence of CCPs Is it a HACCP or a GMP System? Raw material checking & testing at entry point Is it a CCP? Which is better system with more or l Whi h i a b ih less CCPs? Control of hazards through CCP or GMP ?

Collectionof RawHoney Transportationin Drums/BaginBagtoProcessor D /B i B t P Hazards Pesticide residues Hazards Pesticideresidues, Chloramphenicol

MeltinginDecrystallizers(~350 C) g y ( )

FilteringinDifferentMeshSize Filtering in Different Mesh Size

Hazards physical impuritieslikehair,plastic

Settling 12hrs&Onlinefilter

HeatingunderVaccuum (<50) Hazards insectsthrough GMP/CCP


Validation Objectiveistoensurethathazardsidentifiedare complete&correct&willbeeffectively controlledbyHACCPPlan Requiresobjectiveevidencethatallelementsof R i bj i id h ll l f HACCPPlanareeffective Verification Objectiveistodeterminecompliancewiththe HACCPsystem(Plan) HACCP system (Plan) Methodsinclude auditing,randomsampling& analysis analysis Examples handswabs,pasteurization

6.SystemsElementsnotmentionedinHACCP aretheseessential/important? / p
Managementresponsibility mgmtcommitment, g p y g foodsafetypolicy,responsibility&authority Documentcontrol/recordcontrol Managementreview ResourceManagement g Controlofmonitoring&measuring methods& equipment Internalaudits Improvements p

7.DoesHACCPAddressQuality/Safety? HACCPdefinedasasystemwhichidentifies, evaluates&controlshazardswhichare evaluates & controls hazards which are significantforfoodsafety.Basicallydesigned toaddresssafety to address safety Howevercanbeappliedtootheraspectsof foodqualityalso(asmentionedinpreamble) food quality also (as mentioned in preamble) WhiletheapplicationofHACCPtofoodsafetywas
consideredhere,theconceptcanbeappliedtootheraspects considered here, the concept can be applied to other aspects offoodquality

Alsoapplytootherindustries;egs medical, pp y ; g , oil,explosives,drugs

Hazardsareduetoenvironment(Cd),pests& diseasesofanimals&plants&frommeasuresto diseases of animals & plants & from measures to controlthese,contaminants,hygienicconditions Hazardsassociatedwithprimaryproductionmay p yp y ormaynotbeeliminatedorreducedto acceptablelevels dependsonsubsequent processing/handling(eg e.coli i l tt i / h dli ( li inlettuce,vibrios ib i inseafood,vd residuesinanimalproducts) Goodpracticerecommendationsneedtobe Good practice recommendations need to be followedwiththeaimofensuringfoodsafety& wholesomeness (GAP/ GAHP) aim is that wholesomeness(GAP/GAHP) aimisthat hazardsnotintroduced

THEPROCESSOR Processorsareresponsiblefor upgradingthefacility designingtheHACCPsystem Implementingit;& Implementing it; & documenting&maintainingrecords THEGOVERNMENT Governmentsareresponsiblefor p creatingascientific,technical&financial environmentfavorabletoHACCP implementation

Costsofconsultants Certification Manpowertime&trainingcosts Manpower time & training costs Cost benefitstudiesnotavailable Lackofdata&studiesrelatingtoimpactof L k f d t & t di l ti t i t f HACCPonfoodsafety Visiblebenefitsnot evident id t Implementedduetoexternalpressures (export,retail,buyers)

ff 1. Difference b between GHP & GMP 2. Relationship between GHP & HACCP 3. Hazard analysis & Ri k analysis diff 3 H d l i Risk l i difference 4. CCP Some Issues 5. 5 Verification & Validation 6. Aspects like calibration, internal audits are not mentioned in HACCP are these essential/ / important? 7. Can HACCP address quality or only safety? 8. Implementation in primary production 9. Whose responsibility is the implementation 10. Cost f implementation 10 C t of i l t ti


MandatoryGMP/HACCPforfishery,dairy,egg products,poultrymeat,honey Noofunitscertified>500 N f i ifi d 500 VoluntarySchemes egGlobalgap,retail,etc

Legislation MMPO,FPO:GMP/GHP MandatoryBISStandards water,infantmilkfoods Retail

Although GMP/HACCP implemented/certified lots of AlthoughGMP/HACCPimplemented/certified lotsof gaps deficienciesrelatetoimplementation;
GHP&Adherence:PoorPestControl(Birds,Flies,Insect),Poor personalHygiene(caps,footwear,jewellery,glassbangles), unhygienicprocessingconditions GMP & Continuance: Plant Layout design (sheds m/c Eqpt) &Continuance:PlantLayoutdesign(sheds,m/c,Eqpt), Equipments(maintenance&calibration);Storage& transportationconditions(eg.brokenthermographs);Shelflife monitoring&maintenanceofcontrolsamples;Testing&control onRM/PMmaterials&crosscontamination Traceability lacking PoorRecordkeeping w.r.t.Lot/Batchpreparationdetails,No availabilityofsamplingplan,Onlinechecks&Nonavailability il bili f li l O li h k &N il bili ofbasicworkingQClab. Legislation Notaddressedbothofimportingcountry/ domestic notevenunderstoodeg fumigation,Nonadherence domestic not even understood eg fumigation Nonadherence toPCROregulation,W&MAct

Systemscopied Lackofunderstandingofentireprocess CCP&GMP Oncecertified,processorneglectsthesystemas surveillancenoteffective&frequent Samplingproceduresnotcorrectlyfollowed Qualifiedpersonnel; Nocommitmentforfood/productsafety Certificationimportant&notImplementation

HACCP or GMP?? No Need to get Confused Important is to get started & Implement Aim is SAFE FOOD