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INDEX Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Topics Acknowledgment Certificate Synopsis Objective Indian Pharmaceutical Overview Industry Profile SWOT Analysis of Pharma Industry Global Pharma Vs Indian Pharma Challenges in Pharma Industry Activities by SALES TEAM Sales Force Effectiveness Problem with Sales tool & Measurement Ways company Market to Doctor Survey of Sales Force Data analysis Of Sample Survey Working & Challenges in Sales Force Conclusion Annexure Page No. 3-3 4-4 5-5 6-6 7-12 13-14 15-19 19-27 28-29 30-31 32-40 41-47 48-53 54-54 55-61 62-73 74-74 75-76 |


During the perseverance of this project I was supported by different people, whose names if not mentioned would be inconsiderate on my part. I would like to thank with affection and appreciation and acknowledge my indebt ness to Oriental Institute of Management, (Vashi) for initiating in the preparation of a project on Brand Management in Pharmaceutical Industry. The learning and knowledge that I have gained in the process of preparation of this project has been tremendous and I would like to thank Dr. D.R. Kamraj for providing me with the opportunity to work on this project and guiding me for the same.

I owe sincere gratitude towards each and everyone who have given a helping hand in the completion of this project.



I, D.R. Kamraj, hereby certify that Mr. Sohan K Kumbhar, student of Oriental Institute Of Management, Vashi, Navi-Mumbai, enrolled in the course of MMS-II (Marketing), Mumbai University, academic year 2006-2008, have completed his project Perception of Sales Force in Pharmaceutical Industry as per my guidelines.

Dr. D.R. Kamraj |


For Sales & Marketing in pharmaceutical industry it is important to have skilled sales force to promote the products because most of doctors prescribed quality product based on relationship with the Medical Representative. For selling a product, relationships with doctors are more important. Samples are not so important for established brand. For core doctors, MRs should meet twice or thrice in a month. For repeat visit with doctors sales people should go always with different promotional tools. According to sales people visual aid must be change every quarter. Most of companies change visual aid twice in year. Quality is more emphasized while promoting brand. |


To Understand Industry.







Medical Representative/ Marketing Executive do the Implementation of the strategies given by company in pharmaceutical Industry?

SWOT analysis of pharmaceutical industry. |

Indian Pharmaceutical Industry: An Overview The Indian pharmaceutical industry is a success story providing employment for millions and ensuring that essential drugs at affordable prices are available to the vast population of this subcontinent. Richard Gerster The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry today is in the front rank of Indias science-based industries with wide ranging capabilities in the complex field of drug manufacture and technology. A highly organized sector, the Indian Pharma Industry is estimated to be worth $ 4.5 billion. It ranks very high in the third world, in terms of technology, quality and range of medicines manufactured. From simple headache pills to sophisticated antibiotics and complex cardiac compounds, almost every type of medicine is now made indigenously. Playing a key role in promoting and sustaining development in the vital field of medicines, Indian Pharma Industry boasts of quality producers and many units approved by regulatory authorities in USA and UK. International companies associated with this sector have stimulated, assisted and spearheaded this dynamic development in the past 53 years and helped to put India on the pharmaceutical map of the world. The Indian Pharmaceutical sector is highly fragmented with more than 20,000 registered units. It has expanded drastically in the last two decades. The leading 250 pharmaceutical companies control 70% of the market with market leader holding nearly 7% of the market share. It is an extremely fragmented market with severe price competition and government price control. The pharmaceutical industry in India meets around 70% of the country's demand for bulk drugs, drug intermediates, pharmaceutical formulations, chemicals, tablets, capsules, orals and injectables. There are about 250 large units and about 8000 Small Scale Units, which form the core of the pharmaceutical industry in India (including 5 Central Public Sector Units). These units produce the complete range of pharmaceutical formulations, i.e., medicines ready for consumption by patients and about 350 bulk drugs, i.e., chemicals having
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therapeutic value and used for production of pharmaceutical formulations. Following the de-licensing of the pharmaceutical industry, industrial licensing for most of the drugs and pharmaceutical products has been done away with. Manufacturers are free to produce any drug duly approved by the Drug Control Authority. Technologically strong and totally self-reliant, the pharmaceutical industry in India has low costs of production, low R&D costs, innovative scientific manpower, strength of national laboratories and an increasing balance of trade. The Pharmaceutical Industry, with its rich scientific talents and research capabilities, supported by Intellectual Property Protection regime is well set to take on the international market.

Market Trends The industry has enormous growth potential. Factors listed below determine the rising demand for pharmaceuticals. The growing population of over of a billion Increasing income Demand for quality healthcare service Changing lifestyle has led to change in disease patterns, and increased demand for new medicines to combat lifestyle related diseases.

India Pharmaceuticals and Healthcare Report Q1 2009 This India Pharmaceuticals and Healthcare Report provide independent forecasts and competitive intelligence on India's pharmaceuticals and healthcare industry. India remains regarded as a moderately attractive proposition, as illustrated by the fact that it once again holds an unchanged eighth position in BMIs Q109 regional Business Environment Rankings for Asia Pacific. While the fast-growing population in India will represent one of the main drivers of pharmaceutical growth in the coming years, low per capita consumption and emphasis on generics hamper the level of market development. Similarly, an excessive amount of red tape, |

underdeveloped infrastructure and the deficient legal framework remain barriers to investment, although the government is striving to improve the regulatory environment, with the imminent creation of the Department of Pharmaceuticals. Nevertheless, in December 2008, India's drug price regulator decided to lower prices of 46 brands and to include 254 new medicine brands in the list of Price-controlled drugs, despite an announced increase of prices of 31 medicine brands. In the meantime, the domestic generics industry continues to expand, both locally and abroad, although it has not all been plain sailing. In late 2008, Indian Zydus Cadila a unit of Cadila Healthcare purchased Italy-based Etna Biotech from Dutch biotechnology firm Crucell, while Sun Pharm acquired 100% of the US-based narcotic producer and importer Chattem Chemicals. On the other hand, Lupin recently became the third drug maker to be accused of sub-standard manufacturing by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which will attract greater scrutiny on the sector as a result. Other Indian companies facing similar problems in the past include Ranbaxy Laboratories, Suns' US-based subsidiary, Caraco Pharmaceutical Laboratories, as well as Wockhardt and Granules India. The above developments will have an impact on Indian generics exports. According to the recently released figures by news provider Pharmabiz, the annual growth of India's pharmaceutical export sector is down by more than half. Key reasons include increased competition in the highly regulated markets of the US and Europe and the steady appreciation of the rupee. Nevertheless, BMI believes that the fundamentals of the sector are sound and we expect high double-digit growth to be maintained over the medium term. A victory for Barack Obama and the Democratic Party in the US general election in November 2008 will increase generic substitution in the world's largest pharmaceutical market, while the 2011 patent cliff provides yet the greatest opportunity for Indian generics exports. On the domestic front, generics are also winning, with the first generic drugs store reportedly opened by the Department of Pharmaceuticals at the end of November 2008, as part of an ambitious project to set up such stores in each district of the country. The use of generics will be |

further encouraged by the deceleration of Indias GDP growth. In first quarter of FY08/09 (April- June) corresponding to Q208 calendar year GDP growth hit a four-year low of 7.9% year-onyear (y-o-y), as decade-high inflation and rising interest rates take the heat out of India's booming economy, with future risks remaining on the downside.

ADVANTAGE INDIA Competent workforce: India has a pool of personnel with high managerial and technical competence as also skilled workforce. It has an educated work force and English is commonly used. Professional services are easily available.

Cost-effective chemical synthesis: Its track record of development, particularly in the area of improved cost-beneficial chemical synthesis for various drug molecules is excellent. It provides a wide variety of bulk drugs and exports sophisticated bulk drugs. Legal & Financial Framework: India has a 60 year old democracy and hence has a solid legal framework and strong financial markets. There is already an established international industry and business community. Information & Technology: It has a good network of world-class educational institutions and established strengths in Information Technology. Globalisation: The country is committed to a free market economy and globalization. Above all, it has a 70 million middle class market, which is continuously growing. Consolidation: For the first time in many years, the international pharmaceutical industry is finding great opportunities in India. The process of consolidation, which has become a generalized phenomenon in the world pharmaceutical industry, has started taking place in India.

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Indian Pharma Companies on the Acquisition : Aurobindo acquired Milpharm /UK Dayton HQ /US Dishman Dr. Reddys Glenmark Synprotec /UK Carbogen Amcis /CH ($ 75 mio) Betapharm /DE ( 480 mio) API plant from Roche /MX ($ 59 mio) Medicamenta /CZ Bouwer Bartlett /SA Servycal /AR Hollister-Stier /US ($ 122 mio) Target Research, Clin.CRO /US Avecia Pharmaceut. /UK & CA Pfizers Morpeth plant / UK thimed /BE Terapia /RO Allen SpA /IT Rhodia Pharma Solutions /FR Valeant Pharmaceut. /HU Able Labs. /US ($ 23 mio) Taro /IL Heumann Pharma /DE Esparma /DE Negma Labs. /FR Pinewood Labs. /IE Alpharma /FR Nippon Universal /JP

Jubilant Organosys NPIL


Shasun acquired Sun Pharmaceut.

Torrent Wockhardt

Zydus Cadila


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India's US$ 3.1 billion pharmaceutical industry is growing at the rate of 14 percent per year. It is one of the largest and most advanced among the developing countries. Over 20,000 registered pharmaceutical manufacturers exist in the country. The domestic pharmaceuticals industry output is expected to exceed Rs260 billion in the financial year 2002, which accounts for merely 1.3% of the global pharmaceutical sector. Of this, bulk drugs will account for Rs 54 bn (21%) and formulations, the remaining Rs 210 bn (79%). In financial year 2001, imports were Rs 20 bn while exports were Rs87 bn.

STEPS TO STRENGTHEN THE INDUSTRY Indian companies need to attain the right product-mix for sustained future growth. Core competencies will play an important role in determining the future of many Indian pharmaceutical companies in the post product-patent regime after 2005. Indian companies, in an effort to consolidate their position, will have to increasingly look at merger and acquisition options of either companies or products. This would help them to offset loss of new product options, improve their R&D efforts and improve distribution to penetrate markets. Research and development has always taken the back seat amongst Indian pharmaceutical companies. In order to stay competitive in the future, Indian companies will have to refocus and invest heavily in R&D. The Indian pharmaceutical industry also needs to take advantage of the recent advances in biotechnology and information technology. The future of the industry will be determined by how well it markets its products to several regions and distributes risks, its forward and backward integration capabilities, its R&D, its consolidation through mergers and acquisitions, co-marketing and licensing agreements. Industry Profile

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Industry Segmentation by Products Pharmaceutical sales include:

ethical (prescribed) drugs, which can't be dispensed without a physicians prescription; over-the-counter (OTC) medications, which are readily available on drugstore shelves. Ethical drugs account for about 60% of total industry sales, with OTC products representing the balance.

The ethical sector can be further segmented into: Brand-name products; Generic products.

Generics are less-expensive equivalents of brand-name prescribed drugs, and may be produced and sold once the original drug's patent protection expires. Industry Segmentation by Distribution Three-quarters of industry sales consist of pharmaceuticals used in outpatient settings, with the balance administered in hospitals, nursing homes, and other inpatient facilities. About 70% of prescribed drugs is distributed through wholesalers to hospitals, health maintenance organizations (HMOs), and retail pharmacies. The remaining 30% is sold directly by manufacturers to physicians, hospitals, retailers, and others.

Industry Living Space Demand The demand for medicine is tied to the health of the populace, which is relatively constant over the years. Drug pricing is also relatively inelastic, due to the absence of alternate therapies for the most prescribed drugs.

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Life cycle of products The product cycle of nearly all prescribed drugs is fairly stable. After the average 10- to 15-year period of discovery, development, testing, and FDA review, a branded ethical drug has about 10 years of commercial life. Discovery New drugs are discovered in scientific laboratories. The process is long and laborious, with the vast majority of attempts unsuccessful.

Bringing the drug to market Before a drug can he brought to market, it must undergo years of testing and receive government approval from the FDA. It takes several years of sales buildup in major markets in the U.S. and abroad before a drug reaches its full commercial potential. At that point, new competition of drugs similar in action may enter the market.

Going generic Drug's patent expires, typically after fifteen years on the market. Generic competition usually appears immediately after it, and prices begin to fall. Branded prescription drugs typically have about 10 years before generic competition erodes their profitability.

Going OTC Companies sometimes switch a patent-expired product from prescription-only status to over-the-counter (OTC) status to broaden its market and extend its economic life. Competition in the market of OTC products is more straightforward. Margins on products switched to OTC status are lower than those on the prescription products they replace, but popular consumer medications can have almost infinite shelf lives. SWOT Analysis Of Industry Strengths

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The drug industry is one of the most research-oriented sectors of the U.S. economy. Over the past two decades, the industry's R&D expenditures have risen sharply, both in dollar terms and as a percentage of total sales. Its R&D expenditures are equal more than 21% of total industry revenues in 1997, compared with l5.9% in 1990 and l l.7% in 1980. In contrast, the average U.S. manufacturing firm spends less than 4% of sales on R&D.

Drug Manufacturing in India The lions share of pharmaceutical manufacturing in India is for generics.

Figure R&D Expenditures as a Percent of Sales for US Industrial Sectors

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Drug manufacturing is also a high-risk business; only one in 5,000 compounds discovered ever reaches the pharmacist's shelf. Fewer than a third of marketed drugs actually achieving enough commercial success to cover their R&D investment.

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When a drug maker launches a new compound that achieves widespread acceptance in the marketplace, the economic rewards can be very high. This is the primary reason for the industry's profit margins.

Threats: FDA approval

The FDA requires manufacturers to perform extensive testing to prove that products are safe and effective before it will sanction commercial sale. All animal and human tests, which often last for years at the cost of many millions of dollars, are conducted by the manufacturer.

The cycle for the development of a new drug is as follows: Discovery (searching for innovative products is especially challenging in pharmaceuticals, because products come from the highly complex fields of molecular biology and biochemistry.); Preclinical(animal) testing( hundreds of compounds are tested before any are identified as promising enough to warrant human testing); Clinical (human) testing.

The clinical testing period on humans usually consists of three phases: Phase I (small number of healthy people to test the drug's safety); Phase II: (patients suffering from the disease or condition the drug is intended to treat); Phase III: (large groups of ill patients to test drug's safety, effectiveness and optimal dosage).

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Fugure. Compound Success Rates by Stages of Development

Out of 20 drugs entering clinical testing, average 13 successfully complete phase I. Of those about nine finish phase II, but only one likely pass trough the phase III. Only one of 20 will ultimately approved for marketing.

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Prohibitive Barriers to Entry Figure. Cost of Developing a New Drug

Substantial economic, regulatory, legal barriers stand on the way of new competitors. Development of a new drug takes from 10 to 15 years and costs more than $500 million. Manufactures of new drugs are protected by the patents on new drugs. However, effective patent protection is only 15 years given the length of time to bring a product to market.

Indian Pharma Vs Global Pharma

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In 2007, the Indian pharmaceutical industry looks ahead at a colourful horizon, what with contract research and clinical trials businesses taking wing, and the new patent regime opening new avenues for players in the country. Globally the Indian pharmaceutical industry ranks 4th in terms of volume (with an 8 per cent share in global sales), 13th in terms of value (with a share of 1 per cent in global sales) and produces 2024 per cent of the worlds generic drugs (in terms of value). India is also one of the top five active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) producers (with a share of about 6.5 per cent). The sector today is in the front rank of Indias science-based industries with wide ranging capabilities in the complex field of drug manufacturing and technology. Industry Structure The Indian pharmaceutical industry is estimated to be worth US$ 6 billion, growing at over 13 per cent annually. Indian pharmaceutical companies now supply almost all the countrys demand for formulations and nearly 70 per cent of demand for bulk drugs. Exports constitute nearly 40 per cent of the production with formulations contributing 55 per cent and bulk drugs 45 per cent. The industry ranks 17th in terms of export value of bulk actives and dosage. It comprises large, medium and small-scale operators out of which some 300 companies together account for nearly 90 per cent of the domestic market, while the rest is accounted for by a large number of small companies which total about 9000 units. Growth The domestic Indian pharmaceutical industry is likely to more than triple to US$ 20 billion by 2015 from the current US$ 6 billion to become one of the top ten pharmaceutical markets in the next decade, says a report prepared by global consultancy firm, McKinsey. Significantly, patented drugs are likely to see increased sales in the domestic pharmaceutical market, growing from virtually nothing at present to about US$ 2 billion in seven years. In fact, the absolute growth of US$ 14 billion will be next only to the growth potential of the US and China. Echoing similar sentiments, another report by Goldman Sachs predicts that India will be the

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fifth largest pharmaceutical market in the world by 2020, with sales of US$ 43 billion. Important factors that are expected to make this reality are the doubling of disposable incomes, increase in numbers of middle-class households, expansion of medical infrastructure, greater penetration of health insurance and a gradual shift in disease profile and adoption of patented products. Consequently, a number of multinationals have entered the Indian Pharmaceutical market. Already 15 of the 20 largest pharmaceutical companies in the world have a presence in India. In fact, drugs and pharmaceuticals is the eighth largest FDI-attracting sectors in India.

CRAMS India is emerging as the global hub for contract research and manufacturing services (CRAMs) due to a combination of low cost and world-class quality standards. The Indian CRAMS market which is valued at US$ 895 million in 2006 (as against US$ 533 million) accounts for between 6-7 percent of the global CRAMS market and many expect India will command at least 15 per cent of the market by 2009-10. Research agency Frost & Sullivan estimates this segment to reach close to US$ 6.6 billion by 2013. Contract research--including both drug discovery research and clinical research--has been growing at a phenomenal rate. While clinical trials represent 65 per cent of this market and new drug discovery makes up the remaining 35 per cent. Frost and Sullivan estimates outsourced contract research in India to reach US$ 2 billion by 2010. Similarly, according to a McKinsey report, the global clinical trial outsourcing to India in the pharmaceutical industry is estimated to be worth US$ 1.23 billion by 2010. Over 15 prominent contract research organizations (CROs) are now operating in the country which includes names such as Novartis, Johnson & Johnson, Pliva, Astra Zeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb and GlaxoSmithKline among others. Contract manufacturing is another new opportunity for the Indian pharmaceutical industry. Already, India has the largest number of US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA)-approved plants outside the US, with over 100 facilities. And now even small and medium scale pharmaceutical companies are setting up new and upgraded highquality manufacturing plants to take part in this growing segment.
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About 40-50 new plants (which are in addition to the plants being set up by major Indian pharmaceutical companies) are likely to be commissioned by these companies in the next two years conforming to the quality standards suggested by the US FDA and the UK Medicines and Healthcare Regulatory Agency (MHRA), making India one of the largest drug manufacturers in the world. The small- and medium-scale companies, which are setting up new units, include Bangalore-based Bal Pharma, Paras Pharma, Venus Remedies, Surya Organics and Chemicals, UnijulesLife Sciences, Centaur Pharma, Flamingo Pharma, Kemwell, Coral Labs among others. The Boston Consulting Group estimates that the contract manufacturing market for global companies in India would touch US$ 900 million by 2010.

India Advantage India offers a huge cost advantage in the clinical trials domain compared to Western countries. A multinational company moving R&D to India could save as much as 30 to 50 per cent. For example, while the cost of hiring a chemist in the US is as high as US$ 250,000300,000 per year, Indian discovery research outfits charge global pharma companies around US$ 60,000 per chemist which is roughly one fifth of what the pharma companies pay abroad. Similarly, the comparative cost advantage in India can be seen from the fact that Indian companies can manufacture pharmaceuticals for less than half of what it costs in the US, conduct clinical trials at less than one tenth of US costs, and conduct research at less than one eighth of what it costs in the US.

Generics Indian pharmaceutical companies with their reverse-engineering expertise, abundant investment in research facilities and availability of skilled manpower are favorably placed in the global generic market. According to a report by global pharmaceutical market intelligence company, IMS Health, Indian generic manufacturers will grow by 1415 per cent next year, to more than US$ 70 billion as drugs worth
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approximately US$ 20 billion in annual sales will face patent expiry in 2008. In fact, with nearly US$ 80 billion worth of patent-protected drugs to go off patent (including 30 of the best selling US patentprotected drugs) by 2012, Indian generic manufacturers are positioning themselves to offer generic versions of these drugs. Already, Indian drug companies account for over 25 per cent of the total generic drug applications made to the FDA of US, which accounts for over half of the US$ 60 billion market. Also, India has over 100 US FDA-approved plants, the highest number outside the US. Indian companies are also able to build their US generic pipeline with Indian filings of around 408 products.

Global Company Sales Summary Rank Company Sales Market Share Sales Growth 2006 $(m) %

1 Pfizer 2 GlaxoSmithKline 3 sanofi-aventis 4 Novartis 5 Roche 6 AstraZeneca 7 Johnson & Johnson 8 Merck & Co 9 Wyeth 10 Eli Lilly

45,0838.61.8 36,9477.18.9 35,6056.84.9 28,8685.517.9 26,5605.121.4 25,7414.910.5 23,2674.44.2 22,6364.32.8 15,6833.09.8 14,8162.87.5

Top 10 ethical drugs ranked by sales in 2006, Global 1 Lipitor Pfizer/Astellas 13,736 5.7

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2 Advair GlaxoSmithKline 3 Plavix BMS/sanofi-aventis 4 Nexium AstraZeneca 5 Norvasc Pfizer 6 Enbrel 7 Zyprexa 8 Remicade 9 Diovan Amgen/Wyeth Eli Lilly J&J/Schering Plough

6,097 11.7 6,054 (4.5) 5,182 11.8 4,866 3.4 4,379 18.4 4,363 3.8 4,253 18.0 4,223 14.9 4,183 17.8

Novartis J&J 2007

10 Risperdal

Source: Wood Mackenzie


RANKINGS CORPORATIONS 12M 1 2 3 4 5 CUM 1 2 3 4 5 CIPLA RANBAXY GLAXOSMITHKLINE NICHOLAS PIRAMAL ZYDUS CADILA TOTAL MARKET V(CRS) 1311.8 1262.51 1246.54 995.29 927.9 25707.2 3 %MS 5.1 4.91 4.85 3.87 3.61 100 %G 15 8 5 0 20 13 V(CRS) 1553.67 1489.27 1471.64 1180.37 1093.46 30343.6 6 %MS 5.12 4.91 4.85 3.89 3.6 100 %G 15 8 4 0 19 13 CUM(JAN07-OCT07) MAT OCT 07


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I n d ia is r a n k e d 1 5 th i n w o r l d p h a r m a c e u tic a l m a r k e t, s ta n d in g a t n u m b e r 4 in v o l u m e te r m s

+7% US $ 2 4 9 . 2 B il +8% Ca nad a $1 3.1 B il +5% Japa n $6 0.8 B il + 24 % C h i n*a* $ 8 .9 B il + 11 % M e x ico * $ 7 .2 B il +9% India* $ 5 . 2 nr e t a i l B ( $ 6 .B i l o t a l ) 7 t

+7% Germ any $3 1.6 B il

1 0 K e y M a rk e ts +7% $ 4 5 6 . 2 B il

F ra n c e $3 0.7 B il

+0% UK M a j o r E u r o p e 2 0 .0 B i l $

$ 1 6B0 i l

1% I t a ly $1 9.6 B il +8% S p a in ( * ) $1 5.1 B il

* P h a r m a c y M a r k e t O n l y * * H o s% i t G r o wa trh eCt o O s tl a n t $ p al M k nn y
4 S o u r c e : I M S K n ow l e d g e L i n k : M A T S e p t e m b e r 2 0 0 5


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> $ 8 billion Ranks No: 13 in global value terms (1.5%) Ranks No: 4 in global volume terms (8%) Share of export ~ 40% (thereof 55% as formulated drugs, 45% bulk actives) Present growth rate of domestic market ~ 13% p.a. Estimate for 2010 ~ $ 10 billion
Source: Indo German First BioMed-BioTech-Partnering MiniExpo Wrzburg June 10-12, 2007 [the figures are not quite reliable, they depend on the definitions]

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Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Companies

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Indian Pharmaceutical Sector: Challenges and Opportunities under the WTO Regime The global pharma industry today is faced with two challenges:

1. and 2.

To develop and utilize scientific knowledge to derive new drugs To do it at an affordable cost. The Indian pharma industry is well-positioned to address these twin challenges because of the vast availability of talented and skilled scientific manpower. The Rs.28,000 crore Indian pharma industry has been operating under a new world order from January 1 2005. From that date, in compliance with the prior commitment given under the WTO agreement the country has switched over to the product patent regime from the process patent regime that was in existence hitherto.

The main challenges facing the sector are the following. Growth in the domestic formulations market is slowing down. Domestic bulk drugs industry is facing intense competition due to cheap imports. Price wars between regional and local pharma companies are driving down prices, exerting pressure on margins. MNC pharma companies are getting more aggressive at protecting their patents and defending their market share after patent expiry. There has been considerable confusion in the grant of EMR, (Exclusive Marketing Rights) due to lack of transparency in the process. The huge domestic market (worth Rs.2,14,000 crore in 2002) with a billion plus population presents a tremendous opportunity to the Indian pharma industry though the growth is still in single digits. A roadmap for growth can be the following.
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CROs (Clinical Research Organizations) have an opportunity to access the $16 billion (Rs.72,000 crore) global market for clinical trials which is expected to grow to over $50 billion by 2010. Indian pharma companies can focus on new drugs for neglected diseases like malaria, kala azar and tuberculosis, which are big killers in many developing countries. 2. Indian pharma companies should reduce their dependence on the US market and explore promising markets like Europe and Japan. At $65 billion, Japan is the worlds second largest pharmaceutical market after the US. 3. Indian phama companies can profitably tap the huge underpenetrated Chinese markets. By 2010, China will emerge as the fifth largest pharmaceutical market in the world with revenues of over $24 billion three times its current size. 4. The global herbal market is expected to grow to Rs.25,000 crore by 2010. Indias share in this market currently is a dismal 5%. The country with its traditional base has to grab a larger share of the market. 5. Companies keen on exploiting process patents have an opportunity to operate in the least developed countries where product patent regime will not be operational till 2016. 6. The R & D outsourcing market has grown from $5.4 billion in 1997 to $9.3 billion. Indian firms like Dr.Reddys, Shasun, Suven & the Hyderabad based Divis laboratories have already undertaken contract research for foreign majors. 7. In-licensing global brands and selling them in the domestic market commands higher price margins of 15 to 18%. 8. The US generics market is definitely a high-risk high-reward game. To succeed, companies should identify products long before their patent expiry and complete regulatory work. 9. With the advent of the product patent regime, Indian drug makers should diversify their process re-engineering skills towards advanced Novel Drug Delivery Systems (NDDS) and further into New Drug Discovery (NDD).

1. Indian

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Activities perform by Sales Management Team In pharmaceutical industry

Sales Management Plan sales objectives-in market & to market, and monitor the sales to achieve pre-set sales targets. Implement strategies, identify new business opportunities & expand the existing market. Lookafter sales and marketing along with several aspect of product management Sales promotion Designs & implement marketing activities such as medical educational programs, seminars and conferences for the doctor's , camps, doctor's meets/ conferences for enhancing brand visibility/ coverage & reach. Conceptualize and implement sale promotion activities such as selection/ Targeting the key opinion leaders and organizing CME'S as a part of market development and brand building effort. Conduct Market Research and Campaign to build the brands.

Relationship Management Build and strengthen relationship with key accounts, medical fraternity, opinion leaders there by ensuring high customer satisfaction by providing with complete product support i.e. CRM (Customer Relationship Management) activities.

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Dealer Management Identifying and networking with financially strong and reliable dealers, resulting in deeper & market monitoring penetration distributor and reach. and Evaluating performance sales

marketing activities.

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Sales Force Effectiveness (SFE)

ABSTRACT With the ever increasing pressure to ensure maximum return on investment, sales force effectiveness (SFE) is becoming a high priority area in the global pharmaceutical industry. Sales force represents the largest spend in sales and marketing and yet study after study shows that the returns gained from this spend is not particularly strong and one recent IMS report found that pharma sales force effectiveness declined by 23% in the recent period of 2004 to 2005. Better metrics must be used to measure both the effectiveness and financial impact of SFE for this very significant budget. The startling discovery that this comprehensive report uncovers is that the very metrics currently being used to assess sales force effectiveness are in fact themselves aiding its decline. Traditional pharmaceutical organizations are rigorously tracking and managing sales activity, but still falling short. Data emerging from the research concludes that current metrics are more focused on efficiencies than effectiveness and do so to their own detriment. This report dissects current SFE metrics and their limitation for the pharmaceutical industry in the United States, Europe and Japan. The report then discusses appropriate metrics to solve these problems and goes on to demonstrate implementation methods and issues.

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Sales force effectiveness is a difficult concept to measure, but doing so can push pharmaceutical companies past todays hurdles and into increased productivity and sales.

Background - The Scale of the Sales Force Effectiveness Problem Most pharmaceutical company teams already rigorously track and manage sales activity. Unfortunately, despite much measurement, the sales force effectiveness problem remains. Could this be due to the fact that and the currently used metrics are inappropriate, companies nsufficient often counterproductive? Many

accurately diagnose that the problem is sales force effectiveness but miss the solution, due to using the wrong metrics. But how can a pharmaceutical company measure the effectiveness of its sales team? To truly grasp the problem, we look at current metrics used, along with their limitations. Sales Force Size and Share of Voice Until recently, the pharmaceutical industry was typified by its ever growing sales staff, hiring new sales reps at a rate that outstripped the rate of new physicians (which has remained at a constant rate of modest increase) and far outstripping the rate of new drugs released on to the market (which has fallen dramatically over the last decade). This strategy continued even in the face of falling profits by pharmaceutical companies.

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For most of the 1990s, increased sales force numbers tended to correlate with increased market share. However, with the high level of competition, falling returns and squeezed margins which are now features of the pharma market, the approach of increasing sales force size has definitely passed the point of diminishing returns. Indeed, a recent industry survey8 reported that, while 44% of executives responded that they had increased their sales staff over the last two years, only 9% of executives thought they would be hiring more sales staff over the next two years. As a result of such trends, to maintain market share and profitability, pharmaceutical companies are now placing more and more pressure on their sales force to perform effectively within an increasingly fixed marketing budget. Several industry experts still claim that the only proven solution to accelerate sales has been adding reps. But is this really still true? The industry is finally seeing that larger is not better in all cases. The industry as a whole is aware that the current model is not working optimally and the sales force arms race is showing signs of subsiding, with the size sells mentality now being abandoned across the industry. The main reasons for this approach not working any more seem quite clear: The dramatic increase in sales reps since 1997, detailed above, has led to younger, less experienced sales forces.

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Pharmaceutical companies have ramped up their innovation and time to market. In the 1970s, the period without competition for a certain therapy lasted an average of seven years. Today, this time without competition only lasts 0.1 years. Increases in targeting technologies in the United States have allowed reps to call upon those physicians with strong market volume potential. But everyone has the same targeting data. These physicians are receiving so many detail calls that they are saturated and unable to find time for quality calls with the reps. Doctors report feeling inundated by sales force (a byproduct of the sales force arms race) resulting in the average time spent with physicians decreasing. Of more concern: the physicians do not see this decrease in time with reps as a problem. Access to physicians is decreasing. Sales people are not able to count on even scheduled appointments to result in an actual call any more. Many physicians have closed their doors to sales reps completely and turn to eDetailing, peer-to-peer interaction and journals for information. Statistics suggest that for every 100 sales reps, only 20 meet with the physicians. Additionally, 78% of phone calls to physicians last two minutes or less. Most calls result in simply a 30-second detail and a sample drop.

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Related to this, the number of personal details received by

office-based US physicians in the US declined by 13% in 200513 following seven years of increases. IMS reported that this was seen across the majority of the major pharmaceutical companies and was not entirely due to physicians closing their doors. In this number, 27% were influenced by blockbusters going off patent, and 22% were due to withdrawals of Vioxx and Bextra and the relative shortage of new launches in the primary care space. Two thirds of new launches were in the specialist areas, meaning there was limited need for additional representatives. Different therapy areas also were found to decrease in detailing volume, with 33% decline in detailing volume for the erectile dysfunction category, 22% decline in the proton pump inhibitor category, and 9% decline in the lipid lowering agents category. Although these changes account for some of the decline in numbers of details, others came from the fact that some companies (including Pfizer and Wyeth) altered their sales structures and removed mirroring from their field forces. On top of this, physician attitudes around pharmaceutical sales force are also changing. Where previously they may have welcomed new data and discussion with sales reps, now fewer than 40% of physicians feel the pharmaceutical industry is trustworthy. Physicians actively provide barriers to sales reps.
In 2003, the number of doctors reporting intentional limited

access for sales reps totalled 60%15. Only 43 percent of reps get past the receptionist at any given sales visit.

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Lastly, the number of follow up actions required or requested as a result of each sales call and promotional activity translates into 10,000 follow up actions per working day and many companies do not have the resources to capitalise on all the leads they create. Sales force size and share of voice are really not key metrics to examine when attempting to improve sales force efficiency. You can throw more mud at a wall, but unless it sticks it is a waste of money.

Sales Calls per day One of the most common methods of measuring sale force effectiveness revolves around frequency of calls made by sales reps to target physicians. The underlying assumption is one that does not hold up in todays environment: higher numbers of sales calls will generate greater product sales.

Current Metrics Used and their Contribution to the Problem One of the lures of the frequency of calls metric is the ease of use. Such data is relatively easy to collect and can be measured directly against sales and market share data. A sales rep assigned to a particular territory with falling sales volumes might then be encouraged to work harder, increasing his or her frequency of sales calls to drive the numbers back up.

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Unfortunately there are a number of problems with this sort of metric:

Focus on call frequency could encourage inappropriate or non-

optimal behaviours in sales staff. Irrelevant calls to nontarget physicians or non-prescribing staff, while doing nothing to further the companys goals and sales, can still be counted. Since career success is built on meeting company standards, sales reps are encouraged to focus their behaviours towards metrics16. But measures counting the number of calls to a physician or the number of minutes spent with a physician are encouraging quantity over quality. Sales reps may do well when it comes to bonus or yearly review time, but the company is pushed down the path of decreasing productivity.
By focusing on sales call quantity, reps are encouraged to

make as many calls a day as they can to meet their targets. The focus becomes accessibility of physicians rather than their value as a target. Accessibility is indeed an issue, as the industry becomes more competitive and physicians limit or block access to sales reps17. But contact should be about more than access. Consider this: IMS reported that decile analyses in Europe often find little difference in the call levels achieved by high-decile doctors and low-decile doctors. This means reps will spend time with doctors who are easy to see, rather than those who will actually provide value and generate sales. The result is the calls do not seem effective and yet the calls per day target is being met or exceeded.

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Focusing on sales call quantity necessarily means less focus

on sales call quality. A sales call merely to enquire over the physicians golf handicap, or the state of health of the physicians loved-ones, is clearly not going to result in a product sale. Likewise, sales call frequency measures favour irrelevant contacts, such as physicians who might be easy to talk to but do not actually have many patients who fit the profile of the drug being marketed. By focusing on sales call numbers, the company implies that the only sales tool worth considering is the sales call. When it comes down to actual sales, this is often not the primary method of success. In this highly competitive environment, a physician might be faced with a veritable barrage of requests for just moments of their time. While good working relationships between the sales rep and customer are vital, much can be gained by adequate back-ups to the sales call, such as call centres and websites. Thus, actual sales of a drug might not necessarily be directly related to the amount of calls made.

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Sales call frequency measures encourage sales reps to focus on the calls at the expense of all else, including those activities that may assist them in the performance of their job. It becomes difficult to justify taking time away from sales calls in order to take advantage of opportunities for training, or participating in medical conventions or conferences. But as we saw in the previous pages, the majority of todays sales Pharmaceutical marketers spend a lot of time and money planning and creating messages, sales aids for use in the sales call, technological tools to assist the sales force (including CRM), and training for salespeople. Unfortunately, for many of these categories, its quite difficult to measure return on investment when using the majority of measurement tools available.

However, tools to help promote sales are a necessity for sales forces. Consider the current state of sales forces

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The Problem With Sales Tools

The Problem with Sales Tools Pharmaceutical marketers spend a lot of time and money planning and creating messages, sales aids for use in the sales call, technological tools to assist the sales force (including CRM), and training for salespeople. Unfortunately, for many of these categories, its quite difficult to measure return on investment when using the majority of measurement tools available. However, tools to help promote sales are a necessity for sales forces. Consider the International current state of sales forces: The American Marketing Association reports that up to 90% of what marketing creates for sales support goes unused in the field. This is backed up by our analysis from literally thousand of pharmaceutical brands field force activities. ASTD journal reported a study demonstrating that salespeople forget 85% of content and skills within four weeks of training. B-to-B Online reported results of a survey in which 70% of marketers give themselves a D or F for the quality of sales support.

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The CMO Council found that salespeople spend 40% of their time creating their own messaging and tools. These are disturbing statistics, especially considering that the sales force is one of the largest spends in the marketing budget in a pharmaceutical company, second only to R&D. Sales forces are tasked with supporting the companys productivity and bottom line, but they arent getting the support they need. Here are a few areas that appear to be problematic. Sales reps are responding to the needs of the Doctors. The content of the messages and tools they have been given do not adequately reflect these needs. A Medical Representatives Statement My Doctors want me to help them with increasing their knowledge so they can better manage their Patients - or in some cases, assisting them managing their practice. They dont like to feel I am selling to them. The materials I use should be researched properly so they reflect the key brand messages in terms of the customer needs before the marketing team give them to us to use or otherwise they wont be effective or used. - Sales Rep

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Comment: To ensure firstly usage of detail aids, as well as effective usage of detail aids, messaging must be based on the Doctors most pressing patient or practice objectives and challenges, and must lead into how your brand can help address that need. Pharmaceutical companies must understand their customers perspectives and then map how to best respond to their needs. is.comEffectiveness


Moving Beyond Recall and Intent to Prescribe How does this change happen? Behaviours are key. There are core sales and marketing behaviours that correlate with sales performance. Behaviours that drive prescriptions in one type of therapy category arent necessarily going to be successful in another. In addition, behaviours that drive prescriptions in early life cycles arent necessarily going to be successful in mid or late lifecycle. Finally, this will also be different for primary care practitioners versus specialists. Sales management needs to understand what sales and marketing behaviours are really influencing different types of doctors to prescribe one brand over another. The bottom line is they need to know what works and what does not during sales calls.

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Measurement of sales force behaviours has been limited to numbers of calls, building on the assumption that enough calls will yield sufficient prescriptions to drive the pharma companys success. But this wont do. To find out if a rep is effective, the best way is to move beyond static call metrics and analyse physicians minds. Of course, much market research is devoted to uncovering whether the physician recalled a pharmaceutical product message, whether the physician intends to prescribe, and what the physician thinks they think. All of this, while useful and interesting, is very superficial if we are trying to get to the core of the real influencers. Physicians do not necessarily know why they do what they do. Many factors come into play in the decision process many they are not consciously aware of but they are influencers. We need to know what is influencing them, even if they do not. What matters is finding out how a rep can provide the most perceived value and influence the physicians prescribing decisions. Although this is not a precise science, there are tools that are accurate in assisting sales managers to do this task with a high degree of confidence. Eularis ( has developed just such a tool the Sales force 94.8 Analytics Tool. This metrics system helps companies know how much their sales force is contributing to their brand growth and overall company growth, as well as identifying territories with the highest business potential.

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It also helps analyse what messages and what rep behaviours have positive financial impact, and how these behaviours and messages should be time-allocated in a sales call. This tool collects vast quantities of data from physicians and then validates this data against prescribing to uncover real, rather than perceived, influencers. Then powerful analytics are applied that help sales managers identify what is needed and how to change for maximum sales growth. This type of analytics is critical to ensuring that sales force efforts actually increase sales and market share, and demonstrating sales force return on investment. By limiting metrics to those that measure only call volume, calls per day and market share, companies are limiting the provable results and return they will achieve with their sales force.

Sales Force Resource Optimisation Real sales force optimisation will only happen when companies successfully integrate efficiencies and effectiveness to provide an approach that improves strategic planning, as well as sales forces productivity and measurable financial return on individual activities. To really succeed there needs to be more focus on ensuring the right.

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Learning Management System- Informetica

Pharmaceutical Companies The Informetica Learning Management System is a popular choice among Pharmaceutical companies to efficiently train their staff no matter where they work or live. Pharmaceutical companies can use the Informetica System to evaluate new recruits to ensure they're hiring smart. The job is highly competitive and intense so finding the right people is significant. Each pharmaceutical company creates their own unique weights on education, skills, and experience.

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The Informetica learning management system has a unique set of tools to weight, assess, and grade prospective employees. Using this method ensures that your hiring practices are documented so that you can recruit the best qualified employees. Once a pharmaceutical company has developed an employee it is very costly to replace him/her. Therefore, ensuring employees with excellent records are receiving ongoing training and development is imperative if pharmaceutical companies are to retain these highly talented people. The Informetica System is a flexible, robust learning management system with tailor-made talent management tools to ensure your company is hiring smart and providing ongoing develoment tools to satisfy this need. Rating systems in assessments provide invaluable information to ensure each representative knows the material needed in order to work with customers. Also included are tools to ensure that career paths and skills development are addressed to continue to keep your most talented employees. Collaboration and communicaiton tools provide incredible efficiencies and connectivity. The reports include creating your own adhoc reporting system, easy to use without any need for specialized training. Hiring smart, developing smart, and retaining your best are the key benefits of using the Informetica learning management system. So why is this improtant? Refer below:

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" Pharmaceutical companies don't look for one standard profile in their sales forces. Generally, companies require sales reps to have at least a bachelor's degree, and some prefer MBAs . Employers don't necessarily require degrees in areas such as chemistry or biology , but reps must be willing to learn -- and be able to master -- science. "An aptitude in science is a prerequisite," says Nahman, a former pharmacist. "If you don't like science, this job will be a living hell." Some companies weigh previous marketing or healthcare industry experience heavily, although clinical skills alone won't get you hired. "The most important qualifications are people skills, such as tact and diplomacy," Nahman explains. "Science can be learned, but people skills can't be learned."

Ways Pharmaceutical Companies Market to Doctor

How Drugs Are Sold to Doctor Even when it was illegal for pharmaceutical companies to advertise treatments for erectile dysfunction to the public, they had enormous amounts of cash invested in marketing programs. Your medical providers - doctors, nurse practitioners, and others -- are literally bombarded by drug

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Methods Pharmaceutical Companies Use

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1. Classes on off-label uses of a drug - While a drug approved by the FDA to treat depression may be very effective, that may not be where its real value lies. A little-known fact is that off-label use, or using a drug for a non-FDA-approved treatment, is completely legal and very common. These off-label uses aren't publicised; it's illegal. But in a necessary loophole, they can be taught in classes. Your physician may be attending drug classes where he is learning that sildenafil (Viagra) may be used for, say, treating certain types of hypertension. Off-label uses are good because they allow circumvention of the FDA to provide seriously-ill people treatments that have been shown save. Still, they don't always work the way preliminary pharmaceutical research indicates. They are great news for the pharmaceutical industry, though, because it allows a single drug to double, triple, or further increase the people who will use it. 2. Little "premiums" - look at the notepads, magnets, pens, clipboards, even posters in your doctor's office. Most will have the imprint of a pharmaceutical company on them. Sales staff leave these in doctors' offices to keep their names and brands fresh in the physician's mind. 3. Free samples - When prescribing a new drug, your doctor usually has blister packs of pills ready to hand to

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you. He doesn't get those by ordering them or buying them at the pharmacy; instead, pharmaceutical salespeople leave these at his office. Doctors are reluctant to switch prescriptions when they have been started. This means if you start taking Levitra using sample packs and it works, the doctor will continue prescribing it to you. And they are much more likely to prescribe medications that they have available free samples for. This isn't all bad by any means. Those free samples can save the life of someone who can't afford a necessary prescription; and if a doctor asks a salesman to do it, he'll leave large supplies of any given sample with the doctor. But you should be aware that once you take that sample, you may be locking into using that medication.

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4. Free magazine subscriptions to their publications promoting their own products - All the large pharmaceutical companies have their own online and/or print publications with chatty articles about asthma and diabetes, new discoveries that their cutting-edge scientists have made, and even details on new off-label uses for drugs they've developed. I'm not going to lie -- I love these magazines. They are well-written and have absolute cutting-edge information. However, they do showcase the drugs developed by the pharmaceutical company that produces them, and ignore any better drugs by other pharmaceutical companies. (Note: If your doctor has magazines like this in his office, you should be able to get him to get you samples or even a free subscription of your own by just asking.) 5. Traditional marketing to consumers, which gets you to ask your doctor about new drugs - All those stupid erectile-dysfunction, bladder control, and depression commercials do have a purpose. Yes, you can't just walk into the store and get them. But they make it much more likely that you will ask your doctor for these products by name. Studies by pharmaceutical marketers have shown that if a patient asks for a drug by name that may prove efficacious for his or her disease, a doctor usually will prescribe it. 6. Direct-mail marketing - This is less useful than many marketing

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techniques, but pharmaceutical companies still will direct-mail doctors with samples, informational sheets, premiums, and other freebies to get them to pay attention to their products. Often, this is done by a new salesperson who is trying to build a niche up. 7. Visits by salespeople who educate on on- and off-label drug uses, often at a dinner out or other free treat - Some 93% of doctors, according to a JAMA study, admit to accepting dinners out and small entertainment gifts from a pharmaceutical salesperson. This is typically just a way to get the doctor to listen to a sales pitch or educational information, as well as developing a friendly relationship with a new medical provider. Ways Pharmaceutical Companies Market to Your Doctor

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8. Payments for consulting or giving lectures - This used to be fairly egregious, with doctors getting a substantial amount of their incomes from these sorts of kickbacks -- for they were kickbacks. Today, new pharmaceutical organizations like PhRMA have instituted guidelines that their members voluntarily follow, preventing these abuses from happening. Most payments for these things now are for time, and provide about the same or les income to the doctor that he or she would gain from regular medical practice. However, there is still a real danger. Most pharmaceutical companies hire their very well-paid scientists and researchers from three different sectors: research institutions, the FDA (a whole nother conflict of interest story), or private practice. This means doctors who build up a reputation for consulting and lecturing can increase the chances a pharmaceutical company will hire them. How much is that worth? When I worked at Pfizer in southeastern Connecticut, there was one researcher who flew his private plane to work from his farm in southern New Hampshire, at least three days a week. You have to make pretty good money to do that. 9. Enrolling their patients in clinical trials - this is one of the most altruistic marketing methods. Especially with cancer drugs, pharmaceutical companies are hungry for clinical trial subjects; doctors are hungry for new treatments for their terminal patients that might buy time or even save their lives. It very much works to the advantage of both for doctors to remain very aware of what the

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pharmaceutical companies are doing in this area. 10. Direct marketing of all these types to medical school and nursing professors -- the people who train your medical providers All nine of the above methods, when used to market to medical school professors, are very effective in training new doctors to use the drugs marketed. You trust your teachers to get it right. If the pharmaceutical salesperson can convince them of the efficacy of a drug, they have not just gained a single not-that-lucrative customer, but rather dozens of customers in his or her students, who will go on to private and public practice everywhere.

Yes, doctors are human. Many claim that these little - and big perks do not influence them or their practice, that though they may get some very nice gifts these things don't encourage them to prescribe more medications.

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Survey of Sales force in Pharmaceutical Industry

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SAMPLE SIZE Sr. Name No. 1 yogesh Magar 2 Omprakash Chaturvedi 3 Nitin Gaikwad 4 Shilpa Patange 5 Nagesh Mishra 6 S. M Kangane 7 Omprakash 8 Suraj Soni 9 Rajesh Singh 10 Bhaskar Naik 11 Ranjit 12 Prabhat 13 Prafful 14 Ashish Tiwari 15 Pravin 16 Nilesh 17 Sachin 18 Parag J 19 Rajesh 20 Manish Company Cadila Dr. Reddy's Lupin Novartis Novartis Novartis zydus Emcure Novartis Alkem Sigma ICPA Systopic Meridian DRL UCB Glenmark Emcure Ajanta Tab. India Designation F. O. SBU MR MR MR MR Area manager MR MR MR MR MR MR MR SBU MR Area manager MR MR MR Speciality Card/diab Diabetic Neuro General General General gynae Card/diab General Bergen General General General General General General General General opthal General

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Parameter 1. Total number of Doctors comparison

T o ta l n u m b e r o f D o c t o r A s p e r M R

10% 0% 10%

1 0 %0 %

20% 120-149

1 20 -14 9 1 50 -17 5 30% 1 76 -20 0 2 01 -22 5 50% 2 26 -25 0


150-175 176-200 40% 201-225 226-250

T o ta l N u m b e r o f D o c to r A s p e r C o m p a n y

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As in above case we found that there is slight mismatch between the companys requirement & the suggestion of MRs. Almost 50% of MRs want the Dr List of 150-175, where as the majority of the companies strategy is to have 175-200 doctors.

Parameter 2. Core Doctor

TL DR. 120-149 150-175 176-200 201-225 226-250

Company 0 4 8 6 2

MR Core Dr. 2 10 20-24 6 25-30 2 0 31-35

Company 0 7 2

MR 2 9 2 1 4 2

36-40 50-60 100-101

5 4 2

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100-101 10% 50-60 20%

20 -24 10%

20-24 25-30 31-35 36-40 50-60 100-101

36-40 5% 31-35 10%

25-30 45%

To tal n u mb e r o f c o r e Do c to r a s p e r MR

100-101 20-24 0% 10% 50-60 20% 25-30 35% 20-24 25-30 31-35 36-40 36-40 25% 31-35 10% 50-60 100-101

Total number of core Doctor as per company

In both the graphs we can analyse that both the categories have the consent at the core Doctors requirement. And majority of them suggest to have 25-30 core doctors in list

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Parameter 3. Frequency of Core Doctors

4 0% 3 30% 1 10%

1 2 3 4

2 60% Frequenc y of Core DR. as per Company

4 1 0% 3 30% 1 2 3 2 70% 4

Frequency of Core DR. as per MR

This is the parameter, there is exact match between strategy of the company & the suggestions of the MRs. The below graphs represents the same.

Freq 1 2 3 4

Company 2 12 6 0

MR 0 14 6 0

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Parameter 4. Call Averages

14 13 12 0% 8 20%

8 10 12 13 14

10 80% Call Average Suggeste by MR

14 10% 13 10%

8 0%

Call Average
8 10 50% 10 12 13 14

Company 0 10 6 2 2

MR 4 16 0 0 0

8 10 12 13

12 30%

Call Average required by Company


This parameter is always at contrast to each others requirement. In this case Companies always needs some standards of call average & MRs suggest to lower it down.

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Parameter 5. No of Retailer
10 20% 12 0%

4 8 0% 4 40% 5 6 8 6 20% 10 12

5 20% No of retailers/day as per MR

12 10% 10 10% 4 40% 8 10% 6 0% 4 5 6 8 10 12

No of retailer 4 5 6

Company 8 6 0 2 2 2

MR 8 4 4 0 4 0

5 30% No of retailers/day as per Company

8 10 12

As visiting number of retailers is also field activity. So it also have some conflict in the match. Majority of the MRs want to have less number of retailers/day to visit, as desired by the company

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Parameter 6. No. of literature distribution/ day

15 0%

10 22%

0 22% 0

5 0% 4 11%

2 3 4 5 10 3 11% 2 34% 15

Number of Literature/month as per MR

15 11%

0 20%

10 21%

2 0%

0 2 3 4 5 10 15

3 16%

5 21%

4 11%

Number of Literature/month as per Company

No of Lit. 0 2 3 4 5 10 15

Company 4 0 3 2 4 4 2

MR 4 6 2 2 0 4 0

Distribution of literatures requires reading and understanding of the latest updates about the product. So companies find it important to be discuss with Doctor, where as MRs find it more complicated to manage with other detailing aids while making a call.

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Parameter. 7 Important Activities According to MRs for making good relation or to make sales Activity Visit samples Gifts CME/Sponseship other Most IMP 12 0 2 3 IMP 6 4 2 7 1 Average IMP 2 6 4 6 1 Less IMP 0 8 6 2 0

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

12 8 6 4 2 0 Visit samples Gifts 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 7 6 2 CME/Sp onseshi 22 6 4 2 6 Most IMP 7 6 3 11 other 3 1 1 IMP Average IMP Less IMP

Most IMP IMP Average IMP Less IMP

12 6 2 0

This parameter of this survey is has some additional importance, because in this crux of the total sales and marketing can be seen In this most of the MRs feels that for making good relationship with Doctors Regular Visits are of Utmost important. Here OTHER means Doctor communication, CRM/ WIIFM etc meet, Strategy Implementation,

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Pharmaceutical Sales Representative A Day in the life of a Pharmaceutical Sales Representative

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Pharmaceutical sales is a fast-paced, high-turnover business that rewards assertiveness, persistence, and knowledge. Pharmaceutical sales representatives spend most of their business time on the road, talking with pharmacists, hospital personnel, physicians, patient advocacy groups, and even retirement homes, increasing the visibility of their companys products and the volume of their sales. Sell sell sell learn learn learn sell sell sell, wrote one sales rep, who included his business card with his survey, in case we wanted to purchase any pharmaceutical supplies. Many other sales reps agreed that the best reps follow any lead, making every possible effort to sell their product. A number attend meetings where contact with purchasing professionals is rich, such as an association of pharmacists or a convention of hospital administrators. This territory-oriented business can be a hard life, particularly for those trying to maintain their family life as well. The need to sell extends to social functions and free time, and the already precious family moments can erode further to the point where many reps are forced to reevaluate their commitment to their profession. This difficult balancing act is complicated by the additional pressure of being in a commission-based occupation. For many, a significant portion of their income is riding on their ability to get the product into the hands of the consumer. So, why is this job so addictive? Perhaps because the excessive profit margins of many brand-name pharmaceutical products can mean enormous commissions. In addition, products are generally consumed fairly quickly and not stored, so old markets rarely disappear; they need regular servicing. The second most attractive job feature that the sales reps mentioned was the intellectual challenge the job imposed.

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Education is the norm in this field; learning about a companys product line is like taking an advanced course in pharmacology (which many do take during their initial years in the industry). They have to be familiar with data, statistics, and issues in the health community to be able to communicate successfully with businesspeople and doctors. Although this job has some aspects that are unquestionably grueling-one sales rep said he put in 184 days on the road in 1994-many love it, and love is the only term that accurately describes their zeal, dedication, and willingness to make sacrifices for their job.

Paying Your Dues

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Pharmaceutical sales representatives with a science background have an advantage in this profession, in terms of both their credibility and their ability to educate themselves about product lines. A college degree is standard for this job, with many employers looking favorably on graduate work. Useful courses include biology, chemistry, biochemistry, biophysics, organic chemistry, English, public speaking, finance, and negotiation techniques. Professional education is the norm for all sales representatives, both on their own products and on other companies product lines. The ability to read a scientific study and examine its assumptions is critical to a PSRs success. Licensing is available through professional organizations, but it is not required to advance to managerial positions. Associated Careers Pharmaceutical sales representatives go into sales positions in other professions-as systems marketers or service sales representatives, for example-where their selling skills are valued, but where scientific knowledge is less important. Some PSRs are willing to give up the scientific element of their job in order to go into a profession where it is easier to advance and easier to maintain a satisfying family life.

Challenges for Pharmaceutical Sales Forces Pharmaceutical sales forces can overcome their challenges by learning how companies from other sectors have dealt with similar challenges.

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Sales force, the main communication channel of the pharmaceutical industry, faces many challenges: lower perceived product differentiation, great heterogeneity in the needs of customers and the value of customers to the company, pressure to find more efficient communication channels, restricted physician access, tighter regulatory constraints, the growing power of nonphysician customers, and adversarial relationships with payers and other non-physician customers. Are these challenges unique to the pharmaceutical industry? Companies in other sectors have successfully addressed challenges similar to what the pharmaceutical industry faces today. Changing the sales force structure to compensate for the loss of product differentiation Many primary care physicians are visited by different representatives from the same company. While this makes it more difficult to obtain a holistic understanding of physician needs and respond to them, it allows a sharp promotional focus on individual products. However, in many primary care categories competing brands are perceived to be only weakly differentiated, and the promotional focus on products has become less effective.

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Xerox was facing analogous issues in the 1980s. Many of their customers received visits from five different Xerox representatives, each promoting a different product line. However, intense competition-especially from Japanese competitors in the copier category-had reduced perceived product differentiation. This led Xerox to abandon its product-based sales force structure in favour of a market segment-based structure. Customers were assigned to segments on the basis of size (large, mid-sized, small businesses) and other characteristics (two additional segments comprised distributors, and "institutional" customers respectively). Sales representatives were responsible for the sales of all of Xerox's products to all customers in their designated segment, within a geographic area. The new sales force structure allowed Xerox's sales representatives to better understand their customers, tailor the offerings to their needs and, thereby, compensate for the loss of product differentiation. Together with other initiatives, the restructuring of the sales force resulted in a significantly improved market position for Xerox. Confronted again with a loss of differentiation in the 1990s, Xerox further sharpened its customer focus by sub-segmenting the largest business segment into several industry segments (e.g. financial, manufacturing, graphic arts and others), and restructured the sales force by industry segments. Tailoring the communication channels to differences in customer needs

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The sales force is a very effective communication channel, allowing face-to-face, interactive communication of a considerable amount of information. But, considering the high cost of a sales representative's call, do all physicians have a similar need for the extensive information that can be provided in a face-to-face visit? Similar to the pharmaceutical industry, the traditional stock market investment firms such as Merrill Lynch and Morgan Stanley employed highly-paid professionals who provided customers with sophisticated advice, often based on proprietary research. However, the growing availability of stock market information in a variety of media enabled motivated investors to form their own preferences about where to invest. Targeting these "self-directed" investors, who preferred to manage their investments on their own, Charles Schwab's low-price "discount brokerage" firm eliminated the high-cost information services and concentrated on making stock market transactions easy. After having successfully penetrated the "self-directed" investor segment, Charles Schwab defined two other segments-"validators," who also wanted to manage their own portfolios but required some consultation, and "delegators," who wanted someone else to manage their portfolio for them-and designed communication channels that responded to the different needs of these segments. Finding the most efficient communication channel for each function

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A face-to-face sales representative visit operates as a multifunction communication channel, which can carry many types of communications from the firm to physicians and other types of customers (e.g. information about diseases, products, patients, other physicians), and from customers back to the firm (e.g. customer needs, perceptions, preferences and behaviours; competitor activities). But face-to-face visits are expensive, and some of the functions performed by such visits might be carried out with equal or greater effectiveness at lower costs by some other channels. Traditional thinking in the copier market had it that copiers, especially large ones, could be sold only through face-to-face visits, particularly to key accounts. Like at other copier companies, the doctrine at Rank Xerox, Xerox's European subsidiary, was that sales representatives should spend as much time as possible on the road seeing customers face-to-face, and minimise the time in the office. But Rank Xerox discovered that salespeople in Colombia and Dubai interacted with customers mainly by telephone, for different reasons: to avoid the risk of being shot while driving in Colombia, and to avoid the sizzling heat in Dubai. Dubai was especially successful. They used the telephone for clients of all sizes and all types of copiers, small to large, visiting customers face-to-face only as required (e.g. to provide a demonstration), and achieved an average revenue-per-salesperson three times that of Europe. When introduced in Europe, the new channel strategy was rapidly adopted throughout the region, boosting Rank Xerox's market share and revenue-per-salesperson.

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Matching customer value and the cost of communication channels Physicians differ in their value to pharmaceutical companies. Indicators of value include actual and potential revenue generation, influence (e.g. opinion leadership) and knowledge (e.g. advisory board members selected for their knowledge of physicians' needs). Communication channels differ in their cost, e.g. face-to-face sales representative visits are more expensive than other channels such as the telephone, fax, and e-mail. The greater a customer's value, the greater can be the cost of the communication channel. For example, Dell in the U.S. assigned its customers to nine different segments varying in their value to Dell, and provided a channel mix that matched each segment's value. Customers in the highest-value segment were connected to Dell through all conceivable channels including dedicated account teams comprising field and telephone sales personnel, program managers and technical support, and customer-specific websites with extensive functionality. Individual consumers, on the other extreme, could reach Dell only via telephone and Dell's website. Segments in between these two extremes were served by a channel mix in which the availability of costly channels such as field salespeople increased with the value of the segment. Creating new channels to increase customer access

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Not all physicians receive visits by pharmaceutical sales representatives. Some refuse to see pharmaceutical sales representatives. Others are not visited by pharmaceutical sales representatives for a variety of reasons: they may not show up on the list of physicians, live in remote areas, or may not prescribe enough to be worth a visit. Avon, which sold beauty products directly to consumers in one-toone meetings in the consumer's home, also was confronted with problems of consumer access. As more and more women entered the workforce, they were not at home during the day and, therefore, not available to meet with Avon representatives. Realising that many representatives sold Avon products as a second job, the company encouraged Avon representatives with other jobs to sell the Avon products at work. By 1998, the at-worksales accounted for about 28 percent of all Avon sales. More recently, Avon discovered that the company's sales model kept it away from almost 60 percent of its target consumers; 18 percent of the women in Avon's target group were willing to buy from Avon but not through an Avon representative, and 40 percent had no access to a representative. In order to increase access to both of these groups, Avon decided to add a web channel to its traditional face-to-face channel. Women who like to be in contact with an Avon representative can now use the personalised websites of Avon representatives while the women who dislike the sales representative channel can buy directly from Avon's online store. Creating new channels to overcome regulatory constraints

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Pharmaceutical promotion is subject to a growing number of constraints, arising from laws, regulations and industry codes such as the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations (IFPMA) Code of Pharmaceutical Marketing Practices and company-specific promotion codes. This should stimulate companies to search for novel promotion channels that are both compliant and effective. Like the pharmaceutical industry, the tobacco industry is subject to many constraints on promotional practices. In fact, the industry has been engaged in a race of adaptation with regulators; every time regulators impose a constraint, the industry invents novel promotional methods, which trigger new regulations, which in turn stimulate new promotional practices, and so on. For example, the ban on TV advertising led to a surge in sports sponsorships (e.g. Formula 1 races), until sports sponsorship was banned. Other novel promotional methods invented by the industry over the years include the promotion of non-tobacco products with the same brand name as tobacco products (e.g. Salem music stores, Camel clothing stores, Peter Stuyvesant Travel outlets, and Benson & Hedges bistros), overt and covert bar and nightclub promotional events (e.g. models and actresses place a pack of the sponsored cigarette brand on the bar and get men to bum a smoke), and product placement in films. Targeting new types of customers

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Pharmaceutical promotion has traditionally targeted primarily physicians. However, the influence of non-physician customers such as pharmacists, patients, and payers is rising in many countries. Pharmaceutical companies need to allocate more promotional efforts towards these new target audiences. The success of Federal Express in the small package airfreight industry resulted in part from its decision to target non-traditional customers. Prior to the emergence of Federal Express, in most organisations the responsibility for selecting a carrier to handle a specific shipment rested with individuals whose title typically was traffic manager, mailroom supervisor, shipping clerk, or dispatcher. The individuals who originated most of the shipmentsexecutives and their assistants-and who had most to lose from a shipment which arrived late or in poor condition, were rarely involved in shipping decisions for lack of information about the options. Research comparing delivery speeds for Federal Express and its main competitors showed that Federal Express delivered 93 percent of packages the next day compared to 42 percent by the best competitor. Federal Express used this result as the basis for a television and business magazine campaign targeted at executives and their assistants. The campaign sensitised them to the risk of late arrival of shipments, increased awareness of Federal Express and its superior performance, and empowered them to increase their influence over shipping decisions. This resulted in a significant increase in Federal Express's sales and market share. Transforming an adversarial into a collaborative relationship

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With the rise in power of non-physician stakeholders comes the risk of heightened conflict, for the interests of the pharmaceutical industry may not be perceived to be aligned with the interests of pharmacists, payers and others. Each party's attention may be focused on value appropriation. For example, the price of each individual product may become the main focus of discussions, with pharmaceutical companies always insisting on a high price, and pharmacists and payers always demanding a lower price. Relationships between many fast-moving consumer goods companies and large retailers were similarly focused on price negotiations for each individual product. For example, Procter & Gamble (P&G) and Wal-Mart were in an adversarial relationship whereby each of P&G's salespersons, representing one of P&G's twelve product divisions, was negotiating independently with one of Wal-Mart's purchasing agents. P&G's representatives were wedded to a "load 'em and leave 'em" strategy: "If I can swap more of my product for more of your dollars, I will 'control' the store" (Lou Pritchett, former Vice President for Sales, P&G). WalMart's purchasers, naturally, pursued the opposite goal, namely to minimise Wal-Mart's inventory and the price paid to P&G.

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Discussions between senior managers at both companies led to the recognition that their adversarial relationship destroyed opportunities for mutually beneficial value creation. This paved the way for a collaborative partnership, in which the two companies saw themselves as members of a common team with the following mission: "The mission of the Wal-Mart/P&G Business team is to achieve the long-term business objectives of both companies by building a total system partnership that leads our respective companies and industries to better serve our mutual customer-the consumer." P&G assigned 300 full-time staff to its global Wal-Mart team, more than 200 close to Wal-Mart's headquarters alone. Sharing a great deal of information, the team and Wal-Mart cooperated to develop new profitable products and services, allocate resources to in-market products and services and optimise the supply chain. The partnership has served both companies well not only in their relationship with one another but also in making each of them a more valuable partner in other relationships. In an annual survey, in which manufacturers rate the performance of retailers and retailers rate manufacturers, both P&G and Wal-Mart have held the number one spot for many years in a row.

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Pharmaceutical companies are facing many challenges in relation to their primary communication channel, namely the sales force. But these challenges are not unique to the pharmaceutical industry. Companies in various other sectors have been confronted with analogous challenges, and some have addressed them successfully. The specific solutions at which they arrived may not be transferable to the pharmaceutical industry. What is transferable, however, is the need to challenge the status quo, the need for creativity, ingenuity and an open mind in the search for solutions, and the need for courage and skill in managing the necessary organisational transition.

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Name: _______________ Specialty:


Companys name:

Companys requirement No of doctors in list

As per your suggestion

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No of core doctors

Frequency of core doctors visit

Call average

No. of retailers/day

Number of literatures distribution /month

The most important thing/activity/strategy for making good relation with customer, according to you is (e.g. Visits, cme, sponsorship etc.) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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The best marketing activity/strategy for launching a new product (e.g. Symposia, gifts) 1. 2. 3.

The thing which you dont like or you would like to change it 1. 2. 3.

The best marketing strategy according to you: