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Articles - Hijra Calendar
Synopsis T he Prophet’s birth was recorded according to the then existing calendar as 12th Rabiul Awwal Monday in the Elephant year. T he calculated date according to AD is 20-4-571AD. T his date does not correspond to 12-3-53BH. T he author inspects this and gives a method f or calculating the correct date of the Prophet’s birth. T hose interested may try it and know the truth. T he exact date of the Prophet's birth (Peace be upon him) T he exact date of the Prophet Muhammad's (pbuh) birth has not been determined so f ar and we do not know the correct date of his birth according to the Christian calendar. Historians and astronomers who had worked on this subject in the past have given various dates f or the Prophet’s birth. Even the f amous Encyclopedia Britannica gives doubtf ul dates and puts a question mark as to the year of his birth. From this it is clearly known that the world is not sure of the date on which the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), who claimed to be the last of the prophets, was born. T he commonly accepted date f or the Prophet’s birth is 20th April 571 AD. It is said that the f amous astronomer Mahmood Pasha of Egypt, who lived in the 19th century, calculated this date. Calculations reveal that this date does not tally with the date recorded according to the Arabic calendar, which was same as the Hebrew calendar. T he date of the Prophet's birth according to that calendar is 12th of Rabiul Awwal of the Elephant Era. T he historic records say that the Christians had build a church in order to attract the Arabs, but the Ka’aba attracted more attention than the newly built place of worship and Abraha, the Governor of Yemen, came to Mecca to destroy the Ka’aba, the long revered place of worship of the Arabs. He brought an elephant to f acilitate the task. But his plans were f oiled and all ended in a disaster. T he Holy Qur’an ref ers to this event in the chapter 105. It is recorded that the Prophet was born af ter 55 days of the event, which occurred on the 17th of Muharram in the year 570 AD. T he examination of the scientif ic records of the phases of the moon f or the year 570 AD reveals that this date is Monday the 5th of May 570 AD. T he moon was eclipsed on Tuesday the 6th of May 570 just bef ore the inf ant Muhammad (pbuh) completed the f irst day of his lif e on the Earth! According to the songs remembered since time immemorial, it is Monday, the 12th of Rabiul Awwal. At that time their calendar had a f ixed number of days f or the twelve months; Muharram, Saf ar, Rabiul Awwal, Rabiul akhar, Jamadul awwal, Jamadul akhar, Rajab, Shahaban, Ramadan, Shawwal, Z ul ka’ad, and Z ul hajj. T he twelve months of the year had 30 or 29 days alternating f rom Muharram to Z ulhajj with an occasional leap year in which Z ulhajj got 30 days, in order to adjust with the natural system. In this artif icial lunar calendar, which was same as the Hebrew Calendar, the dates need not necessarily tally with the phases of the Moon. T he f ull moon occurred on the 12th or13th and the new moon on the 28th or 29th in the Arabic calendar as against the 14th or 15th f or the f ull moon and the 29th or 30th f or the new moon in the Islamic calendar in which the dates must tally with the phases of the Moon. T he Arabic calendar is better than many others of its kind, because the error accumulated in 2000 years in it is only one day. T he Jews use this calendar even today. Islam does not accept even this minute error in recording time. A mistake in recording historic events can create a lot of conf usion to the posterity. T he error in calculating the date of the Prophet’s birth is only due to this conf usion. It had baf f led even the renowned astronomers and their calculations have gone wrong. People are made to believe a f alsehood about the Prophet! How can Islam, which is the perf ect code of lif e f or mankind, tolerate such a serious mistake? So Islam has prescribed an error-f ree dating system f or the people. T he last Prophet in his last days during the Hajjathul Wida gave instructions to ref orm their calendar.

During the Hajjathul Wida he laid down rules and regulations f or the Islamic Calendar. He made the seven days of the week and the dates, which represented them, and the months, which depended on the lunar cycle, sacred and inviolable. He named the months in which war is f orbidden (Ash-hurul hurum) as Z ul Qaid, Z ul hajj, Muharram and Rajab. T he Qur’an explains this automatic cease-f ire arrangement in the verse 9:36. All wars must cease in these months, which allows a warring people enough time to think of the af ter ef f ects of a war. T he Prophet abolished the use of a leap year and ordered them to use the dates of the natural calendar, which depended strictly on the Manzils (the phases) of the Moon. He wanted the calendar to be f ully natural so that there will not be any adjustments and conf usion in f uture. All other calendars need periodical adjustments known as intercalation (Nasie) which is f orbidden in the Qur'an.(9:37) T he Gregorian calendar, now in vogue in the world f or recording the dates of events in history is not scientif ic. It accumulates errors in course of time and the accumulated days have to be removed at intervals. Whenever this is done, the method of calculation would change and the calendar must be renamed. T he present calendar was known as the Julian calendar in the beginning. In 1582 AD the Pope Gregory 13 ref ormed it af ter removing 10 days, which had accumulated in that calendar by then. It was renamed as the Gregorian calendar. T he calculation methods in Julian and Gregorian periods are dif f erent. So if the date calculations are made without taking the intercalations into consideration, the results would be wrong and this is serious. Telling a lie about the Prophet who f orbade f alsehood is not a simple thing in the sight of Allah (swt). If we tell his date of birth, we must tell the truth. Otherwise we should admit that we do not know. In a recent publication under the Board of Islamic Publications, the book entitled “T he Prophet Muhammad in the Indian context the Prophet’s date of birth is given as on 20 or 22 April 571 AD. T his clearly shows our ignorance about the dates. T he f act that a person cannot be born on two dates is totally ignored. T he commonly accepted date f or the Prophet’s birth 20 or 22 April 571AD must correspond to 12th of Rabiul Awwal of the Arabic calendar. But according to the records, the year of the Elephant is 570, not 571AD. We can check whether this date is correct by simple calculations. T he date of the Prophet’s demise is recorded correctly, f or he was f amous when he passed away, on Monday the 8th of June 632 AD corresponding to the 12th of Rabiul Awwal in the Arabic calendar. T he span of the Prophet’s lif e can be calculated under two calendars. T he number of days in both the calendars should be same if the dates are correct. It should be remembered that the 12th of the Arabic calendar corresponds to the 14th of the Islamic calendar. Demise: 08 - 06 - 0632 AD = 12 - 03 - 0011 AH Birth: 20 - 04 - 0571 AD = 12 - 03 - 0053 BH * He passed away on Monday in the middle of Rabiul Awwal (f ull moon) * Hijra took place in Rabiul Awwal af ter 53 years of the Elephant Era. Now this has to be converted in to days to see whether both are equal. T he number of days in the Christian and the Arabic year is 365.25(365.2422 true f igure to be used f or long periods) and 354.3671 days respectively. T heref ore: AH - 64 x 354.3671 = 22679.49 days AD - 61 x 365.25 + 50 = 22339.25 days Dif f erence = 340.24 days T his dif f erence of 340.24 days is because the dates in both the calendars are not correct. T heref ore the mistake must be in the calculation of the Julian date f or the Prophet’s birth. Now we can examine the Prophet’s date of birth (05 - 05 - 0570 AD) which we have arrived at by f ollowing the ancient historic records. Demise: 08 - 06 - 0632 AD = 12 - 03 - 0011 AH Birth : 05 - 05 - 0570 AD = 12 - 03 - 0053 BH 03 - 01 - 0062 years = 00 - 00 - 0064 years Now let us convert this in to days so that both could be compared 62 x 365.25 + 31 +3 = 22679.500 days According to Christian Era

64 x 354.3671 = 22679.494 days According to Muslim Era. T he absence of disparity proves that both the dates are correct. Now we can cross check this by using another method of calculation and see if we can get the same date. T he Prophet’s migration (Hijra) to Madeenah is an important event in the history. T his is called the Hijra and Hijra Era began with this incident. T he Prophet was 53 years old at that time. We can take the date of Miladunnabi of 1999 f or this calculation. Date of Miladunnabi of 1999 = 27-06-1999AD = 14-03-1420AH Hijra Era attained 1420 lunar year on 27-06-1999. So the Prophet’s age on this date would be 1420 + 53 = 1473 lunar years. T his subtracted f rom the date 26-06-1999 should give the Prophet’s date of birth according to Christian calendar. To enable this, 1473 lunar year must be converted in to Christian calendar. T heref ore: 1473 x 353.3671 / 365.2422 =1429.1413 years (1429 years 1 month and 21 days). T hat is: 0.1413 x 12 = 1.6956 months - To convert years to months multiply by 12.. 0.6956 x 30.43 = 21.167 Days -to convert months into days multiply by 30.43. Subtracting this 1429 - 01 - 21 f rom 1999 - 06 - 27 1999 - 06 - 271429 - 01 - 21 = 0570 - 05 - 06AD Tuesday. But the Prophet was born on a Monday f or certain. T his discrepancy is due to the error in the Christian calendar. By deducting 1day to correct the error existing in the Christian calendar we get the true date as, 0570 05 - 05AD. Monday. T hese calculations prove beyond any doubt that the last Messenger of Allah, Muhammad (pbuh) was born on MONDAY the 05th of MAY 0570 AD according to the Christian Calendar. ALI MANIKFAN 29/9/1420-5/1/2000

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