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Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the methodology of the study.

It aims to present the research design utilized, the participants of the study, instrumentation and data gathering procedures, and the statistical tools utilized for treating the data to arrive at the pertinent findings of the study. Research Design This study made use of the descriptive method of research with the questionnaire as the primary instrument. Descriptive Research describes exploration and description of phenomenon in real-life situations. This method provides an accurate account of characteristics of a particular individual situation or groups. The study primarily aimed to determine and assesses the competency and practices of the nurses and midwives, and specifically determines the extent of the implementation of Essential Newborn Care among selected Private and Public Lying-in in San Pedro Laguna. Participant of the Study The study involved eleven private and three public lying-ins in San Pedro Laguna. The respondents were composed of thirty-eight (38) nurses, forty-nine (49) midwives randomly taken from the public and private lying-ins through the criteria set by the researchers, and onehundred-ten mothers who gave birth in the said lying-ins. The study aimed to determine the perceptions of the respondents the implementation of Essential Newborn Care in Selected Lying-in in San Pedro Laguna.

Instrumentation The tool utilized was a questionnaire designed to measure the study about the extent Implementation of Essential Newborn care as perceived by registered midwives and registered nurses. The questionnaire is based on the Department of Health Program entitled Clinical pathway to newborn care. Construction. The items in the questionnaire were based on the protocol and studies which dealt with the new program of DOH with regards to Essential Newborn Care in selected public and private lying-in in San Pedro Laguna. Validity. Of an instrument is a determination of how well the instrument reflects the abstract concept being examined. Validity like reliability is not an all or nothing phenomenon is measured on a continuum. (Burns and Grove, 2006) Data Gathering Procedures A written letter was sent to the head of the respondents in Selected Public and private Lying-In in San Pedro Laguna. The researchers personally distributed the questionnaire to the participants. Which will be answered by the healthcare providers for as to asses and determine the interventions made by the participants of the study with regards to newborn care. The researchers oriented the participants as to the nature of the study as well as entertained any clarifications and questions. After the instruments were collected, data were tallied, tabulated, analyzed, interpreted and treated statistically. Statistical Treatment Data The following statistical tests were used to solve the specific problems of the study.

Frequency. It is a systematic arrangement of data that illustrates the data from lowest value to the highest value. It also shows the number of times each value observes in the data. This was used to determine the demographic variable of the study such as the gender, age, position and length of service of the nurses and midwives. Percentage. This was used to illustrate the frequency of incidence of values falling the define intervals of the variables. It was employed to verify the proportion of the part of the whole such as given number of respondents. This was used to answer the profile of the nurses and midwives in terms of age, gender and length of service. Weighted Mean. This test pointed the score scale that will equal to the sum of the scores divided by the total number of score. This was use to solve the level of implementation of the respondents in terms of Essential New Born care. The formula for weighted mean is: WM= fx/n Where: WM fx n - Weighted mean - sum of all the products of f (frequency) and x (weights) - number of samples

Likert Scale. Method of the summated rating was used. The Likert scaling assigns on the scale value to each of the different responses. The responses/ interpretation, scale value and range value of weighted mean indicated the frequency assessment of the different items given in Table 1.

F Test. The analysis of variance (ANOVA). This is used in comparing the means of two or more independent groups. In particular, the study made use of the two way ANOVA to test the significant difference between the column and row variables. The formula for F-test (Two Way ANOVA) is as follows: F= MSc MSw




Where: MSc MSr MSi MSw

- Mean - Mean - Mean

Squares between columns Squares between rows Squares for interaction

Mean Squares within groups